serotonin

Summary

Summary: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.

Articles from Journal RESEARCH

Top Publications

  1. doi Serotonin in affective control
    Peter Dayan
    Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, University College London, London WC1N3AR, UK
    Annu Rev Neurosci 32:95-126. 2009
  2. ncbi Association of anxiety-related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region
    K P Lesch
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wurzburg, Fuchsleinstrasse 15, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Science 274:1527-31. 1996
  3. ncbi Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala
    Ahmad R Hariri
    Clinical Brain Disorders Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 297:400-3. 2002
  4. ncbi 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impacts human cingulate-amygdala interactions: a genetic susceptibility mechanism for depression
    Lukas Pezawas
    Genes, Cognition and Psychosis Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive 4S235, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1379, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:828-34. 2005
  5. ncbi C. elegans locomotory rate is modulated by the environment through a dopaminergic pathway and by experience through a serotonergic pathway
    E R Sawin
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139, USA
    Neuron 26:619-31. 2000
  6. ncbi The developmental role of serotonin: news from mouse molecular genetics
    Patricia Gaspar
    INSERM U 106, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l Hopital, 75651, Paris Cedex 13, France
    Nat Rev Neurosci 4:1002-12. 2003
  7. pmc Serotonin regulates pancreatic beta cell mass during pregnancy
    Hail Kim
    Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    Nat Med 16:804-8. 2010
  8. ncbi Descending control of pain
    Mark J Millan
    Department of Psychopharmacology, Institut de Recherches Servier, 125 Chemin de Ronde, 78290 Croissy Seine, Paris, France
    Prog Neurobiol 66:355-474. 2002
  9. pmc Perinatal antidepressant exposure alters cortical network function in rodents
    Kimberly L Simpson
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomical Sciences, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:18465-70. 2011
  10. pmc Targeted manipulation of serotonergic neurotransmission affects the escalation of aggression in adult male Drosophila melanogaster
    Olga V Alekseyenko
    Neurobiology Department, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    PLoS ONE 5:e10806. 2010

Research Grants

  1. Understanding/ Treating Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Pediatric Physical Illness
    Eva Szigethy; Fiscal Year: 2009
  2. Tyrosine Availability Influences Mesocortico-Limbic Catecholamines
    GEORGE EUGENE JASKIW; Fiscal Year: 2012
  3. Jonathan Savitz; Fiscal Year: 2016
  4. The Habenulo-Interpeduncular Pathway and Nicotine
    Christie D Fowler; Fiscal Year: 2013
  5. Alan Frazer; Fiscal Year: 2016
  6. ROBERT MARK WIGHTMAN; Fiscal Year: 2016
  7. Epigenomic Events in Development of the Locus Coeruleus Noradrenergic Neurons
    Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn; Fiscal Year: 2012
  8. Mechanims of CNS Autonomic Regulation by EA
    John C Longhurst; Fiscal Year: 2013
  9. Kazuko Nishikura; Fiscal Year: 2016
  10. Mechanisms of Bone Loss from Administration of the Second-Generation Antipsychoti
    KATHERINE JEAN MOTYL; Fiscal Year: 2013

Detail Information

Articles from Journal RESEARCH1

Publications419 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi Serotonin in affective control
    Peter Dayan
    Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, University College London, London WC1N3AR, UK
    Annu Rev Neurosci 32:95-126. 2009
    b>Serotonin is a neuromodulator that is extensively entangled in fundamental aspects of brain function and behavior. We present a computational view of its involvement in the control of appetitively and aversively motivated actions...
  2. ncbi Association of anxiety-related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region
    K P Lesch
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wurzburg, Fuchsleinstrasse 15, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Science 274:1527-31. 1996
    Transporter-facilitated uptake of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) has been implicated in anxiety in humans and animal models and is the site of action of widely used uptake-inhibiting antidepressant and antianxiety drugs...
  3. ncbi Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala
    Ahmad R Hariri
    Clinical Brain Disorders Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 297:400-3. 2002
    A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) has been associated with several dimensions of neuroticism and psychopathology, especially anxiety traits, but the predictive value of this ..
  4. ncbi 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impacts human cingulate-amygdala interactions: a genetic susceptibility mechanism for depression
    Lukas Pezawas
    Genes, Cognition and Psychosis Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive 4S235, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1379, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:828-34. 2005
    Carriers of the short allele of a functional 5' promoter polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene have increased anxiety-related temperamental traits, increased amygdala reactivity and elevated risk of depression...
  5. ncbi C. elegans locomotory rate is modulated by the environment through a dopaminergic pathway and by experience through a serotonergic pathway
    E R Sawin
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139, USA
    Neuron 26:619-31. 2000
    ..The basal and enhanced slowing responses are distinct and separable neuromodulatory components of a genetically tractable paradigm of behavioral plasticity...
  6. ncbi The developmental role of serotonin: news from mouse molecular genetics
    Patricia Gaspar
    INSERM U 106, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Boulevard de l Hopital, 75651, Paris Cedex 13, France
    Nat Rev Neurosci 4:1002-12. 2003
    New genetic models that target the serotonin system show that transient alterations in serotonin homeostasis cause permanent changes to adult behaviour and modify the fine wiring of brain connections...
  7. pmc Serotonin regulates pancreatic beta cell mass during pregnancy
    Hail Kim
    Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    Nat Med 16:804-8. 2010
    ..Here we show that serotonin acts downstream of lactogen signaling to stimulate beta cell proliferation...
  8. ncbi Descending control of pain
    Mark J Millan
    Department of Psychopharmacology, Institut de Recherches Servier, 125 Chemin de Ronde, 78290 Croissy Seine, Paris, France
    Prog Neurobiol 66:355-474. 2002
    ..Knowledge of descending pathways has increased exponentially in recent years, so this is an opportune moment to survey their operation and therapeutic relevance to the improved management of pain...
  9. pmc Perinatal antidepressant exposure alters cortical network function in rodents
    Kimberly L Simpson
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomical Sciences, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:18465-70. 2011
    b>Serotonin (5-HT) plays a key role in early brain development, and manipulation of 5-HT levels during this period can have lasting neurobiological and behavioral consequences...
  10. pmc Targeted manipulation of serotonergic neurotransmission affects the escalation of aggression in adult male Drosophila melanogaster
    Olga V Alekseyenko
    Neurobiology Department, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    PLoS ONE 5:e10806. 2010
    Dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) are reported to serve important roles in aggression in a wide variety of animals...
  11. ncbi Medial prefrontal cortex determines how stressor controllability affects behavior and dorsal raphe nucleus
    J Amat
    Department of Psychology, Campus Box 345, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80903 0345, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:365-71. 2005
    ..This suggests a new function for the mPFCv and implies that the presence of control inhibits stress-induced neural activity in brainstem nuclei, in contrast to the prevalent view that such activity is induced by a lack of control...
  12. ncbi Serotoninergic regulation of emotional and behavioural control processes
    Roshan Cools
    F C Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Radboud University Nijmegen, P O Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Trends Cogn Sci 12:31-40. 2008
    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) has long been implicated in a wide variety of emotional, cognitive and behavioural control processes. However, its precise contribution is still not well understood...
  13. doi Targeting the murine serotonin transporter: insights into human neurobiology
    Dennis L Murphy
    Laboratory of Clinical Science, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:85-96. 2008
    Mutations resulting in reduced or completely abrogated serotonin-transporter (SERT) function in mice have led to the identification of more than 50 different phenotypic changes, ranging from increased anxiety and stress-related ..
  14. doi Molecular biology of 5-HT receptors
    Jason Hannon
    Nervous System Research, WSJ 386 745, Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    Behav Brain Res 195:198-213. 2008
    b>Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter whose effects are mediated by at least 13 distinct G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the type A family which includes the monoamine receptors and a combination of ..
  15. pmc Opponency revisited: competition and cooperation between dopamine and serotonin
    Y Lan Boureau
    The Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 36:74-97. 2011
    ..this spectrum, but little agreement about the existence, nature, or role of putative aversive opponents such as serotonin. In this review, we consider the structure of opponency in terms of previous biases about the nature of the ..
  16. doi The expanded biology of serotonin
    Miles Berger
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Annu Rev Med 60:355-66. 2009
    b>Serotonin is perhaps best known as a neurotransmitter that modulates neural activity and a wide range of neuropsychological processes, and drugs that target serotonin receptors are used widely in psychiatry and neurology...
  17. doi miR-16 targets the serotonin transporter: a new facet for adaptive responses to antidepressants
    Anne Baudry
    Cellules Souches, Signalisation et Prions, INSERM U747, Universite Paris Descartes, 75006 Paris, France
    Science 329:1537-41. 2010
    The serotonin transporter (SERT) ensures the recapture of serotonin and is the pharmacological target of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants. We show that SERT is a target of microRNA-16 (miR-16)...
  18. pmc Peripheral SLC6A4 DNA methylation is associated with in vivo measures of human brain serotonin synthesis and childhood physical aggression
    Dongsha Wang
    Sainte Justine Hospital Research Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS ONE 7:e39501. 2012
    ..Using positron emission tomography (PET) measures of brain serotonin (5-HT) synthesis, we found in a longitudinal sample that adult males with high childhood-limited aggression (C-..
  19. doi Brain serotonin and dopamine transporter bindings in adults with high-functioning autism
    Kazuhiko Nakamura
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 67:59-68. 2010
    ..Although its neurobiological underpinnings are postulated to lie in abnormalities of the serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems, the details remain unknown...
  20. pmc Serotonin activates overall feeding by activating two separate neural pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Bo Mi Song
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9148, USA
    J Neurosci 32:1920-31. 2012
    ..To understand the process, we studied how serotonin, an endogenous pharyngeal pumping activator whose action is triggered by bacteria, activates feeding motions...
  21. ncbi Opponent interactions between serotonin and dopamine
    Nathaniel D Daw
    Computer Science Department and Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh PA 15213 3891, USA
    Neural Netw 15:603-16. 2002
    Anatomical and pharmacological evidence suggests that the dorsal raphe serotonin system and the ventral tegmental and substantia nigra dopamine system may act as mutual opponents...
  22. pmc A transient placental source of serotonin for the fetal forebrain
    Alexandre Bonnin
    Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA
    Nature 472:347-50. 2011
    b>Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) is thought to regulate neurodevelopmental processes through maternal-fetal interactions that have long-term mental health implications...
  23. pmc Reconciling the role of serotonin in behavioral inhibition and aversion: acute tryptophan depletion abolishes punishment-induced inhibition in humans
    Molly J Crockett
    Behavioral and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 29:11993-9. 2009
    The neuromodulator serotonin has been implicated in a large number of affective and executive functions, but its precise contribution to motivation remains unclear...
  24. ncbi Differential involvement of serotonin and dopamine systems in cost-benefit decisions about delay or effort
    F Denk
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3UD, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:587-96. 2005
    ..tasks assessing the role of dopamine in effort-reward decisions are similar to those concerned with the role of serotonin in impulsive choice in that both require analysis of the costs and benefits of possible actions, they have never ..
  25. ncbi Stressor controllability and learned helplessness: the roles of the dorsal raphe nucleus, serotonin, and corticotropin-releasing factor
    Steven F Maier
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 29:829-41. 2005
    ..This paper discusses the nature of learned helplessness, as well as the role of the dorsal raphe nucleus, serotonin, and corticotropin-releasing hormone in mediating the behavioral effects of uncontrollable stressors...
  26. doi Evolutionary shift from fighting to foraging in blind cavefish through changes in the serotonin network
    Yannick Elipot
    Equipe Développement Evolution du Cerveau Antérieur, UPR3294 Neurobiologie et Développement, CNRS, Institut Alfred Fessard, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Curr Biol 23:1-10. 2013
    ..Here, we have investigated the neural, genetic, and developmental bases for the evolution of aggressive behavior in this teleost...
  27. pmc Serotonin and the neuropeptide PDF initiate and extend opposing behavioral states in C. elegans
    Steven W Flavell
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Lulu and Anthony Wang Laboratory of Neural Circuits and Behavior, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Cell 154:1023-35. 2013
    ..We find that two opposing neuromodulators, serotonin and the neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF), each initiate and extend one behavioral state...
  28. doi Sertraline increases extracellular levels not only of serotonin, but also of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and striatum of rats
    Yuji Kitaichi
    Department of Molecular Stressphysiology, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany
    Eur J Pharmacol 647:90-6. 2010
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a first-line treatment for depression. Recent reports in the literature describe differences in antidepressant effects among SSRIs...
  29. ncbi Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin
    R B Rothman
    Clinical Psychopharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, NIDA, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Synapse 39:32-41. 2001
    ..These results suggest that NE may contribute to the amphetamine-type subjective effects of stimulants in humans...
  30. ncbi The role of childhood trauma in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders: preclinical and clinical studies
    C Heim
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 49:1023-39. 2001
    ..The identification of the neurobiological substrates of early adverse experience is of paramount importance for the development of novel treatments for children, adolescents, and adults...
  31. doi Serotonin affects transcranial direct current-induced neuroplasticity in humans
    Michael A Nitsche
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Georg August University, Robert Koch Strasse 40, Göttingen 37099, Germany
    Biol Psychiatry 66:503-8. 2009
    ..b>Serotonin-dependent modulation of plasticity has been proposed as an underlying mechanism for depression...
  32. doi Serotonin has a key role in pathogenesis of experimental colitis
    Jean Eric Ghia
    Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Ontario, Canada
    Gastroenterology 137:1649-60. 2009
    ..by ulcerative lesions accompanied by a prominent infiltrate of immune cells as well as alteration in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT])-producing enterochromaffin cells...
  33. doi Serotonin triggers a transient epigenetic mechanism that reinstates adult visual cortex plasticity in rats
    José Fernando Maya Vetencourt
    Scuola Normale Superiore, Neurobiology Laboratory, CNR, Pisa, Italy
    Eur J Neurosci 33:49-57. 2011
    ..Adult rats were intracortically treated with serotonin (5-HT) whereas long-term fluoxetine-treated rats were infused with the 5-HT(1A) -receptor antagonist WAY-100635, ..
  34. doi Mechanism of acute tryptophan depletion: is it only serotonin?
    E L van Donkelaar
    Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Mol Psychiatry 16:695-713. 2011
    ..depletion (ATD), which reduces the availability of the essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP), the dietary serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) precursor, has been applied in many experimental studies...
  35. doi Serotonin and Parkinson's disease: On movement, mood, and madness
    Susan H Fox
    Movement Disorders Clinic, University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Ontario, Canada
    Mov Disord 24:1255-66. 2009
    An appreciation of the multiple roles that serotonin (5-HT) may play in Parkinson's disease (PD) has increased in recent years...
  36. pdf Serotonin modulates fast-spiking interneuron and synchronous activity in the rat prefrontal cortex through 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors
    M Victoria Puig
    Division of Cerebral Circuitry, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Aichi 444 8787, Japan
    J Neurosci 30:2211-22. 2010
    ..abnormal synchronous activity is observed in the PFC of these patients, little is known about the role of serotonin (5-HT) in cortical synchrony...
  37. ncbi Pathogenic bacteria induce aversive olfactory learning in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Yun Zhang
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of Neural Circuits and Behavior, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 438:179-84. 2005
    ..Exposure to pathogenic bacteria increases serotonin in ADF chemosensory neurons by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms...
  38. ncbi Sex differences in the basolateral amygdala: the extracellular levels of serotonin and dopamine, and their responses to restraint stress in rats
    Dai Mitsushima
    Department of Neuroendocrinology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3 9 Fukuura Kanazawaku, Yokohama 236 0004, Japan
    Eur J Neurosci 24:3245-54. 2006
    ..To examine the sex difference in extracellular levels of serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and their responses to restraint stress, in vivo ..
  39. pmc Cloning and characterization of a Drosophila serotonin receptor that activates adenylate cyclase
    P Witz
    Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire des Eucaryotes du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité 184 de Génie Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire, Faculte de Medecine, Strasbourg, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87:8940-4. 1990
    ..guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, we have isolated Drosophila genomic and cDNA clones encoding a functional serotonin receptor (5HT-dro receptor)...
  40. ncbi Altered brain serotonin homeostasis and locomotor insensitivity to 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("Ecstasy") in serotonin transporter-deficient mice
    D Bengel
    Laboratory of Clinical Science, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1264, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 53:649-55. 1998
    The sodium-dependent, high affinity serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] transporter (5-HTT) provides the primary mechanism for inactivation of 5-HT after its release into the synaptic cleft...
  41. ncbi Oxidative stress by monoamine oxidase mediates receptor-independent cardiomyocyte apoptosis by serotonin and postischemic myocardial injury
    Pascale Bianchi
    INSERM U388, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
    Circulation 112:3297-305. 2005
    b>Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]), released by activated platelets during cardiac ischemia, is metabolized by the mitochondrial enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A)...
  42. ncbi Abnormalities of 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in irritable bowel syndrome
    Simon P Dunlop
    Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 3:349-57. 2005
    ..Mucosal 5-HT-containing enterochromaffin cells (EC) are increased in postinfectious IBS (PI-IBS). Our aim was to define the postprandial release of 5-HT in PI-IBS and C-IBS patients and to relate this to mucosal 5-HT turnover...
  43. ncbi Allelic variation of human serotonin transporter gene expression
    A Heils
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neurochem 66:2621-4. 1996
    ..rhythms, including food intake, sleep, and reproductive activity, are modulated by the midbrain raphe serotonin (5-HT) system...
  44. ncbi Molecular defects in mucosal serotonin content and decreased serotonin reuptake transporter in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome
    Matthew D Coates
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
    Gastroenterology 126:1657-64. 2004
    b>Serotonin (5-HT) is a critical signaling molecule in the gut. 5-HT released from enterochromaffin cells initiates peristaltic, secretory, vasodilatory, vagal, and nociceptive reflexes...
  45. pmc Lrp5 functions in bone to regulate bone mass
    Yajun Cui
    Orthopedic Research Laboratories, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Med 17:684-91. 2011
    ..These data indicate that Lrp5 signaling functions locally, and they suggest that increasing LRP5 signaling in mature bone cells may be a strategy for treating human disorders associated with low bone mass, such as osteoporosis...
  46. pmc Serotonin and dopamine: unifying affective, activational, and decision functions
    Roshan Cools
    Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Neuropsychopharmacology 36:98-113. 2011
    b>Serotonin, like dopamine (DA), has long been implicated in adaptive behavior, including decision making and reinforcement learning...
  47. doi A genetically defined morphologically and functionally unique subset of 5-HT neurons in the mouse raphe nuclei
    Vera Kiyasova
    INSERM, UMR S 839, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, and Institut du Fer à Moulin, 75005 Paris, France
    J Neurosci 31:2756-68. 2011
    Heterogeneity of central serotonin (5-HT) raphe neurons is suggested by numerous lines of evidence, but its genetic basis remains elusive...
  48. ncbi Dysfunction in the neural circuitry of emotion regulation--a possible prelude to violence
    R J Davidson
    Laboratory for Affective Neuroscience and W M Keck Laboratory for Functional Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Science 289:591-4. 2000
    ..Individuals vulnerable to faulty regulation of negative emotion are at risk for violence and aggression. Research on the neural circuitry of emotion regulation suggests new avenues of intervention for such at-risk populations...
  49. ncbi Pet-1 ETS gene plays a critical role in 5-HT neuron development and is required for normal anxiety-like and aggressive behavior
    Timothy J Hendricks
    Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Neuron 37:233-47. 2003
    The central serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is an important modulator of diverse physiological processes and behaviors; however, the transcriptional mechanisms controlling its development are largely unknown...
  50. pmc Serotonin: a regulator of neuronal morphology and circuitry
    Elizabeth A Daubert
    Department of Biology, University of Virginia, 071 Gilmer Hall, P O Box 400328, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
    Trends Neurosci 33:424-34. 2010
    b>Serotonin is an important neuromodulator associated with a wide range of physiological effects in the central nervous system...
  51. ncbi FGF and Shh signals control dopaminergic and serotonergic cell fate in the anterior neural plate
    W Ye
    Department of Neuroscience, Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
    Cell 93:755-66. 1998
    ....
  52. ncbi The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha activate serotonin transporters
    Chong Bin Zhu
    Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 8645, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:2121-31. 2006
    ..that activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) induces a catalytic activation of the serotonin transporter (SERT) arising from a reduction in the SERT Km for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)...
  53. doi Relative importance of abnormalities of CCK and 5-HT (serotonin) in Giardia-induced post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia
    V Dizdar
    Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 31:883-91. 2010
    ..After C. jejuni, there is increased rectal serotonin (5-HT)-containing EC cells and postprandial plasma 5-HT, while a pilot study suggested increased plasma ..
  54. pmc Tryptophan kynurenine metabolism as a common mediator of genetic and environmental impacts in major depressive disorder: the serotonin hypothesis revisited 40 years later
    Gregory F Oxenkrug
    Department of Psychiatry, Tufts University School of Medicine and Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 47:56-63. 2010
    ..is stimulated by raised blood corticosteroids levels, and metabolism of tryptophan is shunted away from serotonin production, and towards kynurenine production...
  55. pmc Functional genetic variants that increase synaptic serotonin and 5-HT3 receptor sensitivity predict alcohol and drug dependence
    M A Enoch
    Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 16:1139-46. 2011
    The 5-HT3 receptor is rapidly potentiated by ethanol and mediates fast excitatory serotonin (5-HT) transmission that modulates dopamine release in the reward circuitry. The 5-HT transporter regulates synaptic 5-HT availability...
  56. doi The age-dependent effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in humans and rodents: A review
    J D A Olivier
    Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour, Centre for Neuroscience, Dept of Cognitive Neuroscience, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 21, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 35:1400-8. 2011
    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Prozac® (fluoxetine) is widely prescribed for the treatment of depression and anxiety-related disorders...
  57. pmc A serotonin and melanocortin circuit mediates D-fenfluramine anorexia
    Yong Xu
    Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    J Neurosci 30:14630-4. 2010
    D-Fenfluramine (D-Fen) increases serotonin (5-HT) content in the synaptic cleft and exerts anorexigenic effects in animals and humans. However, the neural circuits that mediate these effects are not fully identified...
  58. doi Serotonin, a tryptophan-derived signal conserved in plants and animals, regulates root system architecture probably acting as a natural auxin inhibitor in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Ramón Pelagio-Flores
    Instituto de Investigaciones Quimico Biologicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edificio B3, Ciudad Universitaria CP 58030 Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico
    Plant Cell Physiol 52:490-508. 2011
    b>Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a well-known neurotransmitter in mammals and is widely distributed in plants. This compound is synthesized from tryptophan and shares structural similarity with IAA...
  59. pmc 5-HT and the immune system
    Gerard P Ahern
    Department of Pharmacology, Georgetown University, 3900 Reservoir Rd NW, Washington, DC 20007, United States
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 11:29-33. 2011
    The classical neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT), plays an important role outside of the central nervous system in immune signaling...
  60. pmc Low densities of serotonin and peptide YY cells in the colon of patients with irritable bowel syndrome
    M el-Salhy
    Section for Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Stord Helse Fonna Hospital, Box 4000, 54 09 Stord, Norway
    Dig Dis Sci 57:873-8. 2012
    ..Disturbances in gastrointestinal motility have been reported in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Reduced endocrine cell density, as revealed by chromogranin A, has been reported in the colon of IBS patients...
  61. doi Serotonin is critical for rewarded olfactory short-term memory in Drosophila
    Divya Sitaraman
    Division of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    J Neurogenet 26:238-44. 2012
    The biogenic amines dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin are critical in establishing normal memories...
  62. pmc Ligand-dependent conformations and dynamics of the serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor determine its activation and membrane-driven oligomerization properties
    Jufang Shan
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Comput Biol 8:e1002473. 2012
    From computational simulations of a serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT(2A)R) model complexed with pharmacologically and structurally diverse ligands we identify different conformational states and dynamics adopted by the receptor bound to the ..
  63. pmc Input to the lateral habenula from the basal ganglia is excitatory, aversive, and suppressed by serotonin
    Steven J Shabel
    Center for Neural Circuits and Behavior, Division of Biology, Department of Neurosciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Neuron 74:475-81. 2012
    ..here we show that transmission from the basal ganglia to the LHb is excitatory, glutamatergic, and suppressed by serotonin. Behaviorally, activation of this pathway is aversive, consistent with its role as an "antireward" signal...
  64. pmc Maternal licking regulates hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor transcription through a thyroid hormone-serotonin-NGFI-A signalling cascade
    Ian C Hellstrom
    Sackler Program for Epigenetics and Psychobiology, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, McGill University, 6875 Boul LaSalle, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H4H1R3
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 367:2495-510. 2012
    ..ii) this effect is mimicked by artificial tactile stimulation comparable to that provided by pup LG; (iii) that serotonin (5-HT) induces an NGFI-A-dependent increase in GR transcription in hippocampal neurons and NGFI-A overexpression ..
  65. pmc Excess of serotonin affects neocortical pyramidal neuron migration
    O Riccio
    Department of Mental Health and Psychiatry, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    Transl Psychiatry 1:e47. 2011
    The serotonin transporter (SERT) is a key molecule involved in the homeostasis of extracellular levels of serotonin and is regulated developmentally...
  66. doi Serotonin in the modulation of neural plasticity and networks: implications for neurodevelopmental disorders
    Klaus Peter Lesch
    Division of Molecular Psychiatry, Laboratory of Translational Neuroscience, ADHD Clinical Research Network, Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University of Wurzburg, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Neuron 76:175-91. 2012
    b>Serotonin (5-HT) shapes brain networks during development and modulates a wide spectrum of essential neuronal functions ranging from perception and cognitive appraisal to emotional responses in the mature brain...
  67. pmc Serotonin is a sword and a shield of the bowel: serotonin plays offense and defense
    Michael D Gershon
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, P and S, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 123:268-80; discussion 280. 2012
    The gut contains the bulk of the body's serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT); nevertheless, the physiological role that enteric 5-HT plays has not been determined...
  68. ncbi Synthesis of serotonin by a second tryptophan hydroxylase isoform
    Diego J Walther
    Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine MDC, Robert Rossle Strasse 10, D 13092 Berlin Buch, Germany
    Science 299:76. 2003
  69. ncbi The serotonin signaling system: from basic understanding to drug development for functional GI disorders
    Michael D Gershon
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Gastroenterology 132:397-414. 2007
    b>Serotonin is an important gastrointestinal signaling molecule. It is a paracrine messenger utilized by enterochromaffin (EC) cells, which function as sensory transducers...
  70. doi Intestinal serotonin release, sensory neuron activation, and abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome
    Cesare Cremon
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Center for Applied Biomedical Research, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
    Am J Gastroenterol 106:1290-8. 2011
    b>Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) metabolism may be altered in gut disorders, including in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We assessed in patients with IBS vs...
  71. pmc Molecular regulation of sexual preference revealed by genetic studies of 5-HT in the brains of male mice
    Yan Liu
    National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206, China
    Nature 472:95-9. 2011
    ..These results indicate that 5-HT and serotonergic neurons in the adult brain regulate mammalian sexual preference...
  72. pmc Serotonin 2C receptor activates a distinct population of arcuate pro-opiomelanocortin neurons via TRPC channels
    Jong Woo Sohn
    Division of Hypothalamic Research, Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Neuron 71:488-97. 2011
    b>Serotonin 2C receptors (5-HT(2C)Rs) expressed by pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus regulate food intake, energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism...
  73. ncbi Activation of central melanocortin pathways by fenfluramine
    Lora K Heisler
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Science 297:609-11. 2002
    ..These results provide a mechanistic explanation of d-FEN's anorexic actions and indicate that drugs targeting these downstream melanocortin pathways may prove to be effective and more selective anti-obesity treatments...
  74. pmc Serotonin-mushroom body circuit modulating the formation of anesthesia-resistant memory in Drosophila
    Pei Tseng Lee
    Department of Life Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:13794-9. 2011
    ..Here, we report that ARM is specifically enhanced or inhibited in flies with elevated or reduced serotonin (5HT) levels, respectively...
  75. pmc Pet-1 is required across different stages of life to regulate serotonergic function
    Chen Liu
    Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Department of Neurosciences, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:1190-8. 2010
    Transcriptional cascades are required for the specification of serotonin (5-HT) neurons and behaviors modulated by 5-HT...
  76. pmc Enhanced function of prefrontal serotonin 5-HT(2) receptors in a rat model of psychiatric vulnerability
    Madhurima Benekareddy
    Department of Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India
    J Neurosci 30:12138-50. 2010
    Prefrontal serotonin 5-HT(2) receptors have been linked to the pathogenesis and treatment of affective disorders, yet their function in psychiatric vulnerability is not known...
  77. ncbi The role of serotonin in reflex modulation and locomotor rhythm production in the mammalian spinal cord
    B J Schmidt
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Brain Res Bull 53:689-710. 2000
    Over the past 40 years, much has been learned about the role of serotonin in spinal cord reflex modulation and locomotor pattern generation. This review presents an historical overview and current perspective of this literature...
  78. ncbi 5-Hydroxytryptamine modulates cytokine and chemokine production in LPS-primed human monocytes via stimulation of different 5-HTR subtypes
    Thorsten Dürk
    Department of Pneumology, University Medical Clinic, University of Freiburg, Germany
    Int Immunol 17:599-606. 2005
    The neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), commonly known as serotonin, is released at peripheral sites from activated enterochromaffin cells, mast cells and platelets...
  79. pmc Serotonin and depression: a disconnect between the advertisements and the scientific literature
    Jeffrey R Lacasse
    Florida State University College of Social Work, Tallahassee, Florida, United States of America
    PLoS Med 2:e392. 2005
  80. doi Serotonin mediates behavioral gregarization underlying swarm formation in desert locusts
    Michael L Anstey
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK
    Science 323:627-30. 2009
    ..We show here that serotonin, an evolutionarily conserved mediator of neuronal plasticity, is responsible for this behavioral transformation, ..
  81. pmc Modulation of the central melanocortin system by leptin, insulin, and serotonin: co-ordinated actions in a dispersed neuronal network
    Kevin W Williams
    Division of Hypothalamic Research, Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 660:2-12. 2011
    ..attempts to highlight contributions to our current understanding of how numerous neuromodulators (leptin, insulin, and serotonin) integrate with the central melanocortin system to coordinate alterations in energy and glucose balance.
  82. pmc In vivo regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) by serotonergic activity in mouse brain
    Xiaohua Li
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 0017, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1426-31. 2004
    ..Following administration to mice of d-fenfluramine to stimulate serotonin (5HT) release and reduce its reuptake, and clorgyline to inhibit 5HT catabolism, levels of phospho-Ser9-GSK3beta ..
  83. ncbi Serotonin and brain: evolution, neuroplasticity, and homeostasis
    Efrain C Azmitia
    Department of Biology and Psychiatry, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Int Rev Neurobiol 77:31-56. 2007
  84. ncbi Preferential loss of serotonin markers in caudate versus putamen in Parkinson's disease
    Stephen J Kish
    Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Brain 131:120-31. 2008
    ..serotonergic involvement in Parkinson's disease (PD) has focussed recently on the possibility that the remaining serotonin neurons innervating striatum (caudate and putamen) might release dopamine as a 'false transmitter'--an action ..
  85. doi Maladaptive plasticity of serotonin axon terminals in levodopa-induced dyskinesia
    Daniella Rylander
    Basal Ganglia Pathophysiology Laboratory, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
    Ann Neurol 68:619-28. 2010
    Striatal serotonin projections have been implicated in levodopa-induced dyskinesia by providing an unregulated source of dopamine release...
  86. ncbi Serotonin transporters are located on the axons beyond the synaptic junctions: anatomical and functional evidence
    F C Zhou
    Department of Anatomy and Medical Neurobiology Program, Indiana University School of Medicine, 635 Barnhill Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Brain Res 805:241-54. 1998
    The serotonin (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT) is known to play a role in depression and many 5-HT related diseases, and is the target site for drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, MDMA, and methamphetamine...
  87. ncbi Modern views on an ancient chemical: serotonin effects on cell proliferation, maturation, and apoptosis
    E C Azmitia
    Department of Biology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY, USA
    Brain Res Bull 56:413-24. 2001
    Evolutionarily, serotonin existed in plants even before the appearance of animals. Indeed, serotonin may be tied to the evolution of life itself, particularly through the role of tryptophan, its precursor molecule...
  88. ncbi Interaction between BDNF and serotonin: role in mood disorders
    Keri Martinowich
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program MAP, NIMH, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3714, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:73-83. 2008
    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) are two seemingly distinct signaling systems that play regulatory roles in many neuronal functions including survival, neurogenesis, and synaptic ..
  89. pmc Role of GSK3 beta in behavioral abnormalities induced by serotonin deficiency
    Jean Martin Beaulieu
    Department of Cell Biology, Mouse Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Analyses Core Facility, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:1333-8. 2008
    Dysregulation of brain serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission is thought to underlie mental conditions as diverse as depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, autism, and schizophrenia...
  90. pmc Genetic variation in cortico-amygdala serotonin function and risk for stress-related disease
    Andrew Holmes
    Section on Behavioral Science and Genetics, Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, NIH, 5625 Fishers Lane Room 2N09, Rockville, MD 20852 9411, USA
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32:1293-314. 2008
    The serotonin system is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology and therapeutic alleviation of stress-related disorders such as anxiety and depression...
  91. pmc Serotonin selectively influences moral judgment and behavior through effects on harm aversion
    Molly J Crockett
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EB, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:17433-8. 2010
    ..Here, we show that the neurotransmitter serotonin directly alters both moral judgment and behavior through increasing subjects' aversion to personally harming ..
  92. ncbi The immune-mediated alteration of serotonin and glutamate: towards an integrated view of depression
    N Muller
    Department for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat Munchen, Munchen, Germany
    Mol Psychiatry 12:988-1000. 2007
    ..cytokines such as interleukin-2, interferon-gamma, or tumor necrosis factor-alpha activate the tryptophan- and serotonin-degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)...
  93. pmc Serotonin modulates behavioral reactions to unfairness
    Molly J Crockett
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Science 320:1739. 2008
    b>Serotonin (5-HT) has long been implicated in social behavior and impulsivity, but the mechanisms through which it modulates self-control remain unclear...
  94. pmc A role for S6 kinase and serotonin in postmating dietary switch and balance of nutrients in D. melanogaster
    Misha A Vargas
    Buck Institute for Age Research, 8001 Redwood Boulevard, Novato, CA 94945, USA
    Curr Biol 20:1006-11. 2010
    ..We also demonstrate that S6 kinase (S6K) and serotonin production are involved in the postmating dietary switch. To further investigate the ability of D...
  95. ncbi Cellular and molecular alterations in mice with deficient and reduced serotonin transporters
    Qian Li
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX
    Mol Neurobiol 34:51-66. 2006
    The function of serotonin transporters (SERTs) is related to mood regulation...
  96. ncbi Calcitriol protects against the dopamine- and serotonin-depleting effects of neurotoxic doses of methamphetamine
    Wayne A Cass
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, MN 225 Chandler Medical Center, University of KY, Lexington, KY 40536 0298, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1074:261-71. 2006
    ..methamphetamine (METH) administration to animals can result in long-lasting decreases in brain dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) content...
  97. pmc Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter mutants can adapt to reduced or eliminated vesicular stores of dopamine and serotonin
    Anne F Simon
    Department of Developmental Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Genetics 181:525-41. 2009
    ..the Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter (dVMAT), which is required for the vesicular storage of dopamine, serotonin, and octopamine...
  98. doi Effects of genetic group selection against mortality on behavior and peripheral serotonin in domestic laying hens with trimmed and intact beaks
    J Elizabeth Bolhuis
    Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen Institute of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, P O Box 338, 6700 AH, The Netherlands
    Physiol Behav 97:470-5. 2009
    ....
  99. doi Robust upregulation of serotonin 2A receptors after chronic spinal transection of rats: an immunohistochemical study
    Xiang yu Kong
    Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Department of Human Anatomy, Chengde Medical College, Chengde, People s Republic of China
    Brain Res 1320:60-8. 2010
    ..known that spinal motoneurons below a spinal transection become supersensitive to a systemic administration of serotonin (5-HT) precursors, such as 5-hydroxytryptophan...
  100. pmc Molecular depletion of descending serotonin unmasks its novel facilitatory role in the development of persistent pain
    Feng Wei
    Department of Neural and Pain Sciences, Dental School, and Program in Neuroscience, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Neurosci 30:8624-36. 2010
    ..These results indicate that the descending 5-HT from the RVM is an important contributor to pain facilitation during the development of persistent pain, and may not mediate opioid-induced descending inhibition in acute pain...
  101. pmc Convergence of the insulin and serotonin programs in the pancreatic β-cell
    Yasuharu Ohta
    Diabetes Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    Diabetes 60:3208-16. 2011
    ..different germ layers, pancreatic islet cells share many common developmental features with neurons, especially serotonin-producing neurons in the hindbrain...

Research Grants80

  1. Understanding/ Treating Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Pediatric Physical Illness
    Eva Szigethy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Tyrosine Availability Influences Mesocortico-Limbic Catecholamines
    GEORGE EUGENE JASKIW; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..to sample the fluid between brain cells in awake animals and measure dopamine as well as noradrenaline and serotonin, other neurotransmitters that interact with dopamine...
  3. Jonathan Savitz; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..is hypothesized to contribute to depression by altering the breakdown of tryptophan (TRP), the precursor of serotonin, reducing serotonin levels and increasing the synthesis of kynurenine (KYN) and neurotoxic KYN metabolites, such ..
  4. The Habenulo-Interpeduncular Pathway and Nicotine
    Christie D Fowler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..submissions during the independent phase may focus on other nAChR subunits and signaling mechanisms (dopamine, serotonin, enkephalin, etc...
  5. Alan Frazer; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..In spite of this, preclinical research examining the effects of antidepressants, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)- the drug class of choice for the treatment of MDD- on either behavioral or ..
  6. ROBERT MARK WIGHTMAN; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Here, we propose to test the role of serotonin (5-HT) on CBF in brain regions where it is present in high amounts...
  7. Epigenomic Events in Development of the Locus Coeruleus Noradrenergic Neurons
    Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g. GABA, dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine) or neuropeptide (e.g. galanin, NPY, VIP, substance P) phenotype...
  8. Mechanims of CNS Autonomic Regulation by EA
    John C Longhurst; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The current application will provide important new information on both efficacy and mechanism of action in acupuncture treatment of either elevated or low blood pressure. ..
  9. Kazuko Nishikura; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..by the genome can result, as demonstrated with transcripts of glutamate receptor (GluR) ion channels and 5-HT2C serotonin receptors...
  10. Mechanisms of Bone Loss from Administration of the Second-Generation Antipsychoti
    KATHERINE JEAN MOTYL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Unlike first generation antipsychotics (FGAs), SGAs bind multiple receptors including dopamine, serotonin, histamine and alpha-adrenergic receptors and could therefore affect multiple tissues and organ systems...
  11. Dietary Supplement Creatine for Adolescent Females with SSRI-Resistant Depression
    PERRY FRANKLIN RENSHAW; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to test the hypothesis that creatine targets and alters brain energy metabolism in female adolescents selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-resistant MDD...
  12. Donald M Kuhn; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..It is not widely appreciated but the serotonin (5HT) neuronal system is also severely impacted in PD...
  13. Photoperiod Brain and Behavior
    Randy J Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..in neuroendocrine function, hypothalamic expression of vasopressin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and serotonin function have also been reported in humans...
  14. THOMAS STERLING SCANLAN; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..5 hr in mice whereas half-lives of 1-2 min are the norm for chemically similar biogenic amines such as serotonin and dopamine...
  15. John R Grider; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..studies show that proBDNF and mature BDNF (mBDNF) are present in mucosal enteroendocrine cells that contain serotonin (5-HT) and sensory neurons containing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), and that BDNF ..
  16. Neuropeptide modulation of biogenic amine function and aggression in a crustacean
    Maria A Sosa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The specific goal is to understand how the effects serotonin (5-HT) and octopamine (OA) have on aggressive behavior of dominant and submissive freshwater prawns are ..
  17. Juanita L Merchant; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..cell (EC) compartment expands in response to acute injury, microbial infection and colitis to produce serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT)...
  18. Hiv-1 Infection: Central Serotonergic Activity and its Health Implications
    Adarsh M Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It is proposed that HIV-1 induced degeneration of neurons of high monoaminergic activity, such as that of serotonin (5- hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) may have a wide range of health implications, including depression and other ..
  19. IDENTIFICATION OF ACOUSTICO-LATERALIS TRANSMITTERS
    Dennis G Drescher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this new investigation, we will focus on the role of serotonin as an efferent transmitter within the auditory organ of Corti and as a receptoneural transmitter in vestibular ..
  20. KEVIN P CURRIE; Fiscal Year: 2014
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Serotonin (5HT) is an important neuromodulator, and the serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a central role in controlling 5HT signaling and availability...
  21. Novel treatment of menopausal hot flushes with an estradiol prodrug
    Laszlo Prokai; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..therapies include estrogen or hormone (estrogens + progestins) therapies (ERT and HRT), clonidine, the selective serotonin and/or norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and gabapentine...
  22. HANNAH CHASE KINNEY; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..grant which has been continuously funded for 24 years, we have reported a deficiency of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) and its biosynthetic enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2), in regions of the medulla oblongata that ..
  23. Epigenetic Regulation of Serotonin:Relevance to HIV and Methamphetamine Abuse
    GREGORY MICHAEL MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the biological mechanisms that link HIV infection, methamphetamine dependence and consequent changes in the serotonin system that correlate to depression, stress and disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is ..
  24. CYNTHIA LOUISE BETHEA; Fiscal Year: 2014
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The serotonin system governs many higher order neural functions that control the interaction and perception of an individual with their internal and external environment...
  25. Functional Bowel Disorders in Chinese Medicine
    Brian Berman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..b>Serotonin (5-HT) is abundant in gastrointestinal tract and one of the major neuropeptides involved in pathogenesis of IBS...
  26. Katherine M Sharkey; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..Participants undergo genotyping for theoretically selected serotonin and circadian clock gene polymorphisms...
  27. C NEILL NEILL EPPERSON; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..via allopregnanolone) and GABA, it is not the appropriate technology for questions related to estrogen and serotonin interactions, which may be critical to mood and cognition in aging women...
  28. Serotonin, Autism, and investigating cell types for CNS disorders.
    Joseph D Dougherty; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The approach proposed here has the potential to provide those cellular targets for treatments. ..
  29. Control of Cardiogenesis by microRNA Editing
    Kazuko Nishikura; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..recodes and diversifies the function of important mammalian genes such as glutamate receptor subunits and serotonin receptor 2C...
  30. Melanopsin Signal Transduction Studied by FTIR Spectroscopy
    Kenneth J Rothschild; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Prominent examples include serotonin, histamine, adrenergic, muscarinic and calcitonin receptors which are targets of current and potentially new ..
  31. Karen L Houseknecht; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..of SGAs is complex: they potently antagonize multiple G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) including dopamine, serotonin, alpha- adrenergic and histamine receptors...
  32. Walter H Kaye; Fiscal Year: 2015
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This is a resubmission of our initial application. Alterations of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) activity may contribute to extremes of appetitive behaviors in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia ..
  33. Cary O Harding; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Deficiency of the monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin, in brain has been implicated as a probable proximal cause of neurobehavioral difficulties in PKU...
  34. BRAINSTEM MATURATION IN THE SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME
    Hannah C Kinney; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to chemoreception, autonomic responses, respiratory drive, and thermoregulation, and the neurotransmitter, serotonin (5- HT) in the pathogenesis of SIDS: SIDS, or a subset of SIDS, is due to a developmental abnormality in a ..
  35. Mark E Pennesi; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..the levels of neuroprotective growth factors, such as BDNF in the retina by administering oral selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)...
  36. Sex Differences in Stress Receptors Underlie Female Vulnerability to Stress
    Debra A Bangasser; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..factor (CRF) orchestrates stress responses, in part, by regulating norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) transmission, and CRF is dysregulated in stress-related disorders...
  37. Molecular mechanisms of bacterial homologs of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters
    Jonathan A Javitch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..NSS include the transporters for dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine-targets for amphetamine, cocaine, and antidepressant drugs-as well as the transporters for ..
  38. Developmental defects in serotonin neurons and the response to O2 and CO2
    George B Richerson; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..S. The mechanisms are unknown, but abnormalities in the serotonin system have been consistently found in autopsy studies...
  39. Joanne Wang; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..The physiologic substrates of PMAT are the monoamine neurotransmitters with serotonin (5- HT) being the most preferred substrate...
  40. Samina Salim; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..These people have anxiety disorders. The mainstays of treatment are benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)...
  41. Frank W Sellke; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..In addition, agonist induced microvascular smooth muscle responses to serotonin, endothelin-1 and thromboxane A2 will be examined after cardioplegia in the coronary microcirculation in well ..
  42. Elizabeth E Hatch; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Other objectives will focus on several common and increasingly used medications, including glucocorticoids, serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs...
  43. Functionally Significant Polymorphisms in Serotonin Pathway Genes
    Beverly H Koller; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is produced by a two step enzymatic process from the amino acid tryptophan, primarily by neurons located in the raphe nuclei...
  44. Katherine M Nautiyal; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..The serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1B R) has been implicated in aggressive and impulsive behavior using pharmacology, constitutive ..
  45. Barry E Levin; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Also, since selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors increase the CRR and counteract its blunting, we will investigate the role of VMH serotonin ..
  46. Edward A Kravitz; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..disorders, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug abuse in which the amines dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine all have been directly implicated...
  47. Creation of Eating/Activity Environments by New Mothers
    Deborah Young Hyman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..As an exploratory aim we will investigate gene (G-protein ss3 subunit C825 T and serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms obtained via buccal swabs) by environment associations between postpartum ..
  48. Serotonergic Immunomodulation in Neuroinflammatory Disease
    CATHERINE ELIZABETH HAGAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..program at the University of Washington, Seattle;her dissertation work focuses on mechanisms of extracellular serotonin regulation in the brain. With this SERCA, Dr...
  49. Jeffrey M Miller; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Converging evidence suggests that in vivo quantification of the serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor in two specific brain regions, the orbitofrontal cortex and raphe nuclei, may be predictive ..
  50. Malaz Boustani; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Disturbances in several neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine, dopamine, glutamate, serotonin, norepinephrine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), have been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology ..
  51. Mechanisms of Programmed Gestational Hyperphagia
    MICHAEL GLENN ROSS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..proposed studies will determine mechanisms of impaired satiety-induced hyperphagia, focusing on the leptin and serotonin anorexigenic pathways...
  52. Christopher L Cunningham; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Neurotransmitters of interest include: dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, serotonin, and opioid peptides...
  53. Debra A Bangasser; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..factor (CRF) orchestrates stress responses, in part, by regulating norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) transmission, and CRF is dysregulated in stress-related disorders...
  54. Andrey M Mazarati; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Further, we will examine, whether epilepsy-associated decrease of serotonin release in the hippocampus and the upregulation or raphe 5-HT1A autoreceptors can be reversed by the protracted ..
  55. ROLE OF GUT PEPTIDES IN INTESTINAL PERISTALSIS
    JOHN GRIDER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..studies show that proBDNF and mature BDNF (mBDNF) are present in mucosal enteroendocrine cells that contain serotonin (5-HT) and sensory neurons containing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), and that BDNF ..
  56. Mechanisms of abnormal enterochromaffin cell secretion in Crohn's disease
    Mark S Kidd; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The EC cell regulates normal intestinal motility and fluid secretion via secretion of serotonin (fluid and electrolyte secretion/pain), guanylin (enterocyte secretion) and substance P (motility/pain)...
  57. Christopher D Kontos; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..k.a., vascular permeability factor), serotonin, and histamine, suggesting that this pathway non-specifically inhibits vascular permeability...
  58. Mechanisms of Cardiac Afferents and CNS Reflex Processing
    John C Longhurst; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These include bradykinin (BK), reactive oxygen species, protons, cyclooxygenase metabolites, serotonin (5HT), histamine, and most recently thromboxane A2 and endothelin...
  59. MICHAEL L CAMILLERI; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..acid (CDC), are endogenous, surface-active agents that may alter mucosal function, stimulate release of serotonin, alter mucosal permeability, induce low grade inflammation and protein loss through their detergency, and ..
  60. RNA editing in a transgenic mouse model of behavioral despair and anxiety.
    Minati Singh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..altered 5HT2CR editing in brain subregions that have been implicated in depression, and hence have a blunted serotonin synaptic function which induces depression-like behavioral changes...
  61. Rene Hen; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Patients with Mood Disorder (MD, n=20) who were on antidepressants (ten treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRI, ten treated with tricyclic antidepressants, TCA) or lithium (n=6) at the time of ..
  62. Mechanisms of Neurotransmitter Biosynthesis
    Paul F Fitzpatrick; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..for proper functioning of the central nervous system: phenylalanine metabolism, catecholamine biosynthesis, and serotonin biosynthesis...
  63. Joel K Elmquist; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..In the past grant period, we found that CNS serotonin (5-HT) systems interact with hypothalamic melanocortin neurons...
  64. CATECHOLAMINES AND SEROTONIN IN BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL
    Curt Freed; Fiscal Year: 1991
    b>Serotonin and the catecholamines are known to play a role in the regulation of blood pressure. Serotonin agonists, alpha-2 receptor agonists and dopamine agonists have all been shown to lower blood in hypertensive animals...
  65. ACTIONS OF PERIPHERAL 5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE IN FEEDING
    Kenny Simansky; Fiscal Year: 2000
    b>Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is an indoleamine that is synthesized in neurons of the peripheral and central nervous systems and within enterochromaffin cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa...
  66. ROLE OF SEROTONIN IN PREGNANCY-RELATED HYPERTENSION
    Carl Weiner; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..that preeclamptic hypertension results from the potentiation of multiple vasoconstrictors by platelet released serotonin in a microenvironment characterized by decreased serotonin catabolism and disruption of the normal checks and ..
  67. Neuroprotective Effects of Estrogen in Serotonin Neurons
    Jessica Henderson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Understanding estrogen's neuroprotective actions in the serotonin system has relevance to many aspects of women's mental health...
  68. Role of serotonin in auditory cortex regulation following early-onset sensorineur
    GREGORY BASURA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    This is a proposal to continue investigation of the role of serotonin (5-HT) and serotonergic neurotransmission in auditory (A1) cortex excitability following early onset sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL)...
  69. Interaction of Estrogen and Serotonin in Modulating Brain Activation in Menopause
    C Neill Epperson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A growing preclinical literature indicates that estrogen interactions with neurotransmitters such as serotonin are likely, and serotonin function is believed to decline with age...
  70. Functional characterization of SSRI resistant genes using C. elegans
    JI Y SZE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The goal of this proposal is to elucidate the serotonin signaling pathways through genetic dissection of genes and functional pathways regulated by Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)...
  71. SEROTONIN Treatment of Cocaine Dependence
    ERIC STRAIN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The originally funded study examined tryptophan, the precursor of serotonin, in the treatment of cocaine abuse, and hence the grant was titled "Tryptophan and Behavior Therapy for Cocaine ..
  72. Symptoms, Serotonin and Amino Acids in Anorexia Nervosa
    David Jimerson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Although the etiology of AN is unknown, altered regulation of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the central nervous system (CNS) is thought to contribute to preoccupation with body shape and weight, ..
  73. Cocaine behavior: Regulation by k-opioids and serotonin
    Sari Izenwasser; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..For example, dopamine antagonists, opioid antagonists and serotonin uptake inhibitors can all reduce cocaine self-administration...
  74. 18F-Mefway for Imaging Mood Disorders and Alzheimer's Disease
    JOGESH MUKHERJEE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Serotonin 5HT1A receptors have been investigated in a number of CNS disorders, including depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD)..
  75. Post-transcriptional Regulation of Serotonin Receptors
    RONALD EMESON; Fiscal Year: 2006
    b>Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is a monoaminergic neurotransmitter that modulates numerous sensory and motor processes as well as a wide variety of behaviors including sleep, appetite, pain perception, locomotion, ..
  76. Serotonin Club Meeting 2010
    JULIE GORTON HENSLER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The Serotonin Club, founded in 1987, is an international association for biomedical scientists who are interested in research on any aspect of the neurotransmitter serotonin...
  77. BIOLOGICAL STUDIES IN SUICIDAL ADOLESCENT INPATIENTS
    Laurence Greenhill; Fiscal Year: 2000
    This application is for a five-year competitive renewal to study the role of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) system in suicidal behavior in adolescents...
  78. Development and Functional Analysis of Components of the Zebrafish Serotonin Sign
    Kenneth N Wallace; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..One of the most studied of these cells are serotonin (5-HT) synthesizing enterochromaffin cells...