Genomes and Genes
Summary: Soluble factor produced by activated T-lymphocytes that causes proliferation and differentiation of B-cells. Interleukin-4 induces the expression of class II major histocompatibility complex and Fc receptors on B-cells. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, mast cell lines, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells including granulocyte, megakaryocyte, and erythroid precursors, as well as macrophages.
Publications324 found, 100 shown here
- Alternative activation of macrophagesSiamon Gordon
Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
Nat Rev Immunol 3:23-35. 2003..In this review, I assess the evidence in favour of alternative macrophage activation in the light of macrophage heterogeneity, and define its limits and relevance to a range of immune and inflammatory conditions...
- Alternative macrophage activation is essential for survival during schistosomiasis and downmodulates T helper 1 responses and immunopathologyDe Broski R Herbert
University of Cape Town, Health Sciences Faculty, 7925 Cape Town, South Africa
Immunity 20:623-35. 2004..Together, this shows that alternative macrophages are essential during schistosomiasis for protection against organ injury through downregulation of egg-induced inflammation...
- Transforming growth factor-beta induces development of the T(H)17 lineagePaul R Mangan
Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 2170, USA
Nature 441:231-4. 2006..The action of TGF-beta on naive T cells is antagonized by interferon-gamma and IL-4, thus providing a mechanism for divergence of the T(H)1, T(H)2 and T(H)17 lineages...
- Stat6 is required for mediating responses to IL-4 and for development of Th2 cellsM H Kaplan
Department of Cancer Biology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Immunity 4:313-9. 1996..These results demonstrate that, despite the existence of multiple signaling pathways activated by IL-4, Stat6 is essential for mediating responses to IL-4 lymphocytes...
- Analysis of type 2 immunity in vivo with a bicistronic IL-4 reporterM Mohrs
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Departments of Medicine and Microbiology Immunology, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
Immunity 15:303-11. 2001..Transferred EGFP(+) CD4(+) T cells from infected animals conferred protection against Nippostrongylus to immunodeficient mice. These mice will provide a valuable reagent for assessing immunity in vivo...
- Accelerated intestinal epithelial cell turnover: a new mechanism of parasite expulsionLaura J Cliffe
Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
Science 308:1463-5. 2005..This host protective mechanism against intestinal pathogens has implications for our wider understanding of the multifunctional role played by intestinal epithelium in mucosal defense...
- IL-4 rapidly produced by V beta 4 V alpha 8 CD4+ T cells instructs Th2 development and susceptibility to Leishmania major in BALB/c miceP Launois
World Health Organization Immunology Research and Training Center, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland
Immunity 6:541-9. 1997..Thus, the IL-4 required for Th2 development and susceptibility to L. major is produced by a restricted population of V beta 4 V alpha 8 CD4+ T cells after cognate interaction with a single antigen from this complex organism...
- A novel transcription factor, T-bet, directs Th1 lineage commitmentS J Szabo
Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Cell 100:655-69. 2000..Thus, T-bet initiates Th1 lineage development from naive Thp cells both by activating Th1 genetic programs and by repressing the opposing Th2 programs...
- Memory T(H)2 cells induce alternatively activated macrophages to mediate protection against nematode parasitesRobert M Anthony
Department of Medicine, New Jersey Medical School, 185 S Orange Avenue, Newark, New Jersey 07103, USA
Nat Med 12:955-60. 2006....
- Cytokine-secreting follicular T cells shape the antibody repertoireR Lee Reinhardt
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Departments of Medicine and Microbiology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, USA
Nat Immunol 10:385-93. 2009..Using an interleukin 4-reporter system, we show here that CD4(+) follicular helper T cells constituted essentially all of the ..
- Instruction of distinct CD4 T helper cell fates by different notch ligands on antigen-presenting cellsDerk Amsen
Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Cell 117:515-26. 2004..Notch directs Th2 differentiation by inducing GATA3 and by directly regulating il4 gene transcription through RBPJkappa sites in a 3' enhancer...
- Generation and analysis of interleukin-4 deficient miceR Kuhn
Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, Germany
Science 254:707-10. 1991..Thus, some but not all of the in vitro properties of IL-4 are critical for the physiology of the immune system in vivo...
- Interleukin-4- and interleukin-13-mediated host protection against intestinal nematode parasitesFred D Finkelman
Division of Immunology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA
Immunol Rev 201:139-55. 2004....
- Retnla (relmalpha/fizz1) suppresses helminth-induced Th2-type immunityJohn T Pesce
Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
PLoS Pathog 5:e1000393. 2009..Thus, the Th2-inducible gene Retnla suppresses resistance to GI nematode infection, pulmonary granulomatous inflammation, and fibrosis by negatively regulating Th2-dependent responses...
- T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigensArielle Glatman Zaretsky
Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Exp Med 206:991-9. 2009..The relationship of TFH cells to the Th2 lineage was confirmed when TFH cells were found to develop from CXCR5(-) PD-1(-) IL-4/GFP(+) CD4(+) T cells after their transfer into naive mice and antigen challenge in vivo...
- An IL-13 inhibitor blocks the development of hepatic fibrosis during a T-helper type 2-dominated inflammatory responseM G Chiaramonte
Schistosomiasis Immunology and Pathology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
J Clin Invest 104:777-85. 1999..Thus, our findings provide evidence that IL-13 inhibitors may be of general therapeutic benefit in preventing damaging tissue fibrosis resulting from Th2-dominated inflammatory responses...
- Interleukin-13: central mediator of allergic asthmaM Wills-Karp
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Science 282:2258-61. 1998..Thus, IL-13 is critical to allergen-induced asthma but operates through mechanisms other than those that are classically implicated in allergic responses...
- Healthy individuals that control a latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis express high levels of Th1 cytokines and the IL-4 antagonist IL-4delta2Abebech Demissie
Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
J Immunol 172:6938-43. 2004..These data suggest that long-term control of M. tuberculosis infection is associated not just with elevated Th1 responses but also with inhibition of the Th2 response...
- Control of inflammation, cytokine expression, and germinal center formation by BCL-6A L Dent
Metabolism Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Science 276:589-92. 1997..Thus, dysregulation of STAT-responsive genes may underlie the inflammatory disease in BCL-6-deficient mice and participate in lymphoid malignancies...
- Distinct effects of T-bet in TH1 lineage commitment and IFN-gamma production in CD4 and CD8 T cellsSusanne J Szabo
Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Science 295:338-42. 2002..This difference is also apparent in the function of these cell subsets. Thus, the regulation of a single cytokine, IFN-gamma, is controlled by distinct transcriptional mechanisms within the T cell lineage...
- IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells in reactive lymph nodes during helminth infection are T follicular helper cellsIrah L King
Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY 12983, USA
J Exp Med 206:1001-7. 2009..Our report reveals the compartmentalization of Th2 priming and IL-4 production in the lymph nodes during infection, and identifies Tfh cells as the dominant source of IL-4 in vivo...
- Genetic evidence for the aggravation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria by interleukin 4Sandrine Cabantous
Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale INSERM, Unité 906, Faculte de Medecine, Aix Marseille Universite, IFR88, 27 Blvd Jean Moulin, Marseille, France
J Infect Dis 200:1530-9. 2009..In previous work, we have shown that interferon gamma and interleukin 12 protect against CM. Here, we investigated whether interleukin 4 (IL-4) aggravates the risk of severe disease.
- Phenotypic and physiologic characterization of transgenic mice expressing interleukin 4 in the lung: lymphocytic and eosinophilic inflammation without airway hyperreactivityJ A Rankin
Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, VA Connecticut Health Care System, West Haven 06516, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:7821-5. 1996....
- IL-4 acts as a myoblast recruitment factor during mammalian muscle growthValerie Horsley
Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Cell, and Developmental Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Cell 113:483-94. 2003..These data demonstrate that following myotube formation, myotubes recruit myoblast fusion by secretion of IL-4, leading to muscle growth...
- Interleukin 4 potently enhances murine macrophage mannose receptor activity: a marker of alternative immunologic macrophage activationM Stein
Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford, United Kingdom
J Exp Med 176:287-92. 1992..b>Interleukin 4 (IL-4), a Th-2 lymphocyte product, upregulates major histocompatibility class II antigen expression but ..
- Fig1, an interleukin 4-induced mouse B cell gene isolated by cDNA representational difference analysisC C Chu
North Shore University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:2507-12. 1997b>Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a cytokine that regulates growth and differentiation of lymphoid and nonlymphoid cells...
- Active recruitment of DNA methyltransferases regulates interleukin 4 in thymocytes and T cellsKaren W Makar
Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
Nat Immunol 4:1183-90. 2003How T cells regulate interleukin 4 (IL-4) expression is not completely understood...
- Th2 cell hyporesponsiveness during chronic murine schistosomiasis is cell intrinsic and linked to GRAIL expressionJustin J Taylor
Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 4539, USA
J Clin Invest 119:1019-28. 2009..Together, these data indicate that the decline in Th2 cell responsiveness during chronic schistosomiasis is the net result of the upregulation of GRAIL expression in response to repeated Ag stimulation...
- Differences between IL-4- and IL-4 receptor alpha-deficient mice in chronic leishmaniasis reveal a protective role for IL-13 receptor signalingM Mohrs
Max Planck Institute for Immunobiology, Freiburg, Germany
J Immunol 162:7302-8. 1999..major, mediated by a functional IL-13 receptor...
- Selective expression of the eotaxin receptor CCR3 by human T helper 2 cellsF Sallusto
Basel Institute for Immunology, Grenzacherstrasse 487, CH 4005 Basel, Switzerland
Science 277:2005-7. 1997..The attraction of TH2 cells by eotaxin could represent a key mechanism in allergic reactions, because it promotes the allergen-driven production of interleukin-4 and interleukin-5 necessary to activate basophils and eosinophils...
- Interleukin 4 and STAT6 gene polymorphisms are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus in Chinese patientsH H Yu
Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
Lupus 19:1219-28. 2010..59 + 3.53 versus 5.67 + 11.28 pg/ml, p = 0.042). These results indicated that IL4 and STAT6 genes might be involved in the etiology of SLE and potentially increased SLE risk through their interaction effect in Chinese patients...
- Interleukin 2 plays a central role in Th2 differentiationJavier Cote-Sierra
Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3880-5. 2004..Thus, IL-2 plays a critical role in the polarization of naive CD4 T cells to the Th2 phenotype...
- Functional plasticity in memory T helper cell responsesConnie M Krawczyk
Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Immunol 178:4080-8. 2007..These findings reveal that both effector and central memory Th1 and Th2 cells possess the capacity to respond to environmental cues to produce pathogen-appropriate cytokines of the opposing lineage...
- Requirement for IL-13 independently of IL-4 in experimental asthmaG Grunig
Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
Science 282:2261-3. 1998..This pathway may underlie the genetic associations of asthma with both the human 5q31 locus and the IL-4 receptor...
- Molecular analysis of a locus control region in the T helper 2 cytokine gene cluster: a target for STAT6 but not GATA3Dong U Lee
Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:16010-5. 2004..We suggest that the RAD50 LCR has a complex and dual role in Th1 and Th2 differentiation, communicating early T cell antigen receptor and cytokine signals to the IL-4/IL-13 locus in both differentiating cell types...
- Eosinophils develop in distinct stages and are recruited to peripheral sites by alternatively activated macrophagesDavid Voehringer
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
J Leukoc Biol 81:1434-44. 2007..Alternatively activated macrophages contributed substantially to tissue recruitment of eosinophils, providing a novel basis for development of therapeutic approaches to lower tissue eosinophilia...
- Impact of the IL-4 -590 C/T transition on the levels of Plasmodium falciparum specific IgE, IgG, IgG subclasses and total IgE in two sympatric ethnic groups living in MaliManijeh Vafa
Department of Immunology, Stockholm University, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
Microbes Infect 11:779-84. 2009..Taken together, these data indicate that the impact of IL-4 -590 variants on antibody levels may vary in different ethnic populations, and that this might affect the Ig-class and subclass distributions...
- Mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils acquire constitutive IL-4 and IL-13 transcripts during lineage differentiation that are sufficient for rapid cytokine productionAndre Gessner
Institute of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology, and Hygiene University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen, Germany
J Immunol 174:1063-72. 2005..These novel findings have important implications for the prevention and therapeutic intervention of allergic and asthmatic diseases...
- Regulation of Th2 differentiation and Il4 locus accessibilityK Mark Ansel
Harvard Medical School, CBR Institute for Biomedical Research, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Annu Rev Immunol 24:607-56. 2006....
- Kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 DNA vaccination induces complete protection against both pentavalent antimonial-sensitive and -resistant strains of Leishmania donovani that correlates with inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and IL-4 generation: evRajatava Basu
Department of Immunology, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata
J Immunol 174:7160-71. 2005..This is the first report of a vaccine conferring protection to both antimony responsive and resistant Leishmania strains reflecting several aspects of clinical visceral leishmaniasis...
- Interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 signaling connections mapsAnn E Kelly-Welch
Department of Immunology, Holland Laboratory, American Red Cross, Rockville, MD 20855, and the Institute for Biomedical Sciences, George Washington Medical Center, Washington, DC 20037, USA
Science 300:1527-8. 2003..In addition, stimulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway through recruitment of members of the insulin receptor substrate family may contribute to survival and proliferation...
- The natural killer T-cell ligand alpha-galactosylceramide prevents autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic miceS Hong
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
Nat Med 7:1052-6. 2001....
- IL-10 is critical in the regulation of autoimmune encephalomyelitis as demonstrated by studies of IL-10- and IL-4-deficient and transgenic miceE Bettelli
Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Immunol 161:3299-306. 1998..Taken together, our data suggest that IL-10 plays a more critical role in the regulation of EAE by regulating autopathogenic Th1 responses...
- Th2 cytokine-induced alterations in intestinal smooth muscle function depend on alternatively activated macrophagesAiping Zhao
Department of Medicine and the Mucosal Biology Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
Gastroenterology 135:217-225.e1. 2008..The present study investigated the role of macrophages and the arginase pathway in nematode-induced changes in intestinal smooth muscle function and worm expulsion...
- Splenic cytokine responses in Indian kala-azar before and after treatmentR T Kenney
Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD, USA
J Infect Dis 177:815-8. 1998..With successful treatment and resolution of infection, both components of the immune response appear to involute...
- DNA vaccines, combining form of antigen and method of delivery to raise a spectrum of IFN-gamma and IL-4-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cellsAlp E Oran
Emory Vaccine Center and Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
J Immunol 171:1999-2005. 2003..Studies in B cell knockout and hen egg lysozyme Ig transgenic mice revealed that B cells were required for the generation of IL-4-producing CD8(+) T cells...
- IL-4/IL-13 signaling beyond JAK/STATH Jiang
Department of Medicine and Microbiology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
J Allergy Clin Immunol 105:1063-70. 2000..Finally, B-cell lymphoma gene-6 (BCL-6) appears to regulate a subset of IL-4-induced genes. Thus the biologic responses induced by IL-4/IL-13 require a complex interaction of signaling pathways and regulators...
- Antinociceptive effects of interleukin-4, -10, and -13 on the writhing response in mice and zymosan-induced knee joint incapacitation in ratsMariana L Vale
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 304:102-8. 2003..This analgesic effect could be related to a peripheral mechanism, probably via the inhibition of the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta by resident peritoneal macrophages...
- Therapeutic targeting of IL-4- and IL-13-responsive cells in pulmonary fibrosisClaudia Jakubzick
Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Immunol Res 30:339-49. 2004....
- Testosterone acts directly on CD4+ T lymphocytes to increase IL-10 productionS M Liva
Department of Neurobiology, University of California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
J Immunol 167:2060-7. 2001..In vitro experiments demonstrated increased IL-10 production following treatment of CD4+ T lymphocytes with DHT. Thus, testosterone can act directly via androgen receptors on CD4+ T lymphocytes to increase IL-10 gene expression...
- IL-4 induces mucin gene expression and goblet cell metaplasia in vitro and in vivoK Dabbagh
Cardiovascular Research Institute and Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
J Immunol 162:6233-7. 1999..These results indicate that airway epithelial cells express IL-4R constitutively and that IL-4 directly induces the differentiation of epithelium into mucous glycoconjugate-containing goblet cells...
- Human basophils and eosinophils are the direct target leukocytes of the novel IL-1 family member IL-33Tatjana Pecaric-Petkovic
Institute of Immunology, University Hospital Bern, Inselspital, Bern, Switzerland
Blood 113:1526-34. 2009....
- Differences between IL-4R alpha-deficient and IL-4-deficient mice reveal a role for IL-13 in the regulation of Th2 responsesM Barner
Basel Institute for Immunology, Switzerland
Curr Biol 8:669-72. 1998..Injection of recombinant IL-13 induced worm expulsion in otherwise incompetent RAG2-/- mice. Our results suggest that IL-13 regulates Th2 responses to nematode infection and requires IL-4R alpha...
- Isolation and characterization of a human interleukin cDNA clone, homologous to mouse B-cell stimulatory factor 1, that expresses B-cell- and T-cell-stimulating activitiesT Yokota
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 83:5894-8. 1986..These results indicate that this human cDNA clone encodes a protein structurally and functionally homologous to mouse BSF-1...
- Transforming growth factor beta1, in the presence of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin 4, induces differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into dendritic Langerhans cellsF Geissmann
Service d Anatomie Pathologique, Hopital Necker Enfants Malades, Paris, France
J Exp Med 187:961-6. 1998..antigen+, Birbeck granules+, Lag+) in the presence of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin 4, and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1)...
- A critical role for IL-4 in regulating disease severity in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis as demonstrated in IL-4-deficient C57BL/6 mice and BALB/c miceM Falcone
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
J Immunol 160:4822-30. 1998..We conclude that IL-4 plays an important role in modulating the severity of the encephalitogenic process, but does not by itself contribute to spontaneous remission from the disease...
- The implications of using an inappropriate reference gene for real-time reverse transcription PCR data normalizationK Dheda
Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Royal Free and University College Medical School, and Department of Thoracic and HIV Medicine, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2QG, UK
Anal Biochem 344:141-3. 2005
- IL-4 receptor expression on CD8+ T cells is required for the development of protective memory responses against liver stages of malaria parasitesAlexandre Morrot
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Malaria Research Institute, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
J Exp Med 202:551-60. 2005..They also indicate that memory cells residing in nonlymphoid tissues are critical for protective immunity against malaria parasites...
- Gastrointestinal nematode expulsion in IL-4 knockout mice is IL-13 dependentA J Bancroft
School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, GB
Eur J Immunol 30:2083-91. 2000..muris from the gut. Moreover, the present data highlight the functional importance of gender and background strain in interpretation of studies using gene-targeted animals...
- Constitutive cytokine mRNAs mark natural killer (NK) and NK T cells poised for rapid effector functionDaniel B Stetson
University of California San Francisco, Box 0654, C 443, 521 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
J Exp Med 198:1069-76. 2003..Lineage-specific patterns of cytokine transcripts predate infection and suggest evolutionary selection for invariant but distinct types of effector responses among the earliest responding lymphocytes...
- Deletion of IL-4Ralpha on CD4 T cells renders BALB/c mice resistant to Leishmania major infectionMagdalena Radwanska
PLoS Pathog 3:e68. 2007..Furthermore, a beneficial role for IL-4Ralpha signaling in L. major infection is revealed in which IL-4/IL-13-responsive non-CD4+ T cells induce protective responses...
- IL-13 is a key regulatory cytokine for Th2 cell-mediated pulmonary granuloma formation and IgE responses induced by Schistosoma mansoni eggsM G Chiaramonte
Immunology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892 0425, USA
J Immunol 162:920-30. 1999..Together, these data demonstrate that IL-13 serves as an important mediator of Th2-mediated inflammation and plays a role in eliciting IgE responses triggered by schistosome eggs...
- CD81 on B cells promotes interleukin 4 secretion and antibody production during T helper type 2 immune responsesH T Maecker
Department of Medicine Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:2458-62. 1998..By using a soluble form of CD81 as a probe, a putative ligand for CD81 was identified on a subset of B and T cells. Two possible models for the interaction of CD81 on B cells with a potential ligand on either B or T cells are proposed...
- Murine filariasis: interleukin 4 and interleukin 5 lead to containment of different worm developmental stagesLars Volkmann
Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany
Med Microbiol Immunol 192:23-31. 2003..factor of 160 in full infection). In conclusion, IL-4 and IL-5 dependent effector pathways operate against different stages of filarial worms, and IL-5 has a greater impact on parasite containment than IL-4...
- Arginase I induction in macrophages, triggered by Th2-type cytokines, supports the growth of intracellular Leishmania parasitesVirginia Iniesta
Parasitology Unit, Department of Medicine and Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Caceres, Spain
Parasite Immunol 24:113-8. 2002..Therefore, arginase induction in the context of a Th2 predominant response might be a contributor to susceptibility in leishmaniasis...
- The IL-4 rapidly produced in BALB/c mice after infection with Leishmania major down-regulates IL-12 receptor beta 2-chain expression on CD4+ T cells resulting in a state of unresponsiveness to IL-12H Himmelrich
World Health Organization Immunology Research and Training Center, Institute of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland
J Immunol 161:6156-63. 1998..major is primarily based on an up-regulation of IL-4 production, which secondarily induces extinction of IL-12 signaling...
- Interleukin 12 administration induces T helper type 1 cells and accelerates autoimmune diabetes in NOD miceS Trembleau
Roche Milano Ricerche, Italy
J Exp Med 181:817-21. 1995..These results hold implications for the pathogenesis, and possibly for the therapy of IDDM and of other Th1 cell-mediated autoimmune diseases...
- Expression of the suppressor of cytokine signaling-5 (SOCS5) negatively regulates IL-4-dependent STAT6 activation and Th2 differentiationYoh Ichi Seki
Research Institute for Biological Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, 2669 Yamazaki, Noda City, Chiba 278 0022, Japan
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:13003-8. 2002..Therefore, the induced SOCS5 protein in Th1 differentiation environment may play an important role by regulating Th1 and Th2 balance...
- The IL-4 receptor: signaling mechanisms and biologic functionsK Nelms
Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Annu Rev Immunol 17:701-38. 1999..We particularly emphasize the modular nature of the receptor and the specialization of different receptor regions for distinct functions, most notably the independent regulation of cell growth and gene activation...
- gp63 in stable cationic liposomes confers sustained vaccine immunity to susceptible BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania donovaniSwati Bhowmick
Infectious Diseases and Immunology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032, India
Infect Immun 76:1003-15. 2008..Our results demonstrated that stable cationic liposomes containing gp63 acted as a potent adjuvant for protein antigen to induce long-term protection against L. donovani that represents an alternative to DNA vaccination...
- The immunology of susceptibility and resistance to Leishmania major in miceDavid Sacks
Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Nat Rev Immunol 2:845-58. 2002..major-resistant mice have revealed complexities in the mechanisms responsible for acquired immunity, which necessitate the redesign of vaccines against Leishmania and other pathogens that require sustained cell-mediated immune responses...
- Type 1 and type 2 cytokine regulation of macrophage endocytosis: differential activation by IL-4/IL-13 as opposed to IFN-gamma or IL-10L J Montaner
The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Immunol 162:4606-13. 1999..In summary, our data document differential effects on macrophage endocytic functions by type 1 or type 2 cytokines associated with induction and effector pathways in immunity...
- IL-10 from regulatory T cells determines vaccine efficacy in murine Leishmania major infectionCarmel B Stober
Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
J Immunol 175:2517-24. 2005..Anti-IL-10R treatment in vivo demonstrated that IL-10 was functional in determining vaccine failure, rendering LACK protective in the presence of high IFN-gamma/low IL-5 responses...
- Schistosome infection of transgenic mice defines distinct and contrasting pathogenic roles for IL-4 and IL-13: IL-13 is a profibrotic agentP G Fallon
Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom and Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom
J Immunol 164:2585-91. 2000..Therefore, we demonstrate that during a dynamic type 2 cytokine disease process IL-13 is detrimental to survival following infection, whereas IL-4 is beneficial...
- Immune responses in healthy and allergic individuals are characterized by a fine balance between allergen-specific T regulatory 1 and T helper 2 cellsMubeccel Akdis
Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research, Obere Strasse 22, CH 7270 Davos
J Exp Med 199:1567-75. 2004..These results indicate that the balance between allergen-specific Tr1 cells and Th2 cells may be decisive in the development of allergy...
- Leishmanial antigens in liposomes promote protective immunity and provide immunotherapy against visceral leishmaniasis via polarized Th1 responseSudipta Bhowmick
Infectious Diseases Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S C Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032, India
Vaccine 25:6544-56. 2007..These findings suggest that an immune modulation towards Th1 is effective for both successful vaccination and immunotherapy...
- Imprinting of CCR9 on CD4 T cells requires IL-4 signaling on mesenteric lymph node dendritic cellsRaul Elgueta
Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
J Immunol 180:6501-7. 2008..Thus, besides the direct effect of RA on T cell gut tropism, our results show that the induction of a gut-homing phenotype on CD4(+) T cells is also influenced by the effect of IL-4 on gut-associated DC...
- Soluble egg antigen from Schistosoma japonicum modulates the progression of chronic progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via Th2-shift responseXueping Zheng
Department of Neurology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat Sen University, 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510630, China
J Neuroimmunol 194:107-14. 2008..This effect was associated with reduced interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) production and/or increased interleukin 4 (IL-4) production in spleen and central nervous system (CNS) even at the chronic stage...
- Type 2 immunity is controlled by IL-4/IL-13 expression in hematopoietic non-eosinophil cells of the innate immune systemDavid Voehringer
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Departments of Medicine and Microbiology Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
J Exp Med 203:1435-46. 2006..Thus, components of type 2 immunity mediated by IL-4/IL-13 are partitioned between T cell-dependent IgE and an innate non-eosinophil tissue component, suggesting new strategies for interventions in allergic immunity...
- Sand fly saliva enhances Leishmania amazonensis infection by modulating interleukin-10 productionNilufer B Norsworthy
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, Texas 77555 1070, USA
Infect Immun 72:1240-7. 2004..amazonensis. Together, these results imply that the sand fly saliva facilitates Leishmania evasion of the host immune system by modulating IL-10 production...
- Cytokine regulation of host defense against parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes: lessons from studies with rodent modelsF D Finkelman
Department of Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH 45267 0563, USA
Annu Rev Immunol 15:505-33. 1997....
- Modulation of chromatin structure regulates cytokine gene expression during T cell differentiationS Agarwal
Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Center for Blood Research, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Immunity 9:765-75. 1998..We propose that chromatin remodeling of cytokine gene loci is functionally associated with productive T cell differentiation and may explain the coordinate regulation of Th2 cytokine genes...
- Regulation of expression of IL-4 alleles: analysis using a chimeric GFP/IL-4 geneJ Hu-Li
Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy, and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Immunity 14:1-11. 2001....
- GATA-3 suppresses Th1 development by downregulation of Stat4 and not through effects on IL-12Rbeta2 chain or T-betTakashi Usui
Mucosal Immunity Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Immunity 18:415-28. 2003..These findings reassert that Stat4 signaling is a central element of Th1/Th2 development...
- Th1, Th2, and Th3 cytokine alterations in major depressionAye Mu Myint
Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands
J Affect Disord 88:167-73. 2005..The Th3 cytokine, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1), has been shown to regulate the balance between Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines. However, the role of TGF-beta1 in the psychoimmunology of depression has never been explored...
- Structure, binding, and antagonists in the IL-4/IL-13 receptor systemThomas D Mueller
Physiological Chemistry II, Biocenter, University of Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, Germany
Biochim Biophys Acta 1592:237-50. 2002..Based on these new data, the hitherto elusive goal of designing small molecular mimetics may be feasible...
- Interleukin 10 is a potent growth and differentiation factor for activated human B lymphocytesF Rousset
Schering Plough, Laboratory for Immunological Research, Dardilly, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:1890-3. 1992..Thus, IL-10 may play an important role in the amplification of humoral responses...
- IL-4-deficient Balb/c mice resist infection with Leishmania majorM Kopf
Basel Institute for Immunology, Switzerland
J Exp Med 184:1127-36. 1996..Moreover, the induction of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, IL-12) together with iNOS in the lesion and draining lymph nodes was not altered in the absence of IL-4...
- IL-13 is a susceptibility factor for Leishmania major infectionD J Matthews
Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom
J Immunol 164:1458-62. 2000..Furthermore, using BALB/c mice deficient in the expression of IL-4, IL-13, or both IL-13 and IL-4, we demonstrate that IL-13-deficient mice are resistant to infection and that there is an additive effect of deleting both IL-4 and IL-13...
- IL-4 attenuates the neuroinflammation induced by amyloid-beta in vivo and in vitroAnthony Lyons
Trinity College Institute for Neuroscience, Physiology Department, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland
J Neurochem 101:771-81. 2007....
- CD4+ invariant T-cell-receptor+ natural killer T cells in bronchial asthmaOmid Akbari
Division of Immunology, Children s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02115, USA
N Engl J Med 354:1117-29. 2006..Because mouse models of allergic asthma indicate that natural killer T cells are required for the development of allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity, we hypothesized that natural killer T cells play an important role in human asthma...
- The lineage decisions of helper T cellsKenneth M Murphy
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
Nat Rev Immunol 2:933-44. 2002..We summarize the latest insights into mechanisms that govern the lineage choices that are made during T(H)-cell responses to foreign pathogens...
- IL-4 protects tumor cells from anti-CD95 and chemotherapeutic agents via up-regulation of antiapoptotic proteinsConcetta Conticello
Department of Experimental Oncology, Mediterranean Institute of Oncology, Catania, Italy
J Immunol 172:5467-77. 2004..These findings may provide useful information for the development of therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring the functionality of apoptotic pathways in tumor cells...
- Comprehensive clarification of two paralogous interleukin 4/13 loci in teleost fishMaki Ohtani
Laboratory of Fish Pathology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252 8510, Japan
Immunogenetics 60:383-97. 2008..We were unable to determine if the teleost IL-4/13 genes are orthologous to either IL-4 or IL-13, or if these mammalian genes separated later in evolution...
- Interleukin-4 cytotoxin therapy synergizes with gemcitabine in a mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomaTakeshi Shimamura
Tumor Vaccines and Biotechnology Branch, Division of Cellular and Gene Therapies, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Cancer Res 67:9903-12. 2007..These results indicate that IL-4 cytotoxin combined with gemcitabine may provide effective therapy for the treatment of patients with PDA...
- Essential role of Stat6 in IL-4 signallingK Takeda
Institute for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Osaka University, Japan
Nature 380:627-30. 1996..These findings agreed with those obtained in IL-4 deficient mice or using antibodies to IL-4 and the IL-4 receptor. We conclude that Stat6 plays a central role in exerting IL-4 mediated biological responses...
- Requirement for CD40 ligand in costimulation induction, T cell activation, and experimental allergic encephalomyelitisI S Grewal
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
Science 273:1864-7. 1996..1(+) antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Thus, CD40L is required to induce costimulatory activity on APCs for in vivo activation of CD4(+) T cells to produce IFN-gamma and to evoke autoimmunity...
- Efficient targeting of the IL-4 gene in a BALB/c embryonic stem cell lineN Noben-Trauth
Max Planck Insitut für Immunbiologie, Freiburg, Germany
Transgenic Res 5:487-91. 1996..Furthermore, the genetically pure BALB/c IL-4 deficient mice will aid in studying the role of IL-4 in several infectious disease models in which the BALB/c mouse is a susceptible strain...
- Inhibition of Th1 development mediated by GATA-3 through an IL-4-independent mechanismW Ouyang
Department of Pathology and Center for Immunology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
Immunity 9:745-55. 1998..Thus, GATA-3 expression and IL-12 signaling are mutually antagonistic, which facilitates rapid dominance of one pathway during early Th development, producing a stable divergence in cytokine profiles...
- Stat6 and IRS-2 cooperate in interleukin 4 (IL-4)-induced proliferation and differentiation but are dispensable for IL-4-dependent rescue from apoptosisAndrea L Wurster
Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Mol Cell Biol 22:117-26. 2002Stat6 and IRS-2 are two important signaling proteins that associate with the cytoplasmic tail of the interleukin 4 (IL-4) receptor...
- Lineage-specific modulation of interleukin 4 signaling by interferon regulatory factor 4S Gupta
Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
J Exp Med 190:1837-48. 1999..Since expression of IRF-4 is mostly confined to lymphoid cells, these data provide a potential mechanism by which IL-4-inducible genes can be regulated in a lineage-specific manner...
- Neuroimaging abnormalities in major depressive disorder: effect of inflammationJonathan Savitz; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- A Bifunctional Katp Channel Activator and Redox Mimetic for BPDKanneganti Murthy; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- Regulated Accessibility of a cytokine gene locus.Anjana Rao; Fiscal Year: 2013..In this proposal we plan to investigate the role of TET proteins in T cells, a major class of cells in the immune system that protect the organism from attack by bacteria, viruses and other pathogens including cancer cells. ..
- Effects of Cannabinoids on the Immune Response to Murine Systemic CandidiasisNANCY ELIZABETH BUCKLEY-NIEVES; Fiscal Year: 2012..The present proposal will investigate the effects of THC, its related compound 2-arachidonoylglycerol and the peripheral cannabinoid receptor on the immune responses to a systemic Candida albicans infection in mice. ..
- Regulation of IL4 signal transduciton by poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1.Rahul Datta; Fiscal Year: 2011..Given the data demonstrating that PARP-1 inhibition abates of pulmonary inflammation in the mouse model of asthma, it is important to study the role of PARP-1 in inflammation in order to develop strategies in dealing with the disease. ..
- Regulating the Immune Microenvironment in Breast CancerLisa Marie Coussens; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- Unique immune regulation by alternatively spliced interleukin-4Sergei P Atamas; Fiscal Year: 2013..The results will form the basis for development of new therapies that target IL-442 in patients, particularly in veterans, with the goal of attenuating or curing diseases in veterans, and thus improving veterans'health. ..
- Lactogenic immunity/probiotics: Effect on neonatal gut immunityLinda J Saif; Fiscal Year: 2010..abstract_text> ..
- RNA-Seq studies of Gene Expression in Cells and Networks in FI and ACC in AutismBarbara J Wold; Fiscal Year: 2010..We found that VENs express receptors for the cytokines interleukin 4 (IL4R) and interleukin 6 (IL6R) in normal and autistic subjects, and RNA-Seq identified a prominent gene ..
- HUMAN IL-13 GENE REGULATION AND IMPACT OF POLYMORPHISMSDonata Vercelli; Fiscal Year: 2013..Our studies will be the first to explore human Th2 cytokine regulation in vivo and will identify novel rational targets for effective treatments of allergic disease. ..
- Early Environmental Hygiene and Pediatric AsthmaChristine C Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2009..If factors associated with animal or endotoxin contact are related to asthma risk, such factors would likely lend themselves to public health interventions. ..
- Type 1 Diabetes Mouse Resource (T1DR)David V Serreze; Fiscal Year: 2012..The mission of the T1DR is to import, re-derive to a high-level health status, curate, genotypically and phenotypically validate, cryopreserve, and distribute mouse stocks of value to the T1D research community. ..
- A role for miRNAs in adenosine-dependent alternative macrophage activationSamuel Joseph Leibovich; Fiscal Year: 2013..These studies should provide novel insights into differential gene regulation in macrophages under conditions that induce "M2d" activation. ..
- New players in immune function: identification through RNAi and micro-RNA screensAnjana Rao; Fiscal Year: 2010..This important resource would be broadly available to the general scientific community. ..
- Involvement of Natural Killer T cells in Hepatic FibrogenesisIan N Hines; Fiscal Year: 2011..Together, these studies will provide new insight into the mechanisms of T cell-mediated hepatic fibrosis. ..
- Black carbon exposure, DNA methylation, airway inflammation in pediatric asthmaRachel L Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013..A greater understanding of the role of ambient BC, nickel and vanadium in inner city asthma exacerbations will stimulate focused intervention to reduce disease among older children. ..
- Manipulating Macrophage Phenotype in Laryngeal Nerve RepairJonathan Cheetham; Fiscal Year: 2013..This team will support me in this proposal and through my transition to independence. ..
- Mouse models for the functional analysis of asthma-associated human polymorphismsDonata Vercelli; Fiscal Year: 2009....
- Diet, Activity, and Lifestyle as a Risk Factor for Colorectal CancerMartha L Slattery; Fiscal Year: 2012..Identification of polymorphisms or haplotypes that are relevant to colorectal cancer will advance our understanding of etiology, may lead to specific health recommendations, and can identify targets for drug therapy. ..
- Vaccination with IL-15 DC to Generate Melanoma-specific Protective Memory T CellsAnna Karolina Palucka; Fiscal Year: 2013..Current therapies have the potential to improve outcome in a fraction of patients but are associated with considerable toxicity. Vaccination with melanoma antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) could improve outcomes without toxicity. ..
- Study of gamma interferon agonists/mimeticsHoward M Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2012..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVENCE: Our interferon mimetic is a novel therapeutic for treating viral and other infectious diseases. The SOCS-1 antagonist should provide a new paradigm to boosting the immune system against infections and cancer. ..
- HIMF/FIZZ1/RELM-alpha activates macrophages in pulmonary hypertensionLucas Meuchel; Fiscal Year: 2013..As such, we hope to more fully understand the initiating events in PH with the goal of translating these results to treatment and diagnosis of human pulmonary hypertension. ..
- IL-4 Signal TransductionJOHN D COLGAN; Fiscal Year: 2013..Our application proposes to study the role of one Interleukin-4 -inducible gene, called NFIL3 gene, that appears to be essential for allergic immune responses in mice. ..
- Transcriptional Control of Macrophage in AtherogenesisAjay Chawla; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- Enhancing T Cell Therapy of CancerCliona M Rooney; Fiscal Year: 2013..This series of iterative laboratory and linked clinical studies is expected to yield strategies with the potential to increase cure rates and reduce treatment-related toxicity in patients with a spectrum of resistant solid tumors. ..
- GM-CSF Regulation of Zinc in HistoplasmosisGeorge S Deepe; Fiscal Year: 2012..Killing of yeasts by stimulated macrophages is mediated by zinc starvation. We seek to determine how zinc depletion occurs so that these findings can offer new avenues for treatment of this fungus. ..
- Eosinophilic MyocarditisNoel R Rose; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- Sleeping Beauty Mediated Therapy for Alpha V Beta 6-Expressing Pancreatic CancerKendra A Hyland; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- Genotyping the NPF Biobank for Psoriasis Susceptibility GenesJAMES TILFORD ELDER; Fiscal Year: 2010..Its cause is not well understood. Identification of genes that increase risk of psoriasis will help us unlock the secrets of this troubling disease, and identify targets for more specific and effective therapy. ..
- Indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase signaling and function in Type 1 DiabetesSuparna Sarkar; Fiscal Year: 2009..1 (-methyl tryptophan (1 MT) and Interleukin 4 (IL 4) were able to inhibit the IDO specific activity in vitro...
- Epigenomics of T cells and innate immune cells in human asthmaPandurangan Vijayanand; Fiscal Year: 2013..They will have a broad impact on our understanding of asthma, and set an important precedent for investigating the role of epigenetic mechanisms in other immune-mediated disorders. ) ..
- INTERLEUKIN 4 REGULATION OF LYMPHOCYTESMark R Boothby; Fiscal Year: 2010..Lay Language Summary: The receptor for interleukin 4, IL-4R?, is the main signal relay leading to allergic diseases and asthma...
- Mechanisms of Virus-Induced Hyperreactivity in AtopicsDavid B Jacoby; Fiscal Year: 2010..In the course of these experiments, substances released by lung cells that contribute to asthma will be identified, and ways to block them will be tested. This will assist us in developing new treatments for asthma. ..
- The role of chemoattractant receptors in central nervous system diseasesPablo Iribarren; Fiscal Year: 2012..b>Interleukin 4 (IL-4) and other anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-13, differentially regulate microglial responses to ..
- Immunobiology of MINA53Mark Bix; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Type I Interferon-Regulated T Helper DevelopmentDavid Farrar; Fiscal Year: 2013..These studies will lay the groundwork for more effective and long-lasting treatment for allergy and asthma. ..
- Neuron - glial communication and brain agingPaula C Bickford; Fiscal Year: 2013..that underly changes in brain aging that make the brain more suceptible to disease is critical and can lead to new approacfies to reduce the incidence or severity of neurodegenerative diseases and declines in cognitive function with age..
- Biological Strategies to Mitigate the Adverse Effects of Polymeric Wear ParticlesStuart B Goodman; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- Blocking TLR-Activation of Regulatory T cells Slows Disease in ALSStanley H Appel; Fiscal Year: 2013..These experiments will lead to the identification of the most effective human TLR2 siRNAs and treatment protocols which can be directly translated to ALS patients. ..
- Duox2 Modulation of Viral Infection in Airway EpitheliumRichart W Harper; Fiscal Year: 2012..These studies will potentially elucidate specific mechanisms that are impaired in asthmatic patients. ..
- Mechanisms of fibrosis and lymphatic dysfunction in post-surgical lymphedemaBABAK MEHRARA MEHRARA; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- MODEL SYSTEMS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF PAIN GENE THERAPYJoseph C Glorioso; Fiscal Year: 2010..We believe this to be a timely and highly innovative proposal which is likely to provide new approaches to treatment of chronic pain related to diabetes and inflammation. ..
- Modulation of the Immune System to Improve Ligament/Ligament Graft HealingRay Vanderby; Fiscal Year: 2013..Each one of these would be of great significance and each would have much broader applications than those explored herein. ..
- Genetic Risk Factors for Visceral LeishmaniasisMary E Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2013..The study could seed novel functional studies that could translate into future disease intervention measures. ..
- Treatment of secondary injury after ischemic stroke through targeting microgliaJaroslaw A Aronowski; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- Cytokine regulation of human basophil responsesElia D Tait Wojno; Fiscal Year: 2013..Collectively, these studies will utilize novel models and approaches, in conjunction with cutting-edge studies in human patients, to investigate the innate mechanisms that control allergic inflammation in humans. ..
- The Role of Interleukin-4 (IL-4) in the Pathogenesis of Non-Hodgkin's LymphomaJAMES LOUIS RUBENSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2013..These studies may lead to the development of new therapies which modulate macrophage programming and potentiate their anti-tumor potency. ..
- Epithelial IL4Ralpha Regulates Colon Tumor ProgressionBarbara Fingleton; Fiscal Year: 2013..Ultimately, this will lead to better therapy options for patients with metastatic colon cancer. ..
- Gene Responses in Basophil-Mediated Allergic ResponsesHua Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This proposal aims to study how a regulatory network, consisting of STAT5, GATA2 and C/EBP1, regulates novel basophil functions during allergic immune responses. ..
- Mouse models for the functional analysis of asthma-associated human polymorphismsDonata Vercelli; Fiscal Year: 2011..abstract_text> ..
- MAST CELL MEMBRANE GLYCOLIPID EXPRESSION AND FUNCTIONMichael Raizman; Fiscal Year: 1991..culture-derived mast cells maintained in interleukin 3 with or without an additional proliferative signal from interleukin 4, in culture- derived mast cells further differentiated in vitro by co-culture with fibroblasts, and in ..
- Biomarkers of survival in glioma epidemiologyJohn K Wiencke; Fiscal Year: 2013..abstract_text> ..
- Resolving Biomaterial Inflammatory Response by Controlling Macrophage PhenotypeJames D Bryers; Fiscal Year: 2010..abstract_text> ..
- TH1 CYTOKINES AND IMPAIRED CD8* CTLS IN ELDERLYInnocent Mbawuike; Fiscal Year: 2001..interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interleukin 12 (IL-12), favor the induction of CD8+ CTLs while Th2 cytokines, such as interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) inhibit them...
- Role of p38 MAPK in IL-4-induced IL-6 expression in vascular endotheliumYongwoo Lee; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Control of Immune Cell SialylationKENTON MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2007..of the 5'UTR sequence X1, arising from use of the ST6Gal I P2a promoter, is increased in response to interleukin 4 receptor (IL-4R) signaling and is at least partially dependent on STAT6, while the 5'UTR sequence Q-O, ..
- Anti-inflammatory regulation of beta-amyloidosisTsuneya Ikezu; Fiscal Year: 2010..These approaches may have therapeutic implication for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. ..
- Role of Mina53 in Effector CD4 T Cell DifferentiationMark Bix; Fiscal Year: 2010..investigating: (1) how Mina53 regulates IL4 expression;(2) how Mina53 gene expression is regulated;(3) what are the relative contributions to Th2-bias of Mina53 activity in progenitor T helper cells and dendritic cells? ..
- INDUCTION OF IG C EPSILON & C GAMMA 1 BY IL4 & CD40LJanet Stavnezer; Fiscal Year: 2002..We will determine if it is the differential arrangement and/or different binding proteins at the b-Zip element which regulates their different responses to IL-4 and B cell activators. ..
- ETOH A COFACTOR IN AIDS--MODULATION OF TH1 AND TH2 CELLSShirish Barve; Fiscal Year: 1999..In mice, EtOH causes depletion and oxidative stress sensitive transcription factors NF-kB and AP-1, in the development and/or activation of Th1 and Th2 responses in normal and MAIDS infected mice. ..
- LEUKOCYTES AND PATIENTS WITH VENOUS STASIS ULCERSPeter Pappas; Fiscal Year: 1999..If insufficient quantities of leukocytes are harvested from venous ulcers, cytokine mRNA amplification with RT-PCR will be utilized. Transcriptional regulation will be determined using nuclear run-off assays. ..
- IL-13 Fusion Cytotoxin as a Targeted Therapeutic for IIPCory Hogaboam; Fiscal Year: 2006..The proposed studies will critically evaluate a pathophysiologic paradigm in IIP that has not been thoroughly examined to date. ..
- CHARACTERIZATION/MODULATION OF CYTOKINE RESPONSES IN FIVGregg Dean; Fiscal Year: 2001..Understanding the role of the cytokines in the pathogenesis, therapy, and vaccination in FIV infection will have direct implications for HIV infection. ..
- PINWORM: A SELF TOLERANCE AND AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE MODIFIEKenneth Tung; Fiscal Year: 2001..In summary, with this hypothesis-driven proposal, we will explore a common and natural infectious agent and its capacity to terminate self tolerance and provoke autoimmune disease in neonatal mice. ..
- ONTOGENY OF INTERFERON-GAMMA & INTERLEUKIN-4 PRODUCTIONDavid Lewis; Fiscal Year: 1992..This knowledge will allow a better assessment of the therapeutic potential of these proteins in treating the immunologically immature host...
- IMMUNOREGULATION BY SOLUBLE INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTORSGABINO FERNANDEZ BOTRAN; Fiscal Year: 1999..Finally, this investigation should also contribute to our understanding of role of other sCR in the immune system. ..
- INTERLEUKIN 4 REGULATION OF LYMPHOCYTESMark Boothby; Fiscal Year: 2004..Taken together, the experiments of these Specific Aims will provide new insights into the regulation of the effector and memory-phenotype Th2 subsets. ..
- LEISHMANIA INFECTION IN BALB/C IL4 NEG AND IL4R NEG MICENancy Noben Trauth; Fiscal Year: 2002..major parasites and will offer alternative theories to the Th1/Th2 paradigm in general. These studies also will lead to new interpretations of the action of anti-IL-4 treatment in vivo. ..