virulence factors


Summary: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Pathogenic Escherichia coli
    James B Kaper
    Center for Vaccine Development, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 2:123-40. 2004
  2. ncbi The role of Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factors in host respiratory colonization and disease
    Aras Kadioglu
    Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN, United Kingdom
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:288-301. 2008
  3. pmc VFDB 2012 update: toward the genetic diversity and molecular evolution of bacterial virulence factors
    Lihong Chen
    State Key Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Genetic Engineering, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100176, China
    Nucleic Acids Res 40:D641-5. 2012
  4. ncbi A signaling network reciprocally regulates genes associated with acute infection and chronic persistence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Andrew L Goodman
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Dev Cell 7:745-54. 2004
  5. ncbi An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile
    L Clifford McDonald
    Epidemiology and Laboratory Branch, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:2433-41. 2005
  6. ncbi Regulatory RNA in bacterial pathogens
    Kai Papenfort
    RNA Biology Group, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Chariteplatz 1, D 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Cell Host Microbe 8:116-27. 2010
  7. pmc Dynamic evolution of pathogenicity revealed by sequencing and comparative genomics of 19 Pseudomonas syringae isolates
    David A Baltrus
    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002132. 2011
  8. ncbi Targeting virulence: a new paradigm for antimicrobial therapy
    Anne E Clatworthy
    Department of Molecular Biology and Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 185 Cambridge St, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Nat Chem Biol 3:541-8. 2007
  9. ncbi The type VI secretion system: translocation of effectors and effector-domains
    Stefan Pukatzki
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, 1 63 Medical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H7, Canada
    Curr Opin Microbiol 12:11-7. 2009
  10. pmc Salmonella takes control: effector-driven manipulation of the host
    Emma J McGhie
    University of Cambridge, Department of Pathology, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
    Curr Opin Microbiol 12:117-24. 2009

Detail Information

Publications320 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Pathogenic Escherichia coli
    James B Kaper
    Center for Vaccine Development, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 2:123-40. 2004
    ..Several different E. coli strains cause diverse intestinal and extraintestinal diseases by means of virulence factors that affect a wide range of cellular processes.
  2. ncbi The role of Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factors in host respiratory colonization and disease
    Aras Kadioglu
    Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN, United Kingdom
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:288-301. 2008
    ..In this Review, we describe how S. pneumoniae uses its armamentarium of virulence factors to colonize the upper and lower respiratory tracts of the host and cause disease.
  3. pmc VFDB 2012 update: toward the genetic diversity and molecular evolution of bacterial virulence factors
    Lihong Chen
    State Key Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Genetic Engineering, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100176, China
    Nucleic Acids Res 40:D641-5. 2012 has served as a comprehensive repository of bacterial virulence factors (VFs) for >7 years...
  4. ncbi A signaling network reciprocally regulates genes associated with acute infection and chronic persistence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Andrew L Goodman
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Dev Cell 7:745-54. 2004
    ..profiling indicates that the retS gene is required for expression of the Type III secretion system and other virulence factors and for repression of genes responsible for exopolysaccharide components of the P. aeruginosa biofilm matrix...
  5. ncbi An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile
    L Clifford McDonald
    Epidemiology and Laboratory Branch, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:2433-41. 2005
    ..difficile with increased virulence, resistance, or both...
  6. ncbi Regulatory RNA in bacterial pathogens
    Kai Papenfort
    RNA Biology Group, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Chariteplatz 1, D 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Cell Host Microbe 8:116-27. 2010
    ..This review covers the versatile regulatory RNA mechanisms employed by bacterial pathogens and highlights the dynamic interplay between riboregulation and virulence factor expression...
  7. pmc Dynamic evolution of pathogenicity revealed by sequencing and comparative genomics of 19 Pseudomonas syringae isolates
    David A Baltrus
    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002132. 2011 pathways affecting the synthesis of secreted phytotoxins, highlighting the likely role of both types of virulence factors in determination of host range...
  8. ncbi Targeting virulence: a new paradigm for antimicrobial therapy
    Anne E Clatworthy
    Department of Molecular Biology and Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 185 Cambridge St, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Nat Chem Biol 3:541-8. 2007
    ..conventional antibiotics, an alternative approach is to target functions essential for infection, such as virulence factors required to cause host damage and disease...
  9. ncbi The type VI secretion system: translocation of effectors and effector-domains
    Stefan Pukatzki
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, 1 63 Medical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H7, Canada
    Curr Opin Microbiol 12:11-7. 2009
    ..Interestingly, a number of VgrGs contain C-terminal extensions with effector-domains. Thus, the T6SS may translocate soluble effectors, as well as VgrG effector-domains...
  10. pmc Salmonella takes control: effector-driven manipulation of the host
    Emma J McGhie
    University of Cambridge, Department of Pathology, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
    Curr Opin Microbiol 12:117-24. 2009
    ..This review focuses on the actions of the effectors on their host cell targets during each stage of Salmonella infection...
  11. pmc Identification of catechin as one of the flavonoids from Combretum albiflorum bark extract that reduces the production of quorum-sensing-controlled virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1
    Olivier M Vandeputte
    Plant Biotechnology Unit, BioVallée, 8 rue Adrienne Bolland, B 6041 Gosselies, Belgium
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:243-53. 2010
    Quorum-sensing (QS) regulates the production of key virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other important pathogenic bacteria. In this report, extracts of leaves and bark of Combretum albiflorum (Tul...
  12. ncbi Virulence factors involved in the pathogenesis of the infection caused by the swine pathogen and zoonotic agent Streptococcus suis
    Nahuel Fittipaldi
    Groupe de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses du Porc and Centre de Recherche en Infectiologie Porcine, Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire, Universite de Montreal, 3200 rue Sicotte, CP5000, St Hyacinthe, Quebec, J2S 7C6, Canada
    Future Microbiol 7:259-79. 2012
    ..few years, as a direct consequence of these intensified research efforts, large amounts of data on putative virulence factors have appeared in the literature...
  13. ncbi Virulence factors of Yersinia pestis are overcome by a strong lipopolysaccharide response
    Sara W Montminy
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
    Nat Immunol 7:1066-73. 2006
    ..pestis virulence. Evading TLR4 activation by lipid A alteration may contribute to the virulence of various Gram-negative bacteria...
  14. ncbi Fungal effector proteins
    Ioannis Stergiopoulos
    Wageningen University and Research Center http www php wur nl uk, Laboratory of Phytopathology, 6709 PD Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Annu Rev Phytopathol 47:233-63. 2009
    It is accepted that most fungal avirulence genes encode virulence factors that are called effectors...
  15. ncbi In vivo expression technology identifies a type VI secretion system locus in Burkholderia pseudomallei that is induced upon invasion of macrophages
    Gil Shalom
    Unit of Infection and Immunity, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX, UK
    Microbiology 153:2689-99. 2007
    ..3 % of the total genome size. The presence of six type VI secretion systems in this organism is likely to be an important factor in making this bacterium such a versatile pathogen...
  16. pmc VFDB 2008 release: an enhanced web-based resource for comparative pathogenomics
    Jian Yang
    State Key Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Genetic Engineering, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100176, China
    Nucleic Acids Res 36:D539-42. 2008
    Virulence factor database (VFDB) was set up in 2004 dedicated for providing current knowledge of virulence factors (VFs) from various medical significant bacterial pathogens to facilitate pathogenomic research...
  17. pmc The cluster 1 type VI secretion system is a major virulence determinant in Burkholderia pseudomallei
    Mary N Burtnick
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama 36688, USA
    Infect Immun 79:1512-25. 2011
    ..7 macrophages 18 h after infection. The results suggest that the cluster 1 T6SS is essential for virulence and plays an important role in the intracellular lifestyle of B. pseudomallei...
  18. pmc Translocation of a Vibrio cholerae type VI secretion effector requires bacterial endocytosis by host cells
    Amy T Ma
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 5:234-43. 2009
  19. ncbi ESX/type VII secretion systems and their role in host-pathogen interaction
    Roxane Simeone
    Institut Pasteur, UP Pathogénomique Mycobactérienne Intégrée, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris, France
    Curr Opin Microbiol 12:4-10. 2009
    ..cell mediated immune response, are apparently involved in membrane and/or host-cell lysis and represent key virulence factors. There are four other paralogous ESX systems in M...
  20. pmc Virulence and immunomodulatory roles of bacterial outer membrane vesicles
    Terri N Ellis
    Box 3711, Biochemistry Department, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 74:81-94. 2010
    ..A growing body of data demonstrates an association of active virulence factors and toxins with vesicles, suggesting that they play a role in pathogenesis...
  21. pmc A new influenza virus virulence determinant: the NS1 protein four C-terminal residues modulate pathogenicity
    David Jackson
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4381-6. 2008
    ..The increase in pathogenicity was not caused by the overproduction of IFN, suggesting the NS1 protein C terminus may interact with PDZ-binding protein(s) and modulate pathogenicity through alternative mechanisms...
  22. ncbi Haploid genetic screens in human cells identify host factors used by pathogens
    Jan E Carette
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Science 326:1231-5. 2009
    ..This approach has both conceptual and practical parallels with genetic approaches in haploid yeast...
  23. ncbi Basis of virulence in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Michael Otto
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 64:143-62. 2010
    ..All these toxins impact disease progression in animal models of USA300 infection. In contrast, the basis of virulence in other CA-MRSA epidemics, which also include PVL-negative strains, is poorly understood...
  24. ncbi Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli from retail chicken meat and humans: comparison of strains, plasmids, resistance genes, and virulence factors
    Jan A J W Kluytmans
    Laboratory for Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, Amphia Hospital, Breda, The Netherlands
    Clin Infect Dis 56:478-87. 2013
    ..Now, we have extended the analysis with plasmid replicons, virulence factors, and highly discriminatory genomic profiling methods.
  25. pmc The type III secretion system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: infection by injection
    Alan R Hauser
    Departments of MicrobiologyImmunology and Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 7:654-65. 2009
    ..The features of this interesting secretion system have important implications for the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa infections and for other type III secretion systems...
  26. pmc Virulence factors of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex
    Marina A Forrellad
    Instituto de Biotecnologia, CICVyA INTA, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Virulence 4:3-66. 2013
    ..A large number of different virulence factors have evolved in MTBC members as a response to the host immune reaction...
  27. ncbi Application of Spiroplasma melliferum proteogenomic profiling for the discovery of virulence factors and pathogenicity mechanisms in host-associated spiroplasmas
    Dmitry Alexeev
    Russian Institute of Physico Chemical Medicine, Malaya Pirogovskaya 1A, Moscow, Russian Federation
    J Proteome Res 11:224-36. 2012
    ..A systems approach allowed us to elucidate putative pathogenicity mechanisms and to discover major virulence factors, such as Chitinase utilization enzymes and toxins never before reported for insect pathogenic spiroplasmas.
  28. ncbi The type VI secretion system: a multipurpose delivery system with a phage-like machinery
    Angela R Records
    Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 24:751-7. 2011
    ..Special attention is paid to research addressing the T6SS of plant-associated bacteria, including pathogens, symbionts and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria...
  29. pmc Comparative analysis of USA300 virulence determinants in a rabbit model of skin and soft tissue infection
    Scott D Kobayashi
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, and Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 204:937-41. 2011
    ..The data indicate that Hla, PSMα, and Agr contribute to the pathogenesis of USA300 skin infections in rabbits, whereas a role for PVL could not be detected...
  30. pmc Remodelling of VipA/VipB tubules by ClpV-mediated threading is crucial for type VI protein secretion
    Gabriele Bönemann
    Zentrum für Molekulare Biologie Heidelberg, DKFZ ZMBH Alliance, Universitat Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    EMBO J 28:315-25. 2009
    ..ClpV-mediated remodelling of VipA/VipB tubules represents a crucial step in T6S, illuminating an unexpected role of an ATPase component in protein secretion...
  31. ncbi Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: an overview
    C L Gyles
    Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1G 2W1
    J Anim Sci 85:E45-62. 2007
    ..In addition to these genes that are clearly implicated in virulence, there are several putative virulence factors. A major public health goal is to prevent STEC-induced disease in humans...
  32. pmc Bacterial effectors target the common signaling partner BAK1 to disrupt multiple MAMP receptor-signaling complexes and impede plant immunity
    Libo Shan
    Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 4:17-27. 2008
    ..These findings uncover a unique strategy of bacterial pathogenesis where virulence effectors block signal transmission through a key common component of multiple MAMP-receptor complexes...
  33. pmc Brucella evades macrophage killing via VirB-dependent sustained interactions with the endoplasmic reticulum
    Jean Celli
    Centre d Immunologie INSERM CNRS Université Mediterranée de Marseille Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France
    J Exp Med 198:545-56. 2003
    ..Moreover, we assign an intracellular function to the VirB system, as being required for late maturation events necessary for the biogenesis of an ER-derived replicative organelle...
  34. ncbi Comparison of virulence in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pulsotypes USA300 and USA400 in a rat model of pneumonia
    Christopher P Montgomery
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    J Infect Dis 198:561-70. 2008
    ..The explanation for this shift is unclear. We hypothesized that USA300 must be more pathogenic--specifically, that USA300 would have increased virulence when compared with USA400 in an animal model...
  35. pmc The type VI secretion toolkit
    Eric Cascales
    Laboratoire d Ingenierie des Systemes Macromoleculaires, IBSM, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marseille, France
    EMBO Rep 9:735-41. 2008
    Bacterial secretion systems are macromolecular complexes that release virulence factors into the medium or translocate them into the target host cell...
  36. ncbi Microarray based study on virulence-associated genes and resistance determinants of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cattle
    Stefan Monecke
    Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine, Carl Gustav Carus at the Technical University of Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, D 01307, Dresden, Germany
    Vet Microbiol 125:128-40. 2007
    ..The presence of these two strains highlights the possibility of transfers of S. aureus strains between different host species...
  37. ncbi Carbon metabolism of intracellular bacterial pathogens and possible links to virulence
    Wolfgang Eisenreich
    Lehrstuhl für Biochemie, Technische Universitat Munchen, D 85747 Garching, Germany
    Nat Rev Microbiol 8:401-12. 2010
    ..Furthermore, we highlight the possible links between intracellular carbon metabolism and the expression of virulence genes...
  38. ncbi Molecular mechanisms of Escherichia coli pathogenicity
    Matthew A Croxen
    Michael Smith Laboratories, The University of British Columbia, 301 2185 East Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Nat Rev Microbiol 8:26-38. 2010
    ..Eight E. coli pathovars have been well characterized, and each uses a large arsenal of virulence factors to subvert host cellular functions to potentiate its virulence...
  39. pmc Salmonella--the ultimate insider. Salmonella virulence factors that modulate intracellular survival
    J Antonio Ibarra
    Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites, NIAID, NIH, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, MT, USA
    Cell Microbiol 11:1579-86. 2009
    ..However, other virulence factors including ion transporters, superoxide dismutase, flagella and fimbriae are also involved in accessing and ..
  40. pmc Common themes in the design and function of bacterial effectors
    Jorge E Galan
    Section of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06536, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 5:571-9. 2009
  41. pmc Legionella pneumophila pangenome reveals strain-specific virulence factors
    Giuseppe D'Auria
    CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Barcelona, Spain
    BMC Genomics 11:181. 2010
    ..The strain "Alcoy 2300/99" is a particularly persistent and recurrent strain that was isolated during one of the most significant outbreaks between the years 1999-2000...
  42. pmc LaeA, a regulator of morphogenetic fungal virulence factors
    Jin Woo Bok
    University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 4:1574-82. 2005
    ..patients, causes the majority of human infections; however, an inability to identify bona fide virulence factors has impeded therapeutic advances. We show that an A...
  43. pmc Temperature regulation of virulence factors in the pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus
    Nikole E Kimes
    Belle W Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, University of South Carolina, Georgetown, SC 29442, USA
    ISME J 6:835-46. 2012
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate direct temperature regulation of numerous virulence factors using proteomic analysis and bioassays...
  44. pmc Virulence factors of the oral spirochete Treponema denticola
    S G Dashper
    Cooperative Research Centre for Oral Health, Melbourne Dental School and Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, 720 Swanston Street, Victoria 3010, Australia
    J Dent Res 90:691-703. 2011
    ..Recent advances, especially in molecular-based methodologies, have greatly improved our knowledge of this bacterium and its role in disease...
  45. ncbi Regulation and secretion of Xanthomonas virulence factors
    Daniela Büttner
    Genetics Department, Institute of Biology, Martin Luther University Halle Wittenberg, Halle Saale, Germany
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 34:107-33. 2010
    ..Successful infection and bacterial multiplication in the host tissue often depend on the virulence factors secreted including adhesins, polysaccharides, LPS and degradative enzymes...
  46. pmc TAL effectors: highly adaptable phytobacterial virulence factors and readily engineered DNA-targeting proteins
    Erin L Doyle
    Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Iowa State University, 351 Bessey Hall, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Trends Cell Biol 23:390-8. 2013
    ..They function as virulence factors by activating host genes important for disease, or as avirulence factors by turning on genes that provide ..
  47. pmc Molecular pathogenesis of Shigella spp.: controlling host cell signaling, invasion, and death by type III secretion
    Gunnar N Schroeder
    ETH Zurich, Institute of Microbiology, Wolfgang Pauli Strasse 10, HCI G405, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
    Clin Microbiol Rev 21:134-56. 2008
    ..An understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying Shigella pathogenesis will foster the development of a safe and efficient vaccine, which, in parallel with improved hygiene, should curb infections by this widespread pathogen...
  48. pmc Discovery of novel secreted virulence factors from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by proteomic analysis of culture supernatants
    George S Niemann
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 S W Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97201, USA
    Infect Immun 79:33-43. 2011
    ..secretion systems (TTSS) encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) that deliver virulence factors (effectors) to the host cell cytoplasm and are required for virulence...
  49. ncbi Protein secretion systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A wealth of pathogenic weapons
    Sophie Bleves
    CNRS, Aix Marseille Universite, Institut de Microbiologie de la Mediterranee, France
    Int J Med Microbiol 300:534-43. 2010
    ..Unfortunately, they can cope with it and have evolved a number of complex secretion systems, which direct virulence factors either at the bacterial cell surface into the environmental extracellular milieu or into the host cell ..
  50. pmc Multiple sensors control reciprocal expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa regulatory RNA and virulence genes
    Isabelle Ventre
    Laboratoire d Ingenierie des Systemes Macromoleculaires, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Biologie Structurale et Microbiologie, Unite Propre de Recherche 9027, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:171-6. 2006
  51. pmc Expanding the known repertoire of virulence factors produced by Bacillus cereus through early secretome profiling in three redox conditions
    Gérémy Clair
    UMR408, Universite d Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, F 84000 Avignon, France
    Mol Cell Proteomics 9:1486-98. 2010
    ..A unique pattern of proteins assigned to virulence factors was revealed. Among the 57 virulence-related factors, 31 were found for the first time in the B...
  52. pmc The cost of virulence: retarded growth of Salmonella Typhimurium cells expressing type III secretion system 1
    Alexander Sturm
    Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002143. 2011
    b>Virulence factors generally enhance a pathogen's fitness and thereby foster transmission. However, most studies of pathogen fitness have been performed by averaging the phenotypes over large populations...
  53. pmc Origins and virulence mechanisms of uropathogenic Escherichia coli
    Travis J Wiles
    Division of Cell Biology and Immunology, Pathology Department, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 0565, USA
    Exp Mol Pathol 85:11-9. 2008
    ..These bacteria have evolved a multitude of virulence factors and strategies that facilitate bacterial growth and persistence within the adverse settings of the host ..
  54. pmc Genome-wide screen for Salmonella genes required for long-term systemic infection of the mouse
    Trevor D Lawley
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    PLoS Pathog 2:e11. 2006 indicate that Salmonella long-term systemic infection in the mouse requires a diverse repertoire of virulence factors. This diversity of genes presumably reflects the fact that bacteria sequentially encounter a variety of host ..
  55. pmc Comparative analysis of virulence and toxin expression of global community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains
    Min Li
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai 200040, People s Republic of China
    J Infect Dis 202:1866-76. 2010
    ..Our study indicates a major but not exclusive impact of virulence on the epidemiological success of USA300 and other CA-MRSA strains and emphasizes the importance of core genome-encoded toxins in CA-MRSA skin infections...
  56. pmc Long-distance delivery of bacterial virulence factors by Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane vesicles
    Jennifer M Bomberger
    Department of Physiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000382. 2009
    Bacteria use a variety of secreted virulence factors to manipulate host cells, thereby causing significant morbidity and mortality...
  57. pmc VFDB: a reference database for bacterial virulence factors
    Lihong Chen
    State Key Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Genetic Engineering, Beijing 100052, China
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:D325-8. 2005
    ..To facilitate future research, it becomes necessary to form a database collectively presenting the virulence factors (VFs) of various medical significant bacterial pathogens...
  58. pmc Role of RpoS in virulence of pathogens
    Tao Dong
    McMaster University, Department of Biology, Life Sciences Building, Rm 433, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada
    Infect Immun 78:887-97. 2010
    ..that requires the participation of global regulators to coordinate expression of not only genes coding for virulence factors but also those involved in other physiological processes, such as stress response and metabolic flux, to ..
  59. ncbi Defining virulence genes in the dimorphic fungi
    Chad A Rappleye
    Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 60:281-303. 2006
    ..Gene disruptions and RNA interference have now formally demonstrated the involvement of six virulence factors: CBP, alpha-(1,3)-glucan, BAD1, SOWgp, Mep1, and urease...
  60. pmc Plasmodium falciparum heterochromatin protein 1 marks genomic loci linked to phenotypic variation of exported virulence factors
    Christian Flueck
    Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical Institute, Basle, Switzerland
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000569. 2009
    ..In summary, we identify PfHP1 as a major effector of virulence gene silencing and phenotypic variation. Our results are instrumental for our understanding of this widely used survival strategy in unicellular pathogens...
  61. pmc Small RNAs encoded within genetic islands of Salmonella typhimurium show host-induced expression and role in virulence
    Gilly Padalon-Brauch
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Biotechnology, The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, 91120, Jerusalem, Israel
    Nucleic Acids Res 36:1913-27. 2008
    ..Our study suggests that the island encoded sRNA genes play an important role within the network that regulates bacterial adaptation to environmental changes and stress conditions and thus controls virulence...
  62. ncbi A specific genetic background is required for acquisition and expression of virulence factors in Escherichia coli
    Patricia Escobar-Paramo
    INSERM E0339, Faculte de Medecine Xavier Bichat, Paris, France
    Mol Biol Evol 21:1085-94. 2004
    In bacteria, the evolution of pathogenicity seems to be the result of the constant arrival of virulence factors (VFs) into the bacterial genome...
  63. pmc The Pic protease of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli promotes intestinal colonization and growth in the presence of mucin
    Susan M Harrington
    Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Infect Immun 77:2465-73. 2009
    ..mutants in competition with the wild-type strain, we evaluated the contribution of several putative EAEC virulence factors to colonization of streptomycin-treated mice...
  64. ncbi Extending the host range of Listeria monocytogenes by rational protein design
    Thomas Wollert
    Molecular Host Pathogen Interactions, Division of Structural Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Inhoffenstr 7, D 38124 Braunschweig, Germany
    Cell 129:891-902. 2007
    ..By rationally adapting a single protein, we thus create a versatile murine model of human listeriosis...
  65. ncbi Revisiting the quorum-sensing hierarchy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: the transcriptional regulator RhlR regulates LasR-specific factors
    Valérie Dekimpe
    INRS Institut Armand Frappier, Laval, Quebec H7V 1B7, Canada
    Microbiology 155:712-23. 2009
    ..the two major quorum-sensing (QS) regulatory systems las and rhl to modulate the expression of many of its virulence factors. The las system is considered to stand at the top of the QS hierarchy...
  66. ncbi Type II secretion: a protein secretion system for all seasons
    Nicholas P Cianciotto
    Department of Microbiology Immunology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Trends Microbiol 13:581-8. 2005
    ..Thus, it is an opportune time to highlight the new and different ways in which T2S serves bacterial function...
  67. pmc In search of Brucella abortus type IV secretion substrates: screening and identification of four proteins translocated into host cells through VirB system
    Maria Ines Marchesini
    Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas Instituto Tecnológico de Chascomús, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Cell Microbiol 13:1261-74. 2011
    ..We confirmed VirB-mediated translocation of one of the substrates by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, and we found that the N-terminal 25 amino acids are required for its delivery into cells...
  68. pmc Large-scale screening of a targeted Enterococcus faecalis mutant library identifies envelope fitness factors
    Lionel Rigottier-Gois
    INRA, UMR1319 MICALIS, Jouy en Josas, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e29023. 2011
    ..Their predicted functions highlight the importance of cell envelope glycopolymers in E. faecalis host adaptation. This study provides a valuable genetic database for understanding the steps leading E. faecalis to opportunistic virulence...
  69. pmc Genetic analysis of anti-amoebae and anti-bacterial activities of the type VI secretion system in Vibrio cholerae
    Jun Zheng
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e23876. 2011
    ..Our results provide new insights into the functional requirements of V. cholerae's T6SS in the context of secretion as well as killing of bacterial and eukaryotic phagocytic cells...
  70. ncbi Virulence factors and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus from infection and carriage in Gabon
    F Schaumburg
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital Munster, Munster, Germany
    Clin Microbiol Infect 17:1507-13. 2011
    ..For these isolates, we determined major virulence factors, and performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing. Among 163 S...
  71. pmc The pangenome structure of Escherichia coli: comparative genomic analysis of E. coli commensal and pathogenic isolates
    David A Rasko
    Institute for Genome Sciences, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 20 Penn Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Bacteriol 190:6881-93. 2008
    ..model containing a reservoir of more than 13,000 genes, many of which may be uncharacterized but important virulence factors. This comparative study of the species E...
  72. ncbi The arsenal of virulence factors deployed by Listeria monocytogenes to promote its cell infection cycle
    Ana Camejo
    Group of Molecular Microbiology, IBMC Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
    Virulence 2:379-94. 2011
    ..Some virulence factors and modulators also assume an important role in bacterial resistance and evasion to host defense mechanisms...
  73. ncbi Antibiotic-induced SOS response promotes horizontal dissemination of pathogenicity island-encoded virulence factors in staphylococci
    Carles Ubeda
    Departamento de Quimica, Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Universidad Cardenal Herrera CEU, 46113 Moncada, Valencia, Spain
    Mol Microbiol 56:836-44. 2005
    ..suggesting that such antibiotics may have the unintended consequence of promoting the spread of bacterial virulence factors. Although the strains containing these prophages do not normally contain SaPIs, we have found that RF122-1, ..
  74. pmc The anti-sigma factor TcdC modulates hypervirulence in an epidemic BI/NAP1/027 clinical isolate of Clostridium difficile
    Glen P Carter
    Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002317. 2011
    ..These results have important implications for C. difficile pathogenesis and virulence since they suggest that strains carrying a similar mutation have the inherent potential to develop a hypervirulent phenotype...
  75. pmc Structural and functional characterization of diffusible signal factor family quorum-sensing signals produced by members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex
    Yinyue Deng
    Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore 138673, Republic of Singapore
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:4675-83. 2010
    ..molecule 11-Me-C(12):Delta(2,5) is a potent signal in the regulation of biofilm formation, the production of virulence factors, and the morphological transition of Candida albicans...
  76. pmc Manganese transporters Yfe and MntH are Fur-regulated and important for the virulence of Yersinia pestis
    Robert D Perry
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0298, USA
    Microbiology 158:804-15. 2012
    ..This suggests that Mn availability, bacterial Mn requirements or Mn transporters used by Y. pestis are different in the lungs (pneumonic plague) compared with systemic disease...
  77. pmc Growth of Acinetobacter baumannii in pellicle enhanced the expression of potential virulence factors
    Sara Marti
    Laboratoire Polymères Biopolymères Surfaces, UMR 6270 and FR 3038 CNRS, University of Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e26030. 2011
    ..This characteristic questions the contribution of this phenotype to an increased risk of clinical infections by this pathogen...
  78. pmc The tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate suppresses cariogenic virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans
    Xin Xu
    Department of Pediatric Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:1229-36. 2011
    Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of dental caries, possesses a series of virulence factors associated with its cariogenicity...
  79. pmc Type VI secretion: not just for pathogenesis anymore
    Andrea J Jani
    Biomolecular Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 8:2-6. 2010
  80. pmc Clonal complexes and virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus from several cities in India
    Srikanth Shambat
    Society for Innovation and Development, Department of Microbiology, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560012, India
    BMC Microbiol 12:64. 2012
    ..We performed molecular characterization of all the isolates to determine their lineage and microarray of select isolates from each sequence type to analyze their toxins, virulence and immune-evasion factors...
  81. ncbi The streptomycin mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea: functional analysis of the microbiota, the pathogen's virulence factors, and the host's mucosal immune response
    Patrick Kaiser
    Institute of Microbiology, D BIOL, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Immunol Rev 245:56-83. 2012
    ..Finally, we discuss the general need for defined assay conditions when using animal models for enteric infections and the central importance of littermate controls...
  82. ncbi Expression of δ-toxin by Staphylococcus aureus mediates escape from phago-endosomes of human epithelial and endothelial cells in the presence of β-toxin
    Bernd Giese
    FunGene Competence Center for Functional Genomics, Ernst Moritz Arndt University, F L Jahnstrasse 15, Greifswald, Germany
    Cell Microbiol 13:316-29. 2011
    ..Using a novel technique to detect vesicular escape of S. aureus, we identified staphylococcal virulence factors involved in phagosomal escape...
  83. pmc Gram-positive bacterial superantigen outside-in signaling causes toxic shock syndrome
    Amanda J Brosnahan
    Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, USA
    FEBS J 278:4649-67. 2011
    ..However, due to their abilities to secrete a variety of virulence factors, the organisms can also cause illnesses from the mucosa...
  84. pmc Bacterial nanomachines: the flagellum and type III injectisome
    Marc Erhardt
    Department of Biology, University of Fribourg, Fribourg 1700, Switzerland
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2:a000299. 2010
    ..are complex, structurally related nanomachines that bacteria use for locomotion or the translocation of virulence factors into eukaryotic host cells...
  85. pmc Tricarboxylic acid cycle-dependent attenuation of Staphylococcus aureus in vivo virulence by selective inhibition of amino acid transport
    Yefei Zhu
    Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska, 155 VBS, Fair St and East Campus Loop, Lincoln, NE 68583 0905, USA
    Infect Immun 77:4256-64. 2009
    ..These data confirm the close linkage of TCA cycle activity and virulence factor production and establish that this metabolic linkage can be manipulated to alter infectious outcomes...
  86. ncbi Self-destructive cooperation mediated by phenotypic noise
    Martin Ackermann
    Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 454:987-90. 2008
  87. pmc Transcriptional profiling of the iron starvation response in Bordetella pertussis provides new insights into siderophore utilization and virulence gene expression
    Timothy J Brickman
    Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Bacteriol 193:4798-812. 2011
    ..These results indicate that iron starvation in the infected host is an important environmental cue influencing not only Bordetella iron transport gene expression but also the expression of other important virulence-associated genes...
  88. pmc Molecular correlates of host specialization in Staphylococcus aureus
    Lisa Herron-Olson
    Department of Microbiology, Veterinary Pathobiology and Biomedical Genomics Center, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 2:e1120. 2007
    ..aureus clonal groups associated with human and ruminant infection. However, the molecular basis of host specialization in S. aureus is not understood...
  89. pmc Coordinated regulation of virulence during systemic infection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium
    Hyunjin Yoon
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000306. 2009
    ..regulatory model by expressing a subset of the regulators in trans and monitoring transcription of 7 known virulence factors located within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2)...
  90. ncbi Listeria monocytogenes, a unique model in infection biology: an overview
    Pascale Cossart
    Unité des Interactions Bactéries Cellules, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France
    Microbes Infect 10:1041-50. 2008
    ..Together, Listeria, after being recognized as a powerful tool in immunology, now appears as one of the most insightful models in infection biology...
  91. ncbi The SciZ protein anchors the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Type VI secretion system to the cell wall
    Marie Stéphanie Aschtgen
    Laboratoire d Ingenierie des Systemes Macromoleculaires, Institut de Microbiologie de la Mediterranee, Universite de la Mediterranee Aix Marseille II, CNRS UPR 9027, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20, France
    Mol Microbiol 75:886-99. 2010
    ..bacteria that associate with plant, animal and/or human cells, and therefore are considered as potential virulence factors. We recently launched a study on the Sci-1 T6SS of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC)...
  92. pmc NleH effectors interact with Bax inhibitor-1 to block apoptosis during enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection
    Cordula Hemrajani
    Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:3129-34. 2010
    ..Knockdown of BI-1 resulted in the loss of NleH's antiapoptotic activity. These results indicate that NleH effectors are inhibitors of apoptosis that may act through BI-1 to carry out their cytoprotective function...
  93. pmc Virulence factors of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae involved in colonization, persistence and induction of lesions in its porcine host
    Koen Chiers
    Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
    Vet Res 41:65. 2010
    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. The virulence factors of this microorganism involved in colonization and the induction of lung lesions have been thoroughly studied and some have been ..
  94. pmc HapX positively and negatively regulates the transcriptional response to iron deprivation in Cryptococcus neoformans
    Won Hee Jung
    Department of Biotechnology, Chung Ang University, Gyeonggi Do, Republic of Korea
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001209. 2010
    ..Cir1, is a major regulator both of the iron uptake functions needed for growth in host tissue and the key virulence factors such as capsule, melanin and growth at 37°C...
  95. ncbi Exploring the concordance of Aspergillus fumigatus pathogenicity in mice and Toll-deficient flies
    Georgios Chamilos
    The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Med Mycol 48:506-10. 2010
    ..Overall, our studies reveal a high level of concordance between fly and murine models of invasive aspergillosis...
  96. pmc At the crossroads of bacterial metabolism and virulence factor synthesis in Staphylococci
    Greg A Somerville
    Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583 0905, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 73:233-48. 2009
  97. ncbi Assignment of Staphylococcus aureus isolates to clonal complexes based on microarray analysis and pattern recognition
    Stefan Monecke
    Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 53:237-51. 2008
    ..alleles thereof, including species-specific controls, accessory gene regulator (agr) alleles, genes encoding virulence factors, and microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules, capsule type-specific genes, as ..
  98. pmc beta-lactam antibiotics induce the SOS response and horizontal transfer of virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus
    Elisa Maiques
    Departamento de Quimica, Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Universidad Cardenal Herrera CEU, 46113 Moncada, Valencia, Spain
    J Bacteriol 188:2726-9. 2006
    ..SOS response promotes replication and high-frequency horizontal transfer of pathogenicity island-encoded virulence factors. Here we report that beta-lactams induce a bona fide SOS response in S...
  99. pmc Targeting QseC signaling and virulence for antibiotic development
    David A Rasko
    Department of Microbiology, University of Texas UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Science 321:1078-80. 2008
    ..respond to host adrenergic signaling molecules and bacterial signals in order to promote the expression of virulence factors. Using a high-throughput screen, we identified a small molecule, LED209, that inhibits the binding of ..
  100. ncbi Role of type IV secretion in Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis
    Steffen Backert
    Otto von Guericke Universitat Magdeburg, Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Leipziger Strasse 44, D 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
    Cell Microbiol 10:1573-81. 2008
    ..This T4SS forms a pilus for the injection of virulence factors into host target cells such as the CagA oncoprotein...
  101. pmc Transcriptome analysis of Neisseria meningitidis in human whole blood and mutagenesis studies identify virulence factors involved in blood survival
    Hebert Echenique-Rivera
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Siena, Italy
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002027. 2011
    ..of transcriptional regulators, transport and binding proteins, energy metabolism, and surface-exposed virulence factors. In particular, we found that the gene encoding the regulator Fur, as well as all genes encoding iron uptake ..

Research Grants81

  1. Variation in M. tuberculosis in response to host selection
    Sarah Fortune; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In these studies, we expect to provide fundamental insights into the mechanisms and targets of diversifying immune selection in M. tuberculosis. ..
  2. Fatty acid related regulation of enteric infectious disease
    FREDRICK JON KULL; Fiscal Year: 2012 the host, environmental signals in the gut initiate a virulence gene cascade leading to the production of virulence factors. The expression of these virulence factors, many of which are toxins, effector molecules, and colonization ..
  3. A unique approach to identify markers for congenital syphilis and neurosyphilis
    Nikhat Parveen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..pallidum pathogenesis will help us achieve our objective to identify critical virulence factors of T. pallidum and determine their potential as diagnostic markers and novel vaccine candidates...
  4. Analysis of gene regulation of Vibrio cholerae during infection
    Jun Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Extensive in vitro studies have identified a number of virulence factors required to produce disease during infection. However, how V...
  5. Regulation of the Vibrio cholerae intestinal exit plan
    ANISIA J SILVA BENITEZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that overcome the gastric acid barrier swim toward and adhere to the intestinal mucosa and express major virulence factors such as the toxin co-regulated pilus and cholera toxin, which is largely responsible for the profuse rice-..
  6. Colitis Induced by immune responses to luminal bacteria-mouse
    Ryan B Sartor; Fiscal Year: 2012 cause colitis in monoassociated IL-10-/- mice correlate with the presence of several defined bacterial virulence factors. Hypothesis: Persistent exposure to invasive, translocating, intracellular commensal enteric bacteria ..
  7. Role of Vimentin in Pathogenesis of CNS Inflammation
    Sheng He Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The ibeA locus is able to modulate expression of several virulence factors (e.g., fim, ibeB, ompA and biofilm-associated genes) and predominantly contribute to E...
  8. Fic-mediated Adenylylation
    CAROLYN ANN WORBY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The COOH-terminus of IbpA is homologous to the Yersinia type III effector protein, YopT, one of several virulence factors used by Yersinia to compromise the host immune system...
  9. Delineation of the molecular mechanisms underlying group A Streptococcus virulenc
    Paul Sumby; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of GAS to cause such disease diversity is in part due to the coordinated expression of specific subsets of virulence factors. Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) represent a poorly understood area of regulation in GAS and related pathogens...
  10. Inhibitors of the Y. pestis cell surface plasminogen activator for biodefense
    Marjorie H Barnes; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This bacterium employs multiple non-redundant virulence factors to evade the innate immune system and the ensuing proinflammatory response in order to grow rapidly in the ..
  11. Studies on the virulence of Fillifactor alocis
    Hansel M Fletcher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In silico analysis revealed molecular relatedness of several virulence factors from F. alocis and P. gingivalis. F...
  12. Adherent Escherichia coli and associated virulence genes in children with IBD
    Sandra C Kim; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We also have shown that several bacterial virulence factors shared by uropathogenic E. coli strains are increased in our colitogenic NC101 E...
  13. Biosynthesis of Microbial Isoprenoids
    David E Cane; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Many terpenoids are known plant or fungal hormones, plant protectants, or microbial virulence factors. The ubiquitous volatile bacterial organics geosmin and methylisoborneol, which are responsible for the ..
    Yoshio Yamaoka; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..use human gastric cells and animal models to identify the molecular mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori virulence factors cause gastric inflammation and subsequent disease...
  15. Cyclic AMP Signaling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence
    Matthew C Wolfgang; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..aeruginosa virulence mechanisms. P. aeruginosa possesses a wide variety of virulence factors. The capacity to express many of these factors and to cause disease in an animal model of acute infection ..
  16. Microbial Diversity in Mechanisms of Disulfide Bond Formation and Reduction
    Dana Boyd; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Also, since disulfide-bonded proteins are found in many of the most prominent bacterial virulence factors, these studies may contribute to antibiotic development.
  17. High-throughput Screenings to Identify Host Receptors for Staphylococcal Adhesins
    Renata Pasqualini; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of staphylococcal infections is incompletely understood, but it seemingly involves a large number of virulence factors such as adhesins, toxins and immunomodulators...
  18. Role of surface proteins in sand fly colonization by Bartonella bacilliformis
    Michael F Minnick; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Finally, we hypothesze that Bb mutants which lack the aforementioned virulence factors will be impaired in their ability to colonize, replicate and/or spread in the sand fly...
  19. Metal-dependent phosphohydrolase activity of CvfA from Streptococcus pyogenes
    ..contains a metal-dependent phosphohydrolase domain and regulates the expression of glycolytic enzymes and virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes in response to low nutrient conditions...
  20. Moraxella catarrhalis: virulence-based prevention
    Timothy F Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..catarrhalis in the respiratory tract. In Aim 1, we will investigate OppA and related transporter as virulence factors. We showed that OppA expresses epitopes on the bacterial surface, a surprising observation for a predicted ..
  21. Dysregulation of the inflammatory response by Francisella tularensis
    Lee Ann H Allen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tularensis to act at multiple levels to disrupt NADPH oxidase assembly and activity, and identified relevant virulence factors. We were also the first to show that F...
  22. Analyzing Anthrax Toxins in Drosophilia
    Ethan Bier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the past granting period we made a paradigm shifting discovery in which we showed that the two key virulence factors from Bacillus anthracis, edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF) act cooperatively to inhibit protein ..
  23. Regulation of Bacteroides fragilis multidrug efflux pumps
    Hannah Wexler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..fragilis are similarly regulated by TFs. These TFs, and the pumps they regulate, may also regulate other virulence factors. VA patients are particularly at risk for anaerobic infections...
  24. Transcriptional Regulation by a Deacetylase, CobB, in a Periodontopathogen
    DAVID J KOLODRUBETZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..efforts have focused on defining novel regulatory pathways in Aa that accurately control expression of the virulence factors needed to thrive in different conditions, with the long term goal of developing therapeutic protocols to ..
  25. Genetic and Evolutionary Basis of Fungal Drug Resistance
    Zhenglong Gu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Virulence factors for fungal pathogens, such as pathogenic fungal drug resistance, often are quantitative traits...
  26. Mechanisms to restrain social cheating from quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aerugin
    AJAI DANDEKAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..intercellular signaling mechanism that coordinates group behaviors including production of virulence factors and secreted proteases. P. aeruginosa quorum sensing is mediated in part by the transcription factor LasR...
  27. Cardiac dysfunction in StrepTSS: interplay of SLO and MMPs
    Dennis L Stevens; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, MMP-13, induced by bacterial virulence factors such as SLO, may uniquely drive acute cardiac dysfunction in StrepTSS...
  28. Eukaryotic-type STK/STP-mediated modulation of enterococcal pathogenesis
    Vijay Pancholi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..bacterial growth, division, metabolism, and expression of bacterial surface proteins, capsule, toxins, and virulence factors. Although information on the complete genome sequence of vancomycin-resistant strain of E...
  29. Lipid A &Innate Immune Receptors in Neisseria Infection
    Gary A Jarvis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Among the recognized Neisserial virulence factors, lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is a major inducer of the proinflammatory cytokine response to the organisms...
  30. The Roles of Conserved outer-membrane proteins in SFG rickettsia pathogenesis
    Juan J Martinez; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a large family of genes termed surface cell antigens (sca) that resemble autotransporter proteins and virulence factors in Gram-negative bacteria...
  31. Prophage-associated virulence factors in pathogenic Neisseria species
    ANNA KARLS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The long-term goal of this research is to identify virulence factors that may be targeted for the design of effective vaccines and therapeutics for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococci, GC), which causes ..
  32. PA-50/PA-41 antitoxin antibody therapy for C. difficile infection
    William C Olson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These potent cytotoxins represent the main virulence factors of C. difficile and can damage cells that line the colon, resulting in fluid secretion and inflammation...
  33. Extracellular Replication of Listeria in Vivo
    Christopher H Contag; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our previous results demonstrate that replication in the gall bladder does not require prototypical virulence factors, suggesting that virulence mediated by intracellular replication is distinct from growth in the gall bladder...
  34. GAS Switch from Colonizing Bacterium to Invasive Pathogen
    Victor Nizet; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We hypothesize that the outcome of GAS infection is dictated by the action and regulation of these GAS virulence factors in response to selective pressures exerted by host innate immunity...
  35. Role of phosphatidylethanolamine in regulating virulence in Candida albicans
    SARAH ELIZABETH DAVIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) affect virulence by affecting signal transduction pathways that regulate virulence factors necessary for adhering to and invading host tissues, as well as evasion of the host's immune response...
  36. Pathogensis of Bacterial corneal infection
    Gerald B Pier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..have acquired significant means to resist antimicrobial therapies and elaborate a large armamentarium of virulence factors that contribute to corneal damage and loss of visual acuity...
  37. Structure and Specificity in Metal Ion Homeostasis
    Amy C Rosenzweig; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, a number of bacterial metal trafficking proteins have been identified as virulence factors. The long term objective of this research program is to understand metal homeostasis on the molecular level...
  38. Mechanisms of H. pylori-Induced Hypochlorhydria
    Adam J Smolka; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..suppresses gastric proton pump (H,K-ATPase) 1 subunit (HK1) gene expression by interactions of cag PAI virulence factors CagL, CagA and peptidoglycan with parietal cells via the TFSS, perturbing signaling pathways essential to ..
  39. Proteomics of RNA polymerase interactomes in pathogenic bacteria
    Evgeny Nudler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will explore a variety of growth conditions, including those where virulence factors expression is induced, and employ various techniques to trap and enrich for transient interactions...
  40. Characterization of a novel role for DEAD-box RNA helicases in bacteria.
    ..system, "Csr", studied herein, has profound effects on biofilm formation, motility, and the expression of virulence factors in ?-proteobacteria...
  41. Clostridium difficile Toxin Gene Regulation
    ..proteins, encoded by the toxA and toxB genes, which lie within a 19 kb pathogenicity islet, are the primary virulence factors. Previous work from the applicants'laboratories has shown that transcription of the tox genes depends ..
  42. The effect of inter-species interactions on the virulence of Streptococcus mutans
    Bing yan Wang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Project summary: Streptococcus mutans is the primary cariogen that produces several virulence factors. The long-term goal of the proposed studies is to characterize specific interactions of S...
  43. Targeting Pneumococcal Virulence Factors in Otitis Media
    Honggao Yan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..this exploratory two-year grant application, we propose to develop aptamers against two major pneumococcal virulence factors, choline-binding protein A (CbpA, also known as PspC or SpsA) and pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA)...
  44. Investigating SloR virulence gene metalloregulation in S. mutans.
    Grace A Spatafora; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mutans metal ion transport genes and virulence factors when sustainable levels of manganese are achieved (such as during a mealtime), and loss of this repression ..
    Francis J Castellino; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..GAS surface M and M-like proteins are critical virulence factors of these organisms, and function through various mechanisms to allow effective infectivity in the host...
  46. Molecular Basis of Bacterial Quorum Sensing Gene Regulation
    MAIR E CHURCHILL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..sensing is a cell-density-dependent gene-regulatory mechanism bacteria use to regulate the production of virulence factors and the formation of biofilms, both of which increase the morbidity of the infection. The virulence of P...
  47. Targeting Bacterial Virulence Transcription Factors, a Novel Antibiotic Approach
    George A Garcia; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..b>Virulence factors are attractive targets for antibiotic discovery as there should be less selective pressure for the organisms ..
  48. The Role of PtdIns-5-P in Cell Function and Signaling
    LUCIA RAMEH-PLANT; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PI-5-P levels are up-regulated upon bacterial invasion of host cells, due to the activity of the bacterial virulence factors IpgD (from Shigella flexneri) and SigD/SopB (from Salmonella enterica), which are phosphatases that use PI-4,..
    Shinichiro Kurosawa; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Circulating Shiga-1 and Shiga-2 toxins (Stx1, Stx2) from the infected gut are key virulence factors of this infection, giving rise to hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome and neurological ..
  50. Regulation of the Poly Sialic Virulence Factor
    ERIC ROSS VIMR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..coli O18:K1, expresses O18 somatic and K1 polysialic acid capsule antigens as two major virulence factors responsible for making these strains the leading causes of neonatal bacterial meningitis...
  51. Understanding of a Family of Bacterial Transcription Factors
    Hwan Youn; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The homologs found in bacterial pathogens serve as virulence factors, so the study of the family proteins is also of biomedical importance...
  52. Stomate-based innate immunity against bacterial infection in Arabidopsis
    Maeli Melotto; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..including human pathogenic bacteria, and (ii) to be successful, plant pathogens must rely on specific virulence factors or environmental conditions to suppress stomate-based defense...
    Marcia B Goldberg; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Training laboratories are in nine major areas: (1) bacteriology, including pathogenesis, genetics, toxins, virulence factors, cell biology, host defense, and vaccine development;(2) virology, including pathogenesis, genetics, cell ..
  54. Discovery of Vibrio cholerae factors contributing to virulence in Drosophila.
    ..Beyond cholera toxin and TCP, V. cholerae possesses many additional virulence factors, but their contributions to pathogenesis and their interactions with the innate immune system are not well ..
  55. Studies of YlxM of Streptococcus mutans, a newly identified component of the Sign
    ..mutans virulence factors get into or through the cytoplasmic membrane. S...
    RICHARD ARTHUR CHOLE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We also plan to evaluate a number of known virulence factors in the gerbil model by using targeted deletions of key virulence genes (galU, algC, algD, lasI, lasR, fliC, ..
  57. Phages and Genomic Variation in Vibrio Cholerae Evolution
    JOHN JOSEPH MEKALANOS; Fiscal Year: 2013 th environment;5) we will test the ability of phages to mediate transfer of virulence genes or to produce virulence factors such as inflammatory molecules, cytotoxins and enterotoxins;6) we will construct genetically marked phages ..
  58. Investigating SloR virulence gene metalloregulation in S. mutans.
    Grace Spatafora; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..mutans metal ion transport genes and virulence factors when sustainable levels of manganese are achieved (such as during a mealtime), and loss of this repression ..
  59. NLR Family Proteins: Mechanisms and Regulation
    John C Reed; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Moreover, polymorphisms in NALP1 have recently been linked to differential sensitivity to bacterial virulence factors, including anthrax toxin (Lethal Factor [LF]), a zinc metalloproteinase that depends on NALP1 for inducing ..
  60. Genetic Basis of Virulence of Community MRSA Clone USA300
    Henry F Chambers; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PMN function will be assayed in vitro to determine whether virulence factors affect human PMN chemotaxis, phagocytosis, or bacterial killing...
  61. M tuberculosis Membrane Protein Pharmaceutical Targets
    Timothy A Cross; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have developed an Initial Target List from preliminary results and from literature on essential genes, virulence factors, identification of outer membrane proteins and numerous individual studies on specific potential targets...
  62. Control of bacterial morphology and differentiation
    Yves V Brun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..achieve changes in morphology and modes of growth and couple them to the localization of proteins, such as virulence factors, is critical for our ability to inhibit their persistence, proliferation, and host infection...
    DARREN SLEDJESKI; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..H-NS is an important regulator of virulence factors and other genes in E. coli and related bacteria. In Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive E...
  64. Lung Injury and Shock Pathogenesis in Y. pestis Sepsis
    ANDREW LECHNER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..pestis-induced shock and ALI, we will evaluate the relative importance of virulence factors that collectively promote macrophage adherence and phagocytosis, but blunt innate antimicrobial responses ..
  65. Characterization of Hemolysin A from Proteus mirabilis
    Todd Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2004 the most common causative agent of Gram-negative based urinary tract infections and many harbor several virulence factors that provide inherent uropathogenicity...
  66. Determining vaccine candidacy of LT and STa toxoid fusions against enterotoxigeni
    Weiping Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The key virulence factors in ETEC- associated diarrhea are bacterial adhesins or colonization factor antigens (CFAs) and enterotoxins...
  67. MtaR-regulated virulence in Streptococcus agalactiae
    Daniel Shelver; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..molecules that damage the host, it is not apparent that GBS elaborates a large repertoire of `classical'virulence factors. Despite it paucity of virulence factors, GBS can be highly lethal to individuals with immature or poorly ..
  68. Pseudomonas aeruginosa genomic islands and virulence factors
    VANDERLENE LIU KUNG; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..To cause such severe disease, P. aeruginosa produces a plethora of toxins, but the true breadth of virulence factors produced by this bacterium is unclear...
    Mary Ann Jabra Rizk; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Long range plans include using the mutants generated to study Candida mannoprotein-specific host immunomodulation, such as stimulation of cytokines and chemokines. ..
  70. M. tuberculosis survival in Macrophages
    Richard Friedman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This proposal will concentrate on one of these steps, survival. The role virulence factors of M. tuberculosis play in these complex interactions is virtually unknown...
  71. Study of S pneumoniae Virulence Gene Regulation
    Andrew Camilli; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..pneumoniae morbidity. Despite more than a century of research, understanding of S. pneumoniae virulence factors is limited. Furthermore, almost nothing is known concerning the regulation of S...
  72. Antibiotic Potentiators Targeting SOS Induction
    Timothy Opperman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of the SOS response increases the evolution of antibiotic resistance and the horizontal transfer of virulence factors. Therefore, the SOS induction pathway is an important target for discovery of drugs that act as potentiators ..
    CLIFFORD HOUSTON; Fiscal Year: 1992
    The long term objective of this proposed research is to determine the role of Aeromonas hydrophila virulence factors in the pathogenesis of disease in man. The virulence factors presently reported in the literature associated with A...
  74. Determine the relative virulence and the temporal expression of sarA paralog gen
    Adhar C Manna; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The pathogenesis of Staphylococcus is a complex process that involves multiple virulence factors;therefore, it is not surprising that an effective therapeutic strategy directed against a single factor has ..
  75. CR1 Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Severe Malaria
    JOANN MOULDS; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..diseases affecting the human population and is a multi-factorial process influenced by both parasite virulence factors and host genetic susceptibility...
  76. Control of virulence in Neisseria meningitidis
    Yih Ling Tzeng; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The regulatory mechanisms of the major virulence factors of this devastating human pathogen are still not well-characterized...
  77. Elucidation of colonization and virulence through a novel comparative approach
    CHERYL WHISTLER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A common feature of human pathogenic Vibrios, including V. parahaemolyticus, is that many of their virulence factors are horizontally acquired, and yet acquired virulence traits must be coordinately regulated along with other ..
    Jeffrey Felton; Fiscal Year: 1991
    The long-term objectives of the proposed study are to characterize several putative virulence factors produced by Bacteroides gingivalis (B.g...
  79. RovA regulon of Yersinia pestis
    VIRGINIA MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..However, using Y. enterocolitica we have employed a wide variety of techniques to identify numerous virulence factors that are encoded on the chromosome...
  80. Phosphomannomutase (PMM) as a Novel Drug Target for the Parasite Leishmania
    JUSTIN WYATT; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Of the glycoconjugates produced by Leishmania several of these molecules are considered virulence factors, and parasites lacking them are viable but cannot survive in macrophages or mice and their biosynthesis ..
  81. Virulence Factors of Francisella tularensis
    Barbara J Mann; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Few virulence factors or virulence-associated genes have been identified, and it has no known toxins...