- Bacterial iron homeostasis
Simon C Andrews
School of Animal and Microbial Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AJ, UK
FEMS Microbiol Rev 27:215-37. 2003
- Pharmacological and clinical aspects of heme oxygenase
Nader G Abraham
New York Medical College, Basic Science Building, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
Pharmacol Rev 60:79-127. 2008
This review is intended to stimulate interest in the effect of increased expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein and increased levels of HO activity on normal and pathological states...
- Heme synthesis by plastid ferrochelatase I regulates nuclear gene expression in plants
Jesse D Woodson
Plant Biology Laboratory and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Curr Biol 21:897-903. 2011
..The gun6-1D mutant overexpresses the conserved plastid ferrochelatase 1 (FC1, heme synthase)...
- Malaria impairs resistance to Salmonella through heme- and heme oxygenase-dependent dysfunctional granulocyte mobilization
Aubrey J Cunnington
Department of Immunology and Infection, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
Nat Med 18:120-7. 2012
..Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mediates tolerance to the cytotoxic effects of heme during malarial hemolysis but might impair ..
- Association between the haptoglobin and heme oxygenase 1 genetic profiles and soluble CD163 in susceptibility to and severity of human malaria
Vitor R R Mendonça
Centro de Pesquisas Goncalo Moniz, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Salvador, Bahia, Brazila
Infect Immun 80:1445-54. 2012
..The oxidation of Hb by free radicals causes the release of heme, which amplifies inflammation...
- Heme activates TLR4-mediated inflammatory injury via MyD88/TRIF signaling pathway in intracerebral hemorrhage
Department of Neurology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, China
J Neuroinflammation 9:46. 2012
..Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a role in inflammatory damage caused by brain disorders...
- Discovery and characterization of a unique mycobacterial heme acquisition system
Michael V Tullius
Departments of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:5051-6. 2011
..Here we demonstrate a newly characterized pathway, whereby M. tuberculosis can use free heme and heme from hemoglobin as an iron source...
- Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide suppress the pathogenesis of experimental cerebral malaria
Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, 2780 156 Oeiras, Portugal
Nat Med 13:703-10. 2007
Cerebral malaria claims more than 1 million lives per year. We report that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by Hmox1) prevents the development of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM)...
- Signaling to heme oxygenase-1 and its anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential
Institute for Transfusion Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
Biochem Pharmacol 80:1895-903. 2010
b>Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is the inducible isoform of the first and rate-limiting enzyme of heme degradation. Induction of HO-1 protects against the cytotoxicity of oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death...
- Adaptations against heme toxicity in blood-feeding arthropods
Aurelio V Graca-Souza
Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Av Brigadeiro Trompowsky, S N, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, 21941 690 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
Insect Biochem Mol Biol 36:322-35. 2006
..of vertebrate hemoglobin in the midgut of blood-feeding arthropods results in the production of large amounts of heme, a potentially cytotoxic molecule...
- Prolonged neutrophil dysfunction after Plasmodium falciparum malaria is related to hemolysis and heme oxygenase-1 induction
Aubrey J Cunnington
Department of Immunology and Infection, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
J Immunol 189:5336-46. 2012
..This acquired neutrophil dysfunction is a consequence of induction of the cytoprotective, heme-degrading enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in neutrophil progenitors in bone marrow...
- Heme degradation and vascular injury
John D Belcher
Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Oncology and Transplantation, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
Antioxid Redox Signal 12:233-48. 2010
b>Heme is an essential molecule in aerobic organisms. Heme consists of protoporphyrin IX and a ferrous (Fe(2+)) iron atom, which has high affinity for oxygen (O(2))...
- Rev-erbalpha, a heme sensor that coordinates metabolic and circadian pathways
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Science 318:1786-9. 2007
The circadian clock temporally coordinates metabolic homeostasis in mammals. Central to this is heme, an iron-containing porphyrin that serves as prosthetic group for enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism as well as transcription ..
- Pulmonary proteases in the cystic fibrosis lung induce interleukin 8 expression from bronchial epithelial cells via a heme/meprin/epidermal growth factor receptor/Toll-like receptor pathway
Respiratory Research Division, Department of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9, Ireland
J Biol Chem 286:7692-704. 2011
..of the protease-rich environment of the CF lung on human hemoglobin and to assess the proinflammatory effect of heme on CF bronchial epithelium...
- Heme oxygenase-1 affords protection against noncerebral forms of severe malaria
Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Oeiras, Portugal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:15837-42. 2009
..Under inflammatory conditions, cell-free hemoglobin can be oxidized, releasing its heme prosthetic groups and producing deleterious free heme...
- Molecular hijacking of siroheme for the synthesis of heme and d1 heme
Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:18260-5. 2011
Modified tetrapyrroles such as chlorophyll, heme, siroheme, vitamin B(12), coenzyme F(430), and heme d(1) underpin a wide range of essential biological functions in all domains of life, and it is therefore surprising that the syntheses of ..
- Glycine consumption and mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase in cancer cells: the heme connection
Martino L di Salvo
Dipartimento di Scienze Biochimiche A Rossi Fanelli, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma, Italy
Med Hypotheses 80:633-6. 2013
..as the importance of glycine in cancer is concerned, a central role of this amino acid, namely its participation to heme biosynthesis, has been neglected...
- Heme oxygenase-1: unleashing the protective properties of heme
Leo E Otterbein
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Montifiore University Hospital, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3459 5th Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Trends Immunol 24:449-55. 2003
b>Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 catabolizes heme into three products: carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin (which is rapidly converted to bilirubin) and free iron (which leads to the induction of ferritin, an iron-binding protein)...
- Heme utilization in Campylobacter jejuni
Kristian A Ridley
Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Adrian Building, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom
J Bacteriol 188:7862-75. 2006
A putative iron- and Fur-regulated hemin uptake gene cluster, composed of the transport genes chuABCD and a putative heme oxygenase gene (Cj1613c), has been identified in Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168...
- Blood meal-derived heme decreases ROS levels in the midgut of Aedes aegypti and allows proliferation of intestinal microbiota
Jose Henrique M Oliveira
Laboratório de Bioquímica de Artrópodes Hematófagos, Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Programa de Biologia Molecular e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
PLoS Pathog 7:e1001320. 2011
..in the midgut of sugar-fed (SF) mosquitoes and a blood-meal immediately decreased ROS through a mechanism involving heme-mediated activation of PKC. This event occurred in parallel with an expansion of gut bacteria...
- The IL-12p70/IL-10 interplay is differentially regulated by free heme and hemozoin in murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages
Department of Biological Sciences, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal, Que, Canada
Int J Parasitol 40:1003-12. 2010
..Although free heme contributes to malarial anemia by inducing oxidative damage of red blood cells (RBCs) and enhancing their clearance ..
- Heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide: from metabolism to molecular therapy
Stefan W Ryter
Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 41:251-60. 2009
b>Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a ubiquitous inducible stress-response protein, serves a major metabolic function in heme turnover. HO activity cleaves heme to form biliverdin-IXalpha, carbon monoxide (CO), and iron...
- The stem cell marker Bcrp/ABCG2 enhances hypoxic cell survival through interactions with heme
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 2794, USA
J Biol Chem 279:24218-25. 2004
..However, blocking heme biosynthesis reverses the hypoxic susceptibility of Bcrp(-/-) progenitor cells, a finding that indicates that heme ..
- Oxygen sensation and social feeding mediated by a C. elegans guanylate cyclase homologue
Jesse M Gray
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Anatomy, The University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0452, USA
Nature 430:317-22. 2004
..elegans' preferred level, and require gcy-35 activity. Our results suggest that GCY-35 is regulated by molecular oxygen, and that social feeding can be a behavioural strategy for responding to hyperoxic environments...
- Identification and characterization of the hemophore-dependent heme acquisition system of Yersinia pestis
M S Rossi
, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
Infect Immun 69:6707-17. 2001
Yersinia pestis possesses a heme-protein acquisition system (Hmu) that allows it to utilize heme and heme-protein complexes as the sole sources of iron. Analysis of the Y...
- Control of intracellular heme levels: heme transporters and heme oxygenases
Anwar A Khan
Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology Oncology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, 909 South Wolcott Avenue, Chicago, IL 0612, USA
Biochim Biophys Acta 1813:668-82. 2011
b>Heme serves as a co-factor in proteins involved in fundamental biological processes including oxidative metabolism, oxygen storage and transport, signal transduction and drug metabolism...
- Identification of an intestinal heme transporter
Department of Life Sciences, Nutritional Sciences Research Division, Franklin Wilkins Building, Kings College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NN, UK
Cell 122:789-801. 2005
Dietary heme iron is an important nutritional source of iron in carnivores and omnivores that is more readily absorbed than non-heme iron derived from vegetables and grain...
- Constitutive endocytosis of CD163 mediates hemoglobin-heme uptake and determines the noninflammatory and protective transcriptional response of macrophages to hemoglobin
Christian A Schaer
Department of Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland
Circ Res 99:943-50. 2006
b>Heme toxicity contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, atherosclerosis, and hemolysis associated vasculopathy...
- A Staphylococcus aureus regulatory system that responds to host heme and modulates virulence
Victor J Torres
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
Cell Host Microbe 1:109-19. 2007
..We describe the heme sensor system (HssRS) that responds to heme exposure and activates expression of the heme-regulated transporter (..
- Identification of heme as the ligand for the orphan nuclear receptors REV-ERBalpha and REV-ERBbeta
Department of Pharmacology and Center for Molecular Design, University of Virginia Health System, 1300 Jefferson Park Avenue, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 0733, USA
Nat Struct Mol Biol 14:1207-13. 2007
..Here we show that heme is a physiological ligand of both receptors...
- Characterization of heme as activator of Toll-like receptor 4
Rodrigo T Figueiredo
Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941 590 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
J Biol Chem 282:20221-9. 2007
b>Heme is an ancient and ubiquitous molecule present in organisms of all kingdoms, composed of an atom of iron linked to four ligand groups of porphyrin...
- Carbon monoxide: endogenous production, physiological functions, and pharmacological applications
Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Rd, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada P7B 5E1
Pharmacol Rev 57:585-630. 2005
..The majority of endogenous CO is produced in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO)...
- Heme oxygenase-1 protein localizes to the nucleus and activates transcription factors important in oxidative stress
Children s Hospital of Philadelphia and Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Biol Chem 282:20621-33. 2007
b>Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, is an integral membrane protein of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum...
- The Mannoprotein Cig1 supports iron acquisition from heme and virulence in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans
Michael Smith Laboratories and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
J Infect Dis 207:1339-47. 2013
..Indeed, loss of Cig1 resulted in delayed growth on heme at physiological pH...
- Regulation of protein synthesis by the heme-regulated eIF2alpha kinase: relevance to anemias
Jane Jane Chen
Harvard Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology HST, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Blood 109:2693-9. 2007
..differentiation and maturation, it is critical that the 3 components of hemoglobin, alpha-globin, beta-globin, and heme, are made in proper stoichiometry to form stable hemoglobin...
- Structural biology of bacterial iron uptake
Karla D Krewulak
Structural Biology Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4
Biochim Biophys Acta 1778:1781-804. 2008
..for iron, bacteria utilize various iron sources which include the host proteins transferrin and lactoferrin, heme, and low molecular weight iron chelators termed siderophores...
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis hemoglobin N displays a protein tunnel suited for O2 diffusion to the heme
Department of Physics INFM and Advanced Biotechnology Center IST, University of Genova, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10 16132 Genova, Italy
EMBO J 20:3902-9. 2001
..In the absence of a polar distal E7 residue, the O2 heme ligand is stabilized by two hydrogen bonds to TyrB10(33)...
- Mosaic origin of the heme biosynthesis pathway in photosynthetic eukaryotes
Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Mol Biol Evol 22:2343-53. 2005
b>Heme biosynthesis represents one of the most essential metabolic pathways in living organisms, providing the precursors for cytochrome prosthetic groups, photosynthetic pigments, and vitamin B(12)...
- Shigella dysenteriae ShuS promotes utilization of heme as an iron source and protects against heme toxicity
Elizabeth E Wyckoff
The University of Texas, Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, 1 University Station A5000, Austin, TX 78712 0162, USA
J Bacteriol 187:5658-64. 2005
Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1, a major cause of bacillary dysentery in humans, can use heme as a source of iron...
- Mechanisms of cell protection by heme oxygenase-1
Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Oeiras, Portugal
Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 50:323-54. 2010
b>Heme oxygenases (HO) catabolize free heme, that is, iron (Fe) protoporphyrin (IX), into equimolar amounts of Fe(2+), carbon monoxide (CO), and biliverdin...
- Pro-oxidant and cytotoxic effects of circulating heme
Department of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Hungary
Blood 100:879-87. 2002
Numerous pathologies may involve toxic side effects of free heme and heme-derived iron...
- Identification and phylogenetic analysis of heme synthesis genes in trypanosomatids and their bacterial endosymbionts
João M P Alves
Department of Microbiology and Immunology and the Center for the Study of Biological Complexity, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America
PLoS ONE 6:e23518. 2011
It has been known for decades that some insect-infecting trypanosomatids can survive in culture without heme supplementation while others cannot, and that this capability is associated with the presence of a betaproteobacterial ..
- Humans possess two mitochondrial ferredoxins, Fdx1 and Fdx2, with distinct roles in steroidogenesis, heme, and Fe/S cluster biosynthesis
Alex D Sheftel
Institut fur Zytobiologie, Philipps Universitat Marburg, Robert Koch Strasse 6, 35033 Marburg, Germany
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:11775-80. 2010
..and its yeast adrenodoxin homologue (Yah1) suggested that Fdx1, like Yah1, may be involved in the biosynthesis of heme A and Fe/S clusters, two versatile and essential protein cofactors...
- Artemisinin, an endoperoxide antimalarial, disrupts the hemoglobin catabolism and heme detoxification systems in malarial parasite
A V Pandey
Malaria Research Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, P O Box 10504, New Delhi 110 067, India
J Biol Chem 274:19383-8. 1999
..least in part, exert their effect by interfering with the plasmodial hemoglobin catabolic pathway and inhibition of heme polymerization...
- Body iron stores and heme-iron intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Sichuan University, West China Hospital, Chengdu, China
PLoS ONE 7:e41641. 2012
Emerging evidence from biological and epidemiological studies has suggested that body iron stores and heme-iron intake may be related to the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
- Dietary intakes of zinc and heme iron from red meat, but not from other sources, are associated with greater risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease
Marcia C de Oliveira Otto
Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and EnvFemental Sciences, The University of Texas Health Sciences Center Houston, USA
J Nutr 142:526-33. 2012
..78 (95% CI = 0.62, 0.97), P-trend = 0.01; CVD: HR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.46, 1.03), P-trend = 0.04]. Intakes of heme iron and Zn from red meat, but not from other sources, were positively associated with risk of MetS [heme iron from ..
- Absorption of iron from ferritin is independent of heme iron and ferrous salts in women and rat intestinal segments
Elizabeth C Theil
Children s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA, USA
J Nutr 142:478-83. 2012
..Ferritin iron is absorbed by a different mechanism than iron salts/chelates or heme iron...
- Ferric, not ferrous, heme activates RNA-binding protein DGCR8 for primary microRNA processing
Department of Biological Chemistry, David Geffen School of Medicine, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:1919-24. 2012
..Previous work showed that DGCR8 forms a highly stable and active complex with ferric [Fe(III)] heme using two endogenous cysteines as axial ligands...
- Heme is involved in microRNA processing
Department of Biological Chemistry, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
Nat Struct Mol Biol 14:23-9. 2007
..the RNA-binding protein DiGeorge critical region-8 (DGCR8), which is essential for the first processing step, is a heme-binding protein. The association with heme promotes dimerization of DGCR8...
- A robust and extracellular heme-containing peroxidase from Thermobifida fusca as prototype of a bacterial peroxidase superfamily
Edwin van Bloois
Laboratory of Biochemistry, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747, AG, Groningen, The Netherlands
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 86:1419-30. 2010
DyP-type peroxidases comprise a novel superfamily of heme-containing peroxidases which is unrelated to the superfamilies of known peroxidases and of which only a few members have been characterized in some detail...
- Identification of the receptor scavenging hemopexin-heme complexes
Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark
Blood 106:2572-9. 2005
b>Heme released from heme-binding proteins on internal hemorrhage, hemolysis, myolysis, or other cell damage is highly toxic due to oxidative and proinflammatory effects...
- Heme oxygenase and heme degradation
Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 338:558-67. 2005
The microsomal heme oxygenase system consists of heme oxygenase (HO) and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and plays a key role in the physiological catabolism of heme which yields biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and iron as the final ..
- Heme mediates derepression of Maf recognition element through direct binding to transcription repressor Bach1
Laboratory of Environmental Biology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
EMBO J 20:2835-43. 2001
b>Heme controls expression of genes involved in the synthesis of globins and heme...
- Heme oxygenase-1: a provenance for cytoprotective pathways in the kidney and other tissues
K A Nath
Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
Kidney Int 70:432-43. 2006
b>Heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of heme, converting heme to biliverdin, during which iron is released and carbon monoxide (CO) is emitted; biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin ..
- The biochemistry of heme biosynthesis
Ilka U Heinemann
Institute of Microbiology, Technical University of Braunschweig, Spielmannstr 7, D 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
Arch Biochem Biophys 474:238-51. 2008
b>Heme is an integral part of proteins involved in multiple electron transport chains for energy recovery found in almost all forms of life...
- Free heme toxicity and its detoxification systems in human
Division of Drug Target Discovery and Development, Central Drug Research Institute, Chatter Manzil Palace, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh, India
Toxicol Lett 157:175-88. 2005
..pathological states, such as sickle cell disease, ischemia reperfusion, and malaria results in high levels of free heme, causing undesirable toxicity leading to organ, tissue, and cellular injury...
- New and classic families of secreted fungal heme peroxidases
Department of Environmental Biotechnology, International Graduate School of Zittau, Markt 23, 02763, Zittau, Germany
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 87:871-97. 2010
b>Heme-containing peroxidases secreted by fungi are a fascinating group of biocatalysts with various ecological and biotechnological implications...
- TonB-dependent systems of uropathogenic Escherichia coli: aerobactin and heme transport and TonB are required for virulence in the mouse
A G Torres
Department of Microbiology and the Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
Infect Immun 69:6179-85. 2001
The uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain CFT073 has multiple iron acquisition systems, including heme and siderophore transporters...
- Heme oxygenase-1: from biology to therapeutic potential
Miguel P Soares
Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Rua da Quinta Grande, 60, 2780 156, Oeiras, Portugal
Trends Mol Med 15:50-8. 2009
b>Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-responsive enzyme that catabolizes free heme into carbon monoxide, iron (which induces the expression of heavy-chain ferritin, an iron-sequestering protein) and biliverdin (which is converted to ..
- Heme scavenging and the other facets of hemopexin
Molecular Biotechnology Center, University of Torino, Torino, Italy
Antioxid Redox Signal 12:305-20. 2010
..is an acute-phase plasma glycoprotein, produced mainly by the liver and released into plasma, where it binds heme with high affinity. Other sites of hemopexin synthesis are the nervous system, skeletal muscle, retina, and kidney...
- Products of heme oxygenase and their potential therapeutic applications
Kristin A Kirkby
The Comparative Nephrology and Transplantation Laboratory, Dept of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, PO Box 100126, Univ of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 0126, USA
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290:F563-71. 2006
b>Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is induced in response to cellular stress and is responsible for converting the prooxidant heme molecule into equimolar quantities of biliverdin (BV), carbon monoxide (CO), and iron...
- Biliverdin, a natural product of heme catabolism, induces tolerance to cardiac allografts
Department of Surgery, Immunobiology Research Center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 99 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02215, USA
FASEB J 18:765-7. 2004
Biliverdin, a product of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) enzymatic action, is converted into bilirubin, which has been considered a waste product in the past...
- Targeting the heme-oxidized nitric oxide receptor for selective vasodilatation of diseased blood vessels
Johannes Peter Stasch
Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Bayer HealthCare, Wuppertal, Germany
J Clin Invest 116:2552-61. 2006
..Increased oxidative stress affects the heme-containing NO receptor sGC by both decreasing its expression levels and impairing NO-induced activation, making ..
- Gestational diabetes mellitus in relation to maternal dietary heme iron and nonheme iron intake
Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, USA
Diabetes Care 34:1564-9. 2011
Higher heme iron intake is associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. However, no previous study has evaluated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk in relation to heme iron intake during pregnancy...
- Identification and characterization of a novel vitamin B12 (cobalamin) biosynthetic enzyme (CobZ) from Rhodobacter capsulatus, containing flavin, heme, and Fe-S cofactors
Helen M McGoldrick
School of Biological Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, United Kingdom
J Biol Chem 280:1086-94. 2005
..CobZ, allowed the characterization of a novel cofactor-rich protein, housing two Fe-S centers, a flavin, and a heme group, which like B12 itself is a modified tetrapyrrole...
- Roles of iron acquisition systems in virulence of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli: salmochelin and aerobactin contribute more to virulence than heme in a chicken infection model
Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, Ministry of Education Key Lab for Avian Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Jiangsu, People s Republic of China
BMC Microbiol 12:143. 2012
..coli (ExPEC). Both types have multiple iron acquisition systems, including heme and siderophores...
- PpsR, a regulator of heme and bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis, is a heme-sensing protein
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
J Biol Chem 287:13850-8. 2012
b>Heme-mediated regulation, presented in many biological processes, is achieved in part with proteins containing heme regulatory motif...
- Impact of intravascular hemolysis in malaria on liver dysfunction: involvement of hepatic free heme overload, NF-κB activation, and neutrophil infiltration
Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal, India
J Biol Chem 287:26630-46. 2012
..hemolysis showed a positive correlation with liver damage along with the increased accumulation of free heme and reactive oxidants in liver...
- Identification and characterization of a Streptococcus pyogenes operon involved in binding of hemoproteins and acquisition of iron
Christopher S Bates
Department of Biology, College of Arts and Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303, USA
Infect Immun 71:1042-55. 2003
The hemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes can use a variety of heme compounds as an iron source. In this study, we investigate hemoprotein utilization by S. pyogenes...
- The Escherichia coli protein YfeX functions as a porphyrinogen oxidase, not a heme dechelatase
Harry A Dailey
Biomedical and Health Sciences Institute, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA
MBio 2:e00248-11. 2011
The protein YfeX from Escherichia coli has been proposed to be essential for the process of iron removal from heme by carrying out a dechelation of heme without cleavage of the porphyrin macrocycle...
- Haem iron-transport system in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7
A G Torres
Department of Microbiology, University of Texas at Austin 78712, USA
Mol Microbiol 23:825-33. 1997
..A conserved Fur box was identified upstream of the chuA gene, and regulation by Fur was confirmed...
- Peroxynitrite induces destruction of the tetrahydrobiopterin and heme in endothelial nitric oxide synthase: transition from reversible to irreversible enzyme inhibition
Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
Biochemistry 49:3129-37. 2010
..Additionally, ONOO(-) triggered changes in the UV/visible spectrum and heme content of the enzyme. Preincubation of eNOS with BH(4) decreased dimer destabilization and heme alteration...
- The cytoplasmic heme-binding protein (PhuS) from the heme uptake system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an intracellular heme-trafficking protein to the delta-regioselective heme oxygenase
Ila B Lansky
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
J Biol Chem 281:13652-62. 2006
The uptake and utilization of heme as an iron source is a receptor-mediated process in bacterial pathogens and involves a number of proteins required for internalization and degradation of heme...
- Receptor targeting of hemoglobin mediated by the haptoglobins: roles beyond heme scavenging
Marianne Jensby Nielsen
Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark
Blood 114:764-71. 2009
Haptoglobin, the haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor CD163, and the heme oxygenase-1 are proteins with a well-established function in the clearance and metabolism of "free" hemoglobin released during intravascular hemolysis...
- Haemophilus influenzae OxyR: characterization of its regulation, regulon and role in fitness
Paul W Whitby
Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America
PLoS ONE 7:e50588. 2012
..These findings clearly establish a crucial role for OxyR in bacterial fitness...
- Heme amplifies the innate immune response to microbial molecules through spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk)-dependent reactive oxygen species generation
Patricia L Fernandez
Laboratório de Inflamação e Imunidade, Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941 902 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
J Biol Chem 285:32844-51. 2010
..In these conditions, hemeproteins and heme are released, but whether heme affects the inflammatory response to microorganism molecules remains to be ..
- Heme, a plastid-derived regulator of nuclear gene expression in Chlamydomonas
Erika D von Gromoff
Fakultat fur Biologie, Institut fur Biologie III, Universitat Freiburg, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
Plant Cell 20:552-67. 2008
..The four mutants lack chlorophyll and show reduced levels of Mg-tetrapyrroles but increased levels of soluble heme. In the mutants, light induction of HSP70A was preserved, although Mg-protoporphyrin IX has been implicated in this ..
- Heme iron from meat and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis and a review of the mechanisms involved
Nadia M Bastide
INRA TOXALIM Research Centre in Food Toxicology, Université de Toulouse INP ENVT, Toulouse, France
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 4:177-84. 2011
..Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that heme iron present in meat promotes colorectal cancer...
- IsdA and IsdB antibodies protect mice against Staphylococcus aureus abscess formation and lethal challenge
Hwan Keun Kim
Department of Microbiology, University of Chicago, 920 East 58th Street, Chicago, IL, USA
Vaccine 28:6382-92. 2010
..Antibodies directed against IsdA interfered with heme-binding and IsdB antibodies perturbed the ability of this surface protein to bind hemoglobin...
- The heme oxygenase system: update 2005
Mahin D Maines
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14624, USA
Antioxid Redox Signal 7:1761-6. 2005
- Heme impairs prostaglandin E2 and TGF-beta production by human mononuclear cells via Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase: insight into the pathogenesis of severe malaria
Bruno B Andrade
Centro de Pesquisas Gonçalo Moniz Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
J Immunol 185:1196-204. 2010
In many hemolytic disorders, such as malaria, the release of free heme has been involved in the triggering of oxidative stress and tissue damage. Patients presenting with severe forms of malaria commonly have impaired regulatory responses...
- Discovery of genes essential for heme biosynthesis through large-scale gene expression analysis
Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Cell Metab 10:119-30. 2009
b>Heme biosynthesis consists of a series of eight enzymatic reactions that originate in mitochondria and continue in the cytosol before returning to mitochondria...
- The structure of cbb3 cytochrome oxidase provides insights into proton pumping
Max Planck Institut fur Biophysik, Max von Laue Strasse 3, D 60438 Frankfurt Main, Germany
Science 329:327-30. 2010
The heme-copper oxidases (HCOs) accomplish the key event of aerobic respiration; they couple O2 reduction and transmembrane proton pumping...
- Heme proteins--diversity in structural characteristics, function, and folding
Lorna J Smith
Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford OX1 3QR, United Kingdom
Proteins 78:2349-68. 2010
The characteristics of heme prosthetic groups and their binding sites have been analyzed in detail in a data set of nonhomologous heme proteins...
- Neutrophil activation by heme: implications for inflammatory processes
Aurelio V Graca-Souza
Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Blood 99:4160-5. 2002
b>Heme, a ubiquitous iron-containing compound, is present in large amounts in many cells and is inherently dangerous, particularly when it escapes from intracellular sites...
- Identification of the Aedes aegypti peritrophic matrix protein AeIMUCI as a heme-binding protein
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology and Malaria Research Institute, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
Biochemistry 45:9540-9. 2006
..Previous experiments suggested that the Ae. aegypti PM can bind toxic heme molecules generated during blood digestion. However, the identity of the binding molecule(s) was unknown...
- Isolation and characterization of a cDNA from the rat brain that encodes hemoprotein heme oxygenase-3
W K McCoubrey
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Biochemistry Biophysics, NY 14642, USA
Eur J Biochem 247:725-32. 1997
Two isozymes of heme oxygenase (HO), HO-1 or HSP32 and the constitutive form HO-2, have been characterized to date. We report the discovery of a third protein species and refer to it as HO-3...
- Heme induces neutrophil migration and reactive oxygen species generation through signaling pathways characteristic of chemotactic receptors
Bárbara N Porto
Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21 941 590 Brasil
J Biol Chem 282:24430-6. 2007
Hemolysis or extensive cell damage can lead to high concentrations of free heme, causing oxidative stress and inflammation...
- Control of steroid, heme, and carcinogen metabolism by nuclear pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor
Center for Pharmacogenetics and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:4150-5. 2003
..regulated mRNAs whose protein products function as the principal means to eliminate a vast array of steroids, heme metabolites, environmental toxins, and drugs...
- Dietary iron intake and Type 2 diabetes incidence in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study
D H Lee
Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55454, USA
Diabetologia 47:185-94. 2004
..Recently, a clear biological link between iron metabolism and diabetes has emerged from epidemiological and experimental studies. We carried out a prospective study of dietary iron intake and incidence of Type 2 diabetes...
- Human biliverdin reductase is a leucine zipper-like DNA-binding protein and functions in transcriptional activation of heme oxygenase-1 by oxidative stress
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
J Biol Chem 277:9226-32. 2002
Human biliverdin reductase (hBVR) is a serine/threonine kinase that catalyzes reduction of the heme oxygenase (HO) activity product, biliverdin, to bilirubin...
- Heme protein-induced chronic renal inflammation: suppressive effect of induced heme oxygenase-1
K A Nath
Nephrology Research Unit, Departments of Pathology and Immunology, Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Kidney Int 59:106-17. 2001
BACKGROUND: Heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of heme; its inducible isozyme, HO-1, protects against acute heme protein-induced nephrotoxicity and other forms of acute tissue injury...
- Cerebral malaria and the hemolysis/methemoglobin/heme hypothesis: shedding new light on an old disease
Unidade de Malaria, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, 1649 028 Lisboa, Portugal
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 41:711-6. 2009
..In this review, we discuss the role of hemolysis, methemoglobin and free heme in CM, brought to light by our recent studies in mice as well as by other studies in humans.
- The heme biosynthetic pathway of the obligate Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi as a potential anti-filarial drug target
Division of Molecular Parasitology, New England Biolabs, Ipswich, Massachusetts, United States of America
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e475. 2009
..Human trials have confirmed this approach, although the length of treatments, high doses required and medical counter-indications for young children and pregnant women warrant the identification of additional anti-Wolbachia drugs...
- A central role for free heme in the pathogenesis of severe malaria: the missing link?
Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Oeiras, Portugal
J Mol Med (Berl) 86:1097-111. 2008
..survival of a Plasmodium-infected host is strictly dependent on the host's ability to up-regulate the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 encoded by the gene Hmox1)...
- Hemoglobin and heme scavenger receptors
Marianne Jensby Nielsen
Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark
Antioxid Redox Signal 12:261-73. 2010
b>Heme, the functional group of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other hemoproteins, is a highly toxic substance when it appears in the extracellular milieu...
- Iron regulatory proteins secure mitochondrial iron sufficiency and function
European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
Cell Metab 12:194-201. 2010
Mitochondria supply cells with ATP, heme, and iron sulfur clusters (ISC), and mitochondrial energy metabolism involves both heme- and ISC-dependent enzymes...
- Haem homeostasis is regulated by the conserved and concerted functions of HRG-1 proteins
Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
Nature 453:1127-31. 2008
..Thus, uncovering the mechanisms of haem transport in C. elegans may provide insights into human disorders of haem metabolism and reveal new drug targets for developing anthelminthics to combat worm infestations...
- Heme oxygenase system in ischemia and reperfusion injury
Sei Ichiro Tsuchihashi
Dumont UCLA Transplant Center, Division of Liver and Pancreas Transplantation, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Ann Transplant 9:84-7. 2004
..The heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) system is among the most critical of cytoprotective mechanisms activated during the cellular ..
- Iron and porphyrin trafficking in heme biogenesis
Iman J Schultz
Department of Medicine, Hematology Division, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Children s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
J Biol Chem 285:26753-9. 2010
..In mammals, the majority of iron is enclosed within a single prosthetic group: heme. In metazoans, heme is synthesized via a highly conserved and coordinated pathway within the mitochondria...
- Leishmania pifanoi amastigotes avoid macrophage production of superoxide by inducing heme degradation
Nam Kha Pham
Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, Building 981, Box 110700, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Infect Immun 73:8322-33. 2005
..Given that gp91phox maturation is dependent on the availability of heme, we found that infections by Leishmania parasites induce an increase in heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting ..