marine toxins

Summary

Summary: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Sea anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) toxins: an overview
    Bárbara Frazão
    CIMAR CIIMAR, Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas 177, 4050 123 Porto, Portugal
    Mar Drugs 10:1812-51. 2012
  2. pmc Biosynthetic intermediate analysis and functional homology reveal a saxitoxin gene cluster in cyanobacteria
    Ralf Kellmann
    The University of New South Wales, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:4044-53. 2008
  3. pmc Characterization of the gene cluster responsible for cylindrospermopsin biosynthesis
    Troco Kaan Mihali
    The University of New South Wales, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:716-22. 2008
  4. pmc Transfer of a cyanobacterial neurotoxin within a temperate aquatic ecosystem suggests pathways for human exposure
    Sara Jonasson
    Departments of Botany and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:9252-7. 2010
  5. ncbi Toxins of cyanobacteria
    Marian E van Apeldoorn
    Centre for Substances and Integrated Risk Assessment, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Mol Nutr Food Res 51:7-60. 2007
  6. pmc Neurotoxic alkaloids: saxitoxin and its analogs
    Maria Wiese
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia
    Mar Drugs 8:2185-211. 2010
  7. pmc Marine toxins: chemistry, toxicity, occurrence and detection, with special reference to the Dutch situation
    Arjen Gerssen
    RIKILT, Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Toxins (Basel) 2:878-904. 2010
  8. pmc On the chemistry, toxicology and genetics of the cyanobacterial toxins, microcystin, nodularin, saxitoxin and cylindrospermopsin
    Leanne Pearson
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia
    Mar Drugs 8:1650-80. 2010
  9. pmc Marine algal toxins: origins, health effects, and their increased occurrence
    F M Van Dolah
    Marine Biotoxins Program, NOAA National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, Charleston, South Carolina 29412, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 108:133-41. 2000
  10. ncbi Cytolytic peptide and protein toxins from sea anemones (Anthozoa: Actiniaria)
    Gregor Anderluh
    Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Toxicon 40:111-24. 2002

Research Grants

  1. Sensor for Paralytic Shellfish Poisons
    ROBERT GAWLEY; Fiscal Year: 2006
  2. SYNTHETIC/MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF BIOACTIVE MARINE AGENTS
    Daniel Romo; Fiscal Year: 2013
  3. Advanced Research Cooperation in Environmental Health Research
    Kathleen S Rein; Fiscal Year: 2011
  4. Total Synthesis of Bioactive Marine Natural Products
    Armen Zakarian; Fiscal Year: 2013
  5. Epoxide-Opening Cascade Approach to the Synthesis of Marine Ladder Polyethers
    MATTHEW BEAVER; Fiscal Year: 2012
  6. TOTAL SYNTHESIS OF APOPTOLIDIN
    K Nicolaou; Fiscal Year: 2004
  7. TOTAL SYNTHESIS OF AZADIRACHTIN
    K Nicolaou; Fiscal Year: 2008
  8. Enabling Technologies for Combinatorial Chemistry
    K Nicolaou; Fiscal Year: 2005
  9. SYNTHESIS OF ANTICANCER AGENTS
    K C Nicolaou; Fiscal Year: 2010
  10. TOTAL SYNTHESIS OF NATURAL PRODUCTS
    K Nicolaou; Fiscal Year: 2002

Detail Information

Publications312 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Sea anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) toxins: an overview
    Bárbara Frazão
    CIMAR CIIMAR, Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas 177, 4050 123 Porto, Portugal
    Mar Drugs 10:1812-51. 2012
    ....
  2. pmc Biosynthetic intermediate analysis and functional homology reveal a saxitoxin gene cluster in cyanobacteria
    Ralf Kellmann
    The University of New South Wales, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:4044-53. 2008
    ..The distribution of these genes also supports the idea of the involvement of this gene cluster in STX production in various cyanobacteria...
  3. pmc Characterization of the gene cluster responsible for cylindrospermopsin biosynthesis
    Troco Kaan Mihali
    The University of New South Wales, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:716-22. 2008
    ..These findings enable the design of toxic strain-specific probes and allow the future study of the regulation and biological role of cylindrospermopsin...
  4. pmc Transfer of a cyanobacterial neurotoxin within a temperate aquatic ecosystem suggests pathways for human exposure
    Sara Jonasson
    Departments of Botany and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:9252-7. 2010
    ....
  5. ncbi Toxins of cyanobacteria
    Marian E van Apeldoorn
    Centre for Substances and Integrated Risk Assessment, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Mol Nutr Food Res 51:7-60. 2007
    ..Official regulations for other cyanotoxins have not been established, although some (provisional) guideline values have been derived for microcystins in drinking water by WHO and several countries...
  6. pmc Neurotoxic alkaloids: saxitoxin and its analogs
    Maria Wiese
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia
    Mar Drugs 8:2185-211. 2010
    ..The recent elucidation of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in cyanobacteria and the identification of new PST analogs will present opportunities to further explore the pharmaceutical potential of these intriguing alkaloids...
  7. pmc Marine toxins: chemistry, toxicity, occurrence and detection, with special reference to the Dutch situation
    Arjen Gerssen
    RIKILT, Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Toxins (Basel) 2:878-904. 2010
    Various species of algae can produce marine toxins under certain circumstances. These toxins can then accumulate in shellfish such as mussels, oysters and scallops...
  8. pmc On the chemistry, toxicology and genetics of the cyanobacterial toxins, microcystin, nodularin, saxitoxin and cylindrospermopsin
    Leanne Pearson
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia
    Mar Drugs 8:1650-80. 2010
    ..This review provides an overview of these biosynthesis pathways and additionally summarizes the chemistry and toxicology of these remarkable secondary metabolites...
  9. pmc Marine algal toxins: origins, health effects, and their increased occurrence
    F M Van Dolah
    Marine Biotoxins Program, NOAA National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, Charleston, South Carolina 29412, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 108:133-41. 2000
    ..This review summarizes the origins and health effects of marine algal toxins, as well as changes in their current global distribution, and examines possible causes for the recent increase in their occurrence...
  10. ncbi Cytolytic peptide and protein toxins from sea anemones (Anthozoa: Actiniaria)
    Gregor Anderluh
    Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Toxicon 40:111-24. 2002
    ..Metridiidae) is a single representative of the fourth family. Its activity is inhibited by cholesterol or phosphatides. Biological, structure-function, and pharmacological characteristics of these cytolysins are reviewed...
  11. ncbi Assessment of okadaic acid effects on cytotoxicity, DNA damage and DNA repair in human cells
    Vanessa Valdiglesias
    Toxicology Unit, Psychobiology Department, University of A Coruna, Edificio de Servicios Centrales de Investigación, Campus Elviña s n, 15071 A Coruna, Spain
    Mutat Res 689:74-9. 2010
    ..Furthermore, we found that OA can induce modulations in DNA repair processes when exposure was performed prior to BLM treatment, in co-exposure, or during the subsequent DNA repair process...
  12. pmc New approach using the real-time PCR method for estimation of the toxic marine dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata in marine environment
    Federico Perini
    Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Urbino, Pesaro, Italy
    PLoS ONE 6:e17699. 2011
    ....
  13. ncbi Biological methods for marine toxin detection
    Natalia Vilariño
    Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario, 27002, Lugo, Spain
    Anal Bioanal Chem 397:1673-81. 2010
    The presence of marine toxins in seafood poses a health risk to human consumers which has prompted the regulation of the maximum content of marine toxins in seafood in the legislations of many countries...
  14. pmc Brevetoxicosis: red tides and marine mammal mortalities
    Leanne J Flewelling
    Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, St Petersburg, Florida 33701, USA
    Nature 435:755-6. 2005
    ....
  15. pmc Structural determinants in phycotoxins and AChBP conferring high affinity binding and nicotinic AChR antagonism
    Yves Bourne
    Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite d Aix Marseille, Campus Luminy Case 932, F 13288 Marseille Cedex 9, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:6076-81. 2010
    ....
  16. pmc Origin of saxitoxin biosynthetic genes in cyanobacteria
    Ahmed Moustafa
    Interdisciplinary Program in Genetics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e5758. 2009
    ..Here we focus on saxitoxin-producing cyanobacteria and their non-toxic sisters to elucidate the origin of genes involved in the putative STX biosynthetic pathway...
  17. ncbi Mediterranean mussel gene expression profile induced by okadaic acid exposure
    Chiara Manfrin
    Department of Life Sciences, Università di Trieste, P le Valmaura, 9, Trieste, Italy
    Environ Sci Technol 44:8276-83. 2010
    ..The characterization of these transcripts could be useful for the identification of an early physiological response to OA exposure...
  18. ncbi Accumulation and transformation of DSP toxins in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis during a toxic episode caused by Dinophysis acuminata
    A Moroño
    Centro de Control do Medio Mariño Xunta de Galicia, Peirao de Vilaxoán s n, 36611, Vilagarcia de Arousa, Pontevedra, Spain
    Aquat Toxicol 62:269-80. 2003
    ....
  19. ncbi Profiles and levels of fatty acid esters of okadaic acid group toxins and pectenotoxins during toxin depuration. Part II: blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and flat oyster (Ostrea edulis)
    Trine Torgersen
    National Veterinary Institute, Department of Feed and Food Safety, P O Box 750 Sentrum, NO 0106 Oslo, Norway
    Toxicon 52:418-27. 2008
    ..Hence, although produced by the same Dinophysis species, conclusions about the dynamics of one toxin group based on results from the other group should be avoided in future studies...
  20. ncbi Shellfish consumption: a major risk factor for colorectal cancer
    Emilia Manerio
    Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, UCM, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Med Hypotheses 70:409-12. 2008
    ..Unfortunately, legal levels of DSP toxins in shellfish are enough to increase CRC risk. A review of legislation on DSP toxins is urgent...
  21. ncbi Effect of uncontrolled factors in a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method question its use as a reference method for marine toxins: major causes for concern
    Paz Otero
    Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Spain
    Anal Chem 83:5903-11. 2011
    ..techniques coupled to mass spectrometry is the method of choice to replace the mouse bioassay (MBA) to detect marine toxins. This paper evaluates the influence of different parameters such as toxin solvents, mass spectrometric ..
  22. pmc Diarrhetic shellfish toxins and other lipophilic toxins of human health concern in Washington State
    Vera L Trainer
    Marine Biotoxins Program, Environmental Conservation Division, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2725 Montlake Blvd E, Seattle, WA 98112, USA
    Mar Drugs 11:1815-35. 2013
    ..The greater than average Fraser River flow during the summers of 2011 and 2012 may have provided an environment conducive to dinoflagellates and played a role in the prevalence of toxigenic Dinophysis in Puget Sound...
  23. ncbi Induction of oxidative DNA damage by the marine toxin okadaic acid depends on human cell type
    Vanessa Valdiglesias
    Toxicology Unit, Psychobiology Department, University of A Coruna, Edificio de Servicios Centrales de Investigación, Campus Elviña s n, 15071 A Coruna, Spain
    Toxicon 57:882-8. 2011
    ..However, the extent of these effects are cell type dependent...
  24. ncbi Enzymatic hydrolysis of esterified diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins and pectenotoxins
    Erin Doucet
    National Research Council Canada, Institute for Marine Biosciences, 1411 Oxford Street, Halifax, NS, B3H 3Z1, Canada
    Anal Bioanal Chem 389:335-42. 2007
    ..Enzymatic hydrolysis has excellent potential as an alternative to the conventional alkaline hydrolysis procedure used in the preparation of shellfish samples for the analysis of toxins...
  25. ncbi Investigation of the distribution and excretion of okadaic acid in mice using immunostaining method
    Emiko Ito
    Research Center for Pathogenic Fungi and Microbial Toxicoses, Chiba University, 1 8 1 Inohana, Chuo Ku, Chiba, 260 8673, Japan
    Toxicon 40:159-65. 2002
    ..The detection of OA continued for 2 weeks in the liver and blood vessels. Excretion from kidney, cecum and large intestine began even after 5 min of the administration, and the excretion from intestine continued for 4 weeks...
  26. ncbi Promotion of oxidative stress in the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum during biotransformation of the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR
    Stephan Pflugmacher
    Leibniz Institut for Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, RG Biogeochemical Regulation, Muggelseedamm 301, 12561 Berlin, Germany
    Aquat Toxicol 70:169-78. 2004
    ..Other reactive oxygen detoxifiying enzymes were also elevated and the glutathione pool, expressed in reduced glutathione and glutathione disulfide concentration was changed accordingly...
  27. ncbi Effects of cooking and heat treatment on concentration and tissue distribution of okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-2 in mussels (Mytilus edulis)
    Pearse McCarron
    Marine Institute, Marine Environment and Food Safety Services, Rinville, Oranmore, Co Galway, Ireland
    Toxicon 51:1081-9. 2008
    ..The findings of the studies reported here have importance in terms of the methodology applied in regulatory phycotoxin monitoring programmes. Therefore, options for sample pretreatment are discussed...
  28. ncbi Analysis of the passage of the marine biotoxin okadaic acid through an in vitro human gut barrier
    Anke Ehlers
    Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Department of Food Safety, Thielallee 88 92, D 14195 Berlin, Germany
    Toxicology 279:196-202. 2011
    ..In conclusion, our results indicate that besides the well known defense mechanisms of humans against this marine biotoxin--vomiting and diarrhea--further detoxification mechanisms are available to limit the absorption of toxic OA...
  29. ncbi Evaluation of genotoxicity in gills and hemolymph of clam Ruditapes decussatus fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima
    Fernanda Flórez-Barrós
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Spain
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 74:971-9. 2011
    ..An increase in DNA damage was observed at the lower concentration and only in gill tissue. The results obtained may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying genotoxic effects induced by OA on bivalves...
  30. ncbi Unique toxin profile of a Mediterranean Ostreopsis cf. ovata strain: HR LC-MS(n) characterization of ovatoxin-f, a new palytoxin congener
    Patrizia Ciminiello
    Department of Chemistry of Natural Products, University of Napoli Federico II, via D Montesano 49, Napoli 80131, Italy
    Chem Res Toxicol 25:1243-52. 2012
    ..congeners, a putative palytoxin and ovatoxins (ovatoxin-a, -b, -c, -d/-e), listed among the most potent marine toxins. High resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HR LC-MS) based investigation of a North Western ..
  31. pmc Health risk assessment for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood
    Vanora Mulvenna
    Department of Health, GPO Box 4541, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 9:807-20. 2012
    ..This paper estimates risk from seafood contaminated by cyanobacterial toxins, and provides guidelines for safe human consumption...
  32. ncbi Chronic effects in mice caused by oral administration of sublethal doses of azaspiracid, a new marine toxin isolated from mussels
    Emiko Ito
    Research Center for Pathogenic Fungi and Microbial Toxicoses, Chiba University, 1 8 1 Inohana, Chuo Ku, Chiba 260 8673, Japan
    Toxicon 40:193-203. 2002
    ..Tumors were not observed in 11 mice treated at lower doses and in 19 control mice. Hyperplasia of epithelial cells was also observed in the stomach of six mice out of ten administered at 20 microg/kg...
  33. ncbi Effects of toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense on the energy budgets and growth of two marine bivalves
    Siu Chung Li
    Department of Biology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology HKUST, Clear Water Bay, People s Republic of China
    Mar Environ Res 53:145-60. 2002
    ..Clam R. philippinarum may be more sensitive, in terms of their energy budget, to PSP toxin accumulation than the mussel P. viridis...
  34. pmc Ovatoxin-a and palytoxin accumulation in seafood in relation to Ostreopsis cf. ovata blooms on the French Mediterranean coast
    Zouher Amzil
    IFREMER, Phycotoxins Laboratory, Nantes, France
    Mar Drugs 10:477-96. 2012
    ..This publication brings together scientific knowledge obtained about the summer development of Ostreopsis spp. in France during 2007, 2008 and 2009...
  35. ncbi Collaborative study for the detection of toxic compounds in shellfish extracts using cell-based assays. Part II: application to shellfish extracts spiked with lipophilic marine toxins
    Aurélie Ledreux
    UMR 7245 MNHN CNRS MCAM, Museum national d histoire naturelle, 75231 Paris, France
    Anal Bioanal Chem 403:1995-2007. 2012
    ....
  36. ncbi Pectenotoxins--an issue for public health: a review of their comparative toxicology and metabolism
    V Burgess
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology NRCET, Coopers Plains, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
    Environ Int 27:275-83. 2001
    ..This review gives a brief introduction to diarrhetic shellfish toxins, details the known toxicology and metabolism of PTXs in animals, and discusses known incidences of PTX poisoning in humans...
  37. ncbi Collaborative study for the detection of toxic compounds in shellfish extracts using cell-based assays. Part I: screening strategy and pre-validation study with lipophilic marine toxins
    Anne Laure Serandour
    Unité de toxicologie des contaminants, Anses, 35302 Fougeres, France
    Anal Bioanal Chem 403:1983-93. 2012
    ..Considering these successful results, the CBA strategy will be further applied to extracts of negative, spiked, and naturally contaminated shellfish tissues...
  38. ncbi A review on the effects of environmental conditions on growth and toxin production of Ostreopsis ovata
    R Pistocchi
    Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per le Scienze Ambientali, Universita di Bologna, via S Alberto 163, 48100 Ravenna, Italy
    Toxicon 57:421-8. 2011
    ..e. 40). For the same strain, both nitrogen and phosphorus limitation determined a decrease in cell toxicity showing different behaviour with respect to many other toxic dinoflagellates...
  39. ncbi Accumulation of cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater "seafood" and its consequences for public health: a review
    Bas W Ibelings
    Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Sciences and Technology, Centre of Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry, Seestrasse 79, CH 6047 Kastanienbaum, Switzerland
    Environ Pollut 150:177-92. 2007
    ..Risk assessments should acknowledge this and investigate the partitioning of exposure between drinking-water and food, which may vary depending on local circumstances...
  40. ncbi Influence of temperature and salinity on Ostreopsis cf. ovata growth and evaluation of toxin content through HR LC-MS and biological assays
    Laura Pezzolesi
    Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per le Scienze Ambientali, Universita di Bologna, via S Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna, Italy
    Water Res 46:82-92. 2012
    ....
  41. ncbi Metabolic transformation of dinophysistoxin-3 into dinophysistoxin-1 causes human intoxication by consumption of O-acyl-derivatives dinophysistoxins contaminated shellfish
    Carlos Garcia
    Laboratorio BioquúSica de Membrana, Depto Fisiologia y Biofisica, Fac de Medicina, Universidad de Chile
    J Toxicol Sci 30:287-96. 2005
    ..This transformation should occur in the stomach of the poisoned patients after consuming 7-O-acyl-derivatives dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-3) contaminated bivalves...
  42. ncbi Complex palytoxin-like profile of Ostreopsis ovata. Identification of four new ovatoxins by high-resolution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry
    Patrizia Ciminiello
    Dipartimento di Chimica delle Sostanze Naturali, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, via D Montesano 49, 80131 Napoli, Italy
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 24:2735-44. 2010
    ....
  43. ncbi Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection
    Geoffrey A Codd
    Division of Environmental and Applied Biology, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, UK
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 203:264-72. 2005
    ....
  44. pmc Comparative gene expression in toxic versus non-toxic strains of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum
    Ines Yang
    Alfred Wegener Institut fur Polar und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany
    BMC Genomics 11:248. 2010
    ..While a PSP toxin gene cluster has recently been characterized in cyanobacteria, the genetic background of PSP toxin production in dinoflagellates remains elusive...
  45. ncbi Microcystin-producing blooms--a serious global public health issue
    Daniela R de Figueiredo
    Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Santigo, 3810 193 Aveiro, Portugal
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 59:151-63. 2004
    ....
  46. pmc Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin-producing cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon gracile in northeast Germany
    Andreas Ballot
    Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Department of Limnology of Stratified Lakes, Alte Fischerhütte 2, 16775 Stechlin, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:1173-80. 2010
    ..flos-aquae, Anabaena planktonica, and Anabaenopsis elenkinii strains. ATX and CYN were not detected in any of the isolated strains. This study is the first confirming the role of A. gracile as a PSP toxin producer in German water bodies...
  47. pmc Sea anemone toxins affecting voltage-gated sodium channels--molecular and evolutionary features
    Yehu Moran
    Department of Plant Sciences, George S Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    Toxicon 54:1089-101. 2009
    ....
  48. ncbi Genotoxicity and potential carcinogenicity of cyanobacterial toxins - a review
    Bojana Zegura
    National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Mutat Res 727:16-41. 2011
    ..Future research efforts should focus on the elucidation of the carcinogenic potential of NOD, CYN, and the mixture of cyanobacterial extracts, as well as on the identification of possible novel toxins...
  49. ncbi Cyanobacterial toxins--occurrence, biosynthesis and impact on human affairs
    Elke Dittmann
    Humboldt University, Institute of Biology, Berlin, Germany
    Mol Nutr Food Res 50:7-17. 2006
    ..We highlight selected cases of human fatalities related to the toxins. A special focus is given to evident cases of contamination of food supplements with cyanobacterial toxins, and to the necessary precautions...
  50. ncbi Occurrence of beta-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) in ALS/PDC patients from Guam
    S J Murch
    Institute for Ethnobotany, National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, HI 96741, USA
    Acta Neurol Scand 110:267-9. 2004
    ..Both forms of BMAA were also found at comparable levels in two Canadians who died of progressive neurodegenerative disease. BMAA, which is produced by cyanobacteria, may be associated with some cases of neurodegenerative disease...
  51. ncbi Novel peptide toxins from the sea anemone Stichodactyla haddoni
    Tomohiro Honma
    Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Konan 4, Tokyo 108 8477, Japan
    Peptides 29:536-44. 2008
    ..In addition to these four toxins, an epidermal growth factor-like peptide was detected in S. haddoni by RT-PCR...
  52. ncbi Assessment of the marine toxins by monitoring the integrity of human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers
    T Okada
    Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan
    Toxicol In Vitro 14:219-26. 2000
    ..Although onnamide A, a protein synthesis inhibitor, did not cause any decrease in TEER, at least during a 90-min incubation, TEER sensitively reflects the cytotoxic effects of various types of toxicants with acute toxicity...
  53. ncbi Three Rs Approaches in Marine Biotoxin Testing. The Report and Recommendations of a joint ECVAM/DG SANCO Workshop (ECVAM Workshop 54)
    Philipp Hess
    Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, Co Galway, Ireland
    Altern Lab Anim 34:193-224. 2006
  54. pmc Impacts of climate variability and future climate change on harmful algal blooms and human health
    Stephanie K Moore
    School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Box 355351, Seattle, Washington 98195 5351, USA
    Environ Health 7:S4. 2008
    ..We review the interactions between selected patterns of large-scale climate variability and climate change, oceanic conditions, and harmful algae...
  55. ncbi Occurrence of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in clams (Ruditapes decussatus) from Tunis north lagoon
    Zina Armi
    Laboratoire du Milieu Marin, Institut National des Sciences et Technologies de la Mer, Centre la Goulette, Port de Pêche 2060, Tunisia
    Environ Monit Assess 184:5085-95. 2012
    ..However, a potential threat, in this area, is represented by DSP toxic species as D. sacculus and provides grounds for widen and reinforcing sanitary control of the phycotoxin measures in the region...
  56. pmc In vitro acylation of okadaic acid in the presence of various bivalves' extracts
    Keiichi Konoki
    Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1 1 Tsutsumidori Amamiyamachi, Aoba ku, Sendai 981 8555, Japan
    Mar Drugs 11:300-15. 2013
    ..Since DTX3 does not bind to protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, the physiological target for OA and DTXs in mammalian cells, the acylation of DSP toxins would be related to a detoxification mechanism for the bivalve species...
  57. ncbi Pectenotoxins and yessotoxin from Arica Bay, North Chile as determined by tandem mass spectrometry
    Bernd Krock
    Alfred Wegener Institut fur Polar und Meeresforschung, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
    Toxicon 54:364-7. 2009
    ..This is the first report of PTXs and YTX from planktonic samples in Chilean coastal waters...
  58. ncbi Chelonitoxism: new case reports in French Polynesia and review of the literature
    Agnès Fussy
    Departement d Anesthesie Reanimation, Hôpital Mamao, BP1640, Papeete, Tahiti, Polynesie Francaise
    Toxicon 49:827-32. 2007
    ..The causative toxins are currently unidentified. Further study is needed to better understand chelonitoxism...
  59. ncbi A mussel tissue certified reference material for multiple phycotoxins. Part 2: liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, sample extraction and quantitation procedures
    Pearse McCarron
    National Research Council Canada, Institute for Marine Biosciences, Halifax, NS, Canada
    Anal Bioanal Chem 400:835-46. 2011
    ..The developed methods also have excellent potential for application in routine regulatory monitoring of shellfish toxins...
  60. ncbi Peptide toxins in sea anemones: structural and functional aspects
    Tomohiro Honma
    Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Konan 4, Minato ku, Tokyo, 108 8477, Japan
    Mar Biotechnol (NY) 8:1-10. 2006
    ..In addition, structurally novel peptide toxins, such as an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like toxin (gigantoxin I), have also been isolated from some sea anemones although their functions remain to be clarified...
  61. ncbi Acute phase phospholipids related to the cardiolipin of mitochondria in the sera of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), chronic Ciguatera fish poisoning (CCFP), and other diseases attributed to chemicals, Gulf War, and marine toxins
    YOSHITSUGI HOKAMA
    Department of Pathology, University of Hawaii Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
    J Clin Lab Anal 22:99-105. 2008
    ..We designate this "Acute Phase Lipid" comparable to "Acute Phase Proteins" (C-reactive protein (CRP) and Serum Amyloid A (SAA)) in inflammatory conditions...
  62. ncbi Isolation and characterization of an enzyme from the Greenshell™ mussel Perna canaliculus that hydrolyses pectenotoxins and esters of okadaic acid
    Lincoln A Mackenzie
    Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson 7042, New Zealand
    Toxicon 60:406-19. 2012
    ....
  63. ncbi First evidence on occurrence of gymnodimine in clams from Tunisia
    Ronel Bire
    Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments AFSSA, Unite Toxines Microbiennes, Laboratoire National de Référence pour les Biotoxines Marines, 10 rue Pierre Curie, 94704 Maisons Alfort cedex, France
    J Nat Toxins 11:269-75. 2002
    ..Gymnodimine B and C analogues were not detected in the clam samples. Gymnodimine preferentially accumulates in the digestive gland of the Tunisian clams, although substantial amounts are also found in the meat...
  64. pmc Single laboratory validation of a ready-to-use phosphatase inhibition assay for detection of okadaic acid toxins
    Henry G F Smienk
    Zeu Inmunotec, Polígono PLAZA, C Bari 25 Dpdo, 50197, Zaragoza, Spain
    Toxins (Basel) 4:339-52. 2012
    ..Finally, the method was qualitatively compared to the mouse bioassay and LC-MS/MS...
  65. ncbi Screening of lipophilic marine toxins in shellfish and algae: development of a library using liquid chromatography coupled to orbitrap mass spectrometry
    Arjen Gerssen
    RIKILT, Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Anal Chim Acta 685:176-85. 2011
    Most liquid chromatography (LC) mass spectrometric (MS) methods used for routine monitoring of lipophilic marine toxins focus on the analysis of the 13 toxins that are stated in European Union legislation...
  66. pmc Computational studies of marine toxins targeting ion channels
    M Harunur Rashid
    School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia
    Mar Drugs 11:848-69. 2013
    ..Here we present a review of the computational methods and discuss their applications to marine toxins targeting potassium and sodium channels...
  67. ncbi Influence of environmental and nutritional factors on growth, toxicity, and toxin profile of dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum
    D F Hwang
    Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan
    Toxicon 38:1491-503. 2000
    ..But toxins GTX 2 and 3 increased when the cells were cultured in high salinity medium...
  68. ncbi Co-occurrence of beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine, a neurotoxic amino acid with other cyanobacterial toxins in British waterbodies, 1990-2004
    James S Metcalf
    Division of Molecular and Environmental Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, UK
    Environ Microbiol 10:702-8. 2008
    ..Furthermore, samples collected over several years shows that BMAA can co-occur with other known cyanotoxins in such waterbodies. Health risk assessment of cyanobacterial BMAA in waterbodies is suggested...
  69. ncbi In situ passive solid-phase adsorption of micro-algal biotoxins as a monitoring tool
    Lincoln A Mackenzie
    Cawthron Institute, 98 Halifax Street, Private Bag 2, Nelson 7010, New Zealand
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 21:326-31. 2010
    ..The technique has also been successfully applied to the detection of a range of freshwater cyanobacterial toxins...
  70. ncbi Peptide fingerprinting of the neurotoxic fractions isolated from the secretions of sea anemones Stichodactyla helianthus and Bunodosoma granulifera. New members of the APETx-like family identified by a 454 pyrosequencing approach
    Armando Alexei Rodríguez
    Centro de Bioproductos Marinos, Nuevo Vedado, Habana, Cuba
    Peptides 34:26-38. 2012
    ..Some of them presumably belong to new classes of crab-paralyzing peptide toxins, especially those with molecular masses below 2kDa, which represent the smallest peptide toxins found in sea anemones...
  71. ncbi Advances in monitoring and toxicity assessment of brevetoxins in molluscan shellfish
    Steven M Plakas
    Gulf Coast Seafood Laboratory, U S Food and Drug Administration, 1 Iberville Drive, Dauphin Island, AL 36528, USA
    Toxicon 56:137-49. 2010
    ..Specific and measurable biomarkers of brevetoxin exposure and toxicity in shellfish, and of human intoxication, are described. Their utility in regulatory monitoring of toxic shellfish and in clinical diagnosis of NSP is evaluated...
  72. ncbi Ostreopsis cf. ovata bloom in the northern Adriatic Sea during summer 2009: ecology, molecular characterization and toxin profile
    Stefano Accoroni
    Dipartimento di Scienze del Mare, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
    Mar Pollut Bull 62:2512-9. 2011
    ..Toxin analysis performed by high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed a high total toxin content (up to 75 pg cell(-1)), including putative palytoxin and all the ovatoxins known so far...
  73. ncbi Toxic cascades: multiple anthropogenic stressors have complex and unanticipated interactive effects on temperate reefs
    Nick T Shears
    Leigh Marine Laboratory, University of Auckland, Warkworth, New Zealand
    Ecol Lett 13:1149-59. 2010
    ..We argue that interacting stressors can facilitate or attenuate trophic cascades depending on stressor intensity and complex non-lethal interactions...
  74. ncbi Natural products in anticancer therapy
    A B da Rocha
    Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Lutheran University of Brazil, Canoas, RS
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 1:364-9. 2001
    ..Other agents originating from marine sources are bryostatin-1, aplidine, dolastatin 10 and ET-743, which have recently entered phase I and II clinical trials...
  75. ncbi BcIV, a new paralyzing peptide obtained from the venom of the sea anemone Bunodosoma caissarum. A comparison with the Na+ channel toxin BcIII
    Joacir Stolarz Oliveira
    Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matão 101, Travessa 14, 05508 900 São Paulo SP, Brazil
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1764:1592-600. 2006
    ..A molecular model of BcIV was constructed using the structure of the APETx1 as template and putative key residues are discussed...
  76. ncbi Comparative growth and toxin profile of cultured Ostreopsis ovata from the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Seas
    Franca Guerrini
    Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per le Scienze Ambientali, Universita di Bologna, via S Alberto 163, 48100 Ravenna, Italy
    Toxicon 55:211-20. 2010
    ....
  77. ncbi Magnetic resonance imaging quality and volumes of brain structures from live and postmortem imaging of California sea lions with clinical signs of domoic acid toxicosis
    Eric W Montie
    College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, Florida 33701, USA
    Dis Aquat Organ 91:243-56. 2010
    ..Thus, postmortem MRI scanning (either intact or formalin-fixed) with volumetric analysis can be used to investigate the acute, chronic and possible developmental effects of DA on the brain of California sea lions...
  78. ncbi Case definitions for human poisonings postulated to palytoxins exposure
    A Tubaro
    Department of Materials and Natural Resources, University of Trieste, Via A Valerio 6, 34127 Trieste, Italy
    Toxicon 57:478-95. 2011
    ..A standardized protocol for data collection could provide a more rapid and reliable diagnosis of palytoxin-poisoning, but also the collection of necessary data for the risk assessment for this family of toxins...
  79. ncbi Novel peptide toxins from acrorhagi, aggressive organs of the sea anemone Actinia equina
    Tomohiro Honma
    Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Konan 4, Minato ku, Tokyo 108 8477, Japan
    Toxicon 46:768-74. 2005
    ..This is the first to demonstrate the existence of novel peptide toxins in the sea anemone acrorhagi...
  80. ncbi Spirolide composition of micro-extracted pooled cells isolated from natural plankton assemblages and from cultures of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii
    A D Cembella
    Institute for Marine Biosciences, National Research Council of Canada, Halifax, Nova Scotia
    Nat Toxins 7:197-206. 1999
    ..Combining these techniques represents a highly sensitive method for the analysis of marine toxins within complex plankton matrices, even when the toxigenic species is in low abundance, by enrichment of the ..
  81. ncbi Palytoxin action on the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and the disruption of ion equilibria in biological systems
    Gian Paolo Rossini
    Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 287, I 41125 Modena, Italy
    Toxicon 57:429-39. 2011
    ....
  82. ncbi Effects of the marine toxin palytoxin on human skin keratinocytes: role of ionic imbalance
    M Pelin
    Department of Materials and Natural Resources, University of Trieste, Via A Valerio 6, 34127 Trieste, Italy
    Toxicology 282:30-8. 2011
    ..The PLTX concentrations inducing cytotoxicty seem to be lower than those of potential cutaneous human exposure during Ostreopsis ovata blooms, indicating the harmful potential of the toxin...
  83. ncbi Determination of marine biotoxins relevant for regulations: from the mouse bioassay to coupled LC-MS methods
    Bernd Christian
    Institute for Nutrition, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Dornburger Str 25, 07743, Jena, Germany
    Anal Bioanal Chem 391:117-34. 2008
    ..In this context LC-MS methods replaced HPLC methods with optical detectors, allowing both effective seafood control and monitoring of phytoplankton in terms of the different groups of marine biotoxins...
  84. ncbi Single-laboratory validation of the microplate receptor binding assay for paralytic shellfish toxins in shellfish
    Frances M Van Dolah
    NOAA National Ocean Service, Marine Biotoxins Program, 219 Fort Johnson Rd, Charleston, SC 29412, USA
    J AOAC Int 92:1705-13. 2009
    ..Overall, the excellent linear correlations with the both mouse bioassay and HPLC method and sufficient interassay repeatability suggest that the RBA can be effective as a high throughput screen for estimating PSP toxicity in shellfish...
  85. ncbi Assessment of specific binding proteins suitable for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisons using optical biosensor technology
    Katrina Campbell
    Institute of Agri food and Land Use, Queen s University, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
    Anal Chem 79:5906-14. 2007
    ..R895 delivered a profile that was most likely to detect the widest range of PSP toxins at or below the internationally adopted regulatory limits...
  86. ncbi Nodularin uptake by seafood during a cyanobacterial bloom
    P G Van Buynder
    Victorian Department of Human Services, GPO Box 1670N, Melbourne, VIC 3001
    Environ Toxicol 16:468-71. 2001
    ..Nodularin concentrations in the flesh of finfish remained low. Boiling the seafood redistributed toxin between viscera and flesh. The results were used to restrict some seafood harvesting...
  87. ncbi Implications of life-history transitions on the population genetic structure of the toxigenic marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense
    Tilman J Alpermann
    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany
    Mol Ecol 18:2122-33. 2009
    ....
  88. ncbi New anti-actin drugs in the study of the organization and function of the actin cytoskeleton
    I Spector
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 8661, USA
    Microsc Res Tech 47:18-37. 1999
    ..We also discuss the effects of these new drugs on fenestrae formation in liver endothelial cells as an example of their usefulness as powerful tools to selectively unmask actin-mediated dynamic processes...
  89. ncbi Relative toxicity of dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2) compared with okadaic acid, based on acute intraperitoneal toxicity in mice
    Tore Aune
    Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P O Box 8146 Dep, 0033 Oslo, Norway
    Toxicon 49:1-7. 2007
    ..Since inhibition of PP2A is acknowledged as the main mechanism of toxicity of the OA group toxins, this supports the establishment of a relative toxicity factor of DTX-2 of 0.6 compared with OA...
  90. ncbi Structures of sea anemone toxins
    Raymond S Norton
    Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville 3052, Victoria, Australia
    Toxicon 54:1075-88. 2009
    ..The prospects for obtaining atomic resolution structures of toxins bound to their receptors are also discussed...
  91. ncbi First identification of azaspiracid and spirolides in Mesodesma donacium and Mulinia edulis from Northern Chile
    Gonzalo Alvarez
    Centro de Investigacións Mariñas Xunta de Galicia, Apto 13, 36620 Vilanova de Arousa, Pontevedra, Spain
    Toxicon 55:638-41. 2010
    ..This is the first report of the occurrence of these groups of toxins in Chile and suggests that it is necessary to monitor routinely these substances to warrant public health and shellfish exportations...
  92. ncbi Toxicological comparison of diverse Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii strains: evidence of liver damage caused by a French C raciborskii strain
    C Bernard
    USM0505 Ecosystèmes et interactions toxiques, Museum national d histoire naturelle, 12 rue Buffon, F 75005 Paris, France
    Environ Toxicol 18:176-86. 2003
    ....
  93. ncbi Growth response and toxin concentration of cultured Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum to varying salinity and temperature conditions
    Alice Ilaya Gedaria
    Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines corrected
    Toxicon 50:518-29. 2007
    ..bahamense was not able to grow at low salinity and temperature (i.e. below 26 per thousand-28 degrees C). Optimum growth was observed in higher salinities at all temperature conditions...
  94. ncbi Occurrence of palytoxin-group toxins in seafood and future strategies to complement the present state of the art
    Katerina Aligizaki
    Department of Botany, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, PO Box 109, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece
    Toxicon 57:390-9. 2011
    ..Future recommendations include systematic screening of PlTX in those species and areas where PlTX has already been recorded implementing updated methodologies...
  95. ncbi Domoic acid and human exposure risks: a review
    Kathi A Lefebvre
    NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Marine Biotoxins Program, 2725 Montlake Blvd East, Seattle, WA 98112, United States
    Toxicon 56:218-30. 2010
    ..The importance of investigating the potential human health impacts of long-term low-level domoic acid exposure in "at risk" human populations is also discussed...
  96. ncbi Comparative effects of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on clearance rates in juveniles of four bivalve molluscs from Florida, USA
    Jay R Leverone
    College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St Petersburg, FL 33701, USA
    Toxicon 49:634-45. 2007
    ..viridis, which also showed reduced clearance rates at high K. brevis concentrations, might be negatively impacted by K. brevis blooms, thereby affecting their ability to spread into estuaries hampered by recurring toxic algal blooms...
  97. ncbi Characterization of a Dispiroketal Spirolide Subclass from Alexandrium ostenfeldii
    Joy S Roach
    Institute for Marine Biosciences, National Research Council of Canada, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 3Z1
    J Nat Prod 72:1237-40. 2009
    A new subclass of spirolide marine toxins, represented by spirolides H (1) and I (2), were isolated from the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii...
  98. ncbi Occurrence of tetrodotoxin and paralytic shellfish poisons in a gastropod implicated in food poisoning in southern Taiwan
    H C Jen
    Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan
    Food Addit Contam 24:902-9. 2007
    ....
  99. ncbi Effects of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on larval development in three species of bivalve mollusc from Florida
    Jay R Leverone
    Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236, USA
    Toxicon 48:75-84. 2006
    ..Special attention should be paid to blooms of K. brevis where these shellfish occur naturally or where aquaculture and restoration activities are either ongoing or planned...
  100. pmc Symplocamide A, a potent cytotoxin and chymotrypsin inhibitor from the marine Cyanobacterium Symploca sp
    Roger G Linington
    Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Nat Prod 71:22-7. 2008
    ....
  101. ncbi Evaluation of various pH and temperature conditions on the stability of azaspiracids and their importance in preparative isolation and toxicological studies
    Carmen Alfonso
    Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
    Anal Chem 80:9672-80. 2008
    ..Finally, the toxic potential of acid degradation products of AZAs was found to be dramatically reduced compared to the parent compounds, as assessed through cytotoxicity...

Research Grants48

  1. Sensor for Paralytic Shellfish Poisons
    ROBERT GAWLEY; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..PSPs are 1 of only a few marine toxins that can be fatal to humans when consumed in food...
  2. SYNTHETIC/MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF BIOACTIVE MARINE AGENTS
    Daniel Romo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..3) Hypothesis-driven biomechanistic studies of spirocyclic imine marine toxins building on our total synthesis of gymnodimine...
  3. Advanced Research Cooperation in Environmental Health Research
    Kathleen S Rein; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The MFBS Center encompasses two principle research themes;Marine Toxins and dietary risk and Marine Models of human disease...
  4. Total Synthesis of Bioactive Marine Natural Products
    Armen Zakarian; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CI toxins are an emerging group of marine toxins with global distribution and unknown human health risks...
  5. Epoxide-Opening Cascade Approach to the Synthesis of Marine Ladder Polyethers
    MATTHEW BEAVER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The inability to isolate significant quantities of material inhibits the research of marine toxins as therapeutic agents, and thus the chemical synthesis of these natural products is a necessary step to ..
  6. TOTAL SYNTHESIS OF APOPTOLIDIN
    K Nicolaou; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The proposed work is expected to have significant impact in the area of cancer chemotherapy and should provide enabling technologies and tools for biology and medicine. ..
  7. TOTAL SYNTHESIS OF AZADIRACHTIN
    K Nicolaou; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The proposed work is expected to impact the general areas of pharmaceutical and agricultural research, and infectious diseases in particular, through discoveries in synthetic organic chemistry and chemical biology. ..
  8. Enabling Technologies for Combinatorial Chemistry
    K Nicolaou; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  9. SYNTHESIS OF ANTICANCER AGENTS
    K C Nicolaou; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  10. TOTAL SYNTHESIS OF NATURAL PRODUCTS
    K Nicolaou; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..3] sigmatropic rearrangement and a radical based ring closure to form the bicyclic skeleton. ..
  11. Pharmacological characterization of novel marine toxins
    James Sanders; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Further characterization of the marine toxins will involve testing the compounds on an array of receptors including both ionotropic and metabotropic GluRs...
  12. LATRUNCULINS: CHEMICAL & BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS
    Ilan Spector; Fiscal Year: 1992
    The long term objective are: 1. To elucidate the molecular basis by which the new marine toxins, the latrunculins, affect the actin-based cytoskeleton. 2...
  13. Marine Toxin Impacts on Neurobehavioral Function
    Edward Levin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Research concerning the neurobehavioral mechanisms and effects of Pfiesteria toxin, domoic acid and other marine toxins will be presented. The speakers will include nationally renowned researchers...
  14. Micromass LCT Mass Spectrometer
    MICHAEL CRIMMINS; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The major users group is highly dependent on rapid turn around mass spectral data. Since there is currently no Departmental mass spectrometry facility, the research programs of the major users have been seriously hampered for some time. ..
  15. ASYMMETRIC SYNTHESIS OF ANTITUMOR AGENTS
    MICHAEL CRIMMINS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Laulimalide stimulates tubulin polymerization more effectively than paclitaxel. Laulimalide is a representative of a new class of microtubule stabilizing agents with promise for therapeutic potential. ..
  16. ASYMMETRIC SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL NATURAL PRODUCTS
    MICHAEL CRIMMINS; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Synthesis of the biologically active agents guanacastepene, and SCH 351448 will also be pursued. ..
  17. Synthesis of Polyketides and Terpenes
    David A Evans; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..As a consequence, organic synthesis is a critical discipline that continues to have an important impact on the fields of both medicine and biology. ..
  18. ASYMMETRIC SYNTHESIS OF IONOPHORE/MACROLIDE ANTIBIOTICS
    David Evans; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Our goal has been to set in place all of the reactions necessary for the rapid assemblage of any polyketide target structure. ..
  19. ASYMMETRIC SYNTHESIS OF VANCOMYCIN ANTIBIOTICS
    David Evans; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..During the course of this project we intend to confirm (correct) the absolute stereochemical assignments of the principal members of this family by total synthesis. ..
  20. Development of a Highly Efficient Personal Sampler to collect Viable Bioaerosols
    Yung Sung Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The new device will not only be beneficial in occupational settings, but may also have future potential in high risk areas such as those following any possible biological attack. ..
  21. Inhalation Dosimetry/Exposure Index of Fiber Aerosol
    Yung Sung Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Sampling devices based on this size-selection definition can be developed in the future for improved assessment of worker exposure. ..
  22. Domoic Acid and Neonatal Microglia Activation
    Alejandro Mayer; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..activated microglia cells and their mediators play in DOM-induced excitotoxic neuronal injury and thus contribute to potential novel approaches for the therapy of the neuropathology associated with Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning in humans ..
  23. Regulation of PMCA Pump-Channels by Oxidant Stress
    William P Schilling; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  24. HEART-LUNG PHYSIOLOGY: MOLECULAR-SYSTEMIC INTEGRATION
    William Schilling; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Our proposed training program, which emphasizes crossing of departmental barriers and scientific disciplines, continues to develop well-rounded scientists trained in integrated aspects of cardio-respiratory physiology. ..
  25. Ca2+ channels in non-excitable cells
    William Schilling; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  26. Role of Ion Channels in Cell Death
    William Schilling; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  27. Synthesis of Macrolides, Steroids, Cyclopentanoids, etc.
    BARRY TROST; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These new synthetic methods apply to many structural types beyond those illustrated and constitutes a significant to gain access to complex molecular targets more easily. ..
  28. POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF ENOS
    CHARLES SEARLES; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The experience gained performing this research during the period of this award should permit Dr. Searles to become an independent investigator with the expertise and tools necessary to achieve this goal. ..
  29. Inhibition of Macrophage Innate Immunity in Tuberculosis
    WILLIAM NAUSEEF; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  30. Extreme Ammonia Tolerance Mechanisms: A Model Vertebrate
    Patrick Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  31. Conformation-Activity Relationships
    Richard Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Moreover, where appropriate, we have incorporated the development of a number of new synthetic methods for the preparation of complex structural units common to polyketide natural products. ..
  32. CONFORMATION ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS
    Richard Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This increased understanding of epothilone's mode of action at the molecular level will allow for the preparation of the next generation of microtubule-stabilizing anti-mitotic agents. ..
  33. Fox proteins mediate insulin-increasedPAI-1 transcription
    FREDERICK STANLEY; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This proposal sets forth a strategy for accomplishing these goals. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  34. MYRIAPORONES: SYNTHETIC AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES
    Richard Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  35. STUDIES ON RHODOPSIN & AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION
    Koji Nakanishi; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  36. Synthetic Studies of Chiral Organometallics
    ROBERT GAWLEY; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..4. To pursue our recent findings relating to possible stereoelectronic effects on transmetalation and the nature of heteroatom participation in tin-lithium exchanges using rapid injection NMR. ..
  37. NEW STRATEGIES FOR GLYCOCONJUGATE SYNTHESIS
    Frank McDonald; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  38. BioSense Initiative to Improve Early Outbreak Detection
    Howard Burkom; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  39. SYNTHESIS OF BIOACTIVE MACROLIDES
    James White; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These pathways, regardless of whether they are successful, must also serve as paradigms for accessing other potentially useful chemotherapeutic agents of equal or greater complexity. ..
  40. Olfactory Development: Cell Proliferation and Maturation
    CHARLES DERBY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  41. Post-transcriptional Regulation of NO Synthase
    CHARLES SEARLES; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Overall, these studies promise to provide very novel information regarding how mechanical forces and other stimuli modulate gene expression via regulation of mRNA 3' poly(A) tail length. ..
  42. STUDIES OF NATURAL PRODUCTS BY CHIROPTICAL METHODS
    Koji Nakanishi; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This will include CD studies of retinal/opsin in rhodopsin and retinal/bacterioopsin in bacteriorhodopsin. Vinca alkaloid/tubulin and taxoid/tubulin complexes will be analyzed by FDCD. ..
  43. Neuromodulatory Effects of Ginkgolides and Bilobalide
    Koji Nakanishi; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies can potentially provide new targets for terpene trilactones in the central nervous system that require the synthesis of new ginkgolide and bilobalide ligands. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  44. SYNTHESIS OF BIOACTIVE ALKALOIDS
    James White; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..A plan is presented for the synthesis of this complex heptacyclic molecule which envisions a thio-Claisen rearrangement as the key step for building the vicinal quaternary carbons of this structure. ..
  45. NEURAL MECHANISMS OF SOUND LOCALIZATION
    Zhongmin Lu; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Single-cell recording will determine if there are neurons in the medulla and/or midbrain of the goldfish that encode specific timing differences between particle motion and pressure inputs. ..
  46. Phospholipase D and the Actin Cytoskeleton
    DAVID KUSNER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These studies will further both our specific knowledge of signal transduction mechanisms that regulate inflammation as well as our more general understanding of the spatial and temporal determinants of cellular activation and motility. ..
  47. CYTOTOXIC NITROGEN HETEROCYCLES
    Edwin Vedejs; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..