- Methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections among patients in the emergency department
Gregory J Moran
Department of Emergency Medicine, Olive View UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, Calif 91342, USA
N Engl J Med 355:666-74. 2006
..Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasingly recognized in infections among persons in the community without established risk factors for MRSA...
- A protease-resistant immunotoxin against CD22 with greatly increased activity against CLL and diminished animal toxicity
John E Weldon
Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 4264, USA
Blood 113:3792-800. 2009
..We conclude that HA22-LR advances the therapeutic efficacy of HA22 by using an approach that may be applicable to other PE-based immunotoxins...
- Gene therapy-mediated delivery of targeted cytotoxins for glioma therapeutics
Gene Therapeutics Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:20021-6. 2010
..These shortcomings were overcome by our therapeutic Ad, thus representing a significant advance in the development of targeted therapeutics for GBM...
- Involvement of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus in primary skin infections and pneumonia
Centre National de Référence de Toxémies Staphylococciques, Faculte de Medecine, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
Clin Infect Dis 29:1128-32. 1999
..It thus appears that PVL is mainly associated with necrotic lesions involving the skin or mucosa...
- Poring over pores: alpha-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin in Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia
Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
Nat Med 13:1405-6. 2007
- Is Panton-Valentine leukocidin the major virulence determinant in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease?
Jovanka M Voyich
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
J Infect Dis 194:1761-70. 2006
..Although the toxin may be a highly linked epidemiological marker for CA-MRSA strains, we conclude that PVL is not the major virulence determinant of CA-MRSA...
- Community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Frank R Deleo
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
Lancet 375:1557-68. 2010
..Here we review the most up-to-date knowledge and provide a perspective for the future prophylaxis or new treatments for CA-MRSA infections...
- Polymorphonuclear leukocytes mediate Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin-induced lung inflammation and injury
Binh An Diep
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5587-92. 2010
..These findings provide insights into the mechanism of PVL-induced lung injury and inflammation and demonstrate the utility of the rabbit for studying PVL-mediated pathogenesis...
- Comparative analysis of virulence and toxin expression of global community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai 200040, People s Republic of China
J Infect Dis 202:1866-76. 2010
..Our study indicates a major but not exclusive impact of virulence on the epidemiological success of USA300 and other CA-MRSA strains and emphasizes the importance of core genome-encoded toxins in CA-MRSA skin infections...
- Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes: worldwide emergence
INSERM E0230, Lyon, France
Emerg Infect Dis 9:978-84. 2003
..Within each continent, the genetic background of CA-MRSA strains did not correspond to that of the hospital-acquired MRSA...
- Cross-talk between Staphylococcus aureus leukocidins-intoxicated macrophages and lung epithelial cells triggers chemokine secretion in an inflammasome-dependent manner
Universite de Lyon, France
Cell Microbiol 14:1019-36. 2012
- Staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigen exotoxins
Adam R Spaulding
Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
Clin Microbiol Rev 26:422-47. 2013
..Finally, the review addresses current and possible novel strategies to prevent superantigen production and passive and active immunization strategies. ..
- Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin directly targets mitochondria and induces Bax-independent apoptosis of human neutrophils
Anne Laure Genestier
Centre National de Référence des Staphylocoques, INSERM E0230, Lyon, France
J Clin Invest 115:3117-27. 2005
- Staphylococcus aureus panton-valentine leukocidin is a very potent cytotoxic factor for human neutrophils
Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital of Munster, Germany
PLoS Pathog 6:e1000715. 2010
- Staphylococcus aureus leucocidin ED contributes to systemic infection by targeting neutrophils and promoting bacterial growth in vivo
Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
Mol Microbiol 83:423-35. 2012
..Moreover, the tropism of LukED for murine phagocytes highlights the utility of murine models to study LukED pathobiology, including development and testing of strategies to inhibit toxin activity and control bacterial infection...
- Panton-Valentine leukocidin is not a virulence determinant in murine models of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease
Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
Department of Microbiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
J Infect Dis 198:1166-70. 2008
..The data presented in this report support the observation that PVL does not contribute to the pathogenesis of staphylococcal infection of mice...
- Immune evasion by staphylococci
Timothy J Foster
Microbiology Department, Moyne Institute of Preventive Medicine, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
Nat Rev Microbiol 3:948-58. 2005
..In contrast, Staphylococcus epidermidis must rely primarily on cell-surface polymers and the ability to form a biolfilm to survive in the host...
- Characterization of a novel structural member, LukE-LukD, of the bi-component staphylococcal leucotoxins family
UPRES EA 1318, Institut de Bacteriologie de la Faculte de Medecine, Université Louis Pasteur Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, France
FEBS Lett 436:202-8. 1998
..005). LukE+LukD was as effective as the Panton-Valentine leucocidin for inducing dermonecrosis when injected in the rabbit skin, but not hemolytic and poorly leucotoxic compared to other leucotoxins expressed by Staphylococcus aureus...
- Complete nucleotide sequence and molecular characterization of the temperate staphylococcal bacteriophage phiPVL carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes
Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Tohoku University, Sendai 981 8555, Japan
Gene 215:57-67. 1998
..aureus bacteriophages. The phiPVL genome was found to integrate into an ORF encoding an unknown protein comprising 725 amino acid residues with two leucine zipper-like motifs...
- Staphylococcus aureus isolates carrying Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes in England and Wales: frequency, characterization, and association with clinical disease
Laboratory of HealthCare Associated Infection, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, NW9 5HT, United Kingdom
J Clin Microbiol 43:2384-90. 2005
..aureus and belonged to 12 different sequence types, including ST22 and ST30, which are closely related to the most prevalent MRSA clones in United Kingdom hospitals, EMRSA-15 and EMRSA-16, respectively...
- Bacterial two-component and hetero-heptameric pore-forming cytolytic toxins: structures, pore-forming mechanism, and organization of the genes
Department of Microbial Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 68:981-1003. 2004
..We also discuss the current status of knowledge of the genetic organization of PVL-converting phages in order to achieve an understanding of their molecular evolution...
- Role of bacteriophage-encoded exotoxins in the evolution of bacterial pathogens
Center for Microbial Sciences, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182, USA
Future Microbiol 6:1461-73. 2011
..These findings suggest that the exotoxin genes may play a beneficial role for the bacterial host in nature, and that this environmental reservoir of exotoxin genes may play a role in the evolution of new bacterial pathogens...
- Methicillin-susceptible, non-multiresistant methicillin-resistant and multiresistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: a clinical, epidemiological and microbiological comparative study
W J Munckhof
Infection Management Service, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Ipswich Rd, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia 4102
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 27:355-64. 2008
..Patients with PVL-positive infections were much younger than patients with PVL-negative infections. The proportion of PVL-positive infections peaked in the 10-29 years old age group, followed by a linear decline...
- The role of virulence determinants in community-associated MRSA pathogenesis
Binh An Diep
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 1001 Potrero Avenue, Box 0811, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
Trends Microbiol 16:361-9. 2008
..Here, we discuss the roles of PVL, the arginine catabolic mobile element and phenol-soluble modulins in the pathogenesis of prevalent CA-MRSA strains...
- Lower antibody levels to Staphylococcus aureus exotoxins are associated with sepsis in hospitalized adults with invasive S. aureus infections
Rajan P Adhikari
Integrated Biotherapeutics Inc, Gaithersburg, MD, USA
J Infect Dis 206:915-23. 2012
Staphylococcus aureus has numerous virulence factors, including exotoxins that may increase the severity of infection. This study was aimed at assessing whether preexisting antibodies to S...
- Panton-valentine leukocidin enhances the severity of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus rabbit osteomyelitis
Anne Claude Cremieux
Département de médecine aiguë, Hôpital Universitaire Raymond Poincaré, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Garches, France
PLoS ONE 4:e7204. 2009
..However, the pathogenetic role of PVL in staphylococcal infections remains controversial, possibly because it depends on the site of infection...
- Surface proteins and exotoxins are required for the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia
Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
Department of Microbiology, University of Chicago, 920 E 58th St, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Infect Immun 75:1040-4. 2007
..This model closely mimics the clinical and pathological features of pneumonia in human patients. Using this system, we defined a role for S. aureus strain Newman surface proteins and secreted exotoxins in pneumonia-related mortality.
- Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus infections in Auckland, New Zealand
Department of Microbiology, Auckland City Hospital, Grafton, Auckland, New Zealand
J Clin Microbiol 48:3470-4. 2010
..Those patients with PVL-positive MSSA infection were more likely to be of Pacific ethnicity, be younger in age, have community-onset infection, have SSTI, and need surgical intervention...
- Identification of a novel Staphylococcus aureus two-component leukotoxin using cell surface proteomics
Christy L Ventura
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America
PLoS ONE 5:e11634. 2010
..We conclude LukGH is a novel two-component leukotoxin with cytolytic activity toward neutrophils, and thus potentially contributes to S. aureus virulence...
- Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin contributes to inflammation and muscle tissue injury
Ching Wen Tseng
Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the Immunobiology Research Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
PLoS ONE 4:e6387. 2009
..PVL could contribute to the increased incidence of myositis in CA-MRSA infection, and the toxin could mediate tissue injury by mechanisms other than direct killing of phagocytes...
- Pediatric bone and joint infections caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus
Services de Chirurgie Pédiatrique, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Cedex, France
Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:1042-8. 2007
..Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a necrotizing toxin secreted by Staphylococcus aureus. PVL-positive S. aureus osteomyelitis and arthritis have been described...
- Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin causes necrotizing pneumonia
Center for Extracellular Matrix Biology, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Science 315:1130-3. 2007
- Novel multiplex PCR assay for detection of the staphylococcal virulence marker Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes and simultaneous discrimination of methicillin-susceptible from -resistant staphylococci
Jo Ann McClure
Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance, Calgary Health Region Calgary Laboratory Services University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
J Clin Microbiol 44:1141-4. 2006
..This assay is simple, rapid, and accurate and offers the potential for prompt detection of newly emerging community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus...
- Association between Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying gene for Panton-Valentine leukocidin and highly lethal necrotising pneumonia in young immunocompetent patients
Division of Paediatric Intensive Care, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon, France
Lancet 359:753-9. 2002
..We aimed to assess the clinical features of these eight cases, and those of other cases identified prospectively, and to compare them with the characteristics of patients with pneumonia caused by PVL-negative strains...
- Phase III randomized trial of CED of IL13-PE38QQR vs Gliadel wafers for recurrent glioblastoma
Division of Neuro Oncology, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, A 808, San Francisco, CA 94143 0350, USA
Neuro Oncol 12:871-81. 2010
..There was no survival difference between CB administered via CED and GW. Drug distribution was not assessed and may be crucial for evaluating future CED-based therapeutics...
- Transcription of inflammatory genes in the lung after infection with community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a role for panton-valentine leukocidin?
Christopher P Montgomery
Section of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave, MC 1145, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Infect Immun 77:2159-67. 2009
..Deletion of lukSF-PV did not alter the early immune response to CA-MRSA in the lung...
- Comparative molecular analysis of community-associated and healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from children in northern Taiwan
Y C Huang
Division of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Chang Gung Children s Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Clin Microbiol Infect 14:1167-72. 2008
..However, the CA clone of ST59 was also identified in a substantial proportion of HA isolates...
- Crystal structure of leucotoxin S component: new insight into the Staphylococcal beta-barrel pore-forming toxins
Groupe de Biophysique Structurale, Département Mécanismes Moléculaires des Infections Mycobactériennes, CNRS IPBS, 205 route de Narbonne, 31077 Toulouse Cedex, France
J Biol Chem 279:41028-37. 2004
..Mutagenesis studies at a key surface residue (Thr-28) further support the important role played by these microheterogeneities for the assembly of the bipartite leucotoxins...
- Efficacy of the anti-CD22 recombinant immunotoxin BL22 in chemotherapy-resistant hairy-cell leukemia
R J Kreitman
Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
N Engl J Med 345:241-7. 2001
..We tested the safety and efficacy of an immunotoxin directed against a surface antigen that is strongly expressed by leukemic hairy cells...
- Contribution of Panton-Valentine leukocidin in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis
Binh An Diep
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
PLoS ONE 3:e3198. 2008
..Taken together, our data indicate a modest and transient positive effect of PVL in the acute phase of bacteremia, thereby providing evidence that PVL contributes to CA-MRSA pathogenesis...
- Antibody-mediated enhancement of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection
Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:2241-6. 2010
..Given the high rates of primary and recurring MRSA infections in humans, it appears that antibodies to PVL might contribute to host susceptibility to infection...
- Dissection of the molecular basis for hypervirulence of an in vivo-selected phenotype of the widely disseminated M1T1 strain of group A Streptococcus bacteria
Rita G Kansal
Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Research Service, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38104, USA
J Infect Dis 201:855-65. 2010
..Correction of the covS mutation in AP bacteria reverted them back to the WT phenotype. Our data confirm that covS plays a direct role in regulating GAS virulence...
- Staphylococcal exotoxins and nasal polyposis: analysis of systemic and local responses
Division of Allergy Immunology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Am J Rhinol 19:327-33. 2005
Staphylococcal exotoxins have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory diseases including atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma, and, most recently, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRS/NP)...
- Alpha and beta chains of hemoglobin inhibit production of Staphylococcus aureus exotoxins
Patrick M Schlievert
Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
Biochemistry 46:14349-58. 2007
Prior studies suggest Staphylococcus aureus exotoxins are not produced when the organism is cultured in human blood...
- Improved PCR for detection of the highly leukotoxic JP2 clone of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in subgingival plaque samples
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Aarhus, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
J Clin Microbiol 41:4829-32. 2003
..Here, we describe and evaluate a set of primers for PCR to assay for the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans and to discriminate between JP2-like strains and other genotypes in subgingival plaque samples...
- A single, engineered protein therapeutic agent neutralizes exotoxins from both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes
Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois, 600 S Mathews Ave, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:1781-9. 2010
Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes secrete exotoxins that act as superantigens, proteins that cause hyperimmune reactions by binding the variable domain of the T-cell receptor beta chain (Vβ), leading to stimulation of a ..
- Interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2, EphA2, and Fos-related antigen 1 as molecular denominators of high-grade astrocytomas and specific targets for combinatorial therapy
Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
Clin Cancer Res 14:199-208. 2008
- Molecular analysis of the role of the group A streptococcal cysteine protease, hyaluronic acid capsule, and M protein in a murine model of human invasive soft-tissue infection
C D Ashbaugh
Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
J Clin Invest 102:550-60. 1998
- Effects of ciprofloxacin on the expression and production of exotoxins by Clostridium difficile
Michael John Aldape
Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Boise, ID, USA
J Med Microbiol 62:741-7. 2013
- The molecular epidemiology of the highly virulent ST93 Australian community Staphylococcus aureus strain
Geoffrey W Coombs
Australian Collaborating Centre for Enterococcus and Sdtaphylococcus Species ACCESS Typing and Research, PathWest Laboratory Medicine Western Australia, Royal Perth Hospital, Western Australia, Australia
PLoS ONE 7:e43037. 2012
..Whether ST93-IVa [2B] t202-dt10 arose from one PVL-positive ST93-MSSA-t202, or by independent acquisitions of SCCmec-IVa [2B]-dt10 into multiple PVL-positive ST93-MSSA-t202 strains is not known...
- The structure of a Staphylococcus aureus leucocidin component (LukF-PV) reveals the fold of the water-soluble species of a family of transmembrane pore-forming toxins
J D Pedelacq
Groupe de Cristallographie Biologique Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale du CNRS 205 route de Narbonne 31077 Toulouse Cedex France
Structure 7:277-87. 1999
..The components of each protein class are produced as non-associated, water-soluble proteins that undergo conformational changes and oligomerization after recognition of their cell targets...
- Invasive group A streptococcal infections: T1M1 isolates expressing pyrogenic exotoxins A and B in combination with selective lack of toxin-neutralizing antibodies are associated with increased risk of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome
B K Eriksson
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Immunology, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge University Hospital, Sweden
J Infect Dis 180:410-8. 1999
..Neutralization of SpeB was significantly lower in sera of patients with STSS than in sera from persons with bacteremia or erysipelas...
- Characterization of ptxS, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene which interferes with the effect of the exotoxin A positive regulatory gene, ptxR
J A Colmer
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock 79430, USA
Mol Gen Genet 258:250-9. 1998
..In the presence of ptxS, the level of beta-galactosidase activity produced by the ptxR-lacZ fusion was significantly reduced. These results suggest that ptxS encodes a protein which negatively regulates ptxR expression in P. aeruginosa...
- Panton-Valentine leukocidin associated staphylococcal disease: a cross-sectional study at a London hospital, England
L J Shallcross
Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, UK
Clin Microbiol Infect 16:1644-8. 2010
..Consideration should be given to current infection control strategy, which advocates household contact screening and decolonization on the assumption that PVL-associated disease is rare...
- Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B induces apoptosis and reduces phagocytic activity in U937 cells
C F Kuo
Department of Microbiology, National Cheng Kung University Medical College, Taiwan, Republic of China
Infect Immun 67:126-30. 1999
..Taken together, the present data show that SPE B not only possesses the ability to induce apoptosis in monocytic cells but also helps bacteria to resist phagocytosis by host cells...
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitalized children: correlation of molecular analysis with clinical presentation and antibiotic susceptibility testing (ABST) results
Children s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, 48201, USA
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 28:547-51. 2009
..Most USA300 were susceptible (S) to clindamycin (CD) and patients were treated with CD alone or in combination. The other isolates were generally treated with vancomycin (VA) alone or in combination...
- Epidemiology of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus lineages in five major African towns: high prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes
Institut Pasteur, Dakar, Senegal
Clin Microbiol Infect 17:633-9. 2011
..This overrepresentation of PVL in MSSA could lead to the emergence and spread of successful, highly virulent PVL-positive MRSA clones, a phenomenon that has already started in Africa...
- From transcription to activation: how group A streptococcus, the flesh-eating pathogen, regulates SpeB cysteine protease production
Ronan K Carroll
Center for Molecular and Translational Human Infectious Diseases Research, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Mol Microbiol 81:588-601. 2011
..Here we review the molecular aspects of SpeB production by GAS from transcription to activation and the multiple layers of control involved...
- Emergence of hospital- and community-associated panton-valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genotype ST772-MRSA-V in Ireland and detailed investigation of an ST772-MRSA-V cluster in a neonatal intensive care unit
Gráinne I Brennan
National MRSA Reference Laboratory, St James s Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
J Clin Microbiol 50:841-7. 2012
..Our study indicates that hospital-acquired and CA-ST772-MRSA-V is currently emerging in Ireland and may have been imported from India on several occasions...
- Virulence factors and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus from infection and carriage in Gabon
Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital Munster, Munster, Germany
Clin Microbiol Infect 17:1507-13. 2011
..aureus isolates from asymptomatic carriers and infections. Of note, S. aureus isolates from Gabon show a very high prevalence of PVL-encoding genes, which exceeds the rates observed for developed countries...
- Haploid genetic screens in human cells identify host factors used by pathogens
Jan E Carette
Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
Science 326:1231-5. 2009
..This approach has both conceptual and practical parallels with genetic approaches in haploid yeast...
- Molecular characteristics of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Hokkaido, northern main island of Japan: identification of sequence types 6 and 59 Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant
Department of Hygiene, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
Microb Drug Resist 17:241-50. 2011
..These findings suggest a potential spread of these emerging CA-MRSA clones in Japan...
- Identification of the third type of PVL phage in ST59 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains
Department of Infection Control Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan
FEMS Microbiol Lett 323:20-8. 2011
- A guide to taming a toxin--recombinant immunotoxins constructed from Pseudomonas exotoxin A for the treatment of cancer
John E Weldon
Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 4264, USA
FEBS J 278:4683-700. 2011
..This review summarizes our current understanding of PE, its intoxication pathway, and the ongoing efforts to convert this toxin into a treatment for cancer...
- Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Finland in 2004 to 2006
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Control, Helsinki, Finland
J Clin Microbiol 47:2655-7. 2009
..9/100,000 population) and strain variation increased in comparison to years 1997 to 1999. There were 7 community-associated epidemic and 25 sporadic MRSA strain types. Half of these had Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes...
- Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the role of Panton-Valentine leukocidin
Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Lab Invest 87:3-9. 2007
..The second aim is to outline the progress in understanding the role of PVL in CA-MRSA pathogenesis...
- Cooccurrence of predominant Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive sequence type (ST) 152 and multidrug-resistant ST 241 Staphylococcus aureus clones in Nigerian hospitals
Kenneth O Okon
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria
J Clin Microbiol 47:3000-3. 2009
..aureus (MSSA) isolates were observed. The cooccurrence of multidrug-resistant MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA isolates entails the risk of emergence of a multidrug-resistant PVL-positive MRSA clone...
- Effects of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B on pathogenesis of Streptococcus pyogenes
Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
J Formos Med Assoc 107:677-85. 2008
..Here, we review several publications and describe our current understanding of SpeB in GAS pathogenesis...
- Global distribution and evolution of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, 1981-2007
Jean Philippe Rasigade
Universite Lyon 1, Centre National de Référence des Staphylocoques, and Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U851, Institut Fédératif de Recherche 128, Lyon, France
J Infect Dis 201:1589-97. 2010
..The epidemiological profile of PVL-positive community-acquired (CA) MRSA has been extensively studied, but few corresponding data on PVL-positive MSSA are available...
- Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with emergence of epidemic clones of sequence type (ST) 22 and ST 772 in Mumbai, India
Department of Microbiology, 5th Floor, S1 building, P D Hinduja National Hospital and Medical Research Center, Veer Savarkar Marg, Mahim, Mumbai 400016, Maharashtra, India
J Clin Microbiol 48:1806-11. 2010
..The PVL gene-positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains were ST 30 and were postulated to be related to the penicillin-resistant S. aureus phage type 80/81, notorious for its virulence in the 1950s...
- Prevalence of genes encoding for members of the staphylococcal leukotoxin family among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus
Christof von Eiff
Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Munster, Hospital and Clinics, 48149 Munster, Germany
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 49:157-62. 2004
..The co-possession of different virulence factors and their probable synergy should receive more attention in order to better understand their role in pathogenicity...
- Cysteine proteinase SpeB from Streptococcus pyogenes - a potent modifier of immunologically important host and bacterial proteins
Daniel C Nelson
Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland, Rockville, MD, USA
Biol Chem 392:1077-88. 2011
..Here we review all known host and bacterial protein substrates for SpeB, their cleavage sites, and discuss the role of this enzyme in streptococcal pathogenesis based on the current literature...
- Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in Lebanon
S T Tokajian
Department of Biology, School of Arts and Sciences, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon
Epidemiol Infect 138:707-12. 2010
..The majority of the PVL-positive isolates (53%) were ST80-MRSA-IVc. Systematic surveillance of both hospital and community isolates in Lebanon together with measures designed to limit the spread are required...
- TLR 2 and CD14 mediate innate immunity and lung inflammation to staphylococcal Panton-Valentine leukocidin in vivo
Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1090 Vienna, Austria
J Immunol 186:1608-17. 2011
..These results highlight the proinflammatory properties of PVL and identify CD14/TLR2 as an essential receptor complex for PVL-induced lung inflammation...
- Clinical utility of a patient-specific algorithm for simulating intracerebral drug infusions
John H Sampson
Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Neuro Oncol 9:343-53. 2007
..6% of catheters. Routine use of this algorithm, and its further developments, should improve prospective selection of catheter trajectories, and thereby improve the efficacy of drugs delivered by this promising technique...
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa lasR transcription correlates with the transcription of lasA, lasB, and toxA in chronic lung infections associated with cystic fibrosis
D G Storey
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4
Infect Immun 66:2521-8. 1998
..These results also suggested that the LasR-LasI quorum-sensing system may control the expression of at least some virulence factors in the lungs of patients with CF...
- The emergence and importation of diverse genotypes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) harboring the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (pvl) reveal that pvl is a poor marker for community-acquired MRSA strains in Ireland
Angela S Rossney
National MRSA Reference Laboratory, St James s Hospital, James s St, Dublin 8, Ireland
J Clin Microbiol 45:2554-63. 2007
..3, and the remaining 11 isolates could not be subtyped. This study demonstrates that pvl is not a reliable marker for CA-MRSA in Ireland and reveals the emergence and importation of diverse genotypes of pvl-positive MRSA in Ireland...
- Presence of genes encoding the panton-valentine leukocidin exotoxin is not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: results of a multinational tr
In Gyu Bae
Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
J Clin Microbiol 47:3952-7. 2009
..05). This contemporary, international study demonstrates that pvl was not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with MRSA cSSSI...
- IL-1beta secretion induced by Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans is mainly caused by the leukotoxin
Division of Periodontology, Department of Odontology, Faculty of Medicine, Umea University, SE 901 85 Umea, Sweden
Int J Med Microbiol 298:529-41. 2008
..In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced IL-1beta secretion from human macrophages in vitro is mainly caused by leukotoxin...
- Abundant secretion of bioactive interleukin-1beta by human macrophages induced by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin
Department of Odontology, University of Umea, S 901 87 Umea, Sweden
Infect Immun 73:453-8. 2005
..We concluded that A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin can trigger abundant production and secretion of bioactive IL-1beta by human macrophages, which is mediated by activation of caspase 1...
- Pseudomonas exotoxin A: from virulence factor to anti-cancer agent
Department of Urology, University of Freiburg, Germany
Int J Med Microbiol 299:161-76. 2009
..Additionally, it summarizes preclinical and clinical trials of PE-based immunotoxins and furthermore discusses current problems and answers with these agents...
- Prevalence and clonality of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the Atlantic Azores islands: predominance of SCCmec types IV, V and VI
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Oeiras, Portugal
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 29:543-50. 2010
- Widespread skin and soft-tissue infections due to two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains harboring the genes for Panton-Valentine leucocidin
Binh An Diep
Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
J Clin Microbiol 42:2080-4. 2004
..0001). There is evidence of clonal replacement over the period from 1999 to 2002, with one of these two clonal groups being supplanted by the other...
- Subinhibitory concentrations of linezolid reduce Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor expression
Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology, and Hygiene, Medical Center, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:546-55. 2004
The influence of the antibiotic linezolid on the secretion of exotoxins by Staphylococcus aureus was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of ..
- Calcium-independent calmodulin binding and two-metal-ion catalytic mechanism of anthrax edema factor
Ben May Institute for Cancer Research, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
EMBO J 24:929-41. 2005
..Mammalian adenylyl cyclases share no structural similarity with EF and they also use two-metal-ion catalysis, suggesting the catalytic mechanism-driven convergent evolution of two structurally diverse adenylyl cyclases...
- Microbial etiology of periodontitis
Department of Oral Microbiology, Kyushu Dental College, Fukuoka, Japan
Periodontol 2000 36:14-26. 2004
- Bacterial exotoxins
Michel R Popoff
Unité des Bactéries anaérobies et Toxines, Institut Pasteur, FR 75724 Paris, France
Contrib Microbiol 12:28-54. 2005
- Community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from children with community-onset pneumonia in China
Beijing Children s Hospital Affiliated with Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Pediatr Pulmonol 45:387-94. 2010
..The results indicated that the recent CA-MRSA found in Chinese children with CAP was largely associated with the spread of the ST59-MRSA-IV clone, and most of the PVL-positive strains in this study did not cause necrotic cases...
- Molecular mimicry between streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B and endothelial cells
Yueh Hsia Luo
Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, National Cheng Kung University Medical College, Tainan, Taiwan
Lab Invest 90:1492-506. 2010
..Therefore, our results suggest that conformational molecular mimicry may exist between SPE B and GlcNAc...
- Coexistence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive and -negative community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA400 sibling strains in a large Canadian health-care region
Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance, Calgary Health Region Calgary Laboratory Services University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
J Infect Dis 197:195-204. 2008
..This study provides direct evidence that PVL genes are not necessarily the key determinants associated with the increasing dissemination of CA-MRSA strains, suggesting that the genomic milieu may play a greater role in this regard...
- Cytotoxicity of Pseudomonas secreted exotoxins requires OxyR expression
Kurt A Melstrom
Department of Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA
J Surg Res 143:50-7. 2007
..Pseudomonas aeruginosa combats host-initiated oxidant stress through expression of the transactivating factor, OxyR. Here we have tested the premise that OxyR regulates Pseudomonal cytotoxicity through secreted exotoxin production...
- Molecular characteristics of the Taiwanese multiple drug-resistant ST59 clone of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from pediatric cellulitis
Division of Bacteriology, Department of Infectious Disease Control and International Medicine, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan
J Infect Chemother 16:144-9. 2010
..Recently, a variety of PVL-positive MRSA clones are accumulating in Japan...
- Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Uruguay
Xiao Xue Ma
Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan
Emerg Infect Dis 11:973-6. 2005
..The clone was distinct from the highly virulent community clone represented by strain MW2, although both clones carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene and cna gene...
- Induction of neutrophil apoptosis by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin pyocyanin: a potential mechanism of persistent infection
Lynne R Usher
Respiratory Medicine Unit and Infectious Diseases Unit, Division of Genomic Medicine and Institute of Child Health, University of Sheffield Medical School, Sheffield, United Kingdom
J Immunol 168:1861-8. 2002
..We conclude that pyocyanin-induced neutrophil apoptosis may be a clinically important mechanism of persistence of P. aeruginosa in human tissue...
- Clinical isolates of Pantone-Valentine leucocidin- and gamma-haemolysin-producing Staphylococcus aureus: prevalence and association with clinical infections
Laboratory of Research, Resistance aux Antimicrobiens, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia
J Hosp Infect 75:265-8. 2010
..008) and furunculosis (55.5% of strains; P = 0.036). Our findings confirmed the association between pvl-positive strains, cutaneous infections and meticillin resistance in S. aureus...
- Molecular distinctions exist between community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and disease-associated isolates in children
Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the Vanderbilt Vaccine Research Program, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and the Monroe Carell Jr Children s Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN, USA
Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:418-21. 2011
..To define the molecular epidemiology of colonization and disease-associated isolates of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA)...
- Recombinant immunotoxin against B-cell malignancies with no immunogenicity in mice by removal of B-cell epitopes
Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 4264, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:5742-7. 2011
..HA22-LR-8M also has greatly reduced antigenicity when exposed to sera from patients who have produced antibodies to HA22. The properties of HA22-LR-8M make it an excellent candidate for further clinical development...
- Frequency of panton-valentine leukocidin-producing methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus strains in patients with complicated skin and soft tissue infection in bronx, new york
Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Infectious Disease Division, 1300 Morris Park Ave, UL 1223, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
J Clin Microbiol 49:2992-5. 2011
..aureus (MRSA) and MSSA SSTIs were comparable. In multivariable analysis, the presence of lukF-PV remained a significant predictor for incision and drainage among MSSA strains...
- Histopathologic changes in kidney and liver correlate with streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B production in the mouse model of group A streptococcal infection
Chih Feng Kuo
Department of Nursing, I Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Microb Pathog 36:273-85. 2004
..Taken together, SPE B produced during S. pyogenes infection plays a pathogenic role. A direct effect of SPE B on vessel permeability change was also demonstrated...
- Superantigen gene profile diversity among clinical group A streptococcal isolates
Biomedical Laboratory Science, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umea University, Umea, Sweden
FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 54:236-44. 2008
..The 22 smeZ alleles were generally linked to the emm-genotype. The results of the investigation show that superantigen gene profiling is useful for tracking spread of clones in the community...
- Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin: a powerful tool with capacity to cause imbalance in the host inflammatory response
Department of Odontology, Umea University, SE 901 87 Umea, Sweden
Toxins (Basel) 3:242-59. 2011
..Therapeutic strategies targeting the cellular and molecular inflammatory host response in periodontal diseases might be a future treatment alternative...