exotoxins

Summary

Summary: Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections among patients in the emergency department
    Gregory J Moran
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Olive View UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, Calif 91342, USA
    N Engl J Med 355:666-74. 2006
  2. pmc A protease-resistant immunotoxin against CD22 with greatly increased activity against CLL and diminished animal toxicity
    John E Weldon
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 4264, USA
    Blood 113:3792-800. 2009
  3. pmc Gene therapy-mediated delivery of targeted cytotoxins for glioma therapeutics
    Marianela Candolfi
    Gene Therapeutics Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:20021-6. 2010
  4. ncbi Involvement of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus in primary skin infections and pneumonia
    G Lina
    Centre National de Référence de Toxémies Staphylococciques, Faculte de Medecine, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
    Clin Infect Dis 29:1128-32. 1999
  5. ncbi Poring over pores: alpha-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin in Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia
    Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
    Nat Med 13:1405-6. 2007
  6. ncbi Is Panton-Valentine leukocidin the major virulence determinant in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease?
    Jovanka M Voyich
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    J Infect Dis 194:1761-70. 2006
  7. pmc Community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Frank R Deleo
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Lancet 375:1557-68. 2010
  8. pmc Polymorphonuclear leukocytes mediate Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin-induced lung inflammation and injury
    Binh An Diep
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5587-92. 2010
  9. pmc Comparative analysis of virulence and toxin expression of global community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains
    Min Li
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai 200040, People s Republic of China
    J Infect Dis 202:1866-76. 2010
  10. pmc Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes: worldwide emergence
    Francois Vandenesch
    INSERM E0230, Lyon, France
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:978-84. 2003

Detail Information

Publications325 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections among patients in the emergency department
    Gregory J Moran
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Olive View UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, Calif 91342, USA
    N Engl J Med 355:666-74. 2006
    ..Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasingly recognized in infections among persons in the community without established risk factors for MRSA...
  2. pmc A protease-resistant immunotoxin against CD22 with greatly increased activity against CLL and diminished animal toxicity
    John E Weldon
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 4264, USA
    Blood 113:3792-800. 2009
    ..We conclude that HA22-LR advances the therapeutic efficacy of HA22 by using an approach that may be applicable to other PE-based immunotoxins...
  3. pmc Gene therapy-mediated delivery of targeted cytotoxins for glioma therapeutics
    Marianela Candolfi
    Gene Therapeutics Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:20021-6. 2010
    ..These shortcomings were overcome by our therapeutic Ad, thus representing a significant advance in the development of targeted therapeutics for GBM...
  4. ncbi Involvement of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus in primary skin infections and pneumonia
    G Lina
    Centre National de Référence de Toxémies Staphylococciques, Faculte de Medecine, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
    Clin Infect Dis 29:1128-32. 1999
    ..It thus appears that PVL is mainly associated with necrotic lesions involving the skin or mucosa...
  5. ncbi Poring over pores: alpha-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin in Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia
    Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
    Nat Med 13:1405-6. 2007
  6. ncbi Is Panton-Valentine leukocidin the major virulence determinant in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease?
    Jovanka M Voyich
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    J Infect Dis 194:1761-70. 2006
    ..Although the toxin may be a highly linked epidemiological marker for CA-MRSA strains, we conclude that PVL is not the major virulence determinant of CA-MRSA...
  7. pmc Community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Frank R Deleo
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Lancet 375:1557-68. 2010
    ..Here we review the most up-to-date knowledge and provide a perspective for the future prophylaxis or new treatments for CA-MRSA infections...
  8. pmc Polymorphonuclear leukocytes mediate Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin-induced lung inflammation and injury
    Binh An Diep
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5587-92. 2010
    ..These findings provide insights into the mechanism of PVL-induced lung injury and inflammation and demonstrate the utility of the rabbit for studying PVL-mediated pathogenesis...
  9. pmc Comparative analysis of virulence and toxin expression of global community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains
    Min Li
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai 200040, People s Republic of China
    J Infect Dis 202:1866-76. 2010
    ..Our study indicates a major but not exclusive impact of virulence on the epidemiological success of USA300 and other CA-MRSA strains and emphasizes the importance of core genome-encoded toxins in CA-MRSA skin infections...
  10. pmc Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes: worldwide emergence
    Francois Vandenesch
    INSERM E0230, Lyon, France
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:978-84. 2003
    ..Within each continent, the genetic background of CA-MRSA strains did not correspond to that of the hospital-acquired MRSA...
  11. ncbi Cross-talk between Staphylococcus aureus leukocidins-intoxicated macrophages and lung epithelial cells triggers chemokine secretion in an inflammasome-dependent manner
    Magali Perret
    Universite de Lyon, France
    Cell Microbiol 14:1019-36. 2012
    ....
  12. pmc Staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigen exotoxins
    Adam R Spaulding
    Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 26:422-47. 2013
    ..Finally, the review addresses current and possible novel strategies to prevent superantigen production and passive and active immunization strategies. ..
  13. pmc Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin directly targets mitochondria and induces Bax-independent apoptosis of human neutrophils
    Anne Laure Genestier
    Centre National de Référence des Staphylocoques, INSERM E0230, Lyon, France
    J Clin Invest 115:3117-27. 2005
    ....
  14. pmc Staphylococcus aureus panton-valentine leukocidin is a very potent cytotoxic factor for human neutrophils
    Bettina Löffler
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital of Munster, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000715. 2010
    ....
  15. pmc Staphylococcus aureus leucocidin ED contributes to systemic infection by targeting neutrophils and promoting bacterial growth in vivo
    Francis Alonzo
    Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Mol Microbiol 83:423-35. 2012
    ..Moreover, the tropism of LukED for murine phagocytes highlights the utility of murine models to study LukED pathobiology, including development and testing of strategies to inhibit toxin activity and control bacterial infection...
  16. pmc Panton-Valentine leukocidin is not a virulence determinant in murine models of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease
    Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
    Department of Microbiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    J Infect Dis 198:1166-70. 2008
    ..The data presented in this report support the observation that PVL does not contribute to the pathogenesis of staphylococcal infection of mice...
  17. ncbi Immune evasion by staphylococci
    Timothy J Foster
    Microbiology Department, Moyne Institute of Preventive Medicine, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:948-58. 2005
    ..In contrast, Staphylococcus epidermidis must rely primarily on cell-surface polymers and the ability to form a biolfilm to survive in the host...
  18. ncbi Characterization of a novel structural member, LukE-LukD, of the bi-component staphylococcal leucotoxins family
    A Gravet
    UPRES EA 1318, Institut de Bacteriologie de la Faculte de Medecine, Université Louis Pasteur Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, France
    FEBS Lett 436:202-8. 1998
    ..005). LukE+LukD was as effective as the Panton-Valentine leucocidin for inducing dermonecrosis when injected in the rabbit skin, but not hemolytic and poorly leucotoxic compared to other leucotoxins expressed by Staphylococcus aureus...
  19. ncbi Complete nucleotide sequence and molecular characterization of the temperate staphylococcal bacteriophage phiPVL carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes
    J Kaneko
    Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Tohoku University, Sendai 981 8555, Japan
    Gene 215:57-67. 1998
    ..aureus bacteriophages. The phiPVL genome was found to integrate into an ORF encoding an unknown protein comprising 725 amino acid residues with two leucine zipper-like motifs...
  20. pmc Staphylococcus aureus isolates carrying Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes in England and Wales: frequency, characterization, and association with clinical disease
    A Holmes
    Laboratory of HealthCare Associated Infection, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, NW9 5HT, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 43:2384-90. 2005
    ..aureus and belonged to 12 different sequence types, including ST22 and ST30, which are closely related to the most prevalent MRSA clones in United Kingdom hospitals, EMRSA-15 and EMRSA-16, respectively...
  21. ncbi Bacterial two-component and hetero-heptameric pore-forming cytolytic toxins: structures, pore-forming mechanism, and organization of the genes
    Jun Kaneko
    Department of Microbial Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 68:981-1003. 2004
    ..We also discuss the current status of knowledge of the genetic organization of PVL-converting phages in order to achieve an understanding of their molecular evolution...
  22. ncbi Role of bacteriophage-encoded exotoxins in the evolution of bacterial pathogens
    Veronica Casas
    Center for Microbial Sciences, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182, USA
    Future Microbiol 6:1461-73. 2011
    ..These findings suggest that the exotoxin genes may play a beneficial role for the bacterial host in nature, and that this environmental reservoir of exotoxin genes may play a role in the evolution of new bacterial pathogens...
  23. ncbi Methicillin-susceptible, non-multiresistant methicillin-resistant and multiresistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: a clinical, epidemiological and microbiological comparative study
    W J Munckhof
    Infection Management Service, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Ipswich Rd, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia 4102
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 27:355-64. 2008
    ..Patients with PVL-positive infections were much younger than patients with PVL-negative infections. The proportion of PVL-positive infections peaked in the 10-29 years old age group, followed by a linear decline...
  24. pmc The role of virulence determinants in community-associated MRSA pathogenesis
    Binh An Diep
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 1001 Potrero Avenue, Box 0811, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    Trends Microbiol 16:361-9. 2008
    ..Here, we discuss the roles of PVL, the arginine catabolic mobile element and phenol-soluble modulins in the pathogenesis of prevalent CA-MRSA strains...
  25. ncbi Lower antibody levels to Staphylococcus aureus exotoxins are associated with sepsis in hospitalized adults with invasive S. aureus infections
    Rajan P Adhikari
    Integrated Biotherapeutics Inc, Gaithersburg, MD, USA
    J Infect Dis 206:915-23. 2012
    Staphylococcus aureus has numerous virulence factors, including exotoxins that may increase the severity of infection. This study was aimed at assessing whether preexisting antibodies to S...
  26. pmc Panton-valentine leukocidin enhances the severity of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus rabbit osteomyelitis
    Anne Claude Cremieux
    Département de médecine aiguë, Hôpital Universitaire Raymond Poincaré, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Garches, France
    PLoS ONE 4:e7204. 2009
    ..However, the pathogenetic role of PVL in staphylococcal infections remains controversial, possibly because it depends on the site of infection...
  27. pmc Surface proteins and exotoxins are required for the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia
    Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
    Department of Microbiology, University of Chicago, 920 E 58th St, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Infect Immun 75:1040-4. 2007
    ..This model closely mimics the clinical and pathological features of pneumonia in human patients. Using this system, we defined a role for S. aureus strain Newman surface proteins and secreted exotoxins in pneumonia-related mortality.
  28. pmc Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus infections in Auckland, New Zealand
    S Muttaiyah
    Department of Microbiology, Auckland City Hospital, Grafton, Auckland, New Zealand
    J Clin Microbiol 48:3470-4. 2010
    ..Those patients with PVL-positive MSSA infection were more likely to be of Pacific ethnicity, be younger in age, have community-onset infection, have SSTI, and need surgical intervention...
  29. pmc Identification of a novel Staphylococcus aureus two-component leukotoxin using cell surface proteomics
    Christy L Ventura
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e11634. 2010
    ..We conclude LukGH is a novel two-component leukotoxin with cytolytic activity toward neutrophils, and thus potentially contributes to S. aureus virulence...
  30. pmc Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin contributes to inflammation and muscle tissue injury
    Ching Wen Tseng
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the Immunobiology Research Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e6387. 2009
    ..PVL could contribute to the increased incidence of myositis in CA-MRSA infection, and the toxin could mediate tissue injury by mechanisms other than direct killing of phagocytes...
  31. ncbi Pediatric bone and joint infections caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus
    Bruno Dohin
    Services de Chirurgie Pédiatrique, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Cedex, France
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:1042-8. 2007
    ..Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a necrotizing toxin secreted by Staphylococcus aureus. PVL-positive S. aureus osteomyelitis and arthritis have been described...
  32. ncbi Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin causes necrotizing pneumonia
    Maria Labandeira-Rey
    Center for Extracellular Matrix Biology, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Science 315:1130-3. 2007
    ....
  33. pmc Novel multiplex PCR assay for detection of the staphylococcal virulence marker Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes and simultaneous discrimination of methicillin-susceptible from -resistant staphylococci
    Jo Ann McClure
    Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance, Calgary Health Region Calgary Laboratory Services University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    J Clin Microbiol 44:1141-4. 2006
    ..This assay is simple, rapid, and accurate and offers the potential for prompt detection of newly emerging community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus...
  34. ncbi Association between Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying gene for Panton-Valentine leukocidin and highly lethal necrotising pneumonia in young immunocompetent patients
    Yves Gillet
    Division of Paediatric Intensive Care, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon, France
    Lancet 359:753-9. 2002
    ..We aimed to assess the clinical features of these eight cases, and those of other cases identified prospectively, and to compare them with the characteristics of patients with pneumonia caused by PVL-negative strains...
  35. pmc Phase III randomized trial of CED of IL13-PE38QQR vs Gliadel wafers for recurrent glioblastoma
    Sandeep Kunwar
    Division of Neuro Oncology, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, A 808, San Francisco, CA 94143 0350, USA
    Neuro Oncol 12:871-81. 2010
    ..There was no survival difference between CB administered via CED and GW. Drug distribution was not assessed and may be crucial for evaluating future CED-based therapeutics...
  36. pmc Transcription of inflammatory genes in the lung after infection with community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a role for panton-valentine leukocidin?
    Christopher P Montgomery
    Section of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave, MC 1145, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Infect Immun 77:2159-67. 2009
    ..Deletion of lukSF-PV did not alter the early immune response to CA-MRSA in the lung...
  37. ncbi Comparative molecular analysis of community-associated and healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from children in northern Taiwan
    Y C Huang
    Division of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Chang Gung Children s Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan
    Clin Microbiol Infect 14:1167-72. 2008
    ..However, the CA clone of ST59 was also identified in a substantial proportion of HA isolates...
  38. ncbi Crystal structure of leucotoxin S component: new insight into the Staphylococcal beta-barrel pore-forming toxins
    Valerie Guillet
    Groupe de Biophysique Structurale, Département Mécanismes Moléculaires des Infections Mycobactériennes, CNRS IPBS, 205 route de Narbonne, 31077 Toulouse Cedex, France
    J Biol Chem 279:41028-37. 2004
    ..Mutagenesis studies at a key surface residue (Thr-28) further support the important role played by these microheterogeneities for the assembly of the bipartite leucotoxins...
  39. ncbi Efficacy of the anti-CD22 recombinant immunotoxin BL22 in chemotherapy-resistant hairy-cell leukemia
    R J Kreitman
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    N Engl J Med 345:241-7. 2001
    ..We tested the safety and efficacy of an immunotoxin directed against a surface antigen that is strongly expressed by leukemic hairy cells...
  40. pmc Contribution of Panton-Valentine leukocidin in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis
    Binh An Diep
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 3:e3198. 2008
    ..Taken together, our data indicate a modest and transient positive effect of PVL in the acute phase of bacteremia, thereby providing evidence that PVL contributes to CA-MRSA pathogenesis...
  41. pmc Antibody-mediated enhancement of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection
    Pauline Yoong
    Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:2241-6. 2010
    ..Given the high rates of primary and recurring MRSA infections in humans, it appears that antibodies to PVL might contribute to host susceptibility to infection...
  42. ncbi Dissection of the molecular basis for hypervirulence of an in vivo-selected phenotype of the widely disseminated M1T1 strain of group A Streptococcus bacteria
    Rita G Kansal
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Research Service, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38104, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:855-65. 2010
    ..Correction of the covS mutation in AP bacteria reverted them back to the WT phenotype. Our data confirm that covS plays a direct role in regulating GAS virulence...
  43. ncbi Staphylococcal exotoxins and nasal polyposis: analysis of systemic and local responses
    Anju Tripathi
    Division of Allergy Immunology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Am J Rhinol 19:327-33. 2005
    Staphylococcal exotoxins have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory diseases including atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma, and, most recently, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRS/NP)...
  44. pmc Alpha and beta chains of hemoglobin inhibit production of Staphylococcus aureus exotoxins
    Patrick M Schlievert
    Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Biochemistry 46:14349-58. 2007
    Prior studies suggest Staphylococcus aureus exotoxins are not produced when the organism is cultured in human blood...
  45. pmc Improved PCR for detection of the highly leukotoxic JP2 clone of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in subgingival plaque samples
    Knud Poulsen
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Aarhus, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
    J Clin Microbiol 41:4829-32. 2003
    ..Here, we describe and evaluate a set of primers for PCR to assay for the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans and to discriminate between JP2-like strains and other genotypes in subgingival plaque samples...
  46. pmc A single, engineered protein therapeutic agent neutralizes exotoxins from both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes
    Ningyan Wang
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois, 600 S Mathews Ave, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:1781-9. 2010
    Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes secrete exotoxins that act as superantigens, proteins that cause hyperimmune reactions by binding the variable domain of the T-cell receptor beta chain (Vβ), leading to stimulation of a ..
  47. ncbi Interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2, EphA2, and Fos-related antigen 1 as molecular denominators of high-grade astrocytomas and specific targets for combinatorial therapy
    Jill Wykosky
    Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 14:199-208. 2008
    ....
  48. pmc Molecular analysis of the role of the group A streptococcal cysteine protease, hyaluronic acid capsule, and M protein in a murine model of human invasive soft-tissue infection
    C D Ashbaugh
    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Clin Invest 102:550-60. 1998
    ....
  49. pmc Effects of ciprofloxacin on the expression and production of exotoxins by Clostridium difficile
    Michael John Aldape
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Boise, ID, USA
    J Med Microbiol 62:741-7. 2013
    ....
  50. pmc The molecular epidemiology of the highly virulent ST93 Australian community Staphylococcus aureus strain
    Geoffrey W Coombs
    Australian Collaborating Centre for Enterococcus and Sdtaphylococcus Species ACCESS Typing and Research, PathWest Laboratory Medicine Western Australia, Royal Perth Hospital, Western Australia, Australia
    PLoS ONE 7:e43037. 2012
    ..Whether ST93-IVa [2B] t202-dt10 arose from one PVL-positive ST93-MSSA-t202, or by independent acquisitions of SCCmec-IVa [2B]-dt10 into multiple PVL-positive ST93-MSSA-t202 strains is not known...
  51. ncbi The structure of a Staphylococcus aureus leucocidin component (LukF-PV) reveals the fold of the water-soluble species of a family of transmembrane pore-forming toxins
    J D Pedelacq
    Groupe de Cristallographie Biologique Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale du CNRS 205 route de Narbonne 31077 Toulouse Cedex France
    Structure 7:277-87. 1999
    ..The components of each protein class are produced as non-associated, water-soluble proteins that undergo conformational changes and oligomerization after recognition of their cell targets...
  52. ncbi Invasive group A streptococcal infections: T1M1 isolates expressing pyrogenic exotoxins A and B in combination with selective lack of toxin-neutralizing antibodies are associated with increased risk of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome
    B K Eriksson
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Immunology, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge University Hospital, Sweden
    J Infect Dis 180:410-8. 1999
    ..Neutralization of SpeB was significantly lower in sera of patients with STSS than in sera from persons with bacteremia or erysipelas...
  53. ncbi Characterization of ptxS, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene which interferes with the effect of the exotoxin A positive regulatory gene, ptxR
    J A Colmer
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock 79430, USA
    Mol Gen Genet 258:250-9. 1998
    ..In the presence of ptxS, the level of beta-galactosidase activity produced by the ptxR-lacZ fusion was significantly reduced. These results suggest that ptxS encodes a protein which negatively regulates ptxR expression in P. aeruginosa...
  54. ncbi Panton-Valentine leukocidin associated staphylococcal disease: a cross-sectional study at a London hospital, England
    L J Shallcross
    Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, UK
    Clin Microbiol Infect 16:1644-8. 2010
    ..Consideration should be given to current infection control strategy, which advocates household contact screening and decolonization on the assumption that PVL-associated disease is rare...
  55. pmc Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B induces apoptosis and reduces phagocytic activity in U937 cells
    C F Kuo
    Department of Microbiology, National Cheng Kung University Medical College, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Infect Immun 67:126-30. 1999
    ..Taken together, the present data show that SPE B not only possesses the ability to induce apoptosis in monocytic cells but also helps bacteria to resist phagocytosis by host cells...
  56. ncbi Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitalized children: correlation of molecular analysis with clinical presentation and antibiotic susceptibility testing (ABST) results
    N Abdel-Haq
    Children s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, 48201, USA
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 28:547-51. 2009
    ..Most USA300 were susceptible (S) to clindamycin (CD) and patients were treated with CD alone or in combination. The other isolates were generally treated with vancomycin (VA) alone or in combination...
  57. ncbi Epidemiology of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus lineages in five major African towns: high prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes
    S Breurec
    Institut Pasteur, Dakar, Senegal
    Clin Microbiol Infect 17:633-9. 2011
    ..This overrepresentation of PVL in MSSA could lead to the emergence and spread of successful, highly virulent PVL-positive MRSA clones, a phenomenon that has already started in Africa...
  58. ncbi From transcription to activation: how group A streptococcus, the flesh-eating pathogen, regulates SpeB cysteine protease production
    Ronan K Carroll
    Center for Molecular and Translational Human Infectious Diseases Research, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Mol Microbiol 81:588-601. 2011
    ..Here we review the molecular aspects of SpeB production by GAS from transcription to activation and the multiple layers of control involved...
  59. pmc Emergence of hospital- and community-associated panton-valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genotype ST772-MRSA-V in Ireland and detailed investigation of an ST772-MRSA-V cluster in a neonatal intensive care unit
    Gráinne I Brennan
    National MRSA Reference Laboratory, St James s Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    J Clin Microbiol 50:841-7. 2012
    ..Our study indicates that hospital-acquired and CA-ST772-MRSA-V is currently emerging in Ireland and may have been imported from India on several occasions...
  60. ncbi Virulence factors and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus from infection and carriage in Gabon
    F Schaumburg
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital Munster, Munster, Germany
    Clin Microbiol Infect 17:1507-13. 2011
    ..aureus isolates from asymptomatic carriers and infections. Of note, S. aureus isolates from Gabon show a very high prevalence of PVL-encoding genes, which exceeds the rates observed for developed countries...
  61. ncbi Haploid genetic screens in human cells identify host factors used by pathogens
    Jan E Carette
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Science 326:1231-5. 2009
    ..This approach has both conceptual and practical parallels with genetic approaches in haploid yeast...
  62. ncbi Molecular characteristics of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Hokkaido, northern main island of Japan: identification of sequence types 6 and 59 Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant
    Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya
    Department of Hygiene, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Microb Drug Resist 17:241-50. 2011
    ..These findings suggest a potential spread of these emerging CA-MRSA clones in Japan...
  63. ncbi Identification of the third type of PVL phage in ST59 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains
    Meng Zhang
    Department of Infection Control Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 323:20-8. 2011
    ....
  64. pmc A guide to taming a toxin--recombinant immunotoxins constructed from Pseudomonas exotoxin A for the treatment of cancer
    John E Weldon
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 4264, USA
    FEBS J 278:4683-700. 2011
    ..This review summarizes our current understanding of PE, its intoxication pathway, and the ongoing efforts to convert this toxin into a treatment for cancer...
  65. pmc Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Finland in 2004 to 2006
    Mari Kanerva
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Control, Helsinki, Finland
    J Clin Microbiol 47:2655-7. 2009
    ..9/100,000 population) and strain variation increased in comparison to years 1997 to 1999. There were 7 community-associated epidemic and 25 sporadic MRSA strain types. Half of these had Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes...
  66. ncbi Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the role of Panton-Valentine leukocidin
    Susan Boyle-Vavra
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Lab Invest 87:3-9. 2007
    ..The second aim is to outline the progress in understanding the role of PVL in CA-MRSA pathogenesis...
  67. pmc Cooccurrence of predominant Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive sequence type (ST) 152 and multidrug-resistant ST 241 Staphylococcus aureus clones in Nigerian hospitals
    Kenneth O Okon
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3000-3. 2009
    ..aureus (MSSA) isolates were observed. The cooccurrence of multidrug-resistant MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA isolates entails the risk of emergence of a multidrug-resistant PVL-positive MRSA clone...
  68. ncbi Effects of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B on pathogenesis of Streptococcus pyogenes
    Chuan Chiang-Ni
    Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
    J Formos Med Assoc 107:677-85. 2008
    ..Here, we review several publications and describe our current understanding of SpeB in GAS pathogenesis...
  69. ncbi Global distribution and evolution of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, 1981-2007
    Jean Philippe Rasigade
    Universite Lyon 1, Centre National de Référence des Staphylocoques, and Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U851, Institut Fédératif de Recherche 128, Lyon, France
    J Infect Dis 201:1589-97. 2010
    ..The epidemiological profile of PVL-positive community-acquired (CA) MRSA has been extensively studied, but few corresponding data on PVL-positive MSSA are available...
  70. pmc Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with emergence of epidemic clones of sequence type (ST) 22 and ST 772 in Mumbai, India
    Namita D'Souza
    Department of Microbiology, 5th Floor, S1 building, P D Hinduja National Hospital and Medical Research Center, Veer Savarkar Marg, Mahim, Mumbai 400016, Maharashtra, India
    J Clin Microbiol 48:1806-11. 2010
    ..The PVL gene-positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains were ST 30 and were postulated to be related to the penicillin-resistant S. aureus phage type 80/81, notorious for its virulence in the 1950s...
  71. ncbi Prevalence of genes encoding for members of the staphylococcal leukotoxin family among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus
    Christof von Eiff
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Munster, Hospital and Clinics, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 49:157-62. 2004
    ..The co-possession of different virulence factors and their probable synergy should receive more attention in order to better understand their role in pathogenicity...
  72. ncbi Cysteine proteinase SpeB from Streptococcus pyogenes - a potent modifier of immunologically important host and bacterial proteins
    Daniel C Nelson
    Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland, Rockville, MD, USA
    Biol Chem 392:1077-88. 2011
    ..Here we review all known host and bacterial protein substrates for SpeB, their cleavage sites, and discuss the role of this enzyme in streptococcal pathogenesis based on the current literature...
  73. ncbi Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in Lebanon
    S T Tokajian
    Department of Biology, School of Arts and Sciences, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon
    Epidemiol Infect 138:707-12. 2010
    ..The majority of the PVL-positive isolates (53%) were ST80-MRSA-IVc. Systematic surveillance of both hospital and community isolates in Lebanon together with measures designed to limit the spread are required...
  74. ncbi TLR 2 and CD14 mediate innate immunity and lung inflammation to staphylococcal Panton-Valentine leukocidin in vivo
    Ana Zivkovic
    Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    J Immunol 186:1608-17. 2011
    ..These results highlight the proinflammatory properties of PVL and identify CD14/TLR2 as an essential receptor complex for PVL-induced lung inflammation...
  75. pmc Clinical utility of a patient-specific algorithm for simulating intracerebral drug infusions
    John H Sampson
    Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Neuro Oncol 9:343-53. 2007
    ..6% of catheters. Routine use of this algorithm, and its further developments, should improve prospective selection of catheter trajectories, and thereby improve the efficacy of drugs delivered by this promising technique...
  76. pmc Pseudomonas aeruginosa lasR transcription correlates with the transcription of lasA, lasB, and toxA in chronic lung infections associated with cystic fibrosis
    D G Storey
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4
    Infect Immun 66:2521-8. 1998
    ..These results also suggested that the LasR-LasI quorum-sensing system may control the expression of at least some virulence factors in the lungs of patients with CF...
  77. pmc The emergence and importation of diverse genotypes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) harboring the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (pvl) reveal that pvl is a poor marker for community-acquired MRSA strains in Ireland
    Angela S Rossney
    National MRSA Reference Laboratory, St James s Hospital, James s St, Dublin 8, Ireland
    J Clin Microbiol 45:2554-63. 2007
    ..3, and the remaining 11 isolates could not be subtyped. This study demonstrates that pvl is not a reliable marker for CA-MRSA in Ireland and reveals the emergence and importation of diverse genotypes of pvl-positive MRSA in Ireland...
  78. pmc Presence of genes encoding the panton-valentine leukocidin exotoxin is not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: results of a multinational tr
    In Gyu Bae
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3952-7. 2009
    ..05). This contemporary, international study demonstrates that pvl was not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with MRSA cSSSI...
  79. ncbi IL-1beta secretion induced by Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans is mainly caused by the leukotoxin
    Peyman Kelk
    Division of Periodontology, Department of Odontology, Faculty of Medicine, Umea University, SE 901 85 Umea, Sweden
    Int J Med Microbiol 298:529-41. 2008
    ..In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced IL-1beta secretion from human macrophages in vitro is mainly caused by leukotoxin...
  80. pmc Abundant secretion of bioactive interleukin-1beta by human macrophages induced by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin
    P Kelk
    Department of Odontology, University of Umea, S 901 87 Umea, Sweden
    Infect Immun 73:453-8. 2005
    ..We concluded that A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin can trigger abundant production and secretion of bioactive IL-1beta by human macrophages, which is mediated by activation of caspase 1...
  81. ncbi Pseudomonas exotoxin A: from virulence factor to anti-cancer agent
    Philipp Wolf
    Department of Urology, University of Freiburg, Germany
    Int J Med Microbiol 299:161-76. 2009
    ..Additionally, it summarizes preclinical and clinical trials of PE-based immunotoxins and furthermore discusses current problems and answers with these agents...
  82. pmc Prevalence and clonality of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the Atlantic Azores islands: predominance of SCCmec types IV, V and VI
    T Conceição
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Oeiras, Portugal
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 29:543-50. 2010
    ....
  83. pmc Widespread skin and soft-tissue infections due to two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains harboring the genes for Panton-Valentine leucocidin
    Binh An Diep
    Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:2080-4. 2004
    ..0001). There is evidence of clonal replacement over the period from 1999 to 2002, with one of these two clonal groups being supplanted by the other...
  84. pmc Subinhibitory concentrations of linezolid reduce Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor expression
    Katussevani Bernardo
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology, and Hygiene, Medical Center, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:546-55. 2004
    The influence of the antibiotic linezolid on the secretion of exotoxins by Staphylococcus aureus was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of ..
  85. pmc Calcium-independent calmodulin binding and two-metal-ion catalytic mechanism of anthrax edema factor
    Yuequan Shen
    Ben May Institute for Cancer Research, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    EMBO J 24:929-41. 2005
    ..Mammalian adenylyl cyclases share no structural similarity with EF and they also use two-metal-ion catalysis, suggesting the catalytic mechanism-driven convergent evolution of two structurally diverse adenylyl cyclases...
  86. ncbi Microbial etiology of periodontitis
    Tatsuji Nishihara
    Department of Oral Microbiology, Kyushu Dental College, Fukuoka, Japan
    Periodontol 2000 36:14-26. 2004
  87. ncbi Bacterial exotoxins
    Michel R Popoff
    Unité des Bactéries anaérobies et Toxines, Institut Pasteur, FR 75724 Paris, France
    Contrib Microbiol 12:28-54. 2005
  88. ncbi Community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from children with community-onset pneumonia in China
    Wenjing Geng
    Beijing Children s Hospital Affiliated with Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
    Pediatr Pulmonol 45:387-94. 2010
    ..The results indicated that the recent CA-MRSA found in Chinese children with CAP was largely associated with the spread of the ST59-MRSA-IV clone, and most of the PVL-positive strains in this study did not cause necrotic cases...
  89. ncbi Molecular mimicry between streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B and endothelial cells
    Yueh Hsia Luo
    Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, National Cheng Kung University Medical College, Tainan, Taiwan
    Lab Invest 90:1492-506. 2010
    ..Therefore, our results suggest that conformational molecular mimicry may exist between SPE B and GlcNAc...
  90. ncbi Coexistence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive and -negative community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA400 sibling strains in a large Canadian health-care region
    Kunyan Zhang
    Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance, Calgary Health Region Calgary Laboratory Services University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    J Infect Dis 197:195-204. 2008
    ..This study provides direct evidence that PVL genes are not necessarily the key determinants associated with the increasing dissemination of CA-MRSA strains, suggesting that the genomic milieu may play a greater role in this regard...
  91. pmc Cytotoxicity of Pseudomonas secreted exotoxins requires OxyR expression
    Kurt A Melstrom
    Department of Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA
    J Surg Res 143:50-7. 2007
    ..Pseudomonas aeruginosa combats host-initiated oxidant stress through expression of the transactivating factor, OxyR. Here we have tested the premise that OxyR regulates Pseudomonal cytotoxicity through secreted exotoxin production...
  92. ncbi Molecular characteristics of the Taiwanese multiple drug-resistant ST59 clone of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from pediatric cellulitis
    Wataru Higuchi
    Division of Bacteriology, Department of Infectious Disease Control and International Medicine, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan
    J Infect Chemother 16:144-9. 2010
    ..Recently, a variety of PVL-positive MRSA clones are accumulating in Japan...
  93. pmc Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Uruguay
    Xiao Xue Ma
    Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:973-6. 2005
    ..The clone was distinct from the highly virulent community clone represented by strain MW2, although both clones carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene and cna gene...
  94. ncbi Induction of neutrophil apoptosis by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin pyocyanin: a potential mechanism of persistent infection
    Lynne R Usher
    Respiratory Medicine Unit and Infectious Diseases Unit, Division of Genomic Medicine and Institute of Child Health, University of Sheffield Medical School, Sheffield, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 168:1861-8. 2002
    ..We conclude that pyocyanin-induced neutrophil apoptosis may be a clinically important mechanism of persistence of P. aeruginosa in human tissue...
  95. ncbi Clinical isolates of Pantone-Valentine leucocidin- and gamma-haemolysin-producing Staphylococcus aureus: prevalence and association with clinical infections
    I Mesrati
    Laboratory of Research, Resistance aux Antimicrobiens, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia
    J Hosp Infect 75:265-8. 2010
    ..008) and furunculosis (55.5% of strains; P = 0.036). Our findings confirmed the association between pvl-positive strains, cutaneous infections and meticillin resistance in S. aureus...
  96. pmc Molecular distinctions exist between community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and disease-associated isolates in children
    Isaac Thomsen
    Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the Vanderbilt Vaccine Research Program, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and the Monroe Carell Jr Children s Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:418-21. 2011
    ..To define the molecular epidemiology of colonization and disease-associated isolates of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA)...
  97. pmc Recombinant immunotoxin against B-cell malignancies with no immunogenicity in mice by removal of B-cell epitopes
    Masanori Onda
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 4264, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:5742-7. 2011
    ..HA22-LR-8M also has greatly reduced antigenicity when exposed to sera from patients who have produced antibodies to HA22. The properties of HA22-LR-8M make it an excellent candidate for further clinical development...
  98. pmc Frequency of panton-valentine leukocidin-producing methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus strains in patients with complicated skin and soft tissue infection in bronx, new york
    Anna Kaltsas
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Infectious Disease Division, 1300 Morris Park Ave, UL 1223, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 49:2992-5. 2011
    ..aureus (MRSA) and MSSA SSTIs were comparable. In multivariable analysis, the presence of lukF-PV remained a significant predictor for incision and drainage among MSSA strains...
  99. ncbi Histopathologic changes in kidney and liver correlate with streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B production in the mouse model of group A streptococcal infection
    Chih Feng Kuo
    Department of Nursing, I Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Microb Pathog 36:273-85. 2004
    ..Taken together, SPE B produced during S. pyogenes infection plays a pathogenic role. A direct effect of SPE B on vessel permeability change was also demonstrated...
  100. ncbi Superantigen gene profile diversity among clinical group A streptococcal isolates
    Linda Maripuu
    Biomedical Laboratory Science, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umea University, Umea, Sweden
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 54:236-44. 2008
    ..The 22 smeZ alleles were generally linked to the emm-genotype. The results of the investigation show that superantigen gene profiling is useful for tracking spread of clones in the community...
  101. pmc Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin: a powerful tool with capacity to cause imbalance in the host inflammatory response
    Anders Johansson
    Department of Odontology, Umea University, SE 901 87 Umea, Sweden
    Toxins (Basel) 3:242-59. 2011
    ..Therapeutic strategies targeting the cellular and molecular inflammatory host response in periodontal diseases might be a future treatment alternative...

Research Grants63

  1. Development of Vaccines against Clostridium difficile Infection
    SAUL R TZIPORI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CDI is thought to be mainly mediated by exotoxins TcdA and TcdB, which glucosylate low molecular mass GTPases of the Rho family, leading to massive fluid ..
  2. Mechanism of Translation Elongation Factor 2 Inhibition by Bacterial Toxins
    Terri Goss Kinzy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  3. Development of an effective therapy against post-exposure Anthrax
    Maurizio Pellecchia; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Such inhibitors will be tested as single agents and in combination with antibiotics, in order to develop the most efficacious post-exposure therapy that should facilitate and assure the recovery of patients who harbor the disease. ..
  4. HLA class II transgenic mouse models for S. aureus infections and superantigens
    Govindarajan Rajagopalan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The virulence and pathogenicity of S. aureus is attributed to its several exotoxins. The superantigen exotoxins (SAg) are important amongst them because SAg are the most potent activators of T ..
  5. Vaccine Immunotoxin and Radioimmunotherapy of Primary and Metastatic CNS Tumors
    Darell D Bigner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  6. Phagosomal Signals Shape Inflammatory Responses to Borrelia Burgdorferi
    Juan C Salazar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Since Bb lacks orthologs of known exotoxins or the specialized secretory machinery required for the delivery of noxious molecules into host cells, it is ..
  7. Superantigen-Induced Vascular Injury and DIC
    JACK J HAWIGER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This syndrome is due to production of T cell-activating exotoxins ("superantigens") by antibiotic-resistant staphylococci...
  8. Epithelium, dendritic cells, and Clostridium difficile associated colitis
    Hanping Feng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CDI is thought to be mainly mediated by exotoxins TcdA and TcdB, which glucosylate low molecular mass GTPase of the Rho family, leading to massive fluid secretion,..
  9. Diagnosis of sub-clinical cryptic group A streptococcal myonecrosis
    Amy Evelyn Bryant; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..shortfall and improve clinical outcomes, we will combine, for the first time, 1) the well-known ability of GAS exotoxins to modify host proteins plus 2) the knowledge that injured muscles express unique proteins during regeneration, ..
  10. Diphthamide biosynthesis
    Hening Lin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  11. Engineering Soluble T Cell Receptors to Treat Exotoxin Induced Pulmonary Disease
    DAIVA MARIA MATTIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Most importantly for the present application, studies have shown that these exotoxins contribute directly to severe lung infection caused by Community- Associated Methicillin-Resistant S...
  12. Computational Assembly of Beta Barrel Membrane Protein
    Jie Liang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g., in E. coli, N. meningitidis, N. gonorrheae, and mycobacteria such as M. tuberculosis). Many pore-forming exotoxins from gram-positive bacteria are also -barrel membrane proteins (e.g., ?-hemolysin of S...
  13. Mechanisms of Novel Herbal Therapies for Sepsis.
    Haichao Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  14. Protective activity of the lectin-like domain of TNF in permeability edema
    Rudolf Lucas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  15. A Novel Therapy for Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Poisoning
    Kenneth J Piller; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The completion of these Phase II studies will provide necessary information to fulfill some of the requirements set by the FDA for developing vaccines against agents of bioterrorism. ..
  16. SpyA, a novel S. pyogenes ADP-ribosyltransferase
    STEPHEN L MOSELEY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..SpyA is a member of the C3 family of exotoxins, and similar to each member of this family, does not have an obvious receptor-binding domain, or associated ..
  17. Conjugate Anthrax Vaccine with Dual Virulence Factor Specificity
    Lallan Giri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  18. Mechanisms of PVL-induced Acute Lung Injury
    Binh An Diep; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These experiments will determine whether other exotoxins similar in their activities to PVL contribute to virulence in the pneumonia model. Aim 4...
  19. Mechanism of sepsis development in pulmonary bacterial infection
    Jyotika Sharma; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recently, our studies have demonstrated that, in the absence any known bacterial endo- or exotoxins, a deregulated host immune response culminating in severe sepsis is associated with extreme lethality of ..
  20. Ultrasensitive Detection Probes for Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins
    David M Kranz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Staphylococcus aureus is a significant human health threat, producing exotoxins called superantigens, which are responsible for a range of diseases. S...
  21. Phagosomal Signals Shape Inflammatory Responses to B. Burgdorferi
    Juan C Salazar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Since Bb lacks exotoxins or known bacterial secretory system, it is widely believed that the inflammatory manifestations of the disease ..
  22. Staphylococcal Superantigen Interactions With Vaginal Epithelium
    Marnie L Peterson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..human diseases from the organism's colonization of mucous membranes, followed by secretion of potent exotoxins referred to as superantigens...
  23. Novel Combination Therapy for Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia
    Govindarajan Rajagopalan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..During this delay, significant quantities of pathogenic exotoxins have already been produced. Unfortunately, bacteriostatics have no activity on pre-formed exotoxins...
  24. C. elegans immune defense against the P. aeruginosa toxin Exotoxin A
    DEBORAH MCEWAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This application seeks to discover how identifying protein synthesis abnormalities enable C. elegans to survive ToxA and to explore this process in other organisms, including mammalian models. ..
  25. The Fn14 Receptor and Brain Tumor Invasion
    Jeffrey A Winkles; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The proposed studies will examine whether a protein named Fn14 contributes to tumor cell invasiveness and whether it could be a novel molecular target for anti-invasive therapy in humans. ..
  26. Translational linkage strategies for DNA vaccines against cancer
    ERIC S ALONZO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Specific Aim 3 evaluates whether multi-copy DNA microbial fusion vaccines are effective, as combinatorial agents that can be applied with an IL-12/Fc fusion DNA construct against different tumors. ..
  27. Small Molecule Therapeutics for Botullinum Neurotoxin A
    Tobin J Dickerson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Given the bioterrorism threat that botulinum neurotoxin poses, our proposal will develop new molecules to treat botulism and perform the studies needed to advance a potential drug into clinical trials. ..
  28. BRAIN TUMORS - IMMUNOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES
    Darell D Bigner; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Bigner's NS 20023-19 Brain Tumor Center grant, perform FDA-required toxicity and efficacy of three best toxin and three best radiolabeled constructs and submit IND and carry out clinical studies in glioma patients. ..
  29. Toxemia and systemic disease in Clostridium difficile infection
    Hanping Feng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..difficile exotoxins TcdA and TcdB are likely contributing factors...
  30. Mechanisms of Bacterial Toxin Action
    Joseph T Barbieri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..through covalent and non-covalent mechanisms and have several structure-function organizations, including exotoxins and type III secreted cytotoxins...
  31. Role of Inter-alpha Inhibitors in Anthrax Intoxication
    Steven M Opal; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..capacity to disseminate rapidly and induce sepsis, along with its ability to generate two highly potent exotoxins, lethal toxin and edema toxin...
  32. Analyzing Anthrox Toxins in Drosophila
    Ethan Bier; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, produces two exotoxins, Lethal factor (LF) and Edema factor (EF), which are required for bacterial pathogenicity...
  33. Development of a novel targeted-therapy for treatment of basal-like breast cancer
    JODIE MICHELLE FLEMING; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  34. CryoEM analysis of Anthrax Toxin Pore Complexes
    Mark T Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  35. Effect of iron availability on Staphyloccocus aureus exoprotein production.
    Victor J Torres; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..aureus sensically, we will investigate the role of Staphylococcal Superantigen-like exotoxins (Ssl) in S...
  36. Prophage contribution to the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus
    Taeok Bae; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..aureus. The phage encodes multiple virulence factors such as exotoxins and immune modulatory molecules, which can inhibit human innate immune responses...
  37. Systemic events in Clostridium difficile associated disease
    Jimmy D Ballard; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The studies proposed herein will provide important insight into systemic damage occurring in this disease, and test new candidate therapeutics. ..
  38. GATING AND TRANSLOCATION IN THE DIPHTHERIA TOXIN CHANNEL
    Bruce Kagan; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Effects of inhibitors of DT entry such as SITs, and low Ca++ will be examined to elucidate the role of the DT receptor in DT translocation...
  39. NEW CHEMICAL APPROACHES TO ADP-RIBOSYL TRANSFER
    James Slama; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The "transition-state analogue" will be tested as an inhibitor of NAD- glycohydrolase and the microbial toxins...
  40. CryoEM analysis of Anthrax Toxin Pore Complexes
    Mark T Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  41. ARF BINDING IN THE ACTION OF CHOLERA AND E COLI TOXINS
    Richard Kahn; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..coli, respectively) and colonization of the gut where exotoxins are produced that cause all of the clinically important symptoms of the diseases. Cholera toxin (CT) and E...
  42. PRIMATE MODEL AND PATHOGENESIS OF ANTHRAX SEPSIS
    Shinichiro Kurosawa; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..anthracis, provide clinically-relevant animal models for future evaluation of new therapeutic approaches, and determine the role of APC and the protein C pathway in regulating anthrax-mediated pathogenesis. ..
  43. CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE INFECTION
    JERGANG CHANG; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..difficile infection and to the exotoxins of this bacterium. There are 4 specific aims: (1) To study the host responses of aged hamsters to C...
  44. Molecular and Immunologic Analysis of the Pathobiology of Human Anthrax
    KENNETH MARK COGGESHALL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..house, a novel approach to vaccine genetics and vaccine efficacy, several host-response issues, studies of the exotoxins, and two novel and exciting therapeutic approaches...
  45. CONTROL OF ENTEROTOXIN GENE EXPRESSION IN S AUREUS
    George Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Expression of many of the enterotoxins, like that of other virulence-associated exotoxins of S. aureus, is enhanced when activated by the accessory gene regulator (agr) network...
  46. CARDIOTOXICITY OF STREPTOCOCCAL PYROGENIC EXOTOXINS
    Patrick Schlievert; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..project are two fold: a) to evaluate the role of pyrogenic toxin superantigens, notably streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (SPEs, scarlet fever toxins, in causing both acute toxic shock syndrome and vascular illnesses and chronic ..
  47. Molecular Requirements for Recombinant Cytotoxins Efficacy
    Waldemar Debinski; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It is expected that the new information gathered will be invaluable in further molecular design of recombinant anti-cancer cytotoxins. ..
  48. BACTERIAL TOXIN ACTION ON THE DEVELOPING HUMAN GUT
    W Walker; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..These studies may provide the basis for using a specific trophic factor or combination of trophic factors in the prevention of toxigenic diarrhea in premature and neonatal infants. ..
  49. PERTUSSIS, DIPHTHERIA, CHOLERA TOXINS-INHIBITOR DESIGN
    Vern Schramm; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Toxin-directed transition state inhibitors offer a new approach to prevent the damage of bacterial exotoxins to human tissues. Antibiotic resistance is a global problem in infectious disease...
  50. Peptide & antibodies as antidotes for superantigens
    Kunwar Shailubhai; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The family of bacterial superantigens including the two dozens of pyrogenic exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus (SEB) and Streptococcus pyogenes (SPEA) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-..
  51. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL TYPE C ENTEROTOXINS
    Gregory Bohach; Fiscal Year: 1999
    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) are unusual bacterial exotoxins in that they have the ability to cause two distinct human illnesses, food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome (TSS)...
  52. A humanized transgenic mouse model for studying staphylococcal enterotoxin B
    Chella David; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  53. High-throughput Assay to Identify CFTR Inhibitors
    Rangan Maitra; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A common feature of both diseases is increased levels of intracellular cAMP. In secretory diarrhea, bacterial exotoxins increase intracellular cAMP and cGMP, which are both CFTR agonists...
  54. Immunotherapy for Pulmonary Anthrax
    KEITH WYCOFF; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..transgenic plants with the Anthrax Toxin Receptor (ATR), and with high-affinity antibodies against the anthrax exotoxins....
  55. Blockade of Anthrax Cytotoxicity Using Furin Inhibitors
    Iris Lindberg; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  56. LEUKOCYTES AND PATIENTS WITH VENOUS STASIS ULCERS
    Peter Pappas; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..indicate that with clinical progression of CVI, mononuclear cell proliferative responses to bacterial exotoxins, produced by normal skin flora, decrease...
  57. Development of SL-101, An Immunotoxin that Targets Cancer Stem Cells
    Malcolm Moore; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This Phase I STTR grant will cover the development of SL-101 through key phases of pre-clinical development. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  58. MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SPEA AND THE TCR
    CARLEEN COLLINS; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..It is possible that components that can specifically block the superantigenic capabilities of SpeA might prove useful as treatments to ameliorate and possibly prevent STSS in an infected individual. ..
  59. E COLI HEMOLYSIN AND RELATED TOXINS
    RODNEY WELCH; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The putative role for RTX exotoxins in pathogenesis is the inhibition and killing of phagocytic cells...
  60. PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA EXOTOXIN A
    ROCKFORD DRAPER; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Exotoxin A variants that fail to interact with receptors will be coupled to alternative receptor-binding ligands. The properties of the hybrid toxins will be studied and their potential to eliminate tumor cells will be assessed...
  61. IMMUNOMODIFIER ACTIVITIES OF PSEUDOMONAS EXOTOXIN A
    Michael Misfeldt; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..These studies should increase our understanding of the mechanisms by which bacterial derived immunomodifiers (i.e., exotoxin A) function as immunomodulatory agents...
  62. DEVELOPMENT OF IMMUNOTOXINS USING A MUTANT OF EXOTOXIN A
    Robert Fulton; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The successful attainment of the objectives of this research will eventually make immunotoxins with increased cytotoxic potency commercially available both for research purposes and for the therapy of human disease...
  63. Prevention of group B Neisseria meningitidis Infection
    RANDALL MRSNY; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The proposed studies will combine immunological and genetic approaches with a novel vaccine platform to select one or two lead candidates for further development. ..