enterotoxins

Summary

Summary: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The role of toxin A and toxin B in Clostridium difficile infection
    Sarah A Kuehne
    Clostridia Research Group, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
    Nature 467:711-3. 2010
  2. ncbi The bacterial superantigen and superantigen-like proteins
    John D Fraser
    The Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery and School of Medical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag, Auckland, New Zealand
    Immunol Rev 225:226-43. 2008
  3. pmc Clostridium difficile toxins: mechanism of action and role in disease
    Daniel E Voth
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 18:247-63. 2005
  4. pmc Toxin B is essential for virulence of Clostridium difficile
    Dena Lyras
    Australian Bacterial Pathogenesis Program, Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia
    Nature 458:1176-9. 2009
  5. ncbi Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North America and Europe
    Michel Warny
    Acambis Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA
    Lancet 366:1079-84. 2005
  6. ncbi From soil to gut: Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins
    Lotte P Stenfors Arnesen
    Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo, Norway
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:579-606. 2008
  7. pmc Enterotoxigenic profiles of food-poisoning and food-borne Bacillus cereus strains
    Marie Helene Guinebretiere
    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR A408 Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d Origine Végétale, INRA, Domaine Saint Paul, Site Agroparc, F 84914 Avignon Cedex 9, France
    J Clin Microbiol 40:3053-6. 2002
  8. ncbi Three-dimensional structure of a human class II histocompatibility molecule complexed with superantigen
    T S Jardetzky
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138
    Nature 368:711-8. 1994
  9. pmc Staphylococcal enterotoxins
    Irina V Pinchuk
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0655, USA
    Toxins (Basel) 2:2177-97. 2010
  10. pmc Human hypervirulent Clostridium difficile strains exhibit increased sporulation as well as robust toxin production
    Michelle Merrigan
    Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USA
    J Bacteriol 192:4904-11. 2010

Detail Information

Publications400 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The role of toxin A and toxin B in Clostridium difficile infection
    Sarah A Kuehne
    Clostridia Research Group, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
    Nature 467:711-3. 2010
    ..Our findings re-establish the importance of both toxin A and toxin B and highlight the need to continue to consider both toxins in the development of diagnostic tests and effective countermeasures against C. difficile...
  2. ncbi The bacterial superantigen and superantigen-like proteins
    John D Fraser
    The Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery and School of Medical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag, Auckland, New Zealand
    Immunol Rev 225:226-43. 2008
    ....
  3. pmc Clostridium difficile toxins: mechanism of action and role in disease
    Daniel E Voth
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 18:247-63. 2005
    ..Collectively, the present review provides a comprehensive update on TcdA and TcdB's mechanism of action as well as the role of these toxins in disease...
  4. pmc Toxin B is essential for virulence of Clostridium difficile
    Dena Lyras
    Australian Bacterial Pathogenesis Program, Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia
    Nature 458:1176-9. 2009
    ....
  5. ncbi Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North America and Europe
    Michel Warny
    Acambis Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA
    Lancet 366:1079-84. 2005
    ..We characterised the dominant strain of this epidemic to determine whether it produces higher amounts of toxins A and B than those produced by non-epidemic strains...
  6. ncbi From soil to gut: Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins
    Lotte P Stenfors Arnesen
    Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo, Norway
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:579-606. 2008
    ..is an infection caused by vegetative cells, ingested as viable cells or spores, thought to produce protein enterotoxins in the small intestine...
  7. pmc Enterotoxigenic profiles of food-poisoning and food-borne Bacillus cereus strains
    Marie Helene Guinebretiere
    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR A408 Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d Origine Végétale, INRA, Domaine Saint Paul, Site Agroparc, F 84914 Avignon Cedex 9, France
    J Clin Microbiol 40:3053-6. 2002
    ..Unlike diarrheal strains, food-borne strains showed frequent nhe and hbl gene polymorphisms and were often low toxin producers...
  8. ncbi Three-dimensional structure of a human class II histocompatibility molecule complexed with superantigen
    T S Jardetzky
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138
    Nature 368:711-8. 1994
    ....
  9. pmc Staphylococcal enterotoxins
    Irina V Pinchuk
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0655, USA
    Toxins (Basel) 2:2177-97. 2010
    ..aureus. Of the more than 20 Staphylococcal enterotoxins, SEA and SEB are the best characterized and are also regarded as superantigens because of their ability to bind ..
  10. pmc Human hypervirulent Clostridium difficile strains exhibit increased sporulation as well as robust toxin production
    Michelle Merrigan
    Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USA
    J Bacteriol 192:4904-11. 2010
    ..Increased sporulation, potentially in synergy with robust toxin production, may therefore contribute to the widespread disease now associated with hypervirulent C. difficile strains...
  11. ncbi Treatment with monoclonal antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxins
    Israel Lowy
    Medarex, Princeton, NJ, USA
    N Engl J Med 362:197-205. 2010
    ..New therapies are needed to manage the increasing incidence, severity, and high rate of recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection...
  12. ncbi Staphylococcus aureus and food poisoning
    Yves Le Loir
    Laboratoire de Microbiologie UMR1055, Ecole Nationale Superieure Agronomique de Rennes, Institut Nationale de la Recherche Agronomique, 65, rue de Saint Brieuc, CS84215, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France
    Genet Mol Res 2:63-76. 2003
    ..Staphylococcal food poisoning is due to the absorption of staphylococcal enterotoxins preformed in the food...
  13. pmc The anti-sigma factor TcdC modulates hypervirulence in an epidemic BI/NAP1/027 clinical isolate of Clostridium difficile
    Glen P Carter
    Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002317. 2011
    ..These results have important implications for C. difficile pathogenesis and virulence since they suggest that strains carrying a similar mutation have the inherent potential to develop a hypervirulent phenotype...
  14. pmc Binding of superantigen toxins into the CD28 homodimer interface is essential for induction of cytokine genes that mediate lethal shock
    Gila Arad
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Research Israel Canada, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel
    PLoS Biol 9:e1001149. 2011
    ..The novel role of CD28 as receptor for a class of microbial pathogens, the superantigen toxins, broadens the scope of pathogen recognition mechanisms...
  15. pmc Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in developing countries: epidemiology, microbiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention
    Firdausi Qadri
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
    Clin Microbiol Rev 18:465-83. 2005
    ..The pathogenesis of ETEC-induced diarrhea is similar to that of cholera and includes the production of enterotoxins and colonization factors...
  16. pmc Caspase and bid involvement in Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced apoptosis and modulation of toxin A effects by glutamine and alanyl-glutamine in vivo and in vitro
    Benedito A Carneiro
    Center for Global Health, Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia, MR4, Lane Road, Room 3148, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Infect Immun 74:81-7. 2006
    ..Glutamine and alanyl-glutamine inhibited the apoptosis of T84 cells by preventing caspase 8 activation and reduced TxA-induced intestinal secretion and disruption...
  17. pmc Multiplex PCR targeting tpi (triose phosphate isomerase), tcdA (Toxin A), and tcdB (Toxin B) genes for toxigenic culture of Clostridium difficile
    Ludovic Lemee
    Groupe de Recherche sur les Antimicrobiens et les Microorganismes, Universite de Rouen, UFR Medecine Pharmacie, and Service de Bacteriologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, France
    J Clin Microbiol 42:5710-4. 2004
    ..5 and 92.5% of the samples, respectively. The multiplex PCR toxigenic culture scheme described here allows combined diagnosis and toxigenic type characterization for human and animal C. difficile intestinal infections...
  18. ncbi Role of staphylococcal superantigens in upper airway disease
    Claus Bachert
    Upper Airway Research Laboratory, Ear Nose and Throat Department, University Hospital Ghent, Ghent, Belgium
    Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 8:34-8. 2008
    ..b>Enterotoxins derived from Staphylococcus aureus have been implicated in the pathophysiology of nasal polyps as disease-..
  19. pmc NetB, a new toxin that is associated with avian necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens
    Anthony L Keyburn
    CSIRO Livestock Industries, Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Victoria, Australia
    PLoS Pathog 4:e26. 2008
    ..perfringens strains capable of causing NE. Furthermore, the netB mutant is the first rationally attenuated strain obtained in an NE-causing isolate of C. perfringens; as such it has considerable vaccine potential...
  20. pmc Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis isolates are associated with clonal complex 30 genotype and a distinct repertoire of enterotoxins and adhesins
    Juhsien J C Nienaber
    Duke University Medical Center Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    J Infect Dis 204:704-13. 2011
    ..aureus in clonal complex (CC) 30 is associated with hematogenous complications and (2) test the hypothesis that specific genetic characteristics in S. aureus are associated with infection severity...
  21. ncbi The gene for toxic shock toxin is carried by a family of mobile pathogenicity islands in Staphylococcus aureus
    J A Lindsay
    Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University Medical Centre, New York 10016, USA
    Mol Microbiol 29:527-43. 1998
    ..It is designated SaPI2. These PIs are the first in any gram-positive species and the first for which mobility has been demonstrated. Their mobility may be responsible for the spread of TSST-1 production among S. aureus strains...
  22. pmc Suppression of acute lung inflammation by intracellular peptide delivery of a nuclear import inhibitor
    Danya Liu
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 2363, USA
    Mol Ther 17:796-802. 2009
    ..Thus, intracellular delivery of a nuclear import inhibitory peptide suppresses respiratory and systemic expression of key mediators of lung inflammation evoked by SEB...
  23. ncbi Three-dimensional structure of the complex between a T cell receptor beta chain and the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B
    H Li
    Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Rockville 20850, USA
    Immunity 9:807-16. 1998
    ..This variability can account for the preferential expression of certain V alpha regions among T cells reactive with SEB...
  24. ncbi Repression of Clostridium difficile toxin gene expression by CodY
    Sean S Dineen
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, School of Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA
    Mol Microbiol 66:206-19. 2007
    ..Binding of CodY to the tcdR promoter region was enhanced in the presence of GTP and branched-chain amino acids, suggesting a link between nutrient limitation and the expression of C. difficile toxin genes...
  25. pmc Facile generation of heat-stable antiviral and antitoxin single domain antibodies from a semisynthetic llama library
    Ellen R Goldman
    Center for Bio Molecular Science and Engineering, US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA
    Anal Chem 78:8245-55. 2006
    ..The ability to rapidly select such rugged antibodies will enhance the reliability of immunoassays by extending shelf life and the capacity to function in hostile environments...
  26. pmc Monoclonal antibodies neutralize Bacillus cereus Nhe enterotoxin by inhibiting ordered binding of its three exoprotein components
    Andrea Didier
    Department of Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat Munchen, Oberschleissheim, Germany
    Infect Immun 80:832-8. 2012
    ..This distinct mechanism further supports that NheA is the key component during the Nhe mode of action and the C-terminal epitope recognized by antibody 1E11 points to an important functional region of NheB...
  27. pmc Prevalence of toxin types and colonization factors in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated during a 2-year period from diarrheal patients in Bangladesh
    F Qadri
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
    J Clin Microbiol 38:27-31. 2000
    ..This study supports the fact that ETEC is still a major cause of childhood diarrhea in Bangladesh, especially in children up to 3 years of age, and that measures to prevent such infections are needed in developing countries...
  28. pmc Immunogenicity of a Salmonella typhimurium aroA aroD vaccine expressing a nontoxic domain of Clostridium difficile toxin A
    S J Ward
    Microbial Pathogenicity Research Group, Department of Microbiology, St Bartholomew s and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London EC1A 7BE, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 67:2145-52. 1999
    ..The availability of live attenuated Salmonella typhi for human use may allow the development of a multivalent mucosal vaccine against CDAD, tetanus, and typhoid...
  29. ncbi Heterogeneity of large clostridial toxins: importance of Clostridium difficile toxinotypes
    Maja Rupnik
    Institute of Public Health Maribor, Centre for Microbiology, Prvomajska 1, Maribor, Slovenia
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:541-55. 2008
    ..Variant toxinotypes are very common in animal hosts and can represent from 40% to 100% of all isolates. Among human isolates, variant toxinotypes usually represent up to 10% of strains but their prevalence is increasing...
  30. ncbi Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins in sheep cheese and dairy desserts by multiplex PCR technique
    Nurhan Ertas
    Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Erciyes, Kayseri, Turkey
    Int J Food Microbiol 142:74-7. 2010
    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) genes in sheep cheese and dairy dessert samples by multiplex PCR (mPCR) technique...
  31. ncbi Individualized patient dosing in phase I clinical trials: the role of escalation with overdose control in PNU-214936
    Jonathan D Cheng
    Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, 7701 Burholme Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA
    J Clin Oncol 22:602-9. 2004
    ..PNU-214936 is a murine Fab fragment of the monoclonal antibody 5T4 fused to a mutated superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA)...
  32. pmc Production, secretion and biological activity of Bacillus cereus enterotoxins
    Sonia Senesi
    Dipartimento di Biologia, University of Pisa, Via S Zeno 37, 56127 Pisa, Italy
    Toxins (Basel) 2:1690-703. 2010
    ..In this report, the pathogenicity exerted by B. cereus toxins is described with particular attention to the regulatory mechanisms of production and secretion of HBL, Nhe and CytK enterotoxins.
  33. ncbi Fodrin CaM-binding domain cleavage by Pet from enteroaggregative Escherichia coli leads to actin cytoskeletal disruption
    Adrian Canizalez-Roman
    Department of Cell Biology, CINVESTAV IPN, Ap Postal 14 740, 07000 Mexico, DF, Mexico
    Mol Microbiol 48:947-58. 2003
    ..This is the first report showing cleavage of alpha-fodrin by a bacterial protease. Cleavage occurs in the middle of the calmodulin binding domain, which leads to cytoskeleton disruption...
  34. ncbi Clostridium difficile toxin A induces intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis and damage: role of Gln and Ala-Gln in toxin A effects
    Gerly A C Brito
    Center for Global Health, Department of Intemal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
    Dig Dis Sci 50:1271-8. 2005
    ..In conclusion, both peptides reduced toxin-induced epithelial damage and thus might play an adjunctive role in C. difficile-induced colitis therapy...
  35. pmc Structural basis of T-cell specificity and activation by the bacterial superantigen TSST-1
    Beenu Moza
    Boston Biomedical Research Institute, Watertown, MA 02472, USA
    EMBO J 26:1187-97. 2007
    ..Our data also suggest that protein plasticity plays an exceptionally significant role in this affinity maturation process that results in more than a 3000-fold increase in affinity...
  36. ncbi Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection by toxin detection kits: a systematic review
    Tim Planche
    Department of Medical Microbiology, St George s Hospital, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 8:777-84. 2008
    ..To improve diagnosis, we suggest a two-stage testing strategy for C difficile toxin with an initial highly sensitive rapid screening test to identify positive samples that are then confirmed by a reference method...
  37. ncbi Nasal vaccination, Escherichia coli enterotoxin, and Bell's palsy
    Robert B Couch
    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, USA
    N Engl J Med 350:860-1. 2004
  38. ncbi Clostridium difficile toxins: more than mere inhibitors of Rho proteins
    Harald Genth
    Institut fur Toxikologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, D 30625 Hannover, Germany
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 40:592-7. 2008
    ....
  39. pmc Inhibition of toxic shock by human monoclonal antibodies against staphylococcal enterotoxin B
    Eileen A Larkin
    Immunology Department, Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e13253. 2010
    ..Recombinant monoclonal antibodies that target SEB and block receptor interactions can be of therapeutic value...
  40. ncbi Presence of IL-5 protein and IgE antibodies to staphylococcal enterotoxins in nasal polyps is associated with comorbid asthma
    Claus Bachert
    Upper Airway Research Laboratory, Department of Oto Rhino Laryngology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 126:962-8, 968.e1-6. 2010
    ..Nasal polyps often are associated with asthma. The phenotype of these patients is unknown...
  41. pmc Staphylococcal superantigens cause lethal pulmonary disease in rabbits
    Kristi L Strandberg
    Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:1690-7. 2010
    ..aureus (MRSA) are significant causes of serious human infections, including pulmonary illnesses. We investigated the role played by superantigens in lung-associated lethal illness in rabbits...
  42. ncbi Staphylococcus aureus colonization and IgE antibody formation to enterotoxins is increased in nasal polyposis
    Thibaut Van Zele
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 114:981-3. 2004
  43. pmc Food poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins
    María Ángeles Argudín
    Department of Functional Biology Section of Microbiology and University Institute of Biotechnology of Asturias IUBA, University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain
    Toxins (Basel) 2:1751-73. 2010
    Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide variety of toxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs; SEA to SEE, SEG to SEI, SER to SET) with demonstrated emetic activity, and staphylococcal-like (SEl) proteins, which are not emetic in a ..
  44. ncbi Mucosal administration of Ag85B-ESAT-6 protects against infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and boosts prior bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunity
    Jes Dietrich
    Department of Infectious Disease Immunology, Statens Serum Institute, Artillerivej 5, DK 2300 Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Immunol 177:6353-60. 2006
    ..tb in LTK63/Ag85B-ESAT-6-boosted mice, compared with BCG-vaccinated animals. Thus, LTK63/Ag85B-ESAT-6 represents an efficient preventive vaccine against tuberculosis with a strong ability to boost prior BCG immunity...
  45. ncbi Increased levels of serum-specific immunoglobulin e to staphylococcal enterotoxin a and B in patients with allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma
    Jyh Hong Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 138:305-11. 2005
    The association between staphylococcal enterotoxins and atopic dermatitis (AD) is well characterized...
  46. ncbi Variable protection after vaccination of broiler chickens against necrotic enteritis using supernatants of different Clostridium perfringens strains
    A Lanckriet
    Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Research Group Veterinary Public Health and Zoonoses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, Merelbeke, Belgium
    Vaccine 28:5920-3. 2010
    ..Our results indicate that the protective characteristics of the supernatants are not solely based on the presence of NetB or alpha toxin...
  47. ncbi Bacterial surface association of heat-labile enterotoxin through lipopolysaccharide after secretion via the general secretory pathway
    Amanda L Horstman
    Department of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:32538-45. 2002
    ..These data explain a novel mechanism of vesicle-mediated receptor-dependent delivery of a bacterial toxin into a host cell...
  48. pmc Oral vaccine formulations stimulate mucosal and systemic antibody responses against staphylococcal enterotoxin B in a piglet model
    Tiffany K Inskeep
    University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:1163-9. 2010
    ..Taken together, these studies provide additional evidence for the potential use of nontoxic forms of SEB as vaccines...
  49. ncbi Cellular and cytokine responses in the circulation and tissue reactions in the lung of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) pretreated with cyclosporin A and challenged with staphylococcal enterotoxin B
    J L Komisar
    Department of Experimental Pathology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910 7500, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 29:369-78. 2001
    ..The results suggest that CsA alone may not be an effective therapeutic agent for humans suffering from SEB intoxication or gram-positive septic shock...
  50. pmc A single, engineered protein therapeutic agent neutralizes exotoxins from both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes
    Ningyan Wang
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois, 600 S Mathews Ave, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:1781-9. 2010
    ..Soluble forms of the cross-reactive Vβ regions neutralized both SEB and SpeA in vivo, suggesting structure-based strategies for generating high-affinity neutralizing agents that can cross-react with multiple exotoxins...
  51. pmc Transient facial nerve paralysis (Bell's palsy) following intranasal delivery of a genetically detoxified mutant of Escherichia coli heat labile toxin
    David J M Lewis
    St George s Vaccine Institute, St George s University of London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 4:e6999. 2009
    ..The individual component(s) responsible for paralysis were not identified, and the vaccine was withdrawn...
  52. pmc Expression of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B and their sigma factor TcdD is controlled by temperature
    Sture Karlsson
    Department of Molecular Epidemiology and Biotechnology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, S 171 82 Solna, Sweden
    Infect Immun 71:1784-93. 2003
    ..The regulation of toxin production in C. difficile by temperature is a novel finding apparently reflecting an adaptation of the expression of its virulence to mammalian hosts...
  53. ncbi The impact of tacrolimus on the immunopathogenesis of staphylococcal enterotoxin-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome and pneumonia
    Ashenafi Y Tilahun
    Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55906, USA
    Microbes Infect 14:528-36. 2012
    ..aureus strain. Thus, our study showed that even though T cell activation by SAg plays a major role in the immunopathogenesis of TSS and pneumonia, tacrolimus alone has no beneficial effect...
  54. pmc Superantigen binding to a T cell receptor beta chain of known three-dimensional structure
    E L Malchiodi
    Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Rockville 20850, USA
    J Exp Med 182:1833-45. 1995
    ..Specific binding was demonstrated to staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) B, C1, C2, and C3 and to streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SPEA), consistent with the known ..
  55. ncbi CD44 as a novel target for treatment of staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced acute inflammatory lung injury
    Jingping Sun
    Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA 31207, USA
    Clin Immunol 144:41-52. 2012
    ..Together, these results suggest the possibility of targeting CD44 for the treatment of SEB-induced ALI/ARDS...
  56. pmc Structure of the food-poisoning Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin reveals similarity to the aerolysin-like pore-forming toxins
    David C Briggs
    Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, UK
    J Mol Biol 413:138-49. 2011
    ..We show that CPE forms a trimer in both crystal forms and that this trimer is likely to be biologically relevant but is not the active pore form. We use these data to discuss models of pore formation...
  57. ncbi Identification of the antigenic epitopes in staphylococcal enterotoxins A and E and design of a superantigen for human cancer therapy
    Eva Erlandsson
    Active Biotech Research AB, Box 724, 220 07 Lund, Sweden
    J Mol Biol 333:893-905. 2003
    ..SEA/E-120 is likely to have a low toxicity due to its reduced capacity to mediate killing of MHC class II expressing cells. It is produced as a Fab fusion protein at approximately 35 mg/l in Escherichia coli...
  58. ncbi Specific IgE against Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins: an independent risk factor for asthma
    Claus Bachert
    Upper Airway Research Laboratory URL, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 130:376-81.e8. 2012
    ..The role of IgE in patients with severe asthma is not fully understood...
  59. ncbi Production of a fusion protein consisting of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunit and a tuberculosis antigen in Arabidopsis thaliana
    M M Rigano
    Department of Biology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Plant Cell Rep 22:502-8. 2004
    ..Both components of the fusion protein were detected using GM1-ganglioside-dependent enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. This suggested the fusion protein retained both its native antigenicity and the ability to form pentamers...
  60. pmc Antibodies to recombinant Clostridium difficile toxins A and B are an effective treatment and prevent relapse of C. difficile-associated disease in a hamster model of infection
    J A Kink
    Ophidian Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, USA
    Infect Immun 66:2018-25. 1998
    ..In contrast to vancomycin, CDAD antitoxin prevented relapse and subsequent C. difficile reinfection in the hamsters. These results indicate that CDAD antitoxin may be effective in the treatment and management of CDAD in humans...
  61. pmc Crystal structure of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin displays features of beta-pore-forming toxins
    Kengo Kitadokoro
    Graduate School of Science and Technology, Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, Japan
    J Biol Chem 286:19549-55. 2011
    ..We also hypothesize that the transmembrane domain is inserted into the membrane upon the buckling of the two long β-strands spanning the module, a mechanism analogous to that of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysins...
  62. ncbi Toxin gene profiling of enterotoxic and emetic Bacillus cereus
    Monika Ehling-Schulz
    Microbial Ecology Group, Department of Biosciences, WZW, Technische Universitat Munchen, Freising, Germany
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 260:232-40. 2006
    ..cereus strains with known toxin profiles and was successfully applied to characterize strains from food and clinical diagnostic labs as well as for the toxin gene profiling of B. cereus isolated from silo tank populations...
  63. pmc Multiple anti-inflammatory pathways triggered by resveratrol lead to amelioration of staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced lung injury
    SADIYE AMCAOGLU RIEDER
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29209, USA
    Br J Pharmacol 167:1244-58. 2012
    ..In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effectiveness of resveratrol, a plant polyphenol, during SEB-induced lung inflammation...
  64. pmc Bacillus cereus cytotoxins Hbl, Nhe and CytK are secreted via the Sec translocation pathway
    Annette Fagerlund
    Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, PO Box 8146 Dep, N 0033 Oslo, Norway
    BMC Microbiol 10:304. 2010
    ..As protein secretion is of key importance in virulence of a microorganism, the mechanisms by which these toxins are secreted were further investigated...
  65. ncbi Clostridium difficile toxin B is an inflammatory enterotoxin in human intestine
    Tor C Savidge
    Developmental Gastroenterology Laboratory, Combined Program in Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 114 16th Street, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Gastroenterology 125:413-20. 2003
    ..However, toxin A-negative/toxin B-positive strains of C. difficile recently were isolated from patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis, indicating that toxin B also may be pathogenic in humans...
  66. pmc Therapeutic down-modulators of staphylococcal superantigen-induced inflammation and toxic shock
    Teresa Krakauer
    Department of Immunology, Integrated Toxicology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter Street, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    Toxins (Basel) 2:1963-83. 2010
    ....
  67. pmc Novel toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 amino acids required for biological activity
    Amanda J Brosnahan
    Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Biochemistry 47:12995-3003. 2008
    ..Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 residue D130 may contribute to binding an epithelial receptor, which allows it to penetrate the vaginal mucosa, induce interleukin-8, and cause toxic shock syndrome...
  68. pmc Immunization with Bacillus spores expressing toxin A peptide repeats protects against infection with Clostridium difficile strains producing toxins A and B
    Patima Permpoonpattana
    School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 79:2295-302. 2011
    ..This work demonstrates that an effective vaccine against C. difficile can be designed around two attributes, mucosal delivery and the repeat domain of toxin A...
  69. ncbi The release and induced immune responses of a plant-made and delivered antigen in the mouse gut
    Assunta Pelosi
    School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
    Curr Drug Deliv 8:612-21. 2011
    ..Expression and delivery of the model antigen in plant material prepared in an aqueous formulation provided the optimal systemic and mucosal, antigen-specific immune responses...
  70. pmc Systemic dissemination of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B is associated with severe, fatal disease in animal models
    Jennifer Steele
    Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, North Grafton, Massachusetts, USA
    J Infect Dis 205:384-91. 2012
    ..Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) can cause a wide range of disease, from mild diarrhea to fulminant systemic disease. The incidence of systemic CDI with fatal consequence has increased rapidly in recent years...
  71. pmc Options for inactivation, adjuvant, and route of topical administration of a killed, unencapsulated pneumococcal whole-cell vaccine
    Ying Jie Lu
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:1005-12. 2010
    ....
  72. ncbi Mechanism of Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced apoptosis in T84 cells
    Gerly A C Brito
    Department of Morphology, Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, Brazil
    J Infect Dis 186:1438-47. 2002
    ..Toxin A proapoptotic activity may contribute to the mucosal disruption seen in toxin A-induced enteritis...
  73. pmc Toxinotype V Clostridium difficile in humans and food animals
    Michael A Jhung
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1039-45. 2008
    ..Further study is needed to understand the epidemiology of CDAD caused by toxinotype V C. difficile, including the potential of foodborne transmission to humans...
  74. pmc egc-Encoded superantigens from Staphylococcus aureus are neutralized by human sera much less efficiently than are classical staphylococcal enterotoxins or toxic shock syndrome toxin
    Silva Holtfreter
    Institut für Immunologie und Transfusionsmedizin, Ernst Moritz Arndt Universitat Greifswald, Diagnostikzentrum Sauerbruchstrasse, D 17487 Greifswald, Germany
    Infect Immun 72:4061-71. 2004
    ..No more than 10% of normal human serum samples inhibited the T-cell stimulation elicited by egc-encoded enterotoxins (staphylococcal enterotoxins G, I, M, N, and O), whereas between 32 and 86% neutralized the classical ..
  75. pmc Superantigen profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients with steroid-resistant atopic dermatitis
    Patrick M Schlievert
    Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:1562-7. 2008
    ..T cells activated in vitro by superantigens become steroid resistant. The objective was to assess the superantigen profiles of S. aureus isolates from patients with steroid-resistant atopic dermatitis...
  76. ncbi Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin promotes protective Th17 responses against infection by driving innate IL-1 and IL-23 production
    Corinna F Brereton
    Immune Regulation Research Group, School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
    J Immunol 186:5896-906. 2011
    ..Our findings provide clear evidence that LT can promote protective immune responses in part through induction of innate IL-1 and, consequently, Th17 cells...
  77. pmc The repetitive oligopeptide sequences modulate cytopathic potency but are not crucial for cellular uptake of Clostridium difficile toxin A
    Alexandra Olling
    Institut fur Toxikologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Hannover, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e17623. 2011
    ..Thus, different routes for cellular uptake might enable the toxins to enter a broader repertoire of cell types leading to the observed multifarious pathogenesis of C. difficile...
  78. pmc Structural determinants of Clostridium difficile toxin A glucosyltransferase activity
    Rory N Pruitt
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:8013-20. 2012
    ..These studies highlight the importance of cellular activation in determining the array of substrates available to the toxins once delivered into the cell...
  79. pmc Neutralization of Clostridium difficile toxin A with single-domain antibodies targeting the cell receptor binding domain
    Greg Hussack
    Institute for Biological Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6, Canada
    J Biol Chem 286:8961-76. 2011
    ....
  80. ncbi Simultaneous multiplex detection and confirmation of the proteinaceous toxins abrin, ricin, botulinum toxins, and Staphylococcus enterotoxins a, B, and C in food
    Eric A E Garber
    Office of Regulatory Science, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, Maryland 20740, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 58:6600-7. 2010
    ..Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were obtained for abrin, botulinum toxins, ricin, and Staphylococcus enterotoxins A, B, and C (SEA, SEB, and SEC)...
  81. ncbi T regulatory cells in atopic dermatitis and subversion of their activity by superantigens
    Liang Shiou Ou
    Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 113:756-63. 2004
    ..CD4+CD25+ T regulatory (Treg) cells are thought to play an important role in controlling inflammatory responses...
  82. pmc Cytolysins augment superantigen penetration of stratified mucosa
    Amanda J Brosnahan
    Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Immunol 182:2364-73. 2009
    ....
  83. ncbi Glucosylation of Rho GTPases by Clostridium difficile toxin A triggers apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells
    Ralf Gerhard
    Institute of Toxicology, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany
    J Med Microbiol 57:765-70. 2008
    ..In summary, TcdA-induced apoptosis (cytotoxic effect) depends on the glucosylation of Rho GTPases, but is not triggered by destruction of the actin cytoskeleton (cytopathic effect)...
  84. ncbi Bacillus cereus, the causative agent of an emetic type of food-borne illness
    Monika Ehling-Schulz
    Abt Mikrobiologie, ZIEL, Technische Universitat Munchen, Freising, Germany
    Mol Nutr Food Res 48:479-87. 2004
    ..It produces one emesis-causing toxin and three enterotoxins that elicit diarrhea. Due to changing lifestyles and eating habits, B...
  85. ncbi Investigation of toxin gene diversity, molecular epidemiology, and antimicrobial resistance of Clostridium difficile isolated from 12 hospitals in South Korea
    Heejung Kim
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Research Institute of Bacterial Resistance, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Korean J Lab Med 30:491-7. 2010
    ..The objective of this study was to characterize clinical isolates of C. difficile obtained from various regions in Korea with regard to their toxin status, molecular type, and antimicrobial susceptibility...
  86. pmc Occurrence, distribution, and associations of O and H serogroups, colonization factor antigens, and toxins of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
    M K Wolf
    Department of Gastroenterology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC 20307 5100, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 10:569-84. 1997
    ..Many phenotypes occurred only once. CFA detection based on enzyme-linked antibodies with polyclonal sera is suggested as the preferred assay. A combination of CFA and toxin-based antigens is suggested as the most practical vaccine...
  87. ncbi Colonization factors of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)
    W Gaastra
    Dept of Bacteriology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
    Trends Microbiol 4:444-52. 1996
    ..The ability of ETEC to adhere to the intestinal epithelium of the host is an important virulence determinant, and adhesion is mediated by proteinaceous surface appendages called colonization factors...
  88. ncbi Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B, protein A, and lipoteichoic acid stimulations in nasal polyps
    Joke Patou
    Upper Airways Research Laboratory, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 121:110-5. 2008
    ..Increasing evidence points toward a modifying role of Staphylococcus aureus and its products in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis...
  89. ncbi Analysis of strategies to successfully vaccinate infants in developing countries against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) disease
    Richard I Walker
    Division of Bacterial, Parasitic and Allergenic Products, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20851 1448, USA
    Vaccine 25:2545-66. 2007
    ..However, a Product Development Partnership to overcome this hurdle could accelerate the time lines towards when control of ETEC disease in DCs is substantially closer...
  90. pmc Comparative analyses of phenotypic and genotypic methods for detection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli toxins and colonization factors
    A Sjoling
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Biomedicine, Box 435, 405 30 Goteborg, Sweden
    J Clin Microbiol 45:3295-301. 2007
    ....
  91. ncbi Cholesterol-dependent pore formation of Clostridium difficile toxin A
    Torsten Giesemann
    Institut fur Experimentelle und Klinische Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Albert Ludwigs Universitat Freiburg, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    J Biol Chem 281:10808-15. 2006
    ..g. endosomes) similar to that reported for toxin B and suggest that pore formation by clostridial glucosylating toxins depends on the presence of cholesterol...
  92. pmc Role of SarA in virulence determinant production and environmental signal transduction in Staphylococcus aureus
    P F Chan
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 180:6232-41. 1998
    ..The possible role of proteases as regulators of virulence determinant stability is discussed...
  93. pmc Characterization of virulence factor regulation by SrrAB, a two-component system in Staphylococcus aureus
    Alexa A Pragman
    Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Bacteriol 186:2430-8. 2004
    ..Repression of these virulence factors is likely due to a direct interaction between SrrA and the agr, tst, and spa promoters...
  94. ncbi Role of staphylococcal superantigens in airway disease
    C Bachert
    Upper Airway Research Laboratory, ENT Department, University Hospital Ghent, Ghent, Belgium
    Chem Immunol Allergy 93:214-36. 2007
    ..Staphylococcus aureus germs constitutively have the possibility to release classical and egc-locus-derived enterotoxins which show superantigen activity, and effectively modify the functions of T and B cells, eosinophils, and other ..
  95. ncbi Expression of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin receptors claudin-3 and claudin-4 in prostate cancer epithelium
    H Long
    Departments of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    Cancer Res 61:7878-81. 2001
    ..The persistent high level of claudin-3 expression in prostate adenocarcinoma and functional cytotoxicity of CPE in metastatic androgen-independent prostate adenocarcinoma suggests a new potential therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer...
  96. pmc Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins in foods
    R C Freed
    Appl Environ Microbiol 44:1349-55. 1982
    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins in foods. The "double-antibody sandwich" protocol combines parts of several procedures reported previously...
  97. pmc Pyrogenic toxin superantigen site specificity in toxic shock syndrome and food poisoning in animals
    P M Schlievert
    Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Infect Immun 68:3630-4. 2000
    ..In contrast, SFP has been linked only with staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs)...
  98. pmc A single-stranded DNA aptamer that selectively binds to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B
    Jeffrey A DeGrasse
    Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry Branch, Division of Analytical Chemistry, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, US Food and Drug Administration, College Park, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e33410. 2012
    ..common foodborne pathogen capable of secreting a cocktail of small, stable, and strain-specific, staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs)...
  99. pmc Escherichia coli constructs expressing human or porcine enterotoxins induce identical diarrheal diseases in a piglet infection model
    Weiping Zhang
    The Center for Infectious Disease Research and Vaccinology, South Dakota State University, Box 2175, North Campus Drive, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:5832-7. 2008
    ..Piglets developed identical diarrheal diseases when inoculated with constructs expressing human or porcine enterotoxins.
  100. ncbi Ginger and its bioactive component inhibit enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea in mice
    Jaw Chyun Chen
    Graduate Institute of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Graduate Institute of Chinese Medical Science, Department of Microbiology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
    J Agric Food Chem 55:8390-7. 2007
    ..In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that ginger and its derivatives may be effective herbal supplements for the clinical treatment of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhea...
  101. ncbi SEB combined with IL-1ra could prolong the survival of the rat allografts in high-risk corneal transplantation
    Y Jie
    Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology and the Tongren Eye Bank, Beijing Tongren Eye Centre, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital University of Medical Science, Beijing, China
    Transplant Proc 36:3267-71. 2004
    ..To determine whether the superantigen Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) combined with interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) prolong allograft survival better than individual agents in high-risk corneal transplantation in a rat model...

Research Grants64

  1. Robust Peptide-Based Diagnostics of Botulinum Toxins
    John E Mueller; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..other proteinaceous biothreat agents, including shiga and shiga-like toxins, Staphylococcus and Clostridium enterotoxins, abrin, and ricin...
  2. PHYSIOLOGY AND CLONING OF B FRAGILIS ENTEROTOXIN
    CYNTHIA SEARS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our studies may indicate that a common stool bacterium is oncogenic and contributes to colon cancer risk. If so, these data will lead to new public health approaches to the prevention of colon cancer. ..
  3. Combination Clostridium Difficile Toxin and Adhesin Vaccine
    Ciaran P Kelly; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Challenge studies against multiple C. difficile strains in the mouse and the hamster model of bacterial infection will be performed to evaluate C. difficile colonization and protection against CDAD. ..
  4. Combination Clostridium Difficile Toxin and Adhesin Vaccine
    Ciaran P Kelly; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Challenge studies against multiple C. difficile strains in the mouse and the hamster model of bacterial infection will be performed to evaluate C difficile colonization and protection against CDAD. ..
  5. Role of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin in disease
    Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies are expected to shed light on elements of host susceptibility to S. aureus disease, and contribute more broadly to our understanding of bacterial pore forming cytotoxins. ..
  6. Superantigen-Induced Vascular Injury and DIC
    JACK J HAWIGER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..abstract_text> ..
  7. Phages and Genomic Variation in Vibrio Cholerae Evolution
    JOHN JOSEPH MEKALANOS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..transfer of virulence genes or to produce virulence factors such as inflammatory molecules, cytotoxins and enterotoxins;6) we will construct genetically marked phages suitable for environmental release and accurate subsequent ..
  8. Structural Biology of Enterotoxin Secretion from Bacterial Cells
    WILHELMUS G J HOL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..At the same time, our structural data will provide a new basis for developing future therapeutic interventions against bacterial infections. ..
  9. S. aureus and Regulatory T cells in the Failure of Oral Tolerance
    Anne Marie Singh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The mentoring team will oversee Dr. Singh's progress to study the effects of S. aureus on regulatory T cell function in food allergy. ..
  10. Determining vaccine candidacy of LT and STa toxoid fusions against enterotoxigeni
    Weiping Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..factors in ETEC- associated diarrhea are bacterial adhesins or colonization factor antigens (CFAs) and enterotoxins. CFAs mediate bacterial attachment to the host epithelium cells, but it is the enterotoxin, the heat-labile (LT)..
  11. Mechanisms of Action of C. perfringens Enterotoxin
    BRUCE A MC CLANE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These insights will generate specific therapeutics to prevent these illnesses and allow further development of CPE as a potential cancer therapeutic...
  12. Alternative approaches for NALT-based immunity to respiratory pathogens
    Prosper N Boyaka; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..protect against respiratory pathogens, without the adverse effects often associated with nasal application of enterotoxins. Specific aim one will establish the adjuvant activity of edema factor derivatives co-administered with ..
  13. Helper phage mobilization of S. aureus superantigen pathogenicity islands
    Gail E Christie; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A large number of staphylococcal superantigens, including enterotoxins B, C and toxic shock toxin, have recently been shown to be encoded on a family of related, 15-20 kb ..
  14. An Attenuated E.coli Vaccine for Enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC)
    Edgar C Boedeker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The development of safe and effective, live attenuated ETEC vaccines should have great public health significance for infants in developing countries and for international travelers. ..
  15. Structural basis for pathogenicity island mobilization in S. aureus
    Terje Dokland; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..produces a number of toxins of great medical importance, including toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1) and enterotoxins B and C...
  16. Engineering Soluble T Cell Receptors to Treat Exotoxin Induced Pulmonary Disease
    DAIVA MARIA MATTIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Soluble forms of high affinity T cell receptors can neutralize the systemic toxicity of the SAgs, as has been recently shown in animal models with the toxin SEB. ..
  17. A Novel Therapy for Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Poisoning
    Kenneth J Piller; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The completion of these Phase II studies will provide necessary information to fulfill some of the requirements set by the FDA for developing vaccines against agents of bioterrorism. ..
  18. The Role of bacterial toxins in human skin disease.
    DONALD YM LEUNG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies will likely identify therapeutic approaches in the control of skin inflammation initiated by staphylococcal toxins and atopy. ..
  19. Therapeutic Human Monoclonal Antibodies Against Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB
    M Javad Aman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..as well as MorphoSys AG and its subsidiary AbD-Serotec, in anti-toxin therapeutic development, animal studies with biothreat agents, and a novel proprietary technology for development of fully human antibodies. ..
  20. Imaging antigen and adjuvant uptake for enhancing response to mucosal vaccines
    Michael W Russell; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..n.). Among numerous strategies designed to enhance responses to mucosal vaccines, bacterial heat-labile enterotoxins such as cholera toxin (CT) and the labile toxins of Escherichia coli (LT-I, LT-IIa and LT-IIb) have been ..
  21. Potent Phage T4 Derived V2 Immunogens as HIV Vaccines
    Venigalla B Rao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These might potentially serve as preventative HIV-1 vaccine candidates for further studies in nonhuman primates and clinical trials. ..
  22. Regulation of Rotavirus Replication
    MARY KOLB ESTES; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The specific aims of our proposed work are (1) To determine how rotavirus NSP4 affects calcium homeostasis, and (2) To dissect NSP4 regulation of viral morphogenesis. ..
  23. LIVE-CELL IMAGING OF CFTR OLIGOMERIZATION, TRAFFICKING AND INTERACTIONS
    PETER MICHAEL HAGGIE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g., cholera). The goal of this proposal is to use live cell microscopy to investigate unresolved issues in the field of CFTR research. ..
  24. Functional Relevance of CFTR Trafficking in Vivo to Intestinal Disease
    Nadia A Ameen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is important fo both basal and increased fluid secretion under pathophysiologic conditions such as bacterial enterotoxins and low luminal pH...
  25. Crystal structures and mechanism of disease of the astrovirus capsid protein
    REBECCA MICHELLE DUBOIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies will demonstrate for the first time the mechanism of astrovirus entry into host cells and mechanism of astrovirus disease. ..
  26. A broadly protective vaccine for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)
    David A Sack; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ETEC actually represent a group of Escherichia coli of different serotypes that produce one or both enterotoxins known as heat- labile and heat-stable enterotoxin (LT and STa respectively)...
  27. BARRIER FUNCTION OF THE GI TRACT IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
    W Allan Walker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  28. TYPE II Enterotoxins as Mucosal Immunomodulators
    Terry D Connell; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..abstract_text> ..
  29. Enhancing DNA vaccines using modified Bacterial Toxin A1 Subunits as adjuvants
    Timothy R Fouts; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Such an adjuvant is needed to enhance the clinical utility of HIV DNA vaccination in humans. ..
  30. Mucosal live vector vaccine against recurrent Clostridium difficile infections
    James E Galen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..difficile toxins;enterotoxins A and B and binary toxin...
  31. BASIC SCIENCE RESEARCH IN DIGESTIVE DISEASES
    Mark Donowitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..transport epithelial polarization, differentiation, and trafficking of membrane proteins, actions of bacterial enterotoxins, IBD (genetics, proteomics, role of luminal bacteria, role of microRNAs, disease models), hepatic collagen ..
  32. Ultrasensitive Detection Probes for Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins
    David M Kranz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..receptor proteins (IMV01, IMV02, IMV03, and IMV04) engineered for very high-affinity binding to Staphylococcal enterotoxins SEB, SEC, TSST-1, and SEA, respectively...
  33. Modulation of Biodefense Responses to Microbial Pathogens
    Anthony T Vella; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..An innovative proteomic mining strategy will be used to test the novel hypothesis that T cell responses against enterotoxins guide a cell damage process that manifests in profound lung pathology...
  34. Development of an Adhesin-Toxoid Chimera Vaccine for Enterotoxigenic E. coli
    Stephen J Savarino; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We posit that their combination into a single delivery module for oral administration will constitute a safe, effective vaccine for needle free, oral delivery. ..
  35. Novel Combination Therapy for Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia
    Govindarajan Rajagopalan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Protection from mortality will be studied. Thus, we would have established an effective combination therapy against lethal S. aureus infection and identified the therapeutic window of the combination therapy. ..
  36. Multiplex Screening Panel for the Detection of Clostridium botulinum Toxin Genes
    Andrew C Whelen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..More importantly, it will benefit food surveillance and outbreak investigations not only in Hawaii but also to provide support for the US Affiliated Pacific Islands. ..
  37. Effect of Resveratrol on Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B induced Vascular Leak
    SADIYE AMCAOGLU RIEDER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  38. Microfluidic Platform for Multiplexed Diagnostics
    Anup K Singh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  39. An Antibody Immunoprotectant for Category B Toxins
    Larry Zeitlin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..All IND-enabling pharmacology, toxicology, and Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls (CMC) studies will be performed, with a final goal of filing an Investigational New Drug (IND) application to support a Phase 1 human safety trial. ..
  40. Capsule conjugate vaccines against ETEC and Campylobacter
    Patricia Guerry; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Multiple conjugates could be combined into a multi-valent vaccine that would afford protection against the major antigenic variants of both pathogens. ..
  41. GC-C Agonists: Specific Probes for the Detection of Colorectal Tumors
    Kunwar Shailubhai; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Future evaluation of the utility of the probe to detect colorectal metastases may also be warranted. ..
  42. Allosteric therapy of the Clostridium difficile toxins
    Tor Savidge; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Two large enterotoxins (TcdA and TcdB) are the known causes of C. difficile-associated disease...
  43. CPE Peptide-Based Nanoparticles for the Diagnosis and Therapy of Chemotherapy Res
    Alessandro D Santin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Upon completion of this project, we will be positioned to quickly translate this research into a novel, highly effective therapeutic treatment for patients with chemotherapy-resistant disease. ..
  44. Enterotoxin targeting and delivery mechanisms
    Meta J Kuehn; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These results will also broadly impact understanding the role of toxic vesicles produced by other pathogenic bacteria that threaten our defense capabilities. ..
  45. TYPE II Enterotoxins as Mucosal Immunomodulators
    Terry D Connell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..this proposal is to evaluate the mucosal adjuvant activities of LT-IIa and LT-IIb, two Escherichia coli Type II enterotoxins. LT-IIa and LT-IIb induce distinctive patterns of enhanced immune responses which are profoundly different from ..
  46. Therapeutic Delivery Platforms against Botulism
    Joseph T Barbieri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..toxin has been used to deliver heterologous proteins into cells, CTB or a related B subunit of the heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli (LTB) wil be developed as a platform to deliver therapies into BoNT-intoxicated neurons...
  47. Soluble high-affinity T cell receptors prevent MRSA lethality
    Adam Chervin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  48. Severe Enteric Disease: Pathogenesis and Response
    James B Kaper; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  49. Nanoparticle-Hydrogel Strips for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins
    Chuanmin Ruan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..objective of this project is to develop an innovative strip technology for rapid detection of Staphylococcal enterotoxins which is listed in NIAID category A, B and C priority pathogens and toxins...
  50. ESCHERICHIA COLI LT-RELATED ENTEROTOXINS
    RICHARD FINKELSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 1991
    It is now evident that there is a family of diarrheagenic enterotoxins which are structurally, functionally and immunologically related to the prototype, the cholera entertoxin (a.k.a...
  51. GENE THERAPY FOR LONG-TERM MYOCARDIAL PROTECTION
    Victor J Dzau; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Public Health Relevance: This proposal is to study the mechanisms responsible for 2-catenin and ROR3t-regulated T cell apoptosis. ..
  52. Membrane biophysics of enterotoxin mediated immunomodulation
    Arnd Pralle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, our results will expand the current understanding of the regulation of membrane structures such as lipid domains and the membrane cytoskeleton, and will elucidate their roles in natural immune function. ..
  53. Reconstitution of Two-membrane Transporters into High-density Lipoprotein Particl
    Helen I Zgurskaya; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This proposal is focused on the development of experimental tools to study the molecular mechanisms of proteins that contribute in the major way to both bacterial virulence and antibiotic resistance. ..
  54. Oral Immunity and Adjuvant Receptors
    GEORGIOS HAJISHENGALLIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  55. Detection of Toxins: A Combined ELISA Microarray and Activity Assay Platform
    Susan Varnum; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our objective in this proposal is to develop a sensitive and specific assay for the detection of the following toxins: botulinum neurotoxin, ricin toxin, shiga toxin and Staphylococcus enterotoxin B. PROJECT/ ..
  56. CONTROL OF ENTEROTOXIN GENE EXPRESSION IN S AUREUS
    George Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The organism produces one or more serologically distinct enterotoxins when growing in food and the ingestion of the preformed toxin is responsible for the vomiting and diarrhea ..
  57. ROLE OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA VIRULENCE FACTORS
    CLIFFORD HOUSTON; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The proposed research involving CTC cytolysin and non-CTC enterotoxin as well as other virulence factors may aid in elucidating the means by which A. hydrophila cause human disease...
  58. ALLOSTERIC INHIBITION OF GUANYLYL CYCLASE BY NUCLEOTIDES
    Scott Waldman; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  59. MOLECULAR MODE OF ACTION OF BACTERIAL ENTEROTOXINS
    JOHNNY PETERSON; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Knowledge about the molecular events in cholera should improve future strategies to control the hypersecretion of water and electrolytes in cholera and other diarrheal diseases. ..
  60. Monoclonal Immunoprotectants for Select Agents Toxins (Mab-SAT)
    Larry Zeitlin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The final commercialized product will be a lyophilized formulation (to be reconstituted immediately prior to injection) to maximize stability across a wide range of environmental conditions. ..
  61. ISOLATION OF TOXINS FROM C. DIFFICILE & C. SORDELLII
    Tracy Wilkins; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..As the sequence of toxin B becomes available we will analyze it in the same manner. We will continue our collaborative efforts on the mechanism of action of the toxins and continue to be a source of pure toxins and specific antibodies...
  62. Molecular Mechanisms of PDE5 Regulation
    Jackie Corbin; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..g., caffeine, papaverine, and sildenafil) and nitrovasodilators (e.g., nitroglycerin). Certain enterotoxins cause secretory diarrhea by elevating cGMP. Dr...
  63. EXTRACELLULAR SECRETION IN VIBRIO CHOLERAE
    TERRY CONNELL; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..A better understanding of the process of extracellular secretion by V. cholerae is a necessary first step in the subsequent design of therapeutic strategies to ameliorate cholera symptoms by inhibiting release of CT. ..
  64. ACCESSORY CHOLERA ENTEROTOXIN, ACE, MECHANISM OF ACTION
    Michele Trucksis; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..