endotoxins

Summary

Summary: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Endotoxin tolerance: new mechanisms, molecules and clinical significance
    Subhra K Biswas
    Singapore Immunology Network, Biomedical Sciences Institutes, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 04 01 Immunos, 8A Biomedical Drive, 138648 Singapore
    Trends Immunol 30:475-87. 2009
  2. pmc Animal models of acute lung injury
    Gustavo Matute-Bello
    Medical Research Service of the Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, 815 Mercer St, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 295:L379-99. 2008
  3. ncbi Bacillus thuringiensis: a century of research, development and commercial applications
    Georgina Sanahuja
    Department of Plant Production and Forestry Science, ETSEA, University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain
    Plant Biotechnol J 9:283-300. 2011
  4. pmc Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt toxins and their potential for insect control
    Alejandra Bravo
    Departamento de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo, Postal 510 3, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62250, Mexico
    Toxicon 49:423-35. 2007
  5. pmc Field-evolved resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm
    Aaron J Gassmann
    Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e22629. 2011
  6. ncbi Suppression of cotton bollworm in multiple crops in China in areas with Bt toxin-containing cotton
    Kong Ming Wu
    State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, People s Republic of China
    Science 321:1676-8. 2008
  7. ncbi Field-evolved insect resistance to Bt crops: definition, theory, and data
    Bruce E Tabashnik
    Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    J Econ Entomol 102:2011-25. 2009
  8. ncbi Bacterial lipopolysaccharides and innate immunity
    C Alexander
    Department of Immunochemistry and Biochemical Microbiology, Centre of Medicine and Bio-Sciences, Borstel, Germany
    J Endotoxin Res 7:167-202. 2001
  9. ncbi A network-based analysis of systemic inflammation in humans
    Steve E Calvano
    Department of Surgery, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903, USA
    Nature 437:1032-7. 2005
  10. ncbi Innate immune sensing and its roots: the story of endotoxin
    Bruce Beutler
    The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 3:169-76. 2003

Detail Information

Publications383 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Endotoxin tolerance: new mechanisms, molecules and clinical significance
    Subhra K Biswas
    Singapore Immunology Network, Biomedical Sciences Institutes, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 04 01 Immunos, 8A Biomedical Drive, 138648 Singapore
    Trends Immunol 30:475-87. 2009
    ..This review integrates these new findings into an up-to-date account of endotoxin tolerance, its molecular basis and clinical implications in different pathologies...
  2. pmc Animal models of acute lung injury
    Gustavo Matute-Bello
    Medical Research Service of the Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, 815 Mercer St, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 295:L379-99. 2008
    ..The present review will help guide investigators in the design and interpretation of animal studies of acute lung injury...
  3. ncbi Bacillus thuringiensis: a century of research, development and commercial applications
    Georgina Sanahuja
    Department of Plant Production and Forestry Science, ETSEA, University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain
    Plant Biotechnol J 9:283-300. 2011
    ..The spores contain crystals, predominantly comprising one or more Cry and/or Cyt proteins (also known as δ-endotoxins) that have potent and specific insecticidal activity...
  4. pmc Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt toxins and their potential for insect control
    Alejandra Bravo
    Departamento de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo, Postal 510 3, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62250, Mexico
    Toxicon 49:423-35. 2007
    ..Also, we discuss their use in the control of agricultural insect pests and insect vectors of human diseases...
  5. pmc Field-evolved resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm
    Aaron J Gassmann
    Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e22629. 2011
    ..However, the evolution of resistance could cut short these benefits. A primary pest targeted by Bt maize in the United States is the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)...
  6. ncbi Suppression of cotton bollworm in multiple crops in China in areas with Bt toxin-containing cotton
    Kong Ming Wu
    State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, People s Republic of China
    Science 321:1676-8. 2008
    ..Our data suggest that Bt cotton not only controls H. armigera on transgenic cotton designed to resist this pest but also may reduce its presence on other host crops and may decrease the need for insecticide sprays in general...
  7. ncbi Field-evolved insect resistance to Bt crops: definition, theory, and data
    Bruce E Tabashnik
    Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    J Econ Entomol 102:2011-25. 2009
    ....
  8. ncbi Bacterial lipopolysaccharides and innate immunity
    C Alexander
    Department of Immunochemistry and Biochemical Microbiology, Centre of Medicine and Bio-Sciences, Borstel, Germany
    J Endotoxin Res 7:167-202. 2001
    ....
  9. ncbi A network-based analysis of systemic inflammation in humans
    Steve E Calvano
    Department of Surgery, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903, USA
    Nature 437:1032-7. 2005
    ..These findings provide insight into the regulation of global leukocyte activities as they relate to innate immune system tolerance and increased susceptibility to infection in humans...
  10. ncbi Innate immune sensing and its roots: the story of endotoxin
    Bruce Beutler
    The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 3:169-76. 2003
    ..The discovery of the host sensors--the Toll-like receptors--was rooted in chemical, biological and genetic analyses that centred on a bacterial poison, termed endotoxin...
  11. pmc MicroRNAs distinguish translational from transcriptional silencing during endotoxin tolerance
    Mohamed El Gazzar
    Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Molecular Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:20940-51. 2010
    ..We conclude that transcription- and translation-repressive events combine to tightly regulate pro-inflammatory genes during LPS tolerance, a common feature of severe systemic inflammation...
  12. ncbi Areawide suppression of European corn borer with Bt maize reaps savings to non-Bt maize growers
    W D Hutchison
    Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    Science 330:222-5. 2010
    ..9 billion for non-Bt maize growers. These results affirm theoretical predictions of pest population suppression and highlight economic incentives for growers to maintain non-Bt maize refugia for sustainable insect resistance management...
  13. ncbi Discovery and characterization of field resistance to Bt maize: Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Puerto Rico
    Nicholas P Storer
    Dow AgroSciences LLC, 9330 Zionsville Road, Indianapolis, IN 46268, USA
    J Econ Entomol 103:1031-8. 2010
    ..In response to this resistance incident, the technology providers have stopped commercial sales of TC1507 maize in Puerto Rico pending potential reversion to susceptibility...
  14. ncbi Specific epitopes of domains II and III of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin involved in the sequential interaction with cadherin and aminopeptidase-N receptors in Manduca sexta
    Isabel Gomez
    Instituto de Biotecnologia, UNAM, Departamento de Microbiologia Molecular, Apdo Postal 510 3, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62250, Mexico
    J Biol Chem 281:34032-9. 2006
    ....
  15. ncbi Efficacy of genetically modified Bt toxins against insects with different genetic mechanisms of resistance
    Bruce E Tabashnik
    Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 29:1128-31. 2011
    ..Independent of the presence of cadherin mutations, the relative potency of the modified toxins was generally higher against the most resistant strains...
  16. pmc Early warning of cotton bollworm resistance associated with intensive planting of Bt cotton in China
    Haonan Zhang
    College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e22874. 2011
    ..This early warning may spur proactive countermeasures, including a switch to transgenic cotton producing two or more toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins...
  17. pmc Role of receptors in Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxin activity
    Craig R Pigott
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1GA, United Kingdom
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 71:255-81. 2007
    ....
  18. pmc Endotoxin-tolerant mice have mutations in Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4)
    S T Qureshi
    Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4
    J Exp Med 189:615-25. 1999
    ..Identification of distinct mutations involving the same gene at the Lps locus in two different hyporesponsive inbred mouse strains strongly supports the hypothesis that altered Tlr4 function is responsible for endotoxin tolerance...
  19. ncbi Silencing of midgut aminopeptidase N of Spodoptera litura by double-stranded RNA establishes its role as Bacillus thuringiensis toxin receptor
    R Rajagopal
    International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology ICGEB, P O Box 10504, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India
    J Biol Chem 277:46849-51. 2002
    ..These results directly implicate larval midgut aminopeptidase N as receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal proteins...
  20. pmc A mechanism of cell death involving an adenylyl cyclase/PKA signaling pathway is induced by the Cry1Ab toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis
    Xuebin Zhang
    Biological Targets Inc, Dallas, TX 75235, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:9897-902. 2006
    ..The discovery of a toxin-induced cell death pathway specifically linked to BT-R(1) in insect cells should provide insights into how insects evolve resistance to Bt and into the development of new, safer insecticides...
  21. pmc An ABC transporter mutation is correlated with insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin
    Linda J Gahan
    Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 6:e1001248. 2010
    ..This weakness could be exploited to manage this mechanism of Bt resistance in the field...
  22. ncbi HMG-1 as a late mediator of endotoxin lethality in mice
    H Wang
    Department of Emergency Medicine and Department of Surgery, North Shore University Hospital New York University School of Medicine, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
    Science 285:248-51. 1999
    ..Septic patients who succumbed to infection had increased serum HMG-1 levels, suggesting that this protein warrants investigation as a therapeutic target...
  23. pmc Activation of the unfolded protein response is required for defenses against bacterial pore-forming toxin in vivo
    Larry J Bischof
    Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000176. 2008
    ..These data demonstrate that the UPR, a fundamental intracellular pathway, can operate in intrinsic cellular defenses against bacterial attack...
  24. ncbi Mirid bug outbreaks in multiple crops correlated with wide-scale adoption of Bt cotton in China
    Yanhui Lu
    State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, People s Republic of China
    Science 328:1151-4. 2010
    ..Hence, alterations of pest management regimes in Bt cotton could be responsible for the appearance and subsequent spread of nontarget pests at an agro-landscape level...
  25. ncbi How Bacillus thuringiensis has evolved specific toxins to colonize the insect world
    R A de Maagd
    Plant Research International, PO Box 16, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Trends Genet 17:193-9. 2001
    ....
  26. pmc Introduction of Culex toxicity into Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba by protein engineering
    Mohd Amir F Abdullah
    The Protein Research Group, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:5343-53. 2003
    ..thuringiensis Cry toxins...
  27. ncbi Relationship between plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock
    S M Opal
    Infectious Disease Division, Brown University School of Medicine and Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island, Providence, Rhode Island 02860, USA
    J Infect Dis 180:1584-9. 1999
    ..05) in nonsurvivors than survivors over the 28-day study period. No correlation was found between endotoxin and LBP levels. The quantitative level of both endotoxin and LBP may have prognostic significance in patients with severe sepsis...
  28. pmc MicroRNA-146a regulates both transcription silencing and translation disruption of TNF-α during TLR4-induced gene reprogramming
    Mohamed El Gazzar
    Department of Internal Medicine, East Tennessee State University College of Medicine, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 90:509-19. 2011
    ..Our results also imply that therapies designed to reverse endotoxin tolerance as potential therapies for sepsis should be directed at the transcription and translation pathways of reprogramming...
  29. ncbi Molecular basis for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin specificity: two structural determinants in the Manduca sexta Bt-R1 receptor interact with loops alpha-8 and 2 in domain II of Cy1Ab toxin
    Isabel Gomez
    Departamento de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnologia UNAM, Apdo Postal 510 3, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62250, Mexico
    Biochemistry 42:10482-9. 2003
    ..Our results show that the specificity of Cry1A involves at least two structural determinants on both molecules...
  30. pmc Differential induction of the toll-like receptor 4-MyD88-dependent and -independent signaling pathways by endotoxins
    Susu M Zughaier
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, VAMC I 151, 1670 Clairmont Rd, Atlanta, GA 30033, USA
    Infect Immun 73:2940-50. 2005
    ..7 cells were stimulated with picomolar concentrations of highly purified endotoxins. Harvested supernatants from previously stimulated cells were also used to stimulate RAW 264...
  31. pmc Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins on the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum)
    Manuel Porcar
    Institut Cavanilles de Biodiversitat i Biologia Evolutiva, Universitat de Valencia, 46071 Valencia, Spain
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:4897-900. 2009
    Four Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins, Cry3A, Cry4Aa, Cry11Aa, and Cyt1Aa, were found to exhibit low to moderate toxicity on the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, in terms both of mortality and growth rate...
  32. pmc A novel Tenebrio molitor cadherin is a functional receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin
    Jeff Fabrick
    United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service United States Arid Land Agricultural Research Center, Maricopa, Arizona 85238, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:18401-10. 2009
    ..These data demonstrate the functional role of TmCad1 as a Cry3Aa receptor in T. molitor and reveal similarities between the mode of action of Cry toxins in Lepidoptera and Coleoptera...
  33. ncbi Complex links between dietary lipids, endogenous endotoxins and metabolic inflammation
    Fabienne Laugerette
    Universite de Lyon, F 69100 Villeurbanne, France
    Biochimie 93:39-45. 2011
    ..i) there are alterations of the intestinal microbiota in metabolic diseases and (ii) absorption of endogenous endotoxins (namely lipopolysaccharides, LPS) can occur, particularly during the digestion of lipids...
  34. pmc Bench-to-bedside review: endotoxin tolerance as a model of leukocyte reprogramming in sepsis
    Jean Marc Cavaillon
    Cytokines and Inflammation Unit, Institut Pasteur, rue Dr Roux, 75015 Paris, France
    Crit Care 10:233. 2006
    ..The term 'cellular reprogramming', which has been proposed to qualify the process of endotoxin tolerance, defines well the immune status of circulating leukocytes in septic and SIRS patients...
  35. pmc Increased frequency of pink bollworm resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in China
    Peng Wan
    State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, People s Republic of China
    PLoS ONE 7:e29975. 2012
    ....
  36. ncbi Field-evolved resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), from India
    Sanyasi Dhurua
    Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India
    Pest Manag Sci 67:898-903. 2011
    ..During the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons, pink bollworm populations in India were surveyed to evaluate their responses to Cry1Ac and seed powder containing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2...
  37. pmc New resistance mechanism in Helicoverpa armigera threatens transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin
    Robin V Gunning
    New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Tamworth, NSW, Australia 2340
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:2558-63. 2005
    ..A resistance mechanism in which esterase sequesters Cry1Ac is proposed...
  38. ncbi Crystal structure of the mosquito-larvicidal toxin Cry4Ba and its biological implications
    Panadda Boonserm
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1GA, UK
    J Mol Biol 348:363-82. 2005
    ....
  39. ncbi Diagnostic and prognostic implications of endotoxemia in critical illness: results of the MEDIC study
    John C Marshall
    University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Infect Dis 190:527-34. 2004
    ..Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that elevated Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, gram-negative infection, and emergency admission status were independent predictors of EA...
  40. ncbi The cardiovascular response of normal humans to the administration of endotoxin
    A F Suffredini
    Critical Care Medicine Department, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
    N Engl J Med 321:280-7. 1989
    ..The changes in function are similar to those observed in septic shock and suggest that endotoxin is a major mediator of the cardiovascular dysfunction in this condition...
  41. ncbi Effects of Bt cotton and crylac toxin on survival and development of pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
    Y B Liu
    Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721, USA
    J Econ Entomol 94:1237-42. 2001
    ....
  42. ncbi Identification of a gene associated with Bt resistance in Heliothis virescens
    L J Gahan
    Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
    Science 293:857-60. 2001
    ..Our findings enable efficient DNA-based screening for resistant heterozygotes by directly detecting the recessive allele...
  43. pmc The mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 is involved in insect defense against Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis
    Angeles Cancino-Rodezno
    Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 510 3, Cuernavaca 62250, Morelos, Mexico
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 40:58-63. 2010
    ..This finding may have biotechnological applications for enhancing the activity of some Bt Cry toxins against specific insect pests...
  44. pmc Disruption of a cadherin gene associated with resistance to Cry1Ac {delta}-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis in Helicoverpa armigera
    Xinjun Xu
    Department of Entomology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, People s Republic of China
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:948-54. 2005
    ..thuringiensis resistance in field populations of lepidopteran pests...
  45. ncbi ST2 is an inhibitor of interleukin 1 receptor and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling and maintains endotoxin tolerance
    Elizabeth K Brint
    Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Nat Immunol 5:373-9. 2004
    ..Thus, these results provide a molecular explanation for the function of ST2 in T(H)2 responses, as inhibition of TLRs promotes a T(H)2 response, and also identify ST2 as a key regulator of endotoxin tolerance...
  46. ncbi Insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins
    Kees van Frankenhuyzen
    Great Lakes Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada, 1219 Queen Street East, Sault Ste Marie, Ontario, Canada P6A 2E5
    J Invertebr Pathol 101:1-16. 2009
    ..Cross-order activity does not threaten environmental safety of B. thuringiensis-based pest control because toxins tend to be much less toxic to taxa outside the family's primary specificity range...
  47. ncbi Endotoxins and other sepsis triggers
    Steven M Opal
    Infectious Disease Division, Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island, Pawtucket, RI 02860, USA
    Contrib Nephrol 167:14-24. 2010
    ..This information is providing novel interventions in the continuing effots to improve the care of septic patients...
  48. pmc Changes in endotoxin levels in T2DM subjects on anti-diabetic therapies
    Omar S Al-Attas
    Biochemistry Department, College of Science King Saud University Riyadh, KSA
    Cardiovasc Diabetol 8:20. 2009
    ..This is supported by recent studies suggesting endotoxin, derived from gut flora, may be key to the development of inflammation by stimulating the secretion of an adverse cytokine profile from adipose tissue...
  49. pmc Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca-resistant Spodoptera exigua lacks expression of one of four Aminopeptidase N genes
    Salvador Herrero
    Business Unit Bioscience, Plant Research International B V, Wageningen University and Research Center, The Netherlands
    BMC Genomics 6:96. 2005
    ..Aminopeptidases N (APNs) from several insect species have been shown to be putative receptors for these toxins. Here we report the cloning and expression analysis of four APN cDNAs from Spodoptera exigua...
  50. pmc Effect of spaceflight on ability of monocytes to respond to endotoxins of gram-negative bacteria
    Indreshpal Kaur
    Enterprise Advisory Services Inc, Houston, Texas, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:1523-8. 2008
    ..This study shows that spaceflight-associated factors (in-flight and preflight) modulate the response of monocytes to gram-negative endotoxins.
  51. pmc Display of biologically functional insecticidal toxin on the surface of lambda phage
    Susana Vilchez
    Department of Biochemistry, Cambridge University, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:6587-94. 2004
    ..The resultant phage was viable and infectious, and the displayed toxin interacted successfully with its natural receptor...
  52. ncbi Engineering modified Bt toxins to counter insect resistance
    Mario Soberon
    Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 510 3, Cuernavaca 62250, Morelos, Mexico
    Science 318:1640-2. 2007
    ..Our findings suggest that cadherin promotes Bt toxicity by facilitating toxin oligomerization and demonstrate that the modified Bt toxins may be useful against pests resistant to standard Bt toxins...
  53. ncbi Yield effects of genetically modified crops in developing countries
    Matin Qaim
    Center for Development Research, University of Bonn, Walter Flex Strasse 3, 53113 Bonn, Germany
    Science 299:900-2. 2003
    ..Pest-resistant genetically modified crops can contribute to increased yields and agricultural growth in those situations, as the case of Bt cotton in India demonstrates...
  54. pmc Endotoxin levels correlate positively with a sedentary lifestyle and negatively with highly trained subjects
    Fabio S Lira
    Department of Physiology, Division of Nutrition Physiology, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Lipids Health Dis 9:82. 2010
    ..This study aimed to examine plasma inflammatory markers and endotoxin levels in individuals with a sedentary lifestyle and/or in highly trained subjects at rest...
  55. ncbi Identification of novel Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac binding proteins in Manduca sexta midgut through proteomic analysis
    Rebecca J McNall
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, 413 Biological Sciences Building, 120 Cedar Street, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 33:999-1010. 2003
    ..Aminopeptidase N was the only GPI-anchored protein identified. Actin, aminopeptidase N, and membrane alkaline phosphatase were confirmed as accurate protein identifications through western blots...
  56. ncbi Bioaerosol health effects and exposure assessment: progress and prospects
    J Douwes
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences IRAS, Division of Environmental and Occupational Health, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
    Ann Occup Hyg 47:187-200. 2003
    ....
  57. ncbi Mapping the epitope in cadherin-like receptors involved in Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin interaction using phage display
    I Gomez
    Instituto de Biotecnologia, Departamento de Microbiologia Molecular, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 510 3, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62250, Mexico
    J Biol Chem 276:28906-12. 2001
    ..sexta larvae. These results show that we have identified the amino acid region of Bt-R(1) and Bt-R(175) involved in Cry1A toxin interaction...
  58. ncbi Cadherin-like receptor binding facilitates proteolytic cleavage of helix alpha-1 in domain I and oligomer pre-pore formation of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin
    Isabel Gomez
    Instituto de Biotecnologia, Departamento de Microbiologia Molecular, UNAM, Apdo Postal 510 3, Cuernavaca, 62250, Morelos, Mexico
    FEBS Lett 513:242-6. 2002
    ..Finally, a model where receptor binding allows the efficient cleavage of alpha-1 and formation of a pre-pore oligomeric structure that is efficient in pore formation, is presented...
  59. ncbi Molecular mechanisms of endotoxin tolerance
    Hongkuan Fan
    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Endotoxin Res 10:71-84. 2004
    ..Although there are species and cellular variations in manifestation of the LPS tolerant phenotype, it is clear that the tolerance phenomena have evolved as a complex orchestrated counter regulatory response to inflammation...
  60. pmc Domain II loop 3 of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin is involved in a "ping pong" binding mechanism with Manduca sexta aminopeptidase-N and cadherin receptors
    Sabino Pacheco
    Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 510 3, Cuernavaca 62250, Morelos, Mexico
    J Biol Chem 284:32750-7. 2009
    ....
  61. pmc Differential alteration of two aminopeptidases N associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac in cabbage looper
    Kasorn Tiewsiri
    Department of Entomology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:14037-42. 2011
    ..Along with identifying reduced expression of APN1 as the molecular basis of Bt resistance selected in an agricultural setting, our findings demonstrate the importance of APN1 to the mode of action of Bt toxin Cry1Ac...
  62. pmc Role of alkaline phosphatase from Manduca sexta in the mechanism of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin
    Ivan Arenas
    Departamento de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62250, Mexico
    J Biol Chem 285:12497-503. 2010
    ....
  63. ncbi Effects of short-term feeding of Bt MON810 maize on growth performance, organ morphology and function in pigs
    Maria C Walsh
    Teagasc, Pig Development Department, Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, County Cork, Republic of Ireland
    Br J Nutr 107:364-71. 2012
    ..The biological significance of these findings is currently being clarified in long-term exposure studies in pigs...
  64. ncbi Structure of Cry2Aa suggests an unexpected receptor binding epitope
    R J Morse
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, 94143, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Structure 9:409-17. 2001
    ..The putative receptor binding epitope of Cry2Aa identified in this study differs from that inferred from previous structural studies of other Cry toxins...
  65. ncbi The evolution of cotton pest management practices in China
    K M Wu
    Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100094, P R China
    Annu Rev Entomol 50:31-52. 2005
    ....
  66. ncbi Signaling versus punching hole: How do Bacillus thuringiensis toxins kill insect midgut cells?
    M Soberon
    Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico
    Cell Mol Life Sci 66:1337-49. 2009
    ..In this review we discuss and evaluate the different models of the mode of action of Cry toxins, including a discussion about the role of various receptors in toxin action...
  67. ncbi Environmental exposure to endotoxin and its relation to asthma in school-age children
    Charlotte Braun-Fahrlander
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Basel, Switzerland
    N Engl J Med 347:869-77. 2002
    ..Immune activation may direct the immune response, thus conferring tolerance to allergens such as animal dander or tree and grass pollen...
  68. ncbi Epicardial adipose tissue as a source of nuclear factor-kappaB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase mediated inflammation in patients with coronary artery disease
    A R Baker
    Unit for Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Warwick, Warwick Medical School, Clinical Sciences Research Institute, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire, Clifford Bridge Road, Coventry CV2 2DX, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:261-7. 2009
    ..Epicardial AT expresses an inflammatory profile of proteins; however, the mechanisms responsible are yet to be elucidated...
  69. pmc Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways defend against bacterial pore-forming toxins
    Danielle L Huffman
    Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, 92093, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:10995-1000. 2004
    ..Our data demonstrate that cells defend against pore-forming toxins by means of conserved MAPK pathways...
  70. pmc IFN-γ abrogates endotoxin tolerance by facilitating Toll-like receptor-induced chromatin remodeling
    Janice Chen
    Graduate Program in Immunology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:19438-43. 2010
    ....
  71. ncbi Oligomerization triggers binding of a Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab pore-forming toxin to aminopeptidase N receptor leading to insertion into membrane microdomains
    A Bravo
    Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 510 3, Cuernavaca 62250, Morelos, Mexico
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1667:38-46. 2004
    ..Our data suggest that the two receptors interact sequentially with different structural species of the toxin leading to its efficient membrane insertion...
  72. ncbi Opposite effects of CD 14/-260 on serum IgE levels in children raised in different environments
    Waltraud Eder
    Innate Immunity Program for Genomic Applications, Arizona Respiratory Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 116:601-7. 2005
    ..Most complex diseases are the result of interactions between polymorphisms in the genome and environmental exposures...
  73. pmc Structure of the functional form of the mosquito larvicidal Cry4Aa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis at a 2.8-angstrom resolution
    Panadda Boonserm
    Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Mahidol University, Salaya Campus, Nakornpathom 73170, Thailand
    J Bacteriol 188:3391-401. 2006
    ..8 angstroms. Like other Cry delta-endotoxins, the activated Cry4Aa toxin consists of three globular domains, a seven-alpha-helix bundle responsible for pore ..
  74. ncbi Immunotoxicological studies of genetically modified rice expressing PHA-E lectin or Bt toxin in Wistar rats
    Stine Kroghsbo
    Department of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, DK 2860 Søborg, Denmark
    Toxicology 245:24-34. 2008
    ....
  75. ncbi Endotoxemia and endotoxin tolerance in patients with ARDS
    Klaus Buttenschoen
    Department of General Surgery, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    Langenbecks Arch Surg 393:473-8. 2008
    ..Exaggerated cytokine release of mononuclear cells was observed in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). However, repetitive administration of endotoxin can cause tolerance...
  76. pmc Cadherin binding is not a limiting step for Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry4Ba toxicity to Aedes aegypti larvae
    Claudia Rodríguez-Almazán
    Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 510 3, Cuernavaca 62250, Morelos, Mexico
    Biochem J 443:711-7. 2012
    ..These findings show that cadherin binding is not a limiting step for Cry4Ba toxicity to A. aegypti larvae...
  77. ncbi A detergent-like mechanism of action of the cytolytic toxin Cyt1A from Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis
    Slobodanka D Manceva
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi 39406 5043, USA
    Biochemistry 44:589-97. 2005
    ..Since no change in size or morphology of the vesicles is expected when pores are formed in the osmotically equilibrated membranes, our results support the detergent-like mode of action of Cyt1A...
  78. ncbi Pulmonary and systemic endotoxin tolerance in preterm fetal sheep exposed to chorioamnionitis
    Suhas G Kallapur
    Division of Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45229 3039, USA
    J Immunol 179:8491-9. 2007
    ..The findings have implications for preterm infants exposed to chorioamnionitis for both responses to lung injury and postnatal nosocomial infections...
  79. pmc Gut barrier dysfunction in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model of colon cancer cachexia
    Melissa J Puppa
    Department of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1812:1601-6. 2011
    ..Little is known about the role of gut barrier dysfunction and endotoxemia in the development of cancer cachexia. We sought to determine how gut permeability and resultant endotoxemia change with the progression of cachexia...
  80. ncbi Differences in organ dysfunction in endotoxin-tolerant pigs under intensive care exposed to a second hit of endotoxin
    Markus Castegren
    Centre for Clinical Research Sörmland, Uppsala University, Eskilstuna, Sweden
    Shock 37:501-10. 2012
    ..In contrast to the overall protective effect of endotoxin tolerance observed in other organ systems, the lungs of endotoxin-tolerant animals demonstrated an increased responsiveness to high-dose endotoxin challenge...
  81. ncbi Endotoxin tolerance in sepsis: concentration-dependent augmentation or inhibition of LPS-stimulated macrophage TNF secretion by LPS pretreatment
    Michael A West
    Department of Surgery, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    J Trauma 65:893-8; discussion 898-900. 2008
    ..Therefore, in the current study we examined the effect of lower and higher pretreatment LPS concentrations on subsequent LPS-stimulated MPhi responses...
  82. ncbi Effects of MON810 Bt field corn on adult emergence of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    T A Horner
    USDA, APHIS, PPQ, 4700 River Road, Unit 133, Riverdale, MD 20737, USA
    J Econ Entomol 96:925-30. 2003
    ..This, in turn, may contribute to the evolution of resistance to Bt corn...
  83. ncbi Chronic morphine accelerates the progression of lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis to septic shock
    Frank M Ocasio
    Department of Biology, Seton Hall University, 400 South Orange Avenue, South Orange, NJ 07079, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 149:90-100. 2004
    ..Our study presents both the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the potentiated LPS-induced inflammation and accelerated progression to septic shock seen with chronic morphine exposure...
  84. ncbi Immunomodulating effects of endotoxin in mouse models of allergic asthma
    Z Zhu
    Johns Hopkins University Asthma and Allergy Center, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Clin Exp Allergy 40:536-46. 2010
    ..In this article, we will review recent advances in our understanding of the immunomodulating effects of LPS on allergen-induced responses and analyse some of the possible reasons for the inconsistent findings...
  85. ncbi Selection for Cry3Bb1 resistance in a genetically diverse population of nondiapausing western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
    Kenneth J Oswald
    Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Ecological Exposure Research Division, Molecular Ecology Research Branch, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
    J Econ Entomol 104:1038-44. 2011
    ..These lines provide data necessary for evaluating the potential for Bt resistance within diabroticite beetles and will be useful for developing improved insect resistance management strategies...
  86. ncbi Intake of trans fatty acids during gestation and lactation leads to hypothalamic inflammation via TLR4/NFκBp65 signaling in adult offspring
    Gustavo D Pimentel
    Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo SP, Brazil
    J Nutr Biochem 23:265-71. 2012
    ..In other words, the effect remains after the consumption of the standard chow by offspring...
  87. ncbi Proteomic identification of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxin Cry4Ba binding proteins in midgut membranes from Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae) larvae
    Krishnareddy Bayyareddy
    Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 2603, USA
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 39:279-86. 2009
    ..Trypsin-like serine protease was also identified as a protein that binds Cry4Ba. Identification of these toxin-binding proteins will lead to a better understanding of the mode of action of this toxin in mosquito...
  88. pmc A purified Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein with therapeutic activity against the hookworm parasite Ancylostoma ceylanicum
    Michael Cappello
    Program in International Child Health, Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:15154-9. 2006
    ..These data demonstrate that Cry5B is highly active in vitro and in vivo against a globally significant nematode parasite and that Cry5B warrants further clinical development for human and veterinary use...
  89. ncbi Development, survival and fitness performance of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in MON810 Bt field corn
    T A Horner
    USDA, APHIS, PPQ, 4700 River Road, Unit 133, Riverdale, MD 20737, USA
    J Econ Entomol 96:914-24. 2003
    ..expressing Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki (Bt) Cry1Ab endotoxins were compared with non-Bt ears at four geographic locations over two growing seasons...
  90. ncbi Immune cells: free radicals and antioxidants in sepsis
    Victor M Victor
    Unidad Mixta Fundación Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III Universidad de Valencia, Avda Blasco Ibanez 15, 46010 Valencia, Spain
    Int Immunopharmacol 4:327-47. 2004
    ..The potential clinical use of antioxidants in the treatment of sepsis and the effects on the redox state of the immune cells are discussed...
  91. pmc Bacillus thuringiensis: a genomics and proteomics perspective
    Mohamed A Ibrahim
    Biological Targets, Inc, Pilot Point, TX, USA
    Bioeng Bugs 1:31-50. 2010
    ..This review contains some material not published elsewhere although several ideas and concepts were developed from a broad base of scientific literature up to 2010...
  92. pmc From commensal to pathogen: translocation of Enterococcus faecalis from the midgut to the hemocoel of Manduca sexta
    Katie L Mason
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    MBio 2:e00065-11. 2011
    ..sexta larval model system in investigating E. faecalis-induced sepsis and clarifies controversies in the field regarding the events leading to larval death following B. thuringiensis toxin exposure...
  93. ncbi Binding analyses of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac with membrane vesicles from Bacillus thuringiensis-resistant and -susceptible Ostrinia nubilalis
    Huarong Li
    Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 323:52-7. 2004
    ..nubilalis. Overall, the binding analyses indicate that resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac in this Bt-resistant strain of O. nubilalis is not associated with a loss of toxin binding...
  94. pmc Asymmetrical cross-resistance between Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in pink bollworm
    Bruce E Tabashnik
    Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:11889-94. 2009
    ..Incorporating the potential effects of such cross-resistance in resistance management plans may help to sustain the efficacy of pyramided Bt crops...
  95. pmc Concurrent use of transgenic plants expressing a single and two Bacillus thuringiensis genes speeds insect adaptation to pyramided plants
    Jian Zhou Zhao
    Department of Entomology, Cornell University New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:8426-30. 2005
    ..The results of this experiment agree with the predictions of a Mendelian deterministic simulation model and have important implications for the regulation and deployment of pyramided Bt plants...
  96. ncbi Biological properties of the native and synthetic lipid A of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide
    H Kumada
    Department of Oral Microbiology, Kanagawa Dental College, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
    Oral Microbiol Immunol 23:60-9. 2008
    ....
  97. ncbi Recombinant bacteria for mosquito control
    B A Federici
    Department of Entomology, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Exp Biol 206:3877-85. 2003
    ..sphaericus, offers the potential for constructing a range of recombinant bacterial insecticides for more effective control of the mosquito vectors of filariasis, Dengue fever and malaria...
  98. pmc Bacillus thuringiensis Cry5B protein is highly efficacious as a single-dose therapy against an intestinal roundworm infection in mice
    Yan Hu
    Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e614. 2010
    ..Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal (Cry) proteins are the most common used biologically produced insecticides in the world and are considered non-toxic to vertebrates...
  99. ncbi Anti-inflammatory effects of alkaline phosphatase in coronary artery bypass surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass
    Suzanne Kats
    Catharina Hospital, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
    Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 3:214-20. 2009
    ..In this review article some recent patents related to the field are also discussed...
  100. ncbi Altered gene expression in Choristoneura fumiferana and Manduca sexta in response to sublethal intoxication by Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin
    M van Munster
    National Research Council of Canada, Biotechnology Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Insect Mol Biol 16:25-35. 2007
    ....
  101. ncbi Baseline susceptibility of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Crysomelidae) to Cry3Bb1 Bacillus thuringiensis toxin
    Blair D Siegfried
    Department of Entomology, 202 Plant Industry Building, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583 0816, USA
    J Econ Entomol 98:1320-4. 2005
    ....

Research Grants63

  1. MECHANISM OF ENDOTOXIN ABSORPTION IN ALCOHOLISM
    Radhakrishna Rao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..applicant): Evidence from clinical and experimental studies indicates that elevated intestinal permeability to endotoxins and the resulting endotoxemia play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease...
  2. Recombinant hepatic argininosuccinate synthase (rASS) for treatment of sepsis/end
    Stanislav I Svetlov; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..based on the ability of hepatic argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) to ameliorate injurious effects of bacterial endotoxins and aberrant immune response, and mitigate multiple organ injury in human patients...
  3. Group B. Streptococci and Toll-like Receptors
    Douglas T Golenbock; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..First, we have identified lipoproteins as endotoxins that constitute functional equivalents to the well defined lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria...
  4. Probiotics and HIF signaling in Alcoholic Liver Disease
    Wenke Feng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Animal and human studies suggest that gut-derived endotoxin is a critical factor contributing to ALD. Endotoxins are derived from the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, and normally penetrate the gut epithelium in only ..
  5. Visceral Adiposity, HIV, and HCV: Biologic Mediators of Hepatic Steatosis
    Phyllis C Tien; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..insulin resistance, increased circulating free fatty acids or microbial translocation of gut-derived endotoxins) may induce steatosis...
  6. Regulation of Intestinal Epithelial Tight Junction Barrier
    Thomas Y Ma; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..epithelial barrier, leading to both local inflammatory response in the gut and systemic circulation of bacterial endotoxins culminating in systemic inflammatory response and end-organ damage...
  7. Role of mesenteric lymphatics and dietary endotoxin in metabolic syndrome
    DAVID CARL ZAWIEJA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..lymphatics along with many other gut peptides and hormones, suggesting that the primary trafficking of dietary endotoxins, such as, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is via lymphatics...
  8. The Role of Intestinal Digestive Enzymes in Circulatory Shock
    Erik Kistler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Mucosal barrier compromised by ischemia, endotoxins, or other injury, leads to entry of digestive enzymes into the intestinal wall, auto-digestion of the intestine ..
  9. Collectins and Innate Defense against Inhaled Pathogens
    Barbara A Seaton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..play a front-line role in the innate defense against many gram-negative and positive bacteria and their endotoxins, mycobacteria, pathogenic fungi, and obligate intracellular pathogens including influenza A (lAV) and other ..
  10. Signaling-pathway-based preventative strategies for alcoholic liver disease
    Albert J Fornace; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Increased hepatic lipid accumulation enhances the ability of xenobiotics and endotoxins produced in the gut to potentiate alcoholic hepatitis and fibrosis, likely by increased inflammatory signaling, ..
  11. FGF-10 Expression in a Fetal Mouse Lung Model of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
    Lawrence S Prince; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This proposal tests the hypothesis that endotoxins release inflammatory mediators that inhibit FGF-10 expression in the fetal mouse lung, leading to abnormal ..
  12. Brain-gut circadian rhythm interactions in alcohol-induced gut leakiness
    Fred W Turek; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..EtOH-induced intestinal hyperpermeability that explains why only subset of alcoholics develop gut leakiness to endotoxins and steatohepatitis [ASH]...
  13. A highly multiplexed, scalable ultrananocrystalline diamond microarray sensor for
    Donato M Ceres; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..toxic metals, endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) and endotoxins on a modified UNCD microarray and (iii) demonstrate the unique advantages of multiplexed UNCD microarrays by ..
  14. MORPHINE ACTIONS ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
    Sulie L Chang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The Specific Aims are to define the molecular and cellular processes by which bacterial endotoxins modulate mu opioid receptor (MOR)- dependent pathways and how such modulation is related to the progression of ..
  15. Characterization of Floor Level Aerosol (PM) Exposure and Childhood Asthma
    Stuart Shalat; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..air sampling on filters for detailed characterization of the PM10 constituents (pesticides, allergens, and endotoxins);4) concentration and composition of airborne fungi (viable and non-viable) collected on glass slides...
  16. Preclinical development of DS-96, a novel alkylpolyamine endotoxin squestrant
    SUNIL ABRAHAM DAVID; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..cause of mortality in critically ill patients, is a consequence of the overwhelming innate immune response to endotoxins, or lipopolysaccharides (LPS), present on the surface of Gram-negative bacteria (including Category A and B ..
  17. Molecular Improvement of Bacterial Mosquito Larvicides
    Brian A Federici; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our additional studies of Cyt1A, other endotoxins, and the genetics of resistance should produce valuable information for further improving resistance management ..
  18. Natural antimicrobials against bacterial vaginosis
    Michael Chikindas; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..and Prevotella bivia. BV may lead to premature labor. Endotoxins produced by the BV-associated bacteria cause serious brain/CNS damage in developing fetuses...
  19. Functional Domains of Bacillus thuringiensis Endotoxins
    DONALD DEAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  20. MULTIPLE FORMS OF HEME OXYGENASE--REGULATION BY TOXINS
    MAHIN MAINES; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..We have now discovered a third form of HO, we call HO-3, which is inducible by bacterial endotoxins, is cysteine-and histidine-rich and likely to bind heme at its heme regulatory motifs (HFMs)...
  21. Effect of recipient age /graft vs host disease post BMT
    RAYMOND HUTCHISON; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..of GVHD in older mice is caused by greater intestinal tissue injury resulting in enhanced translocation of endotoxins and subsequent release of proinflammatory cytokines and (2) to determine whether the association of more severe ..
  22. NEW METHODS FOR EVAL OF ORGANIC DUST AEROSOLS
    Stephen Reynolds; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The primary goals of this project are to evaluate new methods for measuring inhalable particulates, endotoxins, and glucans/ergosterols that can be used to help establish occupational exposure guidelines for complex organic ..
  23. EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON IRON HOMEOSTASIS
    Barry Potter; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..the influence of alcohol on liver iron homeostasis in the rat, as well as other factors such as circulating endotoxins (which are increased in alcoholic liver disease)...
  24. Asthma and Lead Prevention in Chicago Public Housing
    Rachel Rosenberg; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..to the disease, including exposure to cockroach allergens, furry/feathered pets, dust mites, rodents, endotoxins, and pesticide sprays...
  25. Hypoxia and free radicals in alcoholic pancreatitis
    Gavin Arteel; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..injury, leading to stimulation of inflammatory cell recruitment and activation of these cells by circulating endotoxins. We recently showed pancreatic injury characteristic of chronic pancreatitis in humans in an enteral model ..
  26. Zebrafish Embryos as a Model for Cyanobacterial Toxins
    John Berry; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Though LPSs (or "endotoxins") from Gram-negative heterotophic eubacteria are well described, the same compounds from cyanobacteria have been ..
  27. TRAUMA & ORGAN FAILURE--ROLE OF LPS BINDING PROTEIN
    Stewart Wang; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..During gram-negative sepsis, endotoxins (LPS) binds to CD14 receptors on mononuclear cells, causing release of inflammatory mediators which can cause ..
  28. Asthma Education Conference for Tribal Health Officers Serving the Aberdeen Area
    David Osterberg; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..of indoor and outdoor contaminants, including, but not limited to environmental tobacco smoke, allergens and endotoxins, molds and insects, biological contaminants such as dust mites, chemical contaminants such as pesticides and ..
  29. Community Health Effects of Industrial Hog Operations
    Steven Wing; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..organic compounds, and dusts or particulate matter that contains biological materials including proteins and endotoxins. Nitrates, pathogens, and antibiotic residues have been documented in ground water near swine CAFOs...
  30. ENDOTOXIN INDUCED UVEITIS
    James Rosenbaum; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..if the lesser degrees of endotoxin-induced uveitis seen with progressive age results from chronic exposure to endotoxins; and (4) characterize a newly-described rat model of HLA-B27-associated uveitis subsequent to challenge with ..
  31. Bacterial host mimicry and chronic airway infection
    WILLIAM SWORDS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Toll-like receptor 4 recognizes a structural pattern found in endotoxins of most gram-negatives, including H. influenzae. H...
  32. ALCOHOL/INTERLEUKIN INTERACTIONS ON THE HPA AXIS
    Catherine Rivier; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..We will use IL-1beta, endotoxins or a small volume of turpentine to investigate the effect of a single cytokine, of a cascade of cytokines, or of ..
  33. ULTRAVIOLET LIGHTS IN HVAC SYSTEMS--EFFECT ON HEALTH AND
    Dick Menzies; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Therefore, this request is for additional funding for endotoxin assays which is sought because endotoxins are an important potential pathogenetic mechanism which could account for substantial health effects resulting ..
  34. Regulation of Arginase Genes in Sepsis and Trauma
    Sidney Morris; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..that follow release of complex and varied combinations of cytokines and stress hormones, as well as of bacterial endotoxins in infection...
  35. Targeting Kupffer Cells With Short-Interfering RNA
    BIDDANDA PONNAPPA; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In animal model systems, it has been demonstrated that alcohol-mediated liver injury is greatly potentiated by endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides), that are potent inducers of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (..
  36. IMPROVED ADENO ASSOCIATED VIRUS PURIFICATION
    Anthony Green; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..be free from contaminating cellular components such as chromosomal DNA and RNA, protein, membrane components and endotoxins. Requirements for large-scale production of this vector is creating a demand for improved purification processes...
  37. ENDOTOXIN INDUCED MUCOUS CELL METAPLASIA
    Yohannes Tesfaigzi; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..cells in regions of the respiratory tract normally devoid of these cells induced by exposure to bacterial endotoxins. Endotoxin exposure has been implicated in transient and chronic lung function impairment after exposure to ..
  38. NITRIC OXIDE MODULATION OF INFLAMMATORY LUNG INJURY
    Hector Gutierrez; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Cytokines, endotoxins, and more recently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2), nitric ..
  39. LOW COST MODULES FOR PYROGEN-FREE WATER
    OLIVER MURPHY; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..and parenteral therapy must be of high chemical purity, sterile and free from fever producing bacterial endotoxins known as pyrogens. The removal of pyrogens from water by distillation is expensive...
  40. Peer Education in Pregnancy Study
    Victoria Persky; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..of follow-up of the children to age 3-5 years; expand the exposure assessment to include dust measurements of endotoxins, pyrethroids, and organophosphates and urine measurements of pesticide metabolites; extend the psychosocial and ..
  41. BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF LPS-INITIATED HOST RESPONSE
    David Morrison; Fiscal Year: 1990
    The multiple physiological, pathological and immunological activities of bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) have been well documented...
  42. SUPPRESSION OF ACTIVATED LYMPHOCYTES BY ENDOTOXIN
    BARNET SULTZER; Fiscal Year: 1991
    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxins of Gram-negative bacteria are molecules that have a great affinity for mammalian cells. The results of this interaction are multiple pathophysiological and immunological responses by the host...
  43. Device for Eradicating and Controlling Biofilm in Dialysis
    Richard Lai; Fiscal Year: 2006
    The clinical significance of chronic pro-inflammatory reactions in hemodialysis patients due to exposure to endotoxins has become a central issue in nephrology in recent years...
  44. Cardioprotection against endotoxins
    Ruben Mestril; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..It is still unclear how a pre-heat treatment protects against endotoxins but one of the main results of a heat shock is the increased synthesis of a group of proteins known as the heat ..
  45. Structure-function studies of endotoxin receptor CD14
    Nitin Jain; Fiscal Year: 2009
    b>Endotoxins such as LPS and PGN, components of outer cell walls from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria are potent immunostimulators of monocytes and macrophages in humans and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis and ..
  46. Group B. Streptococci and Toll-like Receptors
    Douglas Golenbock; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..First, we have identified lipoproteins as endotoxins that constitute functional equivalents to the well defined lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria...
  47. LOW COST MODULES FOR PYROGEN-FREE WATER
    OLIVER MURPHY; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..and parenteral therapy must be of high chemical purity, sterile and free from fever-producing bacterial endotoxins. The removal of pyrogens from water by distillation is expensive...
  48. INTERACTIONS OF ENDOTOXIN WITH PLASMA AND CELLS
    Robert Munford; Fiscal Year: 2001
    b>Endotoxins (gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides, or LPS) play a major role in the pathogenesis of invasive gram-negative bacterial diseases; the inflammatory reaction elicited by these molecules may produce great morbidity and ..
  49. SOLUBLE AND CELL-BOUND ENDOTOXINS--LUNG TOXICITY
    Donald Milton; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..These may arise from inability to measure the total content and physical state of endotoxins in aerosol samples and from different biological behavior of soluble and cell membrane bound endotoxin...
  50. Device for Eradicting & Controlling Biofilm in Dialysis
    Richard Lai; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The occurrence of bacteria and endotoxins in dialysis fluids is traced to biofilm that grows at surfaces in contact with water in dialysis water systems...
  51. IMMUNOMODULATION BY ENDOTOXIN
    ALOIS NOWOTNY; Fiscal Year: 1990
    Bacterial endotoxins (ET) are widely distributed among gram negative bacteria and are considered an important component of their cell walls...
  52. Structural mimicry and host innate responses
    Shayla West Barnette; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Bacteria adapted to mucosal surfaces commonly produce lipooligosaccharide endotoxins, many of which contain host glycolipid epitopes. Work in Dr...
  53. Heat Stroke & Hyperthermia: Applied Molecular Mechanisms
    Pope Moseley; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..local tissue ischemia, and increased inflammatory cytokine levels that correlate to the appearance of bacterial endotoxins in the circulation...
  54. LIPID A METABOLISM AND MEMBRANE PROTEIN INTERACTIONS
    Douglas Golenbock; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..this proposal, the use of novel lipid A precursors as biochemical probes is emphasized for, unlike radiolabeled endotoxins, these probes are chemically defined, and can be highly purified without loss of biological activity...
  55. FLUID EXCHANGE IN EDEMATOUS LUNGS
    Robert Drake; Fiscal Year: 1992
    Patients with Gram - negative sepsis often develop pulmonary edema because bacterial endotoxins increase pulmonary microvascular permeability. However endotoxins may also promote edema formation by limiting lung lymphatic flow...
  56. Self-Disinfecting Catheters
    CRAIG TURCHI; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..released from and recruited to the biofilm, providing a steady stream of potentially pathogenic organisms and endotoxins to the fluid phase...
  57. STRUCTURE/PERMEABILITY OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE MEMBRANES
    THOMAS MC INTOSH; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..of this project are to determine the structure and permeability of membranes composed of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) isolated from various Gram-negative bacteria...
  58. IMPROVED SUPERCOILED PLASMID PURIFICATION
    Anthony Green; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The ability to remove contaminants such as plasmid isoforms, chromosomal DNA, RNA and host endotoxins is also compromised. A new process is proposed, based on a novel polymer resin PolyFlo[R]...
  59. SCOR ON ACUTE LUNG INJURY
    John Hoidal; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Inflammatory Responses of Injured Endothelium investigates the mechanisms by which clinically relevant novel endotoxins produce lung injury focusing particularly on the interactions of these agents with the endothelial cell...
  60. Leukocyte Responses to Endotoxin
    Thomas McIntyre; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..PAF has a major role in sepsis and the response to endotoxins. Serum levels of PAF are increased in studies of experimental endotoxemia, and blockade of the PAF receptor ..
  61. EFFECTS OF LEAD ON PROCARYOTIC AND EUCARYOTIC CELLS
    R Skogerboe; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..lead to induce morphological convertant; to evaluate the virulence and serological properties of exotoxins and endotoxins of bacteria cultivated in media containing lead salts; to search for cell free components that may be involved ..
  62. CHANGES WITH AGE IN MACROPHAGE MODULATED IMMUNITY
    JULIA ALBRIGHT; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..In addition, we will gain initial insight as to the probable roles of memory, CD4+ T cells and endotoxins in inducing the activated state of Mo/MP...
  63. Dental Waterline Cleansing System
    CRAIG TURCHI; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..released from and recruited to the biofilm, providing a steady stream of potentially pathogenic organisms and endotoxins to the water phase...