complement 3d receptors

Summary

Summary: Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Complement component C3 promotes T-cell priming and lung migration to control acute influenza virus infection
    Manfred Kopf
    Molecular Biomedicine, Department of Environmental Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland
    Nat Med 8:373-8. 2002
  2. ncbi Humoral immune responses in Cr2-/- mice: enhanced affinity maturation but impaired antibody persistence
    Z Chen
    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Immunol 164:4522-32. 2000
  3. pmc B cell development in the spleen takes place in discrete steps and is determined by the quality of B cell receptor-derived signals
    F Loder
    Department of Molecular Immunology, University of Freiburg, Germany
    J Exp Med 190:75-89. 1999
  4. pmc B lymphocyte memory: role of stromal cell complement and FcgammaRIIB receptors
    Robert A Barrington
    Center for Blood Research and Department of Pathology, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Exp Med 196:1189-99. 2002
  5. ncbi TNF family member B cell-activating factor (BAFF) receptor-dependent and -independent roles for BAFF in B cell physiology
    Yoshiteru Sasaki
    CBR Institute for Biomedical Research, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 173:2245-52. 2004
  6. pmc HIV-1 induces phenotypic and functional perturbations of B cells in chronically infected individuals
    S Moir
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and Surgery Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:10362-7. 2001
  7. pmc B cells of HIV-1-infected patients bind virions through CD21-complement interactions and transmit infectious virus to activated T cells
    S Moir
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 192:637-46. 2000
  8. ncbi A role for CD21/CD35 and CD19 in responses to acute septic peritonitis: a potential mechanism for mast cell activation
    J L Gommerman
    Department of Pathology, Center for Blood Research and Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 165:6915-21. 2000
  9. pmc Functional dissection of the CD21/CD19/TAPA-1/Leu-13 complex of B lymphocytes
    A K Matsumoto
    Division of Molecular and Clinical Rheumatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205
    J Exp Med 178:1407-17. 1993
  10. ncbi Regulation of B lymphocyte development and activation by the CD19/CD21/CD81/Leu 13 complex requires the cytoplasmic domain of CD19
    S Sato
    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Immunol 159:3278-87. 1997

Detail Information

Publications187 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Complement component C3 promotes T-cell priming and lung migration to control acute influenza virus infection
    Manfred Kopf
    Molecular Biomedicine, Department of Environmental Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland
    Nat Med 8:373-8. 2002
    ..Consequently, T-helper cell-dependent IgG responses were reduced in C3-/- mice but remained intact in Cr2-/- mice. These results demonstrate that complement induces specific immunity by promoting T-cell responses...
  2. ncbi Humoral immune responses in Cr2-/- mice: enhanced affinity maturation but impaired antibody persistence
    Z Chen
    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Immunol 164:4522-32. 2000
    ..These observations suggest that B cell activation/survival signals mediated by CD21 and/or the retention of Ag by CD21/CD35 play important roles in the generation, quality, and maintenance of serum Ab...
  3. pmc B cell development in the spleen takes place in discrete steps and is determined by the quality of B cell receptor-derived signals
    F Loder
    Department of Molecular Immunology, University of Freiburg, Germany
    J Exp Med 190:75-89. 1999
    ....
  4. pmc B lymphocyte memory: role of stromal cell complement and FcgammaRIIB receptors
    Robert A Barrington
    Center for Blood Research and Department of Pathology, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Exp Med 196:1189-99. 2002
    ..These data suggest that CD21/CD35 on stroma, including follicular dendritic cells, is critical to the maintenance of long-term B lymphocyte memory...
  5. ncbi TNF family member B cell-activating factor (BAFF) receptor-dependent and -independent roles for BAFF in B cell physiology
    Yoshiteru Sasaki
    CBR Institute for Biomedical Research, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 173:2245-52. 2004
    ..The reduction in Ab titers correlates with the reduced B cell numbers in the mutant mice...
  6. pmc HIV-1 induces phenotypic and functional perturbations of B cells in chronically infected individuals
    S Moir
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and Surgery Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:10362-7. 2001
    ..These results indicate that HIV viremia induces the appearance of a subset of B cells whose function is impaired and which may be responsible for the hypergammaglobulinemia associated with HIV disease...
  7. pmc B cells of HIV-1-infected patients bind virions through CD21-complement interactions and transmit infectious virus to activated T cells
    S Moir
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 192:637-46. 2000
    ..Furthermore, B cells possess the added capability of circulating in peripheral blood and migrating through tissues where they can potentially interact with and pass virus to T cells...
  8. ncbi A role for CD21/CD35 and CD19 in responses to acute septic peritonitis: a potential mechanism for mast cell activation
    J L Gommerman
    Department of Pathology, Center for Blood Research and Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 165:6915-21. 2000
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that the engagement of complement receptors CD21/CD35 along with CD19 on the mast cell surface by C3 fragments may be necessary for the full expression of mast cell activation in the CLP model...
  9. pmc Functional dissection of the CD21/CD19/TAPA-1/Leu-13 complex of B lymphocytes
    A K Matsumoto
    Division of Molecular and Clinical Rheumatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205
    J Exp Med 178:1407-17. 1993
    ..The CD21/CD19/TAPA-1 complex brings together independently functioning subunits to enable the B cell to respond to low concentrations of antigen...
  10. ncbi Regulation of B lymphocyte development and activation by the CD19/CD21/CD81/Leu 13 complex requires the cytoplasmic domain of CD19
    S Sato
    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Immunol 159:3278-87. 1997
    ..Moreover, expression of the CD19 cytoplasmic domain is required for optimal signaling through the B cell Ag receptor complex...
  11. ncbi Disruption of the Cr2 locus results in a reduction in B-1a cells and in an impaired B cell response to T-dependent antigen
    J M Ahearn
    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Immunity 4:251-62. 1996
    ..These results indicate an obligatory role of B cell complement receptors in responses of the B cells to protein antigens...
  12. ncbi The CD19-CD21 complex regulates signal transduction thresholds governing humoral immunity and autoimmunity
    T F Tedder
    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Immunity 6:107-18. 1997
  13. ncbi CD19-CD21 complex regulates an intrinsic Src family kinase amplification loop that links innate immunity with B-lymphocyte intracellular calcium responses
    T F Tedder
    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Biochem Soc Trans 30:807-11. 2002
    ..This review outlines recent biochemical and genetic studies that characterize the signal transduction pathways utilized by this receptor complex to regulate B-cell intracellular calcium responses...
  14. ncbi Regulation of IgG antibody responses by epitope density and CD21-mediated costimulation
    Andrea Jegerlehner
    Cytos Biotechnology AG, Schlieren, Switzerland
    Eur J Immunol 32:3305-14. 2002
    ..Thus, IgG but not IgM responses are regulated by epitope density and B cell costimulatory thresholds...
  15. ncbi Role for CD21 in the establishment of an extracellular HIV reservoir in lymphoid tissues
    Jason Ho
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 178:6968-74. 2007
    ..Our findings demonstrate a critical role for CD21 in HIV trapping by LN cells and suggest a new therapeutic avenue for reducing HIV reservoirs...
  16. ncbi Augmentation of NZB autoimmune phenotypes by the Sle1c murine lupus susceptibility interval
    Brendan M Giles
    Department of Medicine and Department of Immunology, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    J Immunol 178:4667-75. 2007
    ..These data show that the Sle1c interval accelerates and augments the loss of tolerance to chromatin and dsDNA induced by NZB genes and induces significantly greater end-organ damage...
  17. ncbi Analysis of the human CD21 transcription unit reveals differential splicing of exon 11 in mature transcripts and excludes alternative splicing as the mechanism causing solubilization of CD21
    H Illges
    Clinical Research Unit on Rheumatology, Albert Ludwigs University, Medical Center, Freiburg, Germany
    Mol Immunol 34:683-93. 1997
    ..Moreover, we exclude the possibility that alternative splicing of the transmembrane region is the mechanism leading to soluble CD21...
  18. ncbi Internalization and molecular interactions of human CD21 receptor
    Jacques Tessier
    CNRS UMR 6101, Groupe Instabilité Génétique et Régulation Transcriptionnelle, Faculte de Medecine, Limoges, France
    Mol Immunol 44:2415-25. 2007
    ..We discuss the potential physiological significance of these findings in the context of hCD21 internalization and intracellular trafficking...
  19. ncbi Mechanism for complement-mediated, antibody-dependent enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in MT2 cells is enhanced entry through CD4, CD21, and CXCR4 chemokine receptors
    W Edward Robinson
    Department of Pathology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 4800, USA
    Viral Immunol 19:434-47. 2006
    ..Finally, anti-HIV immunoglobulin enhanced replication of not only group M clade B HIV but also group M clade D and group O isolates. These data demonstrate that antibodies mediating C'ADE of HIV infection are broadly reactive...
  20. ncbi Complement dependent trapping of infectious HIV in human lymphoid tissues
    Zoltan Banki
    Department of Hygiene, Microbiology and Social Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University and Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for AIDS Research, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    AIDS 19:481-6. 2005
    ....
  21. ncbi Follicular dendritic cell tumor in the oro-pharyngeal region: report of a case and a review of the literature
    K Satoh
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Kutsukake cho, Toyoake City, Aichi, 470 1192, Japan
    Oral Oncol 39:415-9. 2003
    ..Three courses of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy were administered postoperatively. Clinical features, pathological diagnosis and immunohistochemical markers for distinguishing FDC tumor are reviewed...
  22. ncbi A site in the complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) silencer is necessary for lineage specific transcriptional regulation
    K W Makar
    Department of Immunology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Int Immunol 13:657-64. 2001
    ..These results demonstrate the importance of this site in regulating CR2 expression and suggest that CBF1, a component of the developmentally important Notch signaling pathway, may play a role in the control of human CR2 gene expression...
  23. ncbi CR2/CD21 proximal promoter activity is critically dependent on a cell type-specific repressor
    D Ulgiati
    Department of Immunology and Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    J Immunol 167:6912-9. 2001
    ..Thus, E2A activity is key not only for early B cell development, but also for controlling CR2 expression, a gene expressed only during later stages of ontogeny...
  24. ncbi NF-kappaB regulates the expression of the human complement receptor 2 gene
    Mate Tolnay
    Department of Cellular Injury, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    J Immunol 169:6236-43. 2002
    ..Thus, at the onset of an infection, LPS could sensitize the B cell to Ag by enhancing the level of CR2-costimulatory molecules on the cell surface...
  25. ncbi Functional analysis of the human complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) promoter: characterization of basal transcriptional mechanisms
    Daniela Ulgiati
    Department of Immunology, Division of Rheumatology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    J Immunol 168:6279-85. 2002
    ..We have determined that four functionally relevant sites lie within very close proximity to the transcriptional initiation site. These sites bind the transcription factors USF1, an AP-2-like transcription factor, and Sp1...
  26. pmc Follicular dendritic cells specifically express the long CR2/CD21 isoform
    Y J Liu
    Schering Plough, Laboratory for Immunological Research, Dardilly, France
    J Exp Med 185:165-70. 1997
    ..Thus, CD21L represents the first characterized human FDC-specific molecule, which may confer unique functions of FDCs in germinal center development...
  27. ncbi Genomic organization and polymorphisms of the human C3d/Epstein-Barr virus receptor
    A Fujisaku
    Arthritis and Immunology Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City
    J Biol Chem 264:2118-25. 1989
    ..The TaqI and HaeIII RFLPs will provide tools for the genetic analysis of CR2. The organization of the CR2 gene provides insights into the evolution of human CR2 and the RCA gene family...
  28. pmc T lymphocyte expression of complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21): a role in adhesive cell-cell interactions and dysregulation in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
    E Levy
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute Laboratories, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110
    Clin Exp Immunol 90:235-44. 1992
    ....
  29. ncbi Comparative structure and evolution of murine CR2. The homolog of the human C3d/EBV receptor (CD21)
    J D Fingeroth
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115
    J Immunol 144:3458-67. 1990
    ..The marked structural similarity between the human and murine receptors suggests functional conservation as well...
  30. ncbi Immunophenotypic variability of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a retrospective study of cases analyzed by flow cytometry
    Carolina Echeverri
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, USA
    Am J Clin Pathol 117:615-20. 2002
    ..Instrument settings for adequate compensation and the criteria used to determine when an antigen is reported as positive are important considerations when evaluating flow cytometry histograms...
  31. ncbi Ontogeny of the follicular dendritic cell phenotype and function in the postnatal murine spleen
    P Balogh
    Department of Anatomy, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA
    Cell Immunol 214:45-53. 2001
    ..This indicates that not only mature FDCs but also their precursors are highly radioresistant, and their phenotypic maturation follows a programmed path that requires only a small number of mature B cells...
  32. ncbi Extranodal follicular dendritic cell sarcoma of the head and neck region: three new cases, with a review of the literature
    David A Biddle
    Department of Pathology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Mod Pathol 15:50-8. 2002
    ..Correct characterization of this neoplasm is imperative given its potential for recurrence and metastasis...
  33. ncbi A complement C3 inhibitor specifically targeted to sites of complement activation effectively ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1J mice
    Hongbin Song
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    J Immunol 179:7860-7. 2007
    ..Of interest, a previous study reported that Crry-Ig, an untargeted counterpart of CR2-Crry, had minimal effect on disease, even when administered at a sufficiently high dose to maintain chronic complement inhibition...
  34. pmc Characterization of marginal zone B cell precursors
    Bhaskar Srivastava
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadephia, 19104, USA
    J Exp Med 202:1225-34. 2005
    ..These observations challenge previous models of peripheral B cell maturation, and suggest that MZ B cells develop by way of CD21/35(high) CD23(+) intermediates...
  35. ncbi Cr2, a candidate gene in the murine Sle1c lupus susceptibility locus, encodes a dysfunctional protein
    S A Boackle
    Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Immunity 15:775-85. 2001
    ..These data demonstrate a functionally significant phenotype for the NZM2410 Cr2 allele and strongly support its role as a lupus susceptibility gene...
  36. pmc Molecular cloning of the cDNA encoding the Epstein-Barr virus/C3d receptor (complement receptor type 2) of human B lymphocytes
    M D Moore
    Department of Immunology, Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation, La Jolla, CA 92037
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84:9194-8. 1987
    ..The nucleotide and derived amino acid sequence of CR2 and related studies are presented here...
  37. ncbi Follicular dendritic cells: beyond the necessity of T-cell help
    J G Tew
    Dept of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, PO Box 980678, Richmond, VA 23298 0678, USA
    Trends Immunol 22:361-7. 2001
    ..Thus, FDCs minimize a negative B-cell signal. In short, these ligand-receptor interactions help to signal to B cells and meet a requirement for B-cell stimulation that goes beyond the necessity of T-cell help...
  38. ncbi B cells from mice prematurely expressing human complement receptor type 2 are unresponsive to T-dependent antigens
    Louise Birrell
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Immunology, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, UK
    J Immunol 174:6974-82. 2005
    ..We conclude that this phenotype and these mice may offer an additional means to dissect mechanisms underlying B cell tolerance and Ag responsiveness both in bone marrow and periphery...
  39. ncbi Structure and function of the complement receptors, CR1 (CD35) and CR2 (CD21)
    J M Ahearn
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
    Adv Immunol 46:183-219. 1989
  40. pmc Complement receptor 2-mediated targeting of complement inhibitors to sites of complement activation
    Hongbin Song
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Clin Invest 111:1875-85. 2003
    ..Finally, the in vivo validity of the targeting strategy was confirmed by the demonstration that CR2-DAF, but not soluble DAF, targets to the kidney in mouse models of lupus nephritis that are associated with renal complement deposition...
  41. ncbi Protection against influenza virus infection by intranasal administration of C3d-fused hemagglutinin
    Izumi Watanabe
    Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1 23 1 Toyama, Shinjyuku ku, Tokyo 162 8640, Japan
    Vaccine 21:4532-8. 2003
    ..Thus, C3d fused to the influenza HA antigen is an effective and safe tool for mucosal vaccination...
  42. ncbi Complement receptors CD21/35 link innate and protective immunity during Streptococcus pneumoniae infection by regulating IgG3 antibody responses
    Karen M Haas
    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Immunity 17:713-23. 2002
    ..Thus, CD21/35 expression is critical for early protective antibody responses to lethal pathogens that rapidly multiply and quickly overwhelm the immune system...
  43. ncbi The murine complement receptor gene family. IV. Alternative splicing of Cr2 gene transcripts predicts two distinct gene products that share homologous domains with both human CR2 and CR1
    C B Kurtz
    Division of Cell Biology and Immunology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City 84132
    J Immunol 144:3581-91. 1990
    ..DNA sequence analysis, RNA protection studies and genomic phage mapping indicate the transcripts which encode these proteins are derived from the Cr2 gene via alternative splicing...
  44. ncbi Cutting edge: BAFF regulates CD21/35 and CD23 expression independent of its B cell survival function
    Leonid Gorelik
    Department of Immunology and Inflammation, Biogen Idec Inc, 12 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    J Immunol 172:762-6. 2004
    ..These data broaden our understanding of BAFF function and correct the view that BAFF-null mice lack mature B cells...
  45. ncbi CR1/CR2 deficiency alters IgG3 autoantibody production and IgA glomerular deposition in the MRL/lpr model of SLE
    Susan A Boackle
    Department of Medicine and Immunology, Division of Rheumatology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Autoimmunity 37:111-23. 2004
    ..Together these data support the concept that alterations in CR1/CR2 expression or function affect the regulation of autoantibody production and/or clearance and may have clinical consequences...
  46. ncbi Expression of human complement receptor type 2 (CD21) in mice during early B cell development results in a reduction in mature B cells and hypogammaglobulinemia
    Kevin J Marchbank
    Complement Biology Group, Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Wales College of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 169:3526-35. 2002
    ..Alterations in B cell development are most likely due to engagement of pre-B cell receptor-mediated or other regulatory pathways by hCR2 in a CD19- and possibly C3 ligand-dependent manner...
  47. ncbi Mechanism(s) promoting HIV-1 infection of primary unstimulated T lymphocytes in autologous B cell/T cell co-cultures
    Susanne Döpper
    Institute of Hygiene and Social Medicine, Ludwig Boltzmann Insitute for AIDS Research, University Innsbruck, Austria
    Eur J Immunol 33:2098-107. 2003
    ..Since the infection of unstimulated T cells by opsonized primary HIV isolates in the presence of B cells was highly efficient independent of the tropism of the virus, this mechanism may be critical in the pathogenesis of HIV...
  48. ncbi Complement receptors and the shaping of the natural antibody repertoire
    V Michael Holers
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, B 115, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 E 9th Avenue, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Springer Semin Immunopathol 26:405-23. 2005
    ..This review will examine the evidence that has accumulated over the last few years supporting these hypotheses...
  49. ncbi A role for the Cr2 gene in modifying autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus
    Xiaobo Wu
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Immunol 169:1587-92. 2002
    ..Phenotypic expression of other disease manifestations need additional Cr2-independent genetic factors...
  50. ncbi Regulation of B lymphocyte activation by complement C3 and the B cell coreceptor complex
    Robert C Rickert
    Program of Inflammatory Disease Research, Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, The Burnham Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Curr Opin Immunol 17:237-43. 2005
    ....
  51. ncbi Factor I-mediated processing of complement fragments on HIV immune complexes targets HIV to CR2-expressing B cells and facilitates B cell-mediated transmission of opsonized HIV to T cells
    Zoltan Banki
    Department of Hygiene, Microbiology and Social Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University, Austria
    J Immunol 177:3469-76. 2006
    ....
  52. ncbi A critical role for complement in maintenance of self-tolerance
    A P Prodeus
    The Center for Blood Research, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Immunity 9:721-31. 1998
    ..These findings suggest a novel role for the complement system in B cell tolerance and provide insight into the genetic association of complement deficiency with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus...
  53. ncbi Regulation of B lymphocyte responses to foreign and self-antigens by the CD19/CD21 complex
    D T Fearon
    Wellcome Trust Immunology Unit, Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Immunol 18:393-422. 2000
    ..The integration of innate and adaptive immune recognition at this molecular site on the B cell guides the appropriate selection of antigen by adaptive immunity and emphasizes the importance of this coreceptor complex...
  54. pmc Defective B cell ontogeny and immune response in human complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21) transgenic mice is partially recovered in the absence of C3
    Jason Twohig
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Immunology, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XX, UK
    Mol Immunol 44:3434-44. 2007
    ....
  55. ncbi Modulation and intracellular transport of CD20 and CD21 antigens induced by B1 and B2 monoclonal antibodies in RAJI and JOK-1 cells--an immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy study
    S Pulczynski
    University Department of Pathology, Aarhus Amtssygehus, Denmark
    Leuk Res 18:541-52. 1994
    ..The results are discussed in the context of the possible usefulness of B1 and B2 MoAbs in the therapy of B-cell malignancies...
  56. pmc Association of a common complement receptor 2 haplotype with increased risk of systemic lupus erythematosus
    Hui Wu
    Division of Rheumatology, University of California Los Angeles, 1000 Veteran Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:3961-6. 2007
    ..Our findings reveal that CR2 is a likely susceptibility gene for human lupus at 1q32.2, extending previous studies suggesting that CR2 participates in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus...
  57. ncbi Expression of human complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21) in Cr2-/- mice restores humoral immune function
    K J Marchbank
    Division of Rheumatology, Departments of Medicine and Immunology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    J Immunol 165:2354-61. 2000
    ..Therefore, hCR2-transgenic mice offer a valuable model system to further examine immunologic roles as well as structure-function relationships important for hCR2 function in primary cells in vivo...
  58. ncbi Intrinsic B cell hypo-responsiveness in mice prematurely expressing human CR2/CD21 during B cell development
    Liudmila Kulik
    Department of Medicine and Immunology, UCHSC, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Eur J Immunol 37:623-33. 2007
    ..Overall, these data suggest that premature hCR2 expression and the consequences thereof during B cell development intrinsically alters the way mature B cells develop and subsequently respond to antigen through the BCR signaling complex...
  59. pmc Intersection of the complement and immune systems: a signal transduction complex of the B lymphocyte-containing complement receptor type 2 and CD19
    A K Matsumoto
    Division of Molecular and Clinical Rheumatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205
    J Exp Med 173:55-64. 1991
    ....
  60. pmc Markedly impaired humoral immune response in mice deficient in complement receptors 1 and 2
    H Molina
    Department of Internal Medicine and Center for Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:3357-61. 1996
    ..These data suggest that certain T-dependent antigens manifest an absolute dependence on complement receptors for the initiation of a normally robust immune response...
  61. ncbi The CD19/CD21 signal transducing complex of human B lymphocytes includes the target of antiproliferative antibody-1 and Leu-13 molecules
    L E Bradbury
    Division of Tumor Immunology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115 6084
    J Immunol 149:2841-50. 1992
    ..Together, these data suggest that TAPA-1 and Leu-13 are broadly expressed members of a signal transduction complex in which lineage-specific proteins, such as CD19 and CD21, provide cell-specific functions...
  62. ncbi Mouse complement receptors type 1 (CR1;CD35) and type 2 (CR2;CD21): expression on normal B cell subpopulations and decreased levels during the development of autoimmunity in MRL/lpr mice
    K Takahashi
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa School of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    J Immunol 159:1557-69. 1997
    ..We hypothesize that the early decrease in complement receptor expression such as that demonstrated by MRL/lpr mice plays an important role in the pathogenesis of murine and perhaps human SLE...
  63. pmc Structure of the human B lymphocyte receptor for C3d and the Epstein-Barr virus and relatedness to other members of the family of C3/C4 binding proteins
    J J Weis
    Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
    J Exp Med 167:1047-66. 1988
    ..The homology between CR2 and CR1 extended to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions, suggesting that these sequences were derived from a common membrane-bound precursor...
  64. ncbi The CD19/CD21 complex functions to prolong B cell antigen receptor signaling from lipid rafts
    A Cherukuri
    Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Immunity 14:169-79. 2001
    ..The colocalization and stabilization of the BCR and the CD19/CD21 complex in plasma membrane lipid rafts represents a novel mechanism by which a coreceptor enhances BCR signaling...
  65. ncbi Perisinusoidal B cells in the bone marrow participate in T-independent responses to blood-borne microbes
    Annaiah Cariappa
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Immunity 23:397-407. 2005
    ..The bone marrow represents a unique type of secondary lymphoid organ in which mature B cells are strategically positioned in the path of circulating microbes...
  66. ncbi The follicular versus marginal zone B lymphocyte cell fate decision is regulated by Aiolos, Btk, and CD21
    A Cariappa
    Cancer Center and, Massachusetts General Hospital and, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129, USA
    Immunity 14:603-15. 2001
    ..These data support the view that antigens (in contrast to "tonic" signals) drive the development of naive B cells...
  67. ncbi Structure of complement receptor 2 in complex with its C3d ligand
    G Szakonyi
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Health Science Center, School of Medicine, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Science 292:1725-8. 2001
    ..These results provide a detailed understanding of receptor-ligand interactions in this protein family and reveal potential target sites for molecular drug design...
  68. ncbi A molecular and immunochemical characterization of mouse CR2. Evidence for a single gene model of mouse complement receptors 1 and 2
    H Molina
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute Laboratories, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110
    J Immunol 145:2974-83. 1990
    ....
  69. ncbi Soluble CD21 (sCD21) forms biologically active complexes with CD23: sCD21 is present in normal plasma as a complex with trimeric CD23 and inhibits soluble CD23-induced IgE synthesis by B cells
    V Fremeaux-Bacchi
    INSERM U430, Hopital Broussais, Paris, France
    Int Immunol 10:1459-66. 1998
    ..The results indicate that sCD21 in plasma retains the ligand-binding properties of the membrane CD21 receptor and exhibits immunoregulatory properties that may be relevant to allergic and inflammatory disorders...
  70. pmc Epstein Barr virus/complement C3d receptor is an interferon alpha receptor
    A X Delcayre
    California Institute for Biological Research, La Jolla 92037
    EMBO J 10:919-26. 1991
    ..Monoclonal anti-CR2 antibody HB5, but not OKB-7, blocks IFN alpha binding to Raji cells. CR2 or CR2-like molecules may therefore be the major IFN alpha receptors on B lymphocytes...
  71. ncbi Characterization of C3-binding proteins on mouse neutrophils and platelets
    R J Quigg
    Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    J Immunol 159:2438-44. 1997
    ..These appear to be distinct from the heretofore identified mouse B lymphocyte MCR1 and MCR2. The identity of these C3b- and C3d-binding proteins on mouse neutrophils and platelets awaits further study...
  72. ncbi Distinct recirculating and non-recirculating B-lymphocyte pools in the peripheral blood are defined by coordinated expression of CD21 and L-selectin
    A J Young
    Basel Institute for Immunology, Basel, Switzerland
    Blood 90:4865-75. 1997
    ....
  73. ncbi CD23 interacts with a new functional extracytoplasmic domain involving N-linked oligosaccharides on CD21
    J P Aubry
    Glaxo Institute for Molecular Biology, Geneva, Switzerland
    J Immunol 152:5806-13. 1994
    ..This study indicates that SCRs 5 to 8 represent a novel functional domain on the CD21 molecule, and is the first demonstration of an activity of an extracytoplasmic region of the CD21 outside of SCRs 1 to 4...
  74. ncbi Impaired affinity maturation in Cr2-/- mice is rescued by adjuvants without improvement in germinal center development
    X Wu
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, and Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Immunol 165:3119-27. 2000
    ....
  75. ncbi Novel roles for murine complement receptors type 1 and 2 I. Regulation of B cell survival and proliferation by CR1/2
    Eszter Molnar
    Department of Immunology, Lorand Eotvos University, Budapest, Hungary
    Immunol Lett 116:156-62. 2008
    ..We conclude that engagement of complement receptor 2 of B cells promotes the survival of both mature and transitional B cells. This activity supplements the previously described adjuvant effects of complement...
  76. ncbi Targeting antigen to CD19 on B cells efficiently activates T cells
    Jun Yan
    Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, S525, PO Box, 208031 New Haven, CT 06520 8031, USA
    Int Immunol 17:869-77. 2005
    ..This work illustrates an important and previously unrecognized mechanism for targeting proteins to B lymphocytes for antigen presentation and activation of CD4 T cells...
  77. ncbi Murine CR1/2 targeted antigenized single-chain antibody fragments induce transient low affinity antibodies and negatively influence an ongoing immune response
    Jozsef Prechl
    Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences at the Department of Immunology, Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest
    Adv Exp Med Biol 598:214-25. 2007
    ..Furthermore, CR1/2 targeting constructs may negatively influence an ongoing immune reaction...
  78. ncbi Altered regulation of Fc gamma RII on aged follicular dendritic cells correlates with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif signaling in B cells and reduced germinal center formation
    Yuksel Aydar
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, The Immunology Group, Virginia Commonwealth University, Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    J Immunol 171:5975-87. 2003
    ..The present data support the concept that FcR are regulated abnormally on old FDCs. This abnormality correlates with a reduced IC retention and with a reduced capacity of FDCs to present ICs in a way that will activate GC B cells...
  79. ncbi Antibody-independent B cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic roles for CD21/35
    Joerg Rossbacher
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, USA
    Eur J Immunol 36:2384-93. 2006
    ..Unexpectedly, chimera experiments also showed a critical role for Cr on follicular dendritic cells (FDC), even in the absence of IC, indicating novel functions for FDC-expressed Cr beyond the capture of C3-coated IC...
  80. ncbi Complement component C3d-antigen complexes can either augment or inhibit B lymphocyte activation and humoral immunity in mice depending on the degree of CD21/CD19 complex engagement
    Youngkyun Lee
    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Immunol 175:8011-23. 2005
    ..Therefore, C3d may enhance or inhibit Ag-specific humoral immune responses through both CD21-dependent and -independent mechanisms depending on the concentration and nature of the Ag-C3d complexes...
  81. ncbi Complement receptors CD21 and CD35 in humoral immunity
    Ramon Roozendaal
    Immune Disease Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Immunol Rev 219:157-66. 2007
    ..In recent unpublished work using multiphoton intravital imaging, we found that small protein antigens presented in the lymph drain rapidly into B-cell follicles and are taken up by FDCs in a complement-dependent manner...
  82. ncbi KLF13 influences multiple stages of both B and T cell development
    Susan V Outram
    Immunobiology Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College, London, United Kingdom
    Cell Cycle 7:2047-55. 2008
    ..Thus KLF13 is involved at multiple different checkpoints in development that require signalling through the TCR, pre-BCR or mature BCR...
  83. ncbi Increased expression of the B-cell-regulatory molecule CD72 in primary Sjögren's syndrome
    A J F Smith
    Department of Immunology, Allergy and Arthritis, Flinders Medical Center and Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
    Tissue Antigens 63:255-9. 2004
    ..The upregulation of CD72 in pSS might be a compensatory response to increased B-cell receptor stimulation or a primary abnormality leading to uncontrolled B-cell activation...
  84. pmc Characterization of a late transitional B cell population highly sensitive to BAFF-mediated homeostatic proliferation
    Almut Meyer-Bahlburg
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    J Exp Med 205:155-68. 2008
    ..These data, in association with the coordinate role for BAFF and microenvironmental cues in determining the mature BCR repertoire, imply that this subset functions as a unique selection point in peripheral B cell development...
  85. pmc Follicular dendritic cells control engulfment of apoptotic bodies by secreting Mfge8
    Jan Kranich
    Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Exp Med 205:1293-302. 2008
    ..Lymphotoxin-deficient mice lacked FDCs and splenic Mfge8, and suffer from autoimmunity similar to Mfge8(-/-) mice. Hence, FDCs facilitate TBMphi-mediated corpse removal, and their malfunction may be involved in autoimmunity...
  86. pmc Molecular interactions of complement receptors on B lymphocytes: a CR1/CR2 complex distinct from the CR2/CD19 complex
    D A Tuveson
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205
    J Exp Med 173:1083-9. 1991
    ..The complement activating immunogen may then trigger signal transduction by the CR1/CR2 complex, the CR2/CD19 complex, or membrane immunoglobulin...
  87. ncbi Novel suppressive function of transitional 2 B cells in experimental arthritis
    Jamie G Evans
    Centre for Rheumatology Research, Department of Medicine, University College London, 46 Cleveland Street, London, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 178:7868-78. 2007
    ..The ability to regulate an established immune response by T2-MZP B cells endows this subset of B cells with a striking and previously unrecognized immunoregulatory potential...
  88. ncbi Analyses of the in vivo trafficking of stoichiometric doses of an anti-complement receptor 1/2 monoclonal antibody infused intravenously in mice
    Emily C Whipple
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia, School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    J Immunol 173:2297-306. 2004
    ....
  89. ncbi Antigen localization within the splenic marginal zone restores humoral immune response and IgG class switch in complement C4-deficient mice
    Berit Zachrau
    Institute for Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Medical University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, D 23560 Luebeck, Germany
    Int Immunol 16:1685-90. 2004
    ..As such, an inadequate localization of self-antigens might be responsible for the annulment of peripheral B-cell tolerance in the absence of C4...
  90. ncbi The influence of immune complex-bearing follicular dendritic cells on the IgM response, Ig class switching, and production of high affinity IgG
    Yuksel Aydar
    Department of Microbiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    J Immunol 174:5358-66. 2005
    ....
  91. pmc Complement receptors regulate lipopolysaccharide-induced T-cell stimulation
    Ziya Kaya
    Department of Internal Medicine III Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    Immunology 114:493-8. 2005
    ..These findings point to a novel mechanism by which CR1/CR2 modulates the activation of T cells by LPS...
  92. ncbi The CD19-CD21 signal transduction complex of B lymphocytes regulates the balance between health and autoimmune disease: systemic sclerosis as a model system
    Thomas F Tedder
    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Curr Dir Autoimmun 8:55-90. 2005
    ..Thus, chronic B cell activation resulting from augmented CD19 expression or signaling through the CD19 pathway may reveal a prototype autoimmune disease susceptibility pathway in mice and humans...
  93. ncbi Notch-RBP-J signaling is involved in cell fate determination of marginal zone B cells
    Kenji Tanigaki
    Department of Medical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida Konoe, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606 8501, Japan
    Nat Immunol 3:443-50. 2002
    ..In contrast, these mice exhibited increased mortality rates after blood-borne bacterial infection, which indicates that MZB cells play pivotal roles in the clearance of these bacteria...
  94. ncbi CD19 can regulate B lymphocyte signal transduction independent of complement activation
    M Hasegawa
    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Immunol 167:3190-200. 2001
    ....
  95. ncbi Immunoregulatory functions of complement: structural and functional studies of complement receptor type 1 (CR1; CD35) and type 2 (CR2; CD21)
    D T Fearon
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
    Prog Clin Biol Res 297:211-20. 1989
  96. ncbi Mice deficient in complement receptors 1 and 2 lack a tissue injury-inducing subset of the natural antibody repertoire
    Sherry D Fleming
    Department of Cellular Injury, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    J Immunol 169:2126-33. 2002
    ..In sum, CR2/CR1 play an unanticipated but critical role in the development of a subset of the natural Ab repertoire that has particular importance in the pathogenesis of IR injury...
  97. ncbi Monoclonal antibodies to lymphocyte surface antigens for cetacean homologues to CD2, CD19 and CD21
    Sylvain De Guise
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 84:209-21. 2002
    ..B and T cell markers were mutually exclusive on double labeling using flow cytometry. These mAbs are foreseen as possible valuable diagnostic and research tools to assess immune functions of captive and wild cetaceans...
  98. ncbi The role of the CD19/CD21 complex in B cell processing and presentation of complement-tagged antigens
    A Cherukuri
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    J Immunol 167:163-72. 2001
    ..The ability of the CD19/CD21 complex to augment processing may be an important element of the mechanism by which the CD19/CD21 complex functions to promote B cell responses to T cell-dependent complement-tagged Ags in vivo...
  99. ncbi Expression of CD21 and CD23 during human fetal development
    Catherine A Thornton
    Allergy and Inflammation Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK
    Pediatr Res 52:245-50. 2002
    ..However the abundance of CD21-positive T cells could alter the T- and B-cell interaction necessary for IgE switching by B cells and, thereby, especially with impaired IL-4 production, limit IgE production...
  100. ncbi Complement's participation in acquired immunity
    Claus Henrik Nielsen
    Institute for Inflammation Research, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Leukoc Biol 72:249-61. 2002
    ..The aim of this review is to describe the present status of our understanding of complement's participation in acquired immunity and the regulation of autoimmune responses...
  101. ncbi Role for complement receptors (CD21/CD35) in the regulation of recombination activating gene expression in murine peripheral B cells
    Hitoshi Ohmori
    Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima Naka, Japan
    Immunol Lett 83:95-9. 2002
    ..On the other hand, the same coligation augmented proliferation of anti-CD40-stimulated B cells. These findings suggest a crucial role for CD21/CD35 in directing the conservation or the revision of BCRs in peripheral B cells...

Research Grants47

  1. Synergy of Host Defense Mechanisms in the Lung
    Arturo Casadevall; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Furthermore, these studies will provide information that could be used to design vaccines and new therapies based on immunological reagents such as antibodies. ..
  2. Mechanisms of B cell activation by Complement Receptor 2
    Taras Lyubchenko; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This project will facilitate new mfithodolonifis for maninulation of nomnlfimRnt-rnfidiated B cell immunfi..
  3. Loss of B cell tolerance in rheumatoid arthritis
    Eric Meffre; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, understanding the mechanisms that prevent or account for the production of autoreactive B cells may suggest new approaches to control disease and design more specific and sustained therapies. ..
  4. Analysis of Lupus Susceptibility Genes for Treatment and Prevention of Disease
    Susan A Boackle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  5. Follicular dendritic cell activation and HIV pathogenesis
    Gregory F Burton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Understanding how the FDC interacts with HIV and how this can be controlled can provide the ability to block this dangerous reservoir of infectious virus. ..
  6. Suppression of measles virus vaccination by maternal antibodies
    Stefan Niewiesk; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The effect of co-application of heterologous (mouse) IgM in relation to homologous (cotton rat) IgM will be tested in neonates with maternal antibodies. ..
  7. CD81 AND B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR SIGNALING
    Erdyni Tsitsikov; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The proposed studies of the role of CD81 in BCR signaling may have important implications for the understanding and treatment of autoimmune diseases. ..
  8. REGULATION OF HUMORAL IMMUNITY BY COMPLEMENT RECEPTORS
    Hector Molina; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Following backcrossing into CR1/CR2 deficient mice, the immune response to different antigens will then be evaluated. These experiments will clarify the different roles of these proteins in the immune response. ..
  9. REGULATION OF COMPLEMENT RECEPTOR GENE EXPRESSION
    George Tsokos; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Since we have found that sera from patients with systemic autoimmune diseases have antibodies directed against this hnRNP, we propose to study their frequency and clinical significance. ..
  10. Targeted Complement Inhibitors as Therapeutic Agents
    WOODRUFF EMLEN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  11. Cr2 as a Murine Lupus Susceptibility Gene
    SUSAN BOACKLE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies will clarify the specific functions of CR2, impaired in the NZM2410 mouse model, that may impact on the development of autoimmune disease and thus be important targets for therapeutic interventions. ..
  12. Complement Receptor 2 as a Biomarker for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    SUSAN BOACKLE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In addition, they will advance our understanding of the role of CR2 in the pathogenesis of SLE and provide insight into the mechanisms that contribute to the development of this disease. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  13. Functional Analysis of Complement Receptor 2 as a Lupus Susceptibility Gene
    Susan A Boackle; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  14. DENVER AUTOIMMUNITY CENTER OF EXCELLENCE
    V Holers; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This latter project involves a newly established collaboration with a separate institution and group of clinicians skilled in the clinical investigation of RA. ..
  15. MOUSE MEMBRANE RCA PROTEINS IN THE IMMUNE RESPONSE
    V Holers; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Specific Aim #3: Determine the functional activities and biologic relevance of novel SCR-containing candidate C3/C4 binding and regulatory proteins. ..
  16. C3D/EBV RECEPTOR LIGAND BINDING SITES
    V Holers; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  17. Evolution of Autoimmunity in Rheumatoid Arthritis
    V Holers; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  18. Co-stimuli for Human Marginal Zone B Cell Activation
    Patricia Mongini; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Such insights should suggest immunologic intervention therapies for blocking the activation of autoreactive B cells in SLE. ..
  19. CD83 Regulation of Lymphocyte Development and Function
    Thomas Tedder; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..an important regulatory checkpoint for helper T cell development, understanding its function may provide mechanisms for modulating humoral immunity and for the treatment of immunodeficiency, autoimmunity and malignancies ..
  20. MS4A Family Members in Health and Disease
    Thomas Tedder; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  21. CD22 Regulation of B Lymphocyte Function and Survival
    Thomas Tedder; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  22. REGULATION OF LEUKOCYTE RECIRCULATION
    Thomas Tedder; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  23. ROD NEURODEGENERATIVE AND PROTECTIVE GENES
    Baerbel Rohrer; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We expect to isolate common downstream target genes that are activated both during degeneration and neuroprotection. ..
  24. Transgenic Rod Development and Function
    Baerbel Rohrer; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..However, more importantly, it will provide avenues for studying gene defects at the single cell level not only in the retina, but in other systems as well. ..
  25. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF B-LYMPHOCYTE RESTRICTED PROTEINS
    Thomas Tedder; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Determining how these B cell-restricted proteins regulate B cell function may also provide new methods for treatment of B cell malignancies, autoimmunity and immunodeficiency. ..
  26. ONTOGENY OF PLASMACYTOID DENDRITIC CELLS
    David Allman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  27. Effect of aging on lymphoid stem cells
    David Allman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In Aim 3, we will establish BM chimeras to determine whether age-associated decreases in frequencies of CLPs reflect cell autonomous versus environmental defects. ..
  28. Phenotypes of HIV-1 Integrases
    William Robinson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Inhibitors of integrase are in clinical testing. Understanding how HIV becomes resistant to these compounds and how such compounds interact with integrase are fundamental to the synthesis of better anti-HIV drugs. ..
  29. COMPUTATIONAL TOOLS FOR RULE-BASED MODELING OF BIOCHEMICAL SYSTEMS
    WILLIAM HLAVACEK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..An important capability we wish to achieve is the ability to model a significant fraction of the known human signal-transduction systems. ..
  30. COMPLEMENT AND B CELL TOLERANCE IN A MURINE MODEL OF SLE
    Elahna Paul; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..By combining immunologic, nephrologic and molecular analyses I propose to elucidate how classical complement deficiency predisposes to SLE. ..
  31. Aging of Early B Cell Precursors
    David M Allman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Together, these studies will enhance our knowledge of stem cell biology and the basis for age-related defects in early lymphocyte development. ..
  32. Role of Mucosal Immunity in Vaccine Protection
    KRISTINA HOWARD; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  33. Phospholipid signaling in B Lymphocytes
    ROBERT RICKERT; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Through the generation and characterization of these mice we will learn how PI3K directs B cell differentiation, and provide insight into how such regulation can go awry in the case of B cell transformation. ..
  34. Enhancement of CD8 T Cell Immunity by IL-7 Therapy
    Marulasiddappa Suresh; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The proposed studies should aid in the rational design of vaccines that can engender potent CDS T cell memory and protect against poxvirus and arenaviral infections. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  35. Defining an HIV Integrase Inhibitor Binding Pocket
    William Robinson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Moreover, by understanding the nature of inhibitor resistance, new molecules with activity against inhibitor-resistant HIV can be designed and synthesized. ..
  36. HIV AND EBV INTERACTION IN ORAL MUCOSAL EPITHELIUM
    Sharof Tugizov; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The results of these studies will provide new and detailed information on the mechanisms of HIV infection of the oral mucosal epithelium and the role of HIV-EBV infection in oral interepithelial LCs in HIV pathogenesis. ..
  37. C3d-PA: efficacy & cellular basis as an anthrax vaccine
    ROBERT RICKERT; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Pending completion of the proposed work outlined in this R21 application, a series of experiments involving anthrax challenge models would seem appropriate. ..
  38. ANTIGEN-INDUCED B LYMPHOCYTE DEVELOPMENT
    Douglas Fearon; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  39. MID ATLANTIC PROSTATE CANCER BANK
    Jan Orenstein; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This resource will assure that investigators will obtain optimal research specimens with clinical-pathologic correlation for their studies. ..
  40. Complement and the Clearance of Staphylococcus aureus
    KENJI CUNNION; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In vivo experiments will be performed using complement deficient mice. Collaborating laboratories have provided special S. aureus stains and anti-S. aureus antibodies. ..
  41. System-wide Study of Transcriptional Control of Metabolism
    WILLIAM HLAVACEK; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..anthracis, this research would also represent an important test bed for a subsequent study of metabolic diseases in higher animals, including humans. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  42. Development of plasmacytoid dendritic cells
    David Allman; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Determine the actual contribution of Rag-2+ lymphoid progenitors to each peripheral DC subset including PDCs; and 3. Identify cytokines that can redirect early B cell progenitors into the DC lineage in vitro and in vivo. ..
  43. EBV BMRF-2 Protein in Infection of Oral Epithelial Cells
    Sharof Tugizov; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These data will greatly advance knowledge of the mechanisms of EBV infection of oropharyngeal epithelial cells and may be of value to design new approaches to prevention of initial EBV infection. ..
  44. Direct Regulation of CD8 T Cells by Interferon gamma
    Marulasiddappa Suresh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These studies should aid in the development of vaccines against arena viruses in particular and other viruses in general. ..
  45. Modulation of B-cell tolerance by coreceptor molecules
    ROBERT RICKERT; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  46. Regulation of plasma cell differentiation by PI3-kinase
    ROBERT RICKERT; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Hence, understanding the pathways regulating these processes is a requisite step towards our ability to understand the etiology of these diseases. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..