cd4 antigens

Summary

Summary: 55-kDa Glycoproteins originally defined as differentiation antigens on T-lymphocytes, but also found on other cells including monocytes/macrophages. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as HIV receptors, binding directly to the envelope protein gp120 on HIV.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Structure of an HIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein in complex with the CD4 receptor and a neutralizing human antibody
    P D Kwong
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nature 393:648-59. 1998
  2. ncbi Antibody neutralization and escape by HIV-1
    Xiping Wei
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 720 South 20th Street, Kaul 816, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 0024, USA
    Nature 422:307-12. 2003
  3. ncbi Identification of a major co-receptor for primary isolates of HIV-1
    H Deng
    Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University Medical Center, 10016, USA
    Nature 381:661-6. 1996
  4. pmc Structural definition of a conserved neutralization epitope on HIV-1 gp120
    Tongqing Zhou
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 445:732-7. 2007
  5. pmc Structure of a V3-containing HIV-1 gp120 core
    Chih Chin Huang
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 310:1025-8. 2005
  6. ncbi HIV-1 entry cofactor: functional cDNA cloning of a seven-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor
    Y Feng
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 272:872-7. 1996
  7. ncbi The beta-chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR5 facilitate infection by primary HIV-1 isolates
    H Choe
    Division of Human Retrovirology Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cell 85:1135-48. 1996
  8. pmc HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse
    Clare Jolly
    The Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, UK
    J Exp Med 199:283-93. 2004
  9. pmc Identification and functional characterization of human CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells with regulatory properties isolated from peripheral blood
    H Jonuleit
    Department of Dermatology, University of Mainz, D 55101 Mainz, Germany
    J Exp Med 193:1285-94. 2001
  10. ncbi DC-SIGN, a dendritic cell-specific HIV-1-binding protein that enhances trans-infection of T cells
    T B Geijtenbeek
    Department of Tumor Immunology, University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Cell 100:587-97. 2000

Detail Information

Publications260 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Structure of an HIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein in complex with the CD4 receptor and a neutralizing human antibody
    P D Kwong
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nature 393:648-59. 1998
    ..Our results provide a framework for understanding the complex biology of HIV entry into cells and should guide efforts to intervene...
  2. ncbi Antibody neutralization and escape by HIV-1
    Xiping Wei
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 720 South 20th Street, Kaul 816, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 0024, USA
    Nature 422:307-12. 2003
    ..The evolving glycan shield thus represents a new mechanism contributing to HIV-1 persistence in the face of an evolving antibody repertoire...
  3. ncbi Identification of a major co-receptor for primary isolates of HIV-1
    H Deng
    Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University Medical Center, 10016, USA
    Nature 381:661-6. 1996
    ..The principal cofactor for entry mediated by the envelope glycoproteins of primary macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1 is CC-CKR-5, a receptor for the beta-chemokines RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta...
  4. pmc Structural definition of a conserved neutralization epitope on HIV-1 gp120
    Tongqing Zhou
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 445:732-7. 2007
    ..A site of vulnerability, related to a functional requirement for efficient association with CD4, can therefore be targeted by antibody to neutralize HIV-1...
  5. pmc Structure of a V3-containing HIV-1 gp120 core
    Chih Chin Huang
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 310:1025-8. 2005
    ..The extended nature and antibody accessibility of V3 explain its immunodominance. Together, the results provide a structural rationale for the role of V3 in HIV entry and neutralization...
  6. ncbi HIV-1 entry cofactor: functional cDNA cloning of a seven-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor
    Y Feng
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 272:872-7. 1996
    ..Fusin messenger RNA levels correlated with HIV-1 permissiveness in diverse human cell types. Fusin acted preferentially for T cell line-tropic isolates, in comparison to its activity with macrophagetropic HIV-1 isolates...
  7. ncbi The beta-chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR5 facilitate infection by primary HIV-1 isolates
    H Choe
    Division of Human Retrovirology Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cell 85:1135-48. 1996
    ..The ability of various members of the chemokine receptor family to support the early stages of HIV-1 infection helps to explain viral tropism and beta-chemokine inhibition of primary HIV-1 isolates...
  8. pmc HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse
    Clare Jolly
    The Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, UK
    J Exp Med 199:283-93. 2004
    ..We propose that receptor engagement by Env directs the rapid, actin-dependent recruitment of HIV receptors and adhesion molecules to the interface, resulting in a stable adhesive junction across which HIV infects the target cell...
  9. pmc Identification and functional characterization of human CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells with regulatory properties isolated from peripheral blood
    H Jonuleit
    Department of Dermatology, University of Mainz, D 55101 Mainz, Germany
    J Exp Med 193:1285-94. 2001
    ..However, the refractory state of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells was partially reversible by the addition of IL-2 or IL-4. These data demonstrate that human blood contains a resident T cell population with potent regulatory properties...
  10. ncbi DC-SIGN, a dendritic cell-specific HIV-1-binding protein that enhances trans-infection of T cells
    T B Geijtenbeek
    Department of Tumor Immunology, University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Cell 100:587-97. 2000
    ..We propose that DC-SIGN efficiently captures HIV-1 in the periphery and facilitates its transport to secondary lymphoid organs rich in T cells, to enhance infection in trans of these target cells...
  11. ncbi CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress differentiation and functions of Th1 and Th2 cells, Leishmania major infection, and colitis in mice
    Damo Xu
    Department of Immunology and Bacteriology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 170:394-9. 2003
    ..Our results therefore document that CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress both Th1 and Th2 cells and that these regulatory T cells have a profound therapeutic potential against diseases induced by both Th1 and Th2 cells in vivo...
  12. ncbi HIV-1 evades antibody-mediated neutralization through conformational masking of receptor-binding sites
    Peter D Kwong
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 420:678-82. 2002
    ..Because this solution is available for cell-surface receptors but not for most antibodies, conformational masking enables HIV-1 to maintain receptor binding and simultaneously to resist neutralization...
  13. pmc Cell contact-dependent immunosuppression by CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells is mediated by cell surface-bound transforming growth factor beta
    K Nakamura
    Mucosal Immunity Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 194:629-44. 2001
    ..This, plus the fact that we could find no evidence that a soluble factor mediates suppression, strongly suggests that CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells exert immunosuppression by a cell-cell interaction involving cell surface TGF-beta1...
  14. pmc Structures of the CCR5 N terminus and of a tyrosine-sulfated antibody with HIV-1 gp120 and CD4
    Chih Chin Huang
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 317:1930-4. 2007
    ....
  15. ncbi Serine phosphorylation-independent downregulation of cell-surface CD4 by nef
    J V Garcia
    Program in Molecular Medicine, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98104
    Nature 350:508-11. 1991
    ..Also, nef can downregulate a CD4 triple mutant (Ser----Ala) that is neither phosphorylated nor down-regulated by phorbol esters, indicating that nef is acting by a different mechanism...
  16. pmc Donor-type CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells suppress lethal acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation
    Petra Hoffmann
    Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305, USA
    J Exp Med 196:389-99. 2002
    ..Our results demonstrate that the balance of donor-type CD4(+)CD25(+) T(reg) and conventional CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells can determine the outcome of aGVHD...
  17. ncbi Stimulation of CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells through GITR breaks immunological self-tolerance
    Jun Shimizu
    Department of Immunopathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo 173 0015, Japan
    Nat Immunol 3:135-42. 2002
    ..Thus, GITR plays a key role in dominant immunological self-tolerance maintained by CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells and could be a suitable molecular target for preventing or treating autoimmune disease...
  18. ncbi CCR3 and CCR5 are co-receptors for HIV-1 infection of microglia
    J He
    Division of Human Retrovirology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 385:645-9. 1997
    ..The CCR3 ligand, eotaxin, and an anti-CCR3 antibody inhibited HIV-1 infection of microglia, as did MIP-1beta, which is a CCR5 ligand. Our results suggest that both CCR3 and CCR5 promote efficient infection of the CNS by HIV-1...
  19. pmc Conformational changes induced in the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein by soluble CD4 binding
    Q J Sattentau
    Academic Department of Genito Urinary Medicine, University College and Middlesex School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    J Exp Med 174:407-15. 1991
    ..We propose that these events occurring after CD4 binding are integral components of the membrane fusion reaction between HIV or HIV-infected cells and CD4+ cells...
  20. pmc Contribution of Vpu, Env, and Nef to CD4 down-modulation and resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected T cells to superinfection
    Steffen Wildum
    Department of Virology, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, 89081 Ulm, Germany
    J Virol 80:8047-59. 2006
    ..Accordingly, one reason that HIV-1 inhibits CD4 surface expression and superinfection is to prevent premature cell death in order to expand the period of effective virus production...
  21. pmc Dissecting the neutralizing antibody specificities of broadly neutralizing sera from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected donors
    Amandeep K Dhillon
    The Scripps Research Institute, Department of Immunology IMM 2, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Virol 81:6548-62. 2007
    ..The most likely epitope recognized by the monomeric gp120 binding neutralizing fraction is the CD4 binding site, although other epitopes, such as the glycan shield, cannot be excluded...
  22. ncbi Dissociation of gp120 from HIV-1 virions induced by soluble CD4
    J P Moore
    Chester Beatty Laboratories, Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom
    Science 250:1139-42. 1990
    ..This may represent the initial stage in virus-cell and cell-cell fusion. Shedding of gp120 from virions induced by sCD4 may also contribute to the mechanism by which these soluble receptor molecules neutralize HIV-1...
  23. pmc Llama antibody fragments with cross-subtype human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-neutralizing properties and high affinity for HIV-1 gp120
    Anna Forsman
    MRC UCL Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, 46 Cleveland Street, London W1T 4JF, United Kingdom
    J Virol 82:12069-81. 2008
    ..Antienvelope VHH might also prove useful in defining neutralizing and nonneutralizing epitopes on HIV-1 envelope proteins, with implications for HIV-1 vaccine design...
  24. pmc Conversion of peripheral CD4+CD25- naive T cells to CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells by TGF-beta induction of transcription factor Foxp3
    Wanjun Chen
    Cellular Immunology Section, Oral Infection and Immunity Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 198:1875-86. 2003
    ..Finally, in a murine asthma model, coadministration of these TGF-beta-induced suppressor T cells prevented house dust mite-induced allergic pathogenesis in lungs...
  25. ncbi Tyrosine sulfation of the amino terminus of CCR5 facilitates HIV-1 entry
    M Farzan
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cell 96:667-76. 1999
    ..CXCR4, another important HIV-1 coreceptor, is also sulfated. Tyrosine sulfation may contribute to the natural function of many 7TMS receptors and may be a modification common to primate immunodeficiency virus coreceptors...
  26. ncbi The CXC chemokine SDF-1 is the ligand for LESTR/fusin and prevents infection by T-cell-line-adapted HIV-1
    E Oberlin
    Unite d Immunologie Virale, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Nature 382:833-5. 1996
    ....
  27. pmc Involvement of the V1/V2 variable loop structure in the exposure of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 epitopes induced by receptor binding
    R Wyatt
    Division of Human Retrovirology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Virol 69:5723-33. 1995
    ..These results suggest that the V1/V2 loops, which have been previously implicated in CD4-modulated, postattachment steps in HIV-1 entry, contribute to CD4-induced gp120 conformational changes detected by the 17b, 48d, and A32 antibodies...
  28. pmc Energetics of the HIV gp120-CD4 binding reaction
    D G Myszka
    Department of Oncological Sciences, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:9026-31. 2000
    ..These results indicate considerable conformational flexibility within gp120, which may relate to viral mechanisms for triggering infection and disguising conserved receptor-binding sites from the immune system...
  29. ncbi Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo
    K M Murphy
    Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110
    Science 250:1720-3. 1990
    ..Apoptosis of cortical thymocytes can be seen within 20 hours of treatment. These results provide direct evidence for the in vivo role of apoptosis in the development of antigen-induced tolerance...
  30. ncbi Recruitment of HIV and its receptors to dendritic cell-T cell junctions
    David McDonald
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Science 300:1295-7. 2003
    ..We propose that contact between dendritic cells and T cells facilitates transmission of HIV by locally concentrating virus, receptor, and coreceptor during the formation of an infectious synapse...
  31. ncbi Foxp3+ CD25+ CD4+ natural regulatory T cells in dominant self-tolerance and autoimmune disease
    Shimon Sakaguchi
    Department of Experimental Pathology, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
    Immunol Rev 212:8-27. 2006
    ....
  32. pmc Analysis of memory B cell responses and isolation of novel monoclonal antibodies with neutralizing breadth from HIV-1-infected individuals
    Davide Corti
    Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Bellinzona, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 5:e8805. 2010
    ....
  33. ncbi Naturally arising Foxp3-expressing CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells in immunological tolerance to self and non-self
    Shimon Sakaguchi
    Department of Experimental Pathology, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Nat Immunol 6:345-52. 2005
    ..They are therefore a good target for designing ways to induce or abrogate immunological tolerance to self and non-self antigens...
  34. ncbi Nef induces CD4 endocytosis: requirement for a critical dileucine motif in the membrane-proximal CD4 cytoplasmic domain
    C Aiken
    Infectious Disease Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037 1099
    Cell 76:853-64. 1994
    ..Within this region, a dileucine motif, reminiscent of an endocytosis and lysosomal targeting signal found in the CD3 gamma and delta chains, is crucial for CD4 response to Nef...
  35. ncbi Inactivation of Notch 1 in immature thymocytes does not perturb CD4 or CD8T cell development
    A Wolfer
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland
    Nat Immunol 2:235-41. 2001
    ..In contrast to earlier reports, these data formally exclude an essential role for Notch 1 in CD4-CD8 lineage commitment, maturation or survival...
  36. pmc Membrane raft microdomains mediate lateral assemblies required for HIV-1 infection
    S Manes
    Department of Immunology and Oncology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    EMBO Rep 1:190-6. 2000
    ..These results indicate a general mechanism for HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein-mediated fusion by reorganization of membrane microdomains in the target cell, and offer new strategies for preventing HIV-1 infection...
  37. ncbi CD4(+)CD25(+) immunoregulatory T cells: gene expression analysis reveals a functional role for the glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor
    Rebecca S McHugh
    Cellular Immunology Section, Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Immunity 16:311-23. 2002
    ..Importantly, antibodies to GITR abrogated suppression, demonstrating a functional role for this receptor in regulating the CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell subset...
  38. pmc Mutagenic stabilization and/or disruption of a CD4-bound state reveals distinct conformations of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein
    Shi Hua Xiang
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Virol 76:9888-99. 2002
    ..These results indicate that CD4BS antibodies recognize conformations of gp120 different from that recognized by CD4 and CD4i antibodies...
  39. pmc Human CD25+CD4+ T suppressor cell clones produce transforming growth factor beta, but not interleukin 10, and are distinct from type 1 T regulatory cells
    Megan K Levings
    San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy HSR TIGET, Via Olgettina 58, Milan 20132, Italy
    J Exp Med 196:1335-46. 2002
    ..Together these data indicate that naturally occurring human CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells are distinct from IL-10-producing Tr1 cells...
  40. ncbi CD4+CD25high regulatory cells in human peripheral blood
    C Baecher-Allan
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115
    J Immunol 167:1245-53. 2001
    ....
  41. pmc Purification, characterization, and immunogenicity of a soluble trimeric envelope protein containing a partial deletion of the V2 loop derived from SF162, an R5-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate
    Indresh K Srivastava
    Vaccines Research, Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    J Virol 77:11244-59. 2003
    ..e., SF162. These results highlight a potential role for the trimeric o-gp140SF162DeltaV2 Env immunogen in a successful HIV vaccine...
  42. pmc CD4 and major histocompatibility complex class I downregulation by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nef protein in pediatric AIDS progression
    Nicoletta Casartelli
    Division of Immunology and Infectious Disease, Children s Hospital Bambino Gesu, Rome, Italy
    J Virol 77:11536-45. 2003
    ..Our data indicate that Nef-mediated downregulation of cell surface CD4 and MHC-I significantly contributes to the expression of the pathogenic potential of HIV-1...
  43. pmc Time frames for neutralization during the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry phase, as monitored in synchronously infected cell cultures
    Hillel Haim
    Department of Virology, The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
    J Virol 81:3525-34. 2007
    ....
  44. ncbi Enhanced CD4 down-modulation by late stage HIV-1 nef alleles is associated with increased Env incorporation and viral replication
    Enrique R Argañaraz
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, La Jolla, 92093, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:33912-9. 2003
    ..These strains efficiently overcome the deleterious effects of CD4 and replicate more aggressively in CD4-positive primary lymphocytes. These results highlight the importance of the virus-induced CD4 down-modulation in HIV-1 pathogenesis...
  45. ncbi CD25+ cell depletion hastens the onset of severe disease in collagen-induced arthritis
    Mary E Morgan
    Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Arthritis Rheum 48:1452-60. 2003
    ..We wished to evaluate their potential for influencing systemic and chronic joint inflammation by investigating their involvement in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA)...
  46. ncbi 'Agranular CD4+ CD56+ hematodermic neoplasm' (blastic NK-cell lymphoma) originates from a population of CD56+ precursor cells related to plasmacytoid monocytes
    Tony Petrella
    Centre de Pathologie of Dijon and the Department of Pathology, Dijon University Hospital, France
    Am J Surg Pathol 26:852-62. 2002
    ..We therefore propose that oncogenic transformation of NCAM-expressing plasmacytoid monocyte-like cells may lead to "agranular CD4+ CD56+ hematodermic neoplasm."..
  47. ncbi Targeting the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in Notch1-induced T-cell leukemia
    Tomas Vilimas
    Department of Medicine, Section of Rheumatology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Nat Med 13:70-7. 2007
    ..These findings identify NF-kappaB as one of the major mediators of Notch1-induced transformation and suggest that the NF-kappaB pathway is a potential target of future therapies of T-ALL...
  48. ncbi CD4 promotes breadth in the TCR repertoire
    Q Wang
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    J Immunol 167:4311-20. 2001
    ..The data thus suggest a key role for CD4 in broadening the TCR repertoire by potentiating productive TCR signaling and clonal expansion in response to the engagement of low-affinity antigenic ligands...
  49. ncbi Functional characterization of HIV-1 Nef mutants in the context of viral infection
    Oliver T Fackler
    Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, INF 324, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Virology 351:322-39. 2006
    ..The results emphasize that multiple activities govern Nef's effects on HIV replication and argue against a role of virion incorporation for Nef's activity as pathogenicity factor...
  50. pmc The V1, V2, and V3 regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope differentially affect the viral phenotype in an isolate-dependent manner
    Cheryl J Saunders
    Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, 307 Westlake Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    J Virol 79:9069-80. 2005
    ....
  51. pmc Association of the adaptor molecule LAT with CD4 and CD8 coreceptors identifies a new coreceptor function in T cell receptor signal transduction
    R Bosselut
    Experimental Immunology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 190:1517-26. 1999
    ..These results point to a new function for CD4 and CD8 coreceptors in TCR signal transduction, namely to promote LAT phosphorylation by ZAP-70 by recruiting LAT to major histocompatibility complex-engaged TCR complexes...
  52. ncbi Reciprocal regulation of CD4/CD8 expression by SWI/SNF-like BAF complexes
    Tian H Chi
    Department of Pathology and Developmental Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University Medical School, Palo Alto, California 94305, USA
    Nature 418:195-9. 2002
    ..These results indicate that BAF complexes contribute to lineage bifurcation by reciprocally regulating lineage-specific genes, reminiscent of the role of the yeast SWI/SNF complex in mediating mating-type switching...
  53. ncbi Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant HIV gp140. The gp41 ectodomain of HIV or simian immunodeficiency virus is sufficient to maintain the retroviral envelope glycoprotein as a trimer
    C W Zhang
    Laboratory of Immunobiology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:39577-85. 2001
    ..Lack of anti-cooperativity in sCD4-ADA trimer interaction distinct from that observed with sCD4-SIV mac32H implies quaternary structural differences in ground states of their respective spike proteins...
  54. pmc CD4+ CD25+ T cells responding to serologically defined autoantigens suppress antitumor immune responses
    Hiroyoshi Nishikawa
    Second Department of Internal Medicine, Mie University School of Medicine, Mie 514 8507, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:10902-6. 2003
    ..We propose that SEREX identifies a pool of autoantigens that maintains and regulates immunological homeostasis via CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells...
  55. ncbi HIV-1 Nef downregulates MHC-I by a PACS-1- and PI3K-regulated ARF6 endocytic pathway
    Anastassia D Blagoveshchenskaya
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Cell 111:853-66. 2002
    ..These data provide new insights into the cellular basis of HIV-1 immunoevasion...
  56. ncbi Intrathymically expressed c-kit ligand (stem cell factor) is a major factor driving expansion of very immature thymocytes in vivo
    H R Rodewald
    Basel Institute for Immunology, Switzerland
    Immunity 3:313-9. 1995
    ..Also, the expansion rate of these immature thymocytes in SI/SI graft is reduced by -50%. These experiments provide direct evidence for an important role for c-kit-SCF interactions in expansion of very early thymocytes...
  57. ncbi Isolation and characterization of human antigen-specific TCR alpha beta+ CD4(-)CD8- double-negative regulatory T cells
    Karin Fischer
    Department of Hematology and Oncology, University of Regensburg, Franz Josef Strauss Allee 11, D 93042 Regensburg, Germany
    Blood 105:2828-35. 2005
    ..DN Treg cells may serve to limit clonal expansion of allo-Ag-specific T cells after transplantation...
  58. ncbi HIV-1 subtype A envelope variants from early in infection have variable sensitivity to neutralization and to inhibitors of viral entry
    Catherine A Blish
    Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109 1024, USA
    AIDS 21:693-702. 2007
    ..An effective HIV-1 vaccine or microbicide must block the transmitted virus variants that initially establish a new infection; consequently, it is critical that such viruses be isolated and characterized...
  59. pmc Dendritic cells with TGF-beta1 differentiate naive CD4+CD25- T cells into islet-protective Foxp3+ regulatory T cells
    Xunrong Luo
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, and the Interdepartmental Immunobiology Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:2821-6. 2007
    ....
  60. ncbi The prolonged culture of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in primary lymphocytes increases its sensitivity to neutralization by soluble CD4
    Pavel Pugach
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Virology 321:8-22. 2004
    ..The loss of neutralization resistance is of no relevance under in vitro conditions, but NAbs would presumably be a counter-selection pressure against such adaptive changes in vivo, at least when the humoral immune response is intact...
  61. pmc Specific interaction of CCR5 amino-terminal domain peptides containing sulfotyrosines with HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120
    E G Cormier
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology Department, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:5762-7. 2000
    ..More importantly, the Nt domain determines the specificity of the interaction between CCR5 and gp120s from isolates that use this coreceptor...
  62. pmc Human cd25(+)cd4(+) t regulatory cells suppress naive and memory T cell proliferation and can be expanded in vitro without loss of function
    M K Levings
    San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy (HSR-TIGET, Via Olgettina 58, Milan, Italy 20132
    J Exp Med 193:1295-302. 2001
    ....
  63. pmc A quantitative affinity-profiling system that reveals distinct CD4/CCR5 usage patterns among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus strains
    Samantha H Johnston
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Virol 83:11016-26. 2009
    ..Our affinity-profiling system may help to refine studies of R5 virus tropism and pathogenesis...
  64. pmc Biological and immunological properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein: analysis of proteins with truncations and deletions expressed by recombinant vaccinia viruses
    P L Earl
    Laboratories of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Virol 65:31-41. 1991
    ..The predominant conserved B-cell epitopes were mapped to gp41 and the C terminus of gp120, whereas cytotoxic T-cell epitopes were distributed throughout the length of the glycoproteins...
  65. ncbi Onset of TCR-beta gene rearrangement and role of TCR-beta expression during CD3-CD4-CD8- thymocyte differentiation
    D I Godfrey
    DNAX Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 94304
    J Immunol 152:4783-92. 1994
    ....
  66. ncbi Cutting Edge: Anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody injection results in the functional inactivation, not depletion, of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells
    Adam P Kohm
    Department of Microbiology Immunology and the Interdepartmental Immunobiology Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Immunol 176:3301-5. 2006
    ..Taken together, these findings have far-reaching implications for the interpretation of all previous studies forming conclusions about CD4+CD25+ T(R) cell depletion in vivo...
  67. ncbi Identification of pre- and postselection TCRalphabeta+ intraepithelial lymphocyte precursors in the thymus
    Denise Gangadharan
    La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, 9420 Athena Circle, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Immunity 25:631-41. 2006
    ....
  68. pmc Mapping the determinants of the CCR5 amino-terminal sulfopeptide interaction with soluble human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120-CD4 complexes
    E G Cormier
    Microbiology and Immunology Department, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    J Virol 75:5541-9. 2001
    ..Our data suggest that gp120 docking to CCR5 is a multistep process involving several independent regions of the envelope glycoprotein and the coreceptor...
  69. ncbi A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef acts as an internalization signal for CD4 downregulation and binds the AP-1 clathrin adaptor
    P A Bresnahan
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco 94141, USA
    Curr Biol 8:1235-8. 1998
    ..Our findings also reveal an evolutionary difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2/SIV in which the Nef proteins utilize structurally distinct motifs for binding cellular adaptors...
  70. ncbi The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein inhibits NF-kappa B activation by interfering with beta TrCP-mediated degradation of Ikappa B
    S Bour
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0460, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:15920-8. 2001
    ..However, in the presence of Vpu, this HIV-mediated NF-kappaB activation was markedly reduced. These results suggest that Vpu modulates both virus- and cytokine-induced activation of NF-kappaB in HIV-1-infected cells...
  71. pmc Safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiretroviral activity of multiple doses of ibalizumab (formerly TNX-355), an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody, in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected adults
    Jeffrey M Jacobson
    Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:450-7. 2009
    ..In conclusion, ibalizumab administered either weekly or biweekly was safe and well tolerated and demonstrated antiviral activity. Further studies with ibalizumab in combination with standard antiretroviral treatments are warranted...
  72. ncbi HLA-A2 down-regulation on primary human macrophages infected with an M-tropic EGFP-tagged HIV-1 reporter virus
    Amanda Brown
    Department of Neurology, Meyer 6 181, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 78:675-85. 2005
    ..The impact of Nef on HLA-A2 surface expression in MDM was also confirmed by confocal microscopy. These results suggest that the mechanisms of HLA-A2 down-modulation are similar in primary T cells and macrophages...
  73. ncbi In vitro-expanded donor alloantigen-specific CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells promote experimental transplantation tolerance
    Dela Golshayan
    Department of Immunology, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    Blood 109:827-35. 2007
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that in vitro-generated tailored Treg cells could be considered a therapeutic tool to promote donor-specific transplant tolerance...
  74. pmc Mobility of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) receptor CD4 and coreceptor CCR5 in living cells: implications for HIV fusion and entry events
    Carolyn M Steffens
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    J Virol 78:9573-8. 2004
    ..Interestingly, our findings also suggest that the seven-span transmembrane coreceptor is significantly more mobile than CD4 and requires membrane cholesterol for mobility...
  75. pmc Cryptic nature of a conserved, CD4-inducible V3 loop neutralization epitope in the native envelope glycoprotein oligomer of CCR5-restricted, but not CXCR4-using, primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains
    Paolo Lusso
    Unit of Human Virology, Department of Biological and Technological Research DIBIT, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan, Italy
    J Virol 79:6957-68. 2005
    ....
  76. ncbi Defective suppressor function in CD4(+)CD25(+) T-cells from patients with type 1 diabetes
    Shelley Lindley
    Department of Immunobiology, Guy s, King s and St Thomas School of Medicine, 2nd Floor, New Guy s House, Guy s Hospital London SE1 9RT, UK
    Diabetes 54:92-9. 2005
    ..007) and intracellular CTLA-4 (P = 0.01). These data demonstrate deficiency in function of the CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg population that may influence the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes...
  77. pmc Identification of individual human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 amino acids important for CD4 receptor binding
    U Olshevsky
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    J Virol 64:5701-7. 1990
    ..This study defines a small number of gp120 residues important for CD4 binding, some of which might constitute attractive targets for immunologic intervention...
  78. ncbi Natural regulatory T cells in infectious disease
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Research Foundation, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Nat Immunol 6:353-60. 2005
    ..We describe here various situations in which the balance between natural T(reg) cells and effector immune functions influences the outcome of infection and discuss how manipulating this equilibrium might be exploited therapeutically...
  79. ncbi Regulatory T cells induced by 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and mycophenolate mofetil treatment mediate transplantation tolerance
    S Gregori
    Roche Milano Ricerche, Milan, Italy
    J Immunol 167:1945-53. 2001
    ....
  80. ncbi Disulfide exchange in domain 2 of CD4 is required for entry of HIV-1
    Lisa J Matthias
    Centre for Thrombosis and Vascular Research, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales and Department of Haematology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Nat Immunol 3:727-32. 2002
    ..These findings indicate that redox changes in CD4 D2 are important for HIV-1 entry and represent a new target for HIV-1 entry inhibitors...
  81. pmc Nef proteins from diverse groups of primate lentiviruses downmodulate CXCR4 to inhibit migration to the chemokine stromal derived factor 1
    Kasia Hrecka
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    J Virol 79:10650-9. 2005
    ..We speculate that Nef targets CXCR4 to disrupt ordered trafficking of infected leukocytes between local microenvironments in order to facilitate their dissemination and/or impair the antiviral immune response...
  82. pmc A variable region 3 (V3) mutation determines a global neutralization phenotype and CD4-independent infectivity of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope associated with a broadly cross-reactive, primary virus-neutralizing antibody response
    Peng Fei Zhang
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Biomedical Instrumentation Center, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda 20814, USA
    J Virol 76:644-55. 2002
    ..This is also the first primary HIV-1 isolate envelope glycoprotein found to be competent for CD4-independent infection...
  83. ncbi Cutting edge: in vivo trogocytosis as a mechanism of double negative regulatory T cell-mediated antigen-specific suppression
    Megan S Ford McIntyre
    Multi Organ Transplantation Program, Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    J Immunol 181:2271-5. 2008
    ..These data provide new insight into how Tregs mediate Ag-specific T cell suppression and may enhance our ability to use DN Tregs as a therapy for transplant rejection and autoimmune diseases...
  84. ncbi Human immunodeficiency virus-driven expansion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, which suppress HIV-specific CD4 T-cell responses in HIV-infected patients
    Laurence Weiss
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U430, University of Paris V, France
    Blood 104:3249-56. 2004
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that persistence of HIV antigens might trigger the expansion of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, which might induce a tolerance to HIV in vivo...
  85. ncbi Mice lacking MHC class II molecules
    D Cosgrove
    Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire des Eucaryotes du CNRS, Unité 184 de Biologie Moléculaire de Génie Génétique de l INSERM, Faculte de Medecine, Strasbourg, France
    Cell 66:1051-66. 1991
    ..In short, the class II-negative mice have confirmed some old ideas about lymphocyte differentiation, but have provided some surprises...
  86. ncbi Depletion of CD4+ T cells in major histocompatibility complex class II-deficient mice
    M J Grusby
    Department of Cancer Biology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA
    Science 253:1417-20. 1991
    ..These results provide genetic evidence that class II molecules are required for the maturation and function of mature CD4+ T cells...
  87. pmc Early lymphocyte expansion is severely impaired in interleukin 7 receptor-deficient mice
    J J Peschon
    Immunex Research and Development Corporation, Seattle, Washington 98101
    J Exp Med 180:1955-60. 1994
    ..Significantly, these studies indicate that the phase of thymocyte expansion occurring before the onset of T cell receptor gene rearrangement is critically dependent upon, and mediated by the high affinity receptor for IL-7...
  88. pmc A conformation-specific monoclonal antibody reacting with fusion-active gp41 from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein
    S Jiang
    Lindsley F Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Virol 72:10213-7. 1998
    ....
  89. ncbi Both CD4(+)CD25(+) and CD4(+)CD25(-) regulatory cells mediate dominant transplantation tolerance
    Luis Graca
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 168:5558-65. 2002
    ..Further characterization of the differentially expressed genes may lead to the development of diagnostic tests to monitor the tolerant state...
  90. pmc Broad HIV-1 neutralization mediated by CD4-binding site antibodies
    Yuxing Li
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Med 13:1032-4. 2007
    ..Novel antibodies to the CD4-binding site are elicited in some HIV-1-infected individuals, and new approaches to present this conserved region of gp120 to the immune system may result in improved vaccine immunogens...
  91. pmc Abnormal T-cell reactivity against paternal antigens in spontaneous abortion: adoptive transfer of pregnancy-induced CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells prevents fetal rejection in a murine abortion model
    Ana Claudia Zenclussen
    Institut fur Medizinische Immunologie, Biomedizinisches Forschungszentrum, Raum 2 0534, Charite, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353, Berlin, Germany
    Am J Pathol 166:811-22. 2005
    ..Our data suggest that pregnancy-induced Treg cells play a vital role in maternal tolerance to the allogeneic fetus...
  92. pmc CD4+CD25+ T(R) cells suppress innate immune pathology through cytokine-dependent mechanisms
    Kevin J Maloy
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3RE, United Kingdom
    J Exp Med 197:111-9. 2003
    ..Thus, CD4(+)CD25(+) T(R) cells do not only suppress adaptive T cell responses, but are also able to control pathology mediated by innate immune mechanisms...
  93. ncbi Human anergic/suppressive CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells: a highly differentiated and apoptosis-prone population
    L S Taams
    Department of Clinical Immunology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, GB
    Eur J Immunol 31:1122-31. 2001
    ..Further studies into their role in normal and pathological situations in humans are clearly essential...
  94. pmc Access of antibody molecules to the conserved coreceptor binding site on glycoprotein gp120 is sterically restricted on primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Aran F Labrijn
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Virol 77:10557-65. 2003
    ..The results identify hurdles in using CD4i epitopes as targets for antibody-mediated neutralization in vaccine design but also indicate that the CD4i regions could be efficiently targeted by small molecule entry inhibitors...
  95. pmc CTLA4 blockade and GM-CSF combination immunotherapy alters the intratumor balance of effector and regulatory T cells
    Sergio A Quezada
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Immunology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:1935-45. 2006
    ....
  96. ncbi NY-ESO-1 protein formulated in ISCOMATRIX adjuvant is a potent anticancer vaccine inducing both humoral and CD8+ t-cell-mediated immunity and protection against NY-ESO-1+ tumors
    Eugene Maraskovsky
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Clin Cancer Res 10:2879-90. 2004
    ..These data illustrate that the NY-ESO-1 vaccine represents a potent therapeutic anticancer vaccine...
  97. pmc Small-molecule CD4 mimics interact with a highly conserved pocket on HIV-1 gp120
    Navid Madani
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney Street, JFB 824, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Structure 16:1689-701. 2008
    ....
  98. ncbi Decreased absolute counts of T lymphocyte subsets and their relation to disease in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck
    Iris Kuss
    University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute and Departments of Pathology and Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 10:3755-62. 2004
    ..Clin Cancer Res 2002;8:2553-62)] suggested a possibility of lymphocyte imbalance. Therefore, absolute numbers and percentages of lymphocyte subsets were examined in the peripheral blood of SCCHN patients and controls...
  99. pmc Crystal structure of the neutralizing Llama V(HH) D7 and its mode of HIV-1 gp120 interaction
    Andreas Hinz
    Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions UVHCI, UMI 3265, Université Joseph Fourier EMBL CNRS, Grenoble, France
    PLoS ONE 5:e10482. 2010
    ..Furthermore, our data confirm that the structural plasticity of gp120 can accommodate multiple modes of antibody binding within the CD4 binding site...
  100. pmc Peptides trap the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein fusion intermediate at two sites
    Yong He
    Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 77:1666-71. 2003
    ..These results indicate that there are two distinct sites in receptor-activated Env that are potential targets for drug or vaccine development...
  101. pmc Two mechanisms of soluble CD4 (sCD4)-mediated inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infectivity and their relation to primary HIV-1 isolates with reduced sensitivity to sCD4
    S L Orloff
    Immunology Branch, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia 30333
    J Virol 67:1461-71. 1993
    ..Rather, an event that occurs after binding may account for the differences. This postbinding event or feature may be determined by regions of the envelope outside the CD4 binding site...

Research Grants62

  1. Mass Spectrometry based molecular imaging of native biological nanodomains
    FRANCISCO FERNANDEZ-LIMA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. KINETICS AND MECHANISMS OF VIRUS-CELL MEMBRANE FUSION
    Nejat Duzgunes; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..These studies will elucidate the molecular mehanisms of viral infection, and indicate means by which infection may be prevented...
  3. BISPECIFIC ANTIBODY FOR DIRECTED DELIVERY OF PALYTOXIN
    Gary Bignami; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..These bispecific antibodies will be tested in vitro for directed selective killing of cells expressing CD4 antigen...
  4. Mechanisms of CD4 Depletion and Proliferation in SIV
    Ronald Veazey; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These studies will provide valuable information regarding the mechanisms of CD4+ T cell loss and turnover in HIV/SIV infection, and may provide answers to many of the mysteries involved in the pathogenesis of HIV/SIY infection. ..
  5. Active Immune Therapy and HAART for HIV-1 Infection
    David Weiner; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Lewis-SRI) and DNA manufacturing subcontract at Althea inc., (M. Marquet). The program oversight is handled by an experienced Administrative core (D. Weiner) that includes a Steller Scientific Advisor Board. ..
  6. FACILITATING POSITIVE ADAPTATION TO BREAST CANCER
    MICHAEL HOWARD ANTONI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  7. Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
    Michael Antoni; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  8. HIV Vaccines Based on GP120-CD4 Mimetic Complexes
    Anthony Devico; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We expect these efforts to yield new candidate immunogens that can be feasibly used to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies in a variety of vaccine contexts. ..
  9. Molecular Interactions in the Aging Immunological Synapse
    NICHOLAS GASCOIGNE; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  10. HIV-2 Env Variable Loop Deletions as HIV-1 Vaccines
    George Lin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  11. A novel protein regulating thymocyte development
    NICHOLAS R GASCOIGNE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This newly discovered protein appears to regulate these processes, thus this project will uncover how this novel protein functions. ..
  12. In Vitro Model of the Human Blood Brain Barrier to study
    Monique Stins; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..By characterizing the individual steps involved in entry of monocytes into the brain, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1-1 encephalopathy will be obtained and strategies may be developed to halt this process. ..
  13. SELECTING ENV TRIMERS IN HIV-VLP VACCINE PRESENTATIONS
    James Binley; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In Specific Aim 3, we will test the immunogenicity of i) pseudovirions bearing only functional trimers and ii) receptor-engaged pseudovirions attached to autologous macaque lymphocytes. ..
  14. MACROPHAGE DERIVED CHEMOKINE AND HIV INFECTION
    Anthony Devico; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These studies promise to reveal a new mechanism for HIV suppression by chemokines, potentially involving a novel co-receptor, that is commonly related to the infection of macrophages as well as T cells. ..
  15. Cannabinoid Receptor Dynamics in T Cell Activation
    NICHOLAS GASCOIGNE; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We will express fluorescent CB2 in APC, to see how expression is affected by drug exposure and by interaction with T cells. ..
  16. Genetic Studies of CD4 Expression During Thymopoiesis
    Gerald Siu; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In this manner we will hopefully be able to determine how these factors receive their signals to function during T cell development. ..
  17. HIV-1 PASSIVE IMMUNITY AGAINST CORECEPTOR INTERACTIONS
    Anthony Devico; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  18. BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CD4 SILENCER
    Gerald Siu; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Using these approaches, the investigator will determine the role of SAF in the TCR-mediated positive and negative selection processes that drive T cell development. ..
  19. SELECTION OF T-CELL RECEPTOR V-ALPHA REGIONS
    NICHOLAS GASCOIGNE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  20. Natural IgM antilymphocyte autoantibodies inhibit HIV-1
    PETER LOBO; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..A successful outcome with the proposed studies could better our understanding on pathogenesis of H1V-1 infection and may provide strategies to prolong the asymptomatic state after HIV-1 infection. ..
  21. Single Chain Complex Vaccines and Protective Immunity
    Anthony Devico; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Vaccinated animals will then receive a rectal challenge with the R5 SHIV162P3 to assess protection. Aim 2 will be to characterize cellular and humoral anti-envelope responses in the animals in order to identify correlates of protection. ..
  22. SOLUBLE T CELL RECEPTOR STUDIES ON MHC RESTRICTION
    NICHOLAS GASCOIGNE; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..TCR dimerization will be investigated in solution, using biophysical methods including FRET, analytical ultracentrifugation and BIAcore. ..
  23. Leica TCSSP2RS two-photon microscope for in vivo imaging
    NICHOLAS GASCOIGNE; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Overall, this instrument will allow the user group to radically improve their ability to perform experiments on understanding the immune system in development and disease. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  24. Real-time molecular interactions in tolerance induction
    NICHOLAS GASCOIGNE; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Conditions where naive T cells are tolerized in peripheral (pancreatic) lymph nodes or activated for diabetes will be analyzed. ..
  25. Rapamycin Enhanced Efficiency of Anti-HIV Antibodies
    Antony Dimitrov; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The objective of this Phase I SBIR proposal is to identify potential combinations of rapamycin and antiviral antibodies that may have clinical potential. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  26. Modafinil Treatment for Fatigue in HIV+ Patients
    Judith Rabkin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The major aims concern modafinil efficacy for fatigue compared to placebo, safety in terms of effects on immunologic/virologic measures, and impact on depressive symptoms when present at baseline. ..
  27. Effect of morphine on HIV-1 neuroinvasion and brain changes in mice
    Eran Hadas; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  28. Regulation of Progenitor Entry into the Thymus
    GILBERT KERSH; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This study explores the regulation of thymus size so that it might be possible to enhance thymus function after induced immune deficiency. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  29. LENTIVIRAL VARIATION AND AIDS
    Julie Overbaugh; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Collectively these studies will define the interplay between the properties of the infecting virus, the immune response and replication fitness in SIV/HIV pathogenesis. ..
  30. Rational Design of HIV Fusion Inhibitors Targeting gp41
    Shibo Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Therefore, this research is relevant to public health. ..
  31. HIV-1 THERAPEUTICS AND DRUG RESISTANCE
    Daniel R Kuritzkes; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This research program provides a framework within which the applicant can mentor beginning clinical investigators in patient-oriented research focused on critical issues in HIV-1 medicine. ..
  32. T cell Function in Murine Model of Multiple Sclerosis
    Moses Rodriguez; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The findings are expected to provide new insights into the pathogenesis of axonal and neuronal injury in demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis. ..
  33. Gene therapy for Fanconi anemia
    Hans Peter Kiem; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our ultimate goal is to improve or cure the hematopoietic symptoms in FA patients by lentivirus-mediated HSC gene transfer, and develop methodologies that would be applicable to other genetic disorders and hematological diseases. ..
  34. Genetic Epidemiology of Adult Brain Cancer: A Follow-up Study
    Jianming Tang; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  35. A New DNA Vaccine Against HIV Disease in Macaques
    Edward Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Vaccine boosts will continue after drug therapy had been withdrawn. These studies will be applicable to HIV infected persons under HAART. ..
  36. Liver Disease and HIV-HBV Coinfection in the HAART era
    Chloe Thio; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Given the experience of the investigative team and the well-characterized cohorts involved, the results from this proposal will yield insights into the management of HIV-HBV co-infected patients. ..
  37. DRAK2, a kinase that regulates T cell activation
    STEPHEN HEDRICK; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  38. Iron and Vitamin E in Childhood HIV-Associated Renal Disease
    Patricio Ray; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The proposed studies should have a substantial impact on the goals of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine and NIH, according to the program announcement PA-02-124. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  39. Anal Dysplasia in HIV+ and HIV- men
    Timothy Wilkin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This study will help provide important new information on which groups of HIV+ men may benefit from screening and how HAART may modify this risk. ..
  40. Predictors: Medication Adherence in HIV+ Cocaine Abusers
    Charles Hinkin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  41. DYING AT HOME OF AIDS & CANCER: PREFERENCES & OUTCOMES
    Judith Rabkin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The data collected in the preliminary study will be used in the full-scale study. ..
  42. HIV-1 resistance to nucleoside analogues
    Daniel Kuritzkes; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Better understanding of the virologic, genetic, and biochemical aspects of AZT/3TC dual resistance will help direct therapy and may lead to better therapeutic strategies in the future. ..
  43. B CELL DEPENDENT IMMUNITY TO TOXOPLASMA GONDII
    Lawrence Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Also, the role of B cells in protection against congenital T. gondii infection and the influence of Toxoplasma-specific antibodies on the resistance of mice infected as neonates will be analyzed. ..
  44. Hematopoietic Potential of Muscle-Derived Cells
    Hans Peter Kiem; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  45. LEISHMANIA INFECTION IN BALB/C IL4 NEG AND IL4R NEG MICE
    Nancy Noben Trauth; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..major parasites and will offer alternative theories to the Th1/Th2 paradigm in general. These studies also will lead to new interpretations of the action of anti-IL-4 treatment in vivo. ..
  46. Tolerance Induction by Targeted Expression of GAD
    Dario Vignali; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The incidence of insulitis and diabetes will be monitored to determine the extent of tolerance induction and prevention of disease. ..
  47. COGNITIVE DEFICITS AND MEDICATION ADHERENCE IN HIV/AIDS
    Charles Hinkin; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Increased understanding as to how neuropsychological dysfunction impacts on treatment adherence, particularly among older HIV+ patients, is of critical importance given the personal and public health consequences of non-adherence. ..
  48. Conf on Mechanism and Applications of Immune Tolerance
    Jeffrey Bluestone; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Finally, specific talks in immunotherapy of autoimmunity, transplantation, cancer and infectious disease will be included. ..
  49. Exercise & influenza immunity:Psychoneuroendocrine Model
    Marian Kohut; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The findings from this study may have relevance from both a clinical and basic research perspective, if moderate exercise is associated with enhanced anti-influenza immunity and improved protection from infection. ..
  50. A Universal Env Immunogen for all HIV-1 Subtypes
    Feng Gao; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Results from this study will determine if con/con Env protein can serve as a universal immunogen for all HIV-1 subtypes and will be used as a guideline to design broadly reactive immunization strategies. ..
  51. T Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Hepatitis C Persistence
    Margaret Koziel; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  52. Tumor Antigen Discovery in ALL by Expression Profiling
    WILLIAM HAINING; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This training will form the foundation of my career in translational research. ..
  53. IMMUNE ESCAPE MECHANISMS IN LEISHMANASIS
    Imtiaz Khan; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These studies have implications for the development of therapies and vaccines directed toward Leishmania infections as well as the mechanisms that regulate Th1/Th2 cytokine development in vivo. ..
  54. GI Inflammation: Novel G-Protein Coupled PMN Responses
    David Jaye; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..He will also have access to a wealth of seminars in the scientific community at Emory University and formal didactic training within the Graduate School. ..
  55. High Resolution Digital Camera for TEM.
    Bridget Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The new camera will ensure the continued productivity of NIH-funded electron microscopy-based research programs in cellular and molecular biology and neurosciences at the University of New Mexico. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  56. The Role of CD4 on Natural Killer Cells
    HELENE BERNSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  57. Regulation of innate immunity to infection
    Lawrence Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Thus, the proposed studies will form a foundation on which to build future studies to examine how regulation of innate immunity impacts acquired immunity to infection and vaccination. ..
  58. Conference on Dedritic Cells..Innate & Adaptive Immunity
    ANNE O GARRA; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  59. T CELL RESPONSES TO LOW AFFINITY LIGANDS FOR THE TCR
    GILBERT KERSH; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The results of these experiments will contribute significantly to a molecular understanding of T-cell responses to low affinity ligands. ..
  60. LISTERIA PROTEINS EFFECTS ON CELL FUNCTION
    TERRY POTTER; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These experiments should provide valuable information on the interaction of LM with phagocytic cells and may provide insights into the phagocytosis and killing of other intracellular bacteria. ..