Summary: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Lutein, zeaxanthin, and the macular pigment
    J T Landrum
    Department of Chemistry, Florida International University, Miami 33199, USA
    Arch Biochem Biophys 385:28-40. 2001
  2. ncbi The biosynthesis and nutritional uses of carotenoids
    Paul D Fraser
    School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, UK
    Prog Lipid Res 43:228-65. 2004
  3. ncbi Carotenoid actions and their relation to health and disease
    Norman I Krinsky
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Tufts University, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111 1837, USA
    Mol Aspects Med 26:459-516. 2005
  4. ncbi Serum carotenoids and vitamins in relation to markers of endothelial function and inflammation
    Wendy M R van Herpen-Broekmans
    TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Zeist, The Netherlands
    Eur J Epidemiol 19:915-21. 2004
  5. pmc Endosymbiotic bacteria as a source of carotenoids in whiteflies
    Daniel B Sloan
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
    Biol Lett 8:986-9. 2012
  6. pmc Natural genetic variation in lycopene epsilon cyclase tapped for maize biofortification
    Carlos E Harjes
    Institute for Genomic Diversity, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Science 319:330-3. 2008
  7. pmc Carotenoids in algae: distributions, biosyntheses and functions
    Shinichi Takaichi
    Department of Biology, Nippon Medical School, Kosugi cho, Nakahara, Kawasaki 211 0063, Japan
    Mar Drugs 9:1101-18. 2011
  8. ncbi Carotenoids and human health
    A V Rao
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2, Canada
    Pharmacol Res 55:207-16. 2007
  9. ncbi Identifying gene targets for the metabolic engineering of lycopene biosynthesis in Escherichia coli
    Hal Alper
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Room 56 469, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Metab Eng 7:155-64. 2005
  10. ncbi Source to sink: regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants
    Christopher I Cazzonelli
    Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
    Trends Plant Sci 15:266-74. 2010

Detail Information

Publications326 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Lutein, zeaxanthin, and the macular pigment
    J T Landrum
    Department of Chemistry, Florida International University, Miami 33199, USA
    Arch Biochem Biophys 385:28-40. 2001
    The predominant carotenoids of the macular pigment are lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin...
  2. ncbi The biosynthesis and nutritional uses of carotenoids
    Paul D Fraser
    School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, UK
    Prog Lipid Res 43:228-65. 2004
    b>Carotenoids are isoprenoid molecules that are widespread in nature and are typically seen as pigments in fruits, flowers, birds and crustacea...
  3. ncbi Carotenoid actions and their relation to health and disease
    Norman I Krinsky
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Tufts University, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111 1837, USA
    Mol Aspects Med 26:459-516. 2005
    Based on extensive epidemiological observation, fruits and vegetables that are a rich source of carotenoids are thought to provide health benefits by decreasing the risk of various diseases, particularly certain cancers and eye diseases...
  4. ncbi Serum carotenoids and vitamins in relation to markers of endothelial function and inflammation
    Wendy M R van Herpen-Broekmans
    TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Zeist, The Netherlands
    Eur J Epidemiol 19:915-21. 2004
    Endothelial cell dysfunction may be related to an increase in cellular oxidative stress. Carotenoids and vitamins could have an antioxidant-mediated tempering influence on endothelial function and inflammation, thereby reducing the risk ..
  5. pmc Endosymbiotic bacteria as a source of carotenoids in whiteflies
    Daniel B Sloan
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
    Biol Lett 8:986-9. 2012
    Although carotenoids serve important biological functions, animals are generally unable to synthesize these pigments and instead obtain them from food...
  6. pmc Natural genetic variation in lycopene epsilon cyclase tapped for maize biofortification
    Carlos E Harjes
    Institute for Genomic Diversity, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Science 319:330-3. 2008
    ..Selection of favorable lcyE alleles with inexpensive molecular markers will now enable developing-country breeders to more effectively produce maize grain with higher provitamin A levels...
  7. pmc Carotenoids in algae: distributions, biosyntheses and functions
    Shinichi Takaichi
    Department of Biology, Nippon Medical School, Kosugi cho, Nakahara, Kawasaki 211 0063, Japan
    Mar Drugs 9:1101-18. 2011
    For photosynthesis, phototrophic organisms necessarily synthesize not only chlorophylls but also carotenoids. Many kinds of carotenoids are found in algae and, recently, taxonomic studies of algae have been developed...
  8. ncbi Carotenoids and human health
    A V Rao
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2, Canada
    Pharmacol Res 55:207-16. 2007
    ..b>Carotenoids are a group of phytochemicals that are responsible for different colors of the foods...
  9. ncbi Identifying gene targets for the metabolic engineering of lycopene biosynthesis in Escherichia coli
    Hal Alper
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Room 56 469, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Metab Eng 7:155-64. 2005
    ..For the case of lycopene biosynthesis, the so identified knockout targets yielded a triple knockout construct that exhibited a nearly 40% increase over an engineered, high producing parental strain...
  10. ncbi Source to sink: regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants
    Christopher I Cazzonelli
    Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
    Trends Plant Sci 15:266-74. 2010
    b>Carotenoids are a diverse group of colourful pigments naturally found in plants, algae, fungi and bacteria...
  11. ncbi Vitamin synthesis in plants: tocopherols and carotenoids
    Dean DellaPenna
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
    Annu Rev Plant Biol 57:711-38. 2006
    b>Carotenoids and tocopherols are the two most abundant groups of lipid-soluble antioxidants in chloroplasts...
  12. pmc Marine carotenoids: biological functions and commercial applications
    Carlos Vilchez
    Algal Biotechnology Group, International Centre for Environmental Research CIECEM, University of Huelva, 21760 Huelva, Spain
    Mar Drugs 9:319-33. 2011
    b>Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life...
  13. ncbi Carotenoids and their isomers: color pigments in fruits and vegetables
    Hock Eng Khoo
    Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
    Molecules 16:1710-38. 2011
    ..Owing to their nutritional benefits and phytochemicals, they are considered as 'functional food ingredients'. Carotenoids are some of the most vital colored phytochemicals, occurring as all-trans and cis-isomers, and accounting for ..
  14. ncbi The role of carotenoids in human health
    Elizabeth J Johnson
    Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Nutr Clin Care 5:56-65. 2002
    Dietary carotenoids are thought to provide health benefits in decreasing the risk of disease, particularly certain cancers and eye disease...
  15. ncbi Lycopene inhibits proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in adipose tissue
    E Gouranton
    INRA, UMR1260 Nutriments Lipidiques et Prevention des Maladies Metaboliques, Marseille F 13385, France
    J Nutr Biochem 22:642-8. 2011
    ..Such an effect could prevent or limit the prevalence of obesity-associated pathologies, such as insulin resistance...
  16. ncbi Carotenoids and cardiovascular health
    Sari Voutilainen
    Research Institute of Public Health and Department of Public Health and General Practice, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland
    Am J Clin Nutr 83:1265-71. 2006
    ..Antioxidant compounds found in fruit and vegetables, such as vitamin C, carotenoids, and flavonoids, may influence the risk of CVD by preventing the oxidation of cholesterol in arteries...
  17. pmc Complete genome sequence of "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum" BT-QVLC, an obligate symbiont that supplies amino acids and carotenoids to Bemisia tabaci
    Diego Santos-García
    Institut Cavanilles de Biodiversitat i Biologia Evolutiva, Universitat de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    J Bacteriol 194:6654-5. 2012
    ..It presents a reduced genome (357 kb) encoding the capability to synthetize, or participate in the synthesis of, several amino acids and carotenoids, being the first insect endosymbiont capable of supplying carotenoids.
  18. ncbi Serum carotenoids and markers of inflammation in nonsmokers
    S B Kritchevsky
    Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis 38105, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 152:1065-71. 2000
    ..To evaluate the potential for such confounding, the authors relate the serum concentrations of five carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein/zeaxanthin) to levels of three ..
  19. ncbi Oxidative DNA damage in prostate cancer patients consuming tomato sauce-based entrees as a whole-food intervention
    L Chen
    Department of Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, 60612, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 93:1872-9. 2001
    ..001). CONCLUSION: These data indicate a possible role for a tomato sauce constituent, possibly lycopene, in the treatment of prostate cancer and warrant further testing with a larger sample of patients, including a control group...
  20. pmc Crystallographic structure of xanthorhodopsin, the light-driven proton pump with a dual chromophore
    Hartmut Luecke
    Departments of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, and Physiology and Biophysics, and Center for Biomembrane Systems, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:16561-5. 2008
  21. ncbi Secondary ketocarotenoid astaxanthin biosynthesis in algae: a multifunctional response to stress
    Yves Lemoine
    University Lille Nord de France, UMR 8187 LOG CNRS University Lille 1, Bat SN2, 59655 Villeneuve d Ascq cedex, France
    Photosynth Res 106:155-77. 2010
    ..A tentative regulatory model of the biochemical network driving astaxanthin production is proposed...
  22. ncbi Tomato strigolactones are derived from carotenoids and their biosynthesis is promoted by phosphate starvation
    Juan Antonio Lopez-Raez
    Plant Research International, P O Box 16, NL 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
    New Phytol 178:863-74. 2008
    ..stimulants in tomato root exudate are strigolactones and that they are biosynthetically derived from carotenoids. The dual activity of these signalling compounds in attracting beneficial AM fungi and detrimental parasitic ..
  23. ncbi Carotenoid metabolism: biosynthesis, regulation, and beyond
    Shan Lu
    State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
    J Integr Plant Biol 50:778-85. 2008
    b>Carotenoids are indispensable to plants and play a critical role in human nutrition and health. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of carotenoid metabolism in plants...
  24. ncbi Specific oxidative cleavage of carotenoids by VP14 of maize
    S H Schwartz
    Michigan State University Department of Energy MSU DOE Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Science 276:1872-4. 1997
    ..The recombinant VP14 protein catalyzes the cleavage of 9-cis-epoxy-carotenoids to form C25 apo-aldehydes and xanthoxin, a precursor of ABA in higher plants.
  25. ncbi Carotenoids affect proliferation of human prostate cancer cells
    E Kotake-Nara
    Department of Bioresources Chemistry, Graduate School of Fisheries Science, Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Hakodate 041-8611, Japan
    J Nutr 131:3303-6. 2001
    We investigated whether various carotenoids present in foodstuffs were potentially involved in cancer-preventing action on human prostate cancer...
  26. ncbi Antioxidants in photosynthesis and human nutrition
    Barbara Demmig-Adams
    Department of Environmental, Population, and Organismic Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 0334, USA
    Science 298:2149-53. 2002
    ..The pathways that synthesize these compounds are becoming amenable to genetic manipulation, which may yield benefits as widespread as improved plant stress tolerance and improved human physical and mental health...
  27. ncbi Influence of organic versus conventional agricultural practice on the antioxidant microconstituent content of tomatoes and derived purees; consequences on antioxidant plasma status in humans
    Catherine Caris-Veyrat
    UMR A408 INRA Université d Avignon et des Pays du Vaucluse, Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d Origine Végétale, INRA Domaine Saint Paul, Site Agroparc, 84914 Avignon Cedex 9, France
    J Agric Food Chem 52:6503-9. 2004
    ..When results were expressed as fresh matter, organic tomatoes had higher vitamin C, carotenoids, and polyphenol contents (except for chlorogenic acid) than conventional tomatoes...
  28. ncbi Cardiovascular disease mortality and serum carotenoid levels: a Japanese population-based follow-up study
    Yoshinori Ito
    Department of Preventive Medicine Biostatistics and Medical Decision Making, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan
    J Epidemiol 16:154-60. 2006
    Some observational epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary and serum carotenoids are associated with reduced cardiovascular disease mortality.
  29. ncbi Metabolic engineering of the nonmevalonate isopentenyl diphosphate synthesis pathway in Escherichia coli enhances lycopene production
    S W Kim
    Marine Bioproducts Engineering Center, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 1462, USA
    Biotechnol Bioeng 72:408-15. 2001
    Isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) is the common, five-carbon building block in the biosynthesis of all carotenoids. IPP in Escherichia coli is synthesized through the nonmevalonate pathway, which has not been completely elucidated...
  30. pmc Genetic determinants of macular pigments in women of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study
    Kristin J Meyers
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53726, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 54:2333-45. 2013
    To investigate genetic determinants of macular pigment optical density in women from the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.
  31. ncbi Plasma concentrations of carotenoids and vitamin C are better correlated with dietary intake in normal weight than overweight and obese elderly subjects
    Jesus Vioque
    Departamento Salud Pública, Campus San Juan, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Elche Alicante, Ctra Valencia s n, 03550 Alicante, Spain
    Br J Nutr 97:977-86. 2007
    ..05) Pearson correlations were observed between energy-adjusted dietary intakes and plasma concentrations (carotenoids adjusted for cholesterol) for: alpha-carotene 0.21, beta-carotene 0.19, lycopene 0.18, beta-cryptoxanthin 0...
  32. pmc Mutations of genes in synthesis of the carotenoid precursors of ABA lead to pre-harvest sprouting and photo-oxidation in rice
    Jun Fang
    State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics and National Centre for Plant Gene Research, Beijing 100101, China
    Plant J 54:177-89. 2008
    ..These results suggest that the impairment of carotenoid biosynthesis causes photo-oxidation and ABA-deficiency phenotypes, of which the latter is a major factor controlling the PHS trait in rice...
  33. ncbi A review of the evidence germane to the putative protective role of the macular carotenoids for age-related macular degeneration
    Sarah Sabour-Pickett
    Department of Optometry, College of Sciences and Health, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland
    Mol Nutr Food Res 56:270-86. 2012
    ..The dietary carotenoids, lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and meso-zeaxanthin (meso-Z), accumulate at the macula, where they are ..
  34. ncbi Carotenoids and vitamins C and E in the prevention of cardiovascular disease
    Graziano Riccioni
    Cardiology Unit, San Camillo de Lellis Hospital, Manfredonia, Foggia, Italy
    Int J Vitam Nutr Res 82:15-26. 2012
    ..The aim of this review is to examine the published studies regarding the effect of vitamins (C and E) and beta-carotene supplementation in the prevention of CVD due to atherosclerosis...
  35. ncbi Saffron and natural carotenoids: Biochemical activities and anti-tumor effects
    Azam Bolhassani
    Department of Hepatitis and AIDS, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran Electronic address
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1845:20-30. 2014
    Saffron, a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, is rich in carotenoids. Two main natural carotenoids of saffron, crocin and crocetin, are responsible for its color...
  36. pmc Microalgae as sources of carotenoids
    Ana Catarina Guedes
    CIMAR CIIMAR Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas 177, Porto
    Mar Drugs 9:625-44. 2011
    ..a natural source of a variety of drugs for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic applications-which encompass carotenoids, among others...
  37. ncbi Carotenoids and their cleavage products: biosynthesis and functions
    Michael H Walter
    Leibniz Institut für Pflanzenbiochemie, Abteilung Sekundärstoffwechsel, Weinberg 3, 06120, Halle, Saale, Germany
    Nat Prod Rep 28:663-92. 2011
    This review focuses on plant carotenoids, but it also includes progress made on microbial and animal carotenoid metabolism to better understand the functions and the evolution of these structurally diverse compounds with a common ..
  38. ncbi Lycopene attenuates LPS-induced TNF-α secretion in macrophages and inflammatory markers in adipocytes exposed to macrophage-conditioned media
    Julie Marcotorchino
    INRA, UMR1260 Nutriments Lipidiques et Prevention des Maladies Metaboliques, Marseille, France
    Mol Nutr Food Res 56:725-32. 2012
    ..Because lycopene possesses anti-inflammatory properties, we hypothesize that lycopene could reduce the production of TNF-α by macrophages and thus interfere in the cross-talk between macrophages and adipocytes...
  39. pmc Production of the carotenoids lycopene, beta-carotene, and astaxanthin in the food yeast Candida utilis
    Y Miura
    Central Laboratories for Key Technology, Kirin Brewery Co, Ltd, Kanagawa, Japan
    Appl Environ Microbiol 64:1226-9. 1998
    ..yeast Candida utilis has been engineered to confer a novel biosynthetic pathway for the production of carotenoids such as lycopene, beta-carotene, and astaxanthin...
  40. ncbi Overexpression of the rice carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene in Golden Rice endosperm suggests apocarotenoids as substrates in planta
    Andrea Ilg
    Faculty of Biology, Institute of Biology II, Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr 1, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Planta 232:691-9. 2010
    b>Carotenoids are converted by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases that catalyze oxidative cleavage reactions leading to apocarotenoids. However, apocarotenoids can also be further truncated by some members of this enzyme family...
  41. ncbi Carotenoid accumulation in bacteria with enhanced supply of isoprenoid precursors by upregulation of exogenous or endogenous pathways
    Antía Rodríguez-Villalón
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    J Biotechnol 135:78-84. 2008
    b>Carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments of industrial and nutritional interest...
  42. ncbi Site-specific concentrations of carotenoids in adipose tissue: relations with dietary and serum carotenoid concentrations in healthy adults
    Hae Yun Chung
    Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
    Am J Clin Nutr 90:533-9. 2009
    Dietary carotenoids are related to a decreased risk of certain diseases. Serum and adipose tissue carotenoid concentrations are used as biomarkers of intake.
  43. pdf Cancer chemoprevention by carotenoids
    Takuji Tanaka
    Tohkai Cytopathology Institute, Cancer Research and Prevention TCI CaRP, 5 1 2 Minami Uzura, Gifu 500 8285, Japan
    Molecules 17:3202-42. 2012
    b>Carotenoids are natural fat-soluble pigments that provide bright coloration to plants and animals. Dietary intake of carotenoids is inversely associated with the risk of a variety of cancers in different tissues...
  44. ncbi Carotenoid radical chemistry and antioxidant/pro-oxidant properties
    Ali El-Agamey
    Lennard Jones Laboratories, School of Chemistry and Physics, Keele University, Keele, Staffs ST5 5BG, UK
    Arch Biochem Biophys 430:37-48. 2004 is to summarise the current state of knowledge of (i) the kinetics and mechanisms of radical reactions with carotenoids, (ii) the properties of carotenoid radicals, and (iii) the antioxidant/pro-oxidant properties of carotenoids.
  45. ncbi Plasma lycopene, other carotenoids, and retinol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in men
    Howard D Sesso
    Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215 1204, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 81:990-7. 2005
    ..Emerging evidence suggests a possible role of lycopene in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
  46. ncbi Differential effects of carotenoids on lipid peroxidation due to membrane interactions: X-ray diffraction analysis
    Hyesun P McNulty
    Elucida Research, 100 Cummings Center, Suite 135L, P O Box 7100, Beverly, MA 01915 0091, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1768:167-74. 2007
    The biological benefits of certain carotenoids may be due to their potent antioxidant properties attributed to specific physico-chemical interactions with membranes...
  47. ncbi Outdoor cultivation of microalgae for carotenoid production: current state and perspectives
    Jose A Del Campo
    Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis, Universidad de Sevilla Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Avda Americo Vespucio 49, Sevilla 41092, Spain
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 74:1163-74. 2007
    ..Yellow, orange, and red carotenoids have an industrial use in food products and cosmetics as vitamin supplements and health food products and as ..
  48. pmc Xanthorhodopsin: a proton pump with a light-harvesting carotenoid antenna
    Sergei P Balashov
    University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Science 309:2061-4. 2005
    Energy transfer from light-harvesting carotenoids to chlorophyll is common in photosynthesis, but such antenna pigments have not been observed in retinal-based ion pumps and photoreceptors...
  49. ncbi Multi-dimensional gene target search for improving lycopene biosynthesis in Escherichia coli
    Yong Su Jin
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Metab Eng 9:337-47. 2007
  50. ncbi Carotenoid action on the immune response
    Boon P Chew
    Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 6351, USA
    J Nutr 134:257S-261S. 2004
    ..the ability of dietary carotenes to prevent infections have left open the possibility that the action of these carotenoids may be through their prior conversion to vitamin A...
  51. ncbi Carotenoid accumulation and function in seeds and non-green tissues
    Crispin A Howitt
    CSIRO Plant Industry, GPO Box 1600, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
    Plant Cell Environ 29:435-45. 2006
    b>Carotenoids are plant pigments that function as antioxidants, hormone precursors, colourants and essential components of the photosynthetic apparatus...
  52. pmc Marine carotenoids and cardiovascular risk markers
    Graziano Riccioni
    Cardiology Unit, San Camillo de Lellis Hospital, via Isonzo, Manfredonia, Foggia 71043, Italy
    Mar Drugs 9:1166-75. 2011
    Marine carotenoids are important bioactive compounds with physiological activities related to prevention of degenerative diseases found principally in plants, with potential antioxidant biological properties deriving from their chemical ..
  53. ncbi Chromoplast differentiation: current status and perspectives
    Isabel Egea
    Universite de Toulouse, INP ENSA Toulouse, Génomique et Biotechnologie des Fruits, Avenue de l Agrobiopole BP 32607, Castanet Tolosan F 31326, France
    Plant Cell Physiol 51:1601-11. 2010
  54. ncbi Effects of carotenoid availability during laying on reproduction in the blue tit
    Clotilde Biard
    Laboratoire de Parasitologie Evolutive CNRS UMR 7103, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Case 237, 7 quai Saint Bernard, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Oecologia 144:32-44. 2005
    b>Carotenoids are antioxidant pigments involved in several physiological processes and signalling in animals that cannot synthesise them and therefore must acquire them from food...
  55. ncbi Carotenoid biosynthesis in diatoms
    Martine Bertrand
    MiMeTox, National Institute for Marine Sciences and Techniques, CNAM, BP 324, 50103 Cherbourg Octeville Cedex, France
    Photosynth Res 106:89-102. 2010
    ..In this study, the data on the biosynthetic pathway of diatom carotenoids are reviewed. The early steps occur through the 2-C-methyl-D: -erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway...
  56. pmc PSY3, a new member of the phytoene synthase gene family conserved in the Poaceae and regulator of abiotic stress-induced root carotenogenesis
    Faqiang Li
    Department of Biological Sciences, Lehman College, The City University of New York, Bronx, NY 10468, USA
    Plant Physiol 146:1333-45. 2008
  57. ncbi Prospective study of intake of fruits, vegetables, vitamins, and carotenoids and risk of age-related maculopathy
    Eunyoung Cho
    Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Arch Ophthalmol 122:883-92. 2004
    To examine the intake of antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids as well as fruits and vegetables in relation to the development of age-related maculopathy (ARM).
  58. pmc Isolation and characterization of the Z-ISO gene encoding a missing component of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants
    Yu Chen
    Department of Biological Sciences, Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx, New York 10468, USA
    Plant Physiol 153:66-79. 2010
    Metabolic engineering of plant carotenoids in food crops has been a recent focus for improving human health. Pathway manipulation is predicated on comprehensive knowledge of this biosynthetic pathway, which has been extensively studied...
  59. ncbi The protective functions of carotenoid and flavonoid pigments against excess visible radiation at chilling temperature investigated in Arabidopsis npq and tt mutants
    M Harvaux
    CEA Cadarache, DSV, DEVM, laboratoire d écophysiologie de la photosynthèse, Saint Paul lez Durance, France
    Planta 213:953-66. 2001
    ..both genotypes, photoacclimation at low temperature induced the accumulation of various antioxidants including carotenoids (except beta-carotene), vitamin E (alpha- and -gamma-tocopherol) and non-photosynthetic pigments (anthocyanins ..
  60. ncbi Ancient recruitment by chromists of green algal genes encoding enzymes for carotenoid biosynthesis
    Ruth Frommolt
    Institut für Biologie I, Pflanzenphysiologie, Universitat Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
    Mol Biol Evol 25:2653-67. 2008
    ..Here we analyzed the biosynthetic pathway of carotenoids that are essential components of all photosynthetic eukaryotes and find a mosaic evolutionary origin of these ..
  61. ncbi Lycopene for the prevention and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer: a systematic review
    Dragan Ilic
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
    Maturitas 72:269-76. 2012
    ..The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of lycopene for the prevention and treatment of BPH and prostate cancer...
  62. ncbi Cloning and characterization of two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase genes, differentially regulated during fruit maturation and under stress conditions, from orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)
    Maria Jesus Rodrigo
    Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos IATA CSIC, Apartado de Correos 73, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain
    J Exp Bot 57:633-43. 2006
    ..Based on these results, it is suggested that 9-cis-violaxanthin may be the predominant substrate for NCED in the peel of Citrus fruits, whereas 9'-cis-neoxanthin would be the precursor of ABA in photosynthetic tissues...
  63. pmc Chemical quenching of singlet oxygen by carotenoids in plants
    Fanny Ramel
    Commissariat à l Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Institut de Biologie Environnementale et de Biotechnologie, F 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance, France
    Plant Physiol 158:1267-78. 2012
    b>Carotenoids are considered to be the first line of defense of plants against singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) toxicity because of their capacity to quench (1)O(2) as well as triplet chlorophylls through a physical mechanism involving transfer of ..
  64. pmc On the regulation of photosynthesis by excitonic interactions between carotenoids and chlorophylls
    Stefan Bode
    Technische Universitat Braunschweig, Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Department for Biophysical Chemistry, Hans Sommer Strasse 10, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:12311-6. 2009
    ..These findings support a photophysical mechanism in which short-living, low excitonic carotenoid-chlorophyll states serve as traps and dissipation valves for excess excitation energy...
  65. ncbi Carotenoids and DNA damage
    Amaya Azqueta
    Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Toxicology, Schools of Pharmacy and Sciences, University of Navarra, Irunlarrea 1, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
    Mutat Res 733:4-13. 2012
    b>Carotenoids are among the best known antioxidant phytochemicals, and are widely believed to contribute to the health-promoting properties of fruits and vegetables...
  66. pmc Association of plasma micronutrient levels and urinary isoprostane with risk of lung cancer: the multiethnic cohort study
    Meira Epplein
    Epidemiology Program, Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18:1962-70. 2009
    ..We measured prediagnositic circulating levels of individual tocopherols and carotenoids, retinol, and serum selenium, and urinary 15-isoprostane F(2t)...
  67. ncbi Replicon-free and markerless methods for genomic insertion of DNAs in phage attachment sites and controlled expression of chromosomal genes in Escherichia coli
    Chung Jen Chiang
    Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC
    Biotechnol Bioeng 101:985-95. 2008
    ..This result indicates the promise of developed methods for genome engineering in E. coli...
  68. ncbi CD36 is involved in lycopene and lutein uptake by adipocytes and adipose tissue cultures
    Myriam Moussa
    INRA, UMR1260 Nutriments Lipidiques et Prevention des Maladies Metaboliques, Marseille, France
    Mol Nutr Food Res 55:578-84. 2011
    b>Carotenoids are mainly stored in adipose tissue. However, nothing is known regarding the uptake of carotenoids by adipocytes...
  69. ncbi Retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the milk of lactating adolescents and relationships with plasma concentrations
    Vilma B de Azeredo
    Departamento de Nutrição e Dietética, Faculdade de Nutrição, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Nutrition 24:133-9. 2008
    We determined the concentrations of retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherols in breast milk of adolescents and evaluated their associations with plasma levels and with maternal characteristics (period of lactation, body mass index, age of ..
  70. ncbi beta-Cryptoxanthin from supplements or carotenoid-enhanced maize maintains liver vitamin A in Mongolian gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus) better than or equal to beta-carotene supplements
    Christopher Davis
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin Madison, 1415 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Br J Nutr 100:786-93. 2008
    Maize with enhanced provitamin A carotenoids (biofortified), accomplished through conventional plant breeding, maintains vitamin A (VA) status in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)...
  71. pmc Lycopene enhances docetaxel's effect in castration-resistant prostate cancer associated with insulin-like growth factor I receptor levels
    Yaxiong Tang
    Department of Urology, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA, USA
    Neoplasia 13:108-19. 2011
    ..CRPC patients with IGF-IR-overexpressing tumors may be most likely to benefit from this combination...
  72. pmc Reconstitution of Gloeobacter violaceus rhodopsin with a light-harvesting carotenoid antenna
    Eleonora S Imasheva
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, USA
    Biochemistry 48:10948-55. 2009
  73. pmc Long-term use of beta-carotene, retinol, lycopene, and lutein supplements and lung cancer risk: results from the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) study
    Jessie A Satia
    Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 169:815-28. 2009
    ..There was little evidence for effect modification by gender or smoking status. Long-term use of individual beta-carotene, retinol, and lutein supplements should not be recommended for lung cancer prevention, particularly among smokers...
  74. pmc ATP-binding cassette transporter G26 is required for male fertility and pollen exine formation in Arabidopsis
    Teagen D Quilichini
    Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Plant Physiol 154:678-90. 2010
  75. pmc Differential selection on carotenoid biosynthesis genes as a function of gene position in the metabolic pathway: a study on the carrot and dicots
    Jérémy Clotault
    UMR1345 Institut de Recherche en Horticulture et Semences, Universite d Angers, PRES L UNAM, Angers, France
    PLoS ONE 7:e38724. 2012
    ..This hypothesis was tested in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway using population genetics and phylogenetics...
  76. ncbi A global clinical view on vitamin A and carotenoids
    Alfred Sommer
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21209, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 96:1204S-6S. 2012
    ..The other major carotenoids, particularly lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin, have been found to have important biological properties, ..
  77. ncbi β-Carotene and other carotenoids in protection from sunlight
    Wilhelm Stahl
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Faculty of Medicine and the Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Am J Clin Nutr 96:1179S-84S. 2012
    ..of reactive oxygen species is considered to be a mechanism of action underlying the protective activity of carotenoids. However, food comprises a complex mixture of numerous constituents, so that other components may also ..
  78. ncbi Biofortification of plants with altered antioxidant content and composition: genetic engineering strategies
    Changfu Zhu
    Departament de Produccio Vegetal i Ciencia Forestal, Universitat de Lleida Agrotecnio Center, Lleida, Spain
    Plant Biotechnol J 11:129-41. 2013
    ..In this review, we consider the state of the art in antioxidant biofortification and discuss the challenges that remain to be overcome in the development of nutritionally complete and health-promoting functional foods...
  79. ncbi Carotenoid profiles and consumer sensory evaluation of specialty carrots (Daucus carota, L.) of various colors
    Rebecca L Surles
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 52:3417-21. 2004
    ..Four major carotenoids were identified and quantified by use of HPLC methods...
  80. ncbi Lycopene isomerisation and storage in an in vitro model of murine hepatic stellate cells
    Anderson J Teodoro
    Laboratorio de Bioquimica Nutricional e de Alimentos, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Eur J Nutr 48:261-8. 2009
    ..While most alimentary lycopene is in all-trans configuration, in animal and human tissues approximately half of the lycopene is in cis isoforms...
  81. ncbi Cloning and functional characterization of the maize carotenoid isomerase and β-carotene hydroxylase genes and their regulation during endosperm maturation
    Qunrui Li
    School of Life Sciences, Northeast Normal University, 130024, Changchun, China
    Transgenic Res 19:1053-68. 2010
    ..We discuss the impact of paralogs with different expression profiles and functions on the regulation of carotenoid synthesis in corn...
  82. ncbi Enhanced seed carotenoid levels and branching in transgenic Brassica napus expressing the Arabidopsis miR156b gene
    Shu Wei
    Agriculture and Agri Food Canada, 107 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X2, Canada
    J Agric Food Chem 58:9572-8. 2010
    ..These data suggest that AtmiR156b gene expression could be applied in plant breeding initiatives for enhancing carotenoid production in canola and other crop species...
  83. pmc Regulation of carotenoid composition and shoot branching in Arabidopsis by a chromatin modifying histone methyltransferase, SDG8
    Christopher I Cazzonelli
    Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, School of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
    Plant Cell 21:39-53. 2009
    ..Thus, the level of lutein, the most abundant carotenoid in higher plants that is critical for photosynthesis and photoprotection, appears to be regulated by a chromatin modifying enzyme in Arabidopsis thaliana...
  84. pmc Circulating carotenoids, mammographic density, and subsequent risk of breast cancer
    Rulla M Tamimi
    Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cancer Res 69:9323-9. 2009
    ..In the current study, we addressed this hypothesis and also assessed if the association between carotenoids and breast cancer risk varies by mammographic density...
  85. ncbi Anti-inflammatory effect of lycopene on carrageenan-induced paw oedema and hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion in the rat
    Letícia Bignotto
    Departamentos de Farmacologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Br J Nutr 102:126-33. 2009
    ..We speculate that lycopene administration might be useful in the pharmacological modulation of inflammatory events...
  86. ncbi Stabilized gene duplication enables long-term selection-free heterologous pathway expression
    Keith E J Tyo
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 27:760-5. 2009
    ..We also increased the yield of the nutraceutical lycopene by 60%. CIChE should be applicable in many organisms, as it only requires having targeted genomic integration methods and a recA homolog...
  87. ncbi Identification of genes affecting lycopene accumulation in Escherichia coli using a shot-gun method
    Min Jung Kang
    Amicogen Inc, Jinsung, Jinju 660 852, Korea
    Biotechnol Bioeng 91:636-42. 2005
    ..The co-expression of appY with dxs produced eight times the amount of lycopene (4.7 mg/g DCW) that was produced without expression of both genes (0.6 mg/g DCW)...
  88. ncbi Photo-oxidative stress in Rhodobacter sphaeroides: protective role of carotenoids and expression of selected genes
    Jens Glaeser
    Institut fur Mikrobiologie und Molekularbiologie, University of Giessen, Heinrich Buff Ring 26 32, D 35392 Giessen, Germany
    Microbiology 151:1927-38. 2005
    In Rhodobacter sphaeroides, carotenoids are essential constituents of the photosynthetic apparatus and are assumed to prevent the formation of singlet oxygen by quenching of triplet bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) in vivo...
  89. ncbi Interspecific variation in the use of carotenoid-based coloration in birds: diet, life history and phylogeny
    V A Olson
    Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia
    J Evol Biol 18:1534-46. 2005
    ..Theory predicts that the use of carotenoids for coloration is closely associated with the availability of carotenoids in the diet but, although this ..
  90. ncbi Association of carotenoids, tocopherols and vitamin C in plasma with allergic rhinitis and allergic sensitisation in adults
    Iris Kompauer
    GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Neuherberg, Germany
    Public Health Nutr 9:472-9. 2006
    Antioxidant nutrients like carotenoids, tocopherols and vitamin C have been suggested to protect against allergic rhinitis and allergic sensitisation but scientific evidence is scarce...
  91. ncbi The influence of lycopene on the proliferation of human breast cell line (MCF-7)
    F Fornelli
    Institute of Sciences of Food Production, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bari, Italy
    Toxicol In Vitro 21:217-23. 2007
  92. ncbi Application of two bicistronic systems involving 2A and IRES sequences to the biosynthesis of carotenoids in rice endosperm
    Sun Hwa Ha
    National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon, Korea
    Plant Biotechnol J 8:928-38. 2010
    ..the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) sequence from the crucifer-infecting tobamovirus to the biosynthesis of carotenoids in rice endosperm...
  93. ncbi The influence of organic and conventional cultivation systems on the nutritional value and content of bioactive compounds in selected tomato types
    Ewelina Hallmann
    WULS SGGW, Faculty of Human Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Department of Functional Food and Commodity, Division of Organic Food, Warsaw, Poland
    J Sci Food Agric 92:2840-8. 2012
    Tomato fruits contain a high level of antioxidants such as vitamin C, polyphenols (including flavonoids), and carotenoids (such as lycopene and β-carotene)...
  94. ncbi Independent inverse relationship between serum lycopene concentration and arterial stiffness
    Oh Yoen Kim
    National Research Laboratory for Clinical Nutrigenetics Nutrigenomics, Department of Food and Nutrition, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Atherosclerosis 208:581-6. 2010
    ..This study aimed to investigate the association of serum lycopene concentration with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of arterial stiffness and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation...
  95. ncbi Lycopene inhibition of IGF-induced cancer cell growth depends on the level of cyclin D1
    Amit Nahum
    Dept of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev and Soroka Medical Center of Kupat Holim, Beer Sheva, Israel
    Eur J Nutr 45:275-82. 2006
  96. ncbi Age-dependent allocation of carotenoids to coloration versus antioxidant defences
    J Cote
    Biogéosciences UMR 5561, Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon, France
    J Exp Biol 213:271-7. 2010
    ..These age-related changes might therefore modify the use of dietary antioxidants, including carotenoids. As carotenoids are closely associated with the expression of secondary sexual signals, the allocation of ..
  97. ncbi Novel lycopene epsilon cyclase activities in maize revealed through perturbation of carotenoid biosynthesis
    Ling Bai
    Boyce Thompson Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Plant J 59:588-99. 2009
    ..The implications of these findings with respect to breeding for carotenoid composition in maize grain are discussed...
  98. ncbi Fibrillin influence on plastid ultrastructure and pigment content in tomato fruit
    Andrew J Simkin
    Laboratoire Plastes et Differenciation Cellulaire, Université Joseph Fourier and CNRS UMR5575, BP 53, F 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
    Phytochemistry 68:1545-56. 2007
    ..An in vitro assay has been developed to monitor fibrillin activity on thylakoids: data were obtained suggesting a membrane protection role for fibrillin, more specifically against moderate uncoupling effects...
  99. pmc Proposed criteria for assessing the efficacy of cancer reduction by plant foods enriched in carotenoids, glucosinolates, polyphenols and selenocompounds
    John W Finley
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, Grand Forks, ND 58202 9034, USA
    Ann Bot 95:1075-96. 2005
    ..The 'functional food' industry has produced and marketed foods enriched with bioactive compounds, but there are no universally accepted criteria for judging efficacy of the compounds or enriched foods...
  100. ncbi Recent advances in carotenoid biosynthesis, regulation and manipulation
    Susanne Romer
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol, BS8 1UG, UK
    Planta 221:305-8. 2005
  101. ncbi Effect of the cauliflower Or transgene on carotenoid accumulation and chromoplast formation in transgenic potato tubers
    Alex B Lopez
    USDA ARS, Plant, Soil and Nutrition Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    J Exp Bot 59:213-23. 2008
    ..The Or transgenic tubers accumulated not only increased levels of carotenoids that normally are present in the controls, but also three additional metabolite intermediates of phytoene, ..

Research Grants67

  1. Retinoid and Carotenoid Depletion in Patients at High-Risk for Liver Cancer
    Peter H Gann; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Therefore, deficiencies in dietary antioxidants such as retinoids and carotenoids, which previously have been reported in CLD, may constitute a major modifiable risk factor...
    Jarmo Virtamo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We have pursued and completed investigations of vitamin E and selenium status;carotenoids and other antioxidants;one-carbon metabolism;energy balance, insulin, and growth factors;sex steroids;and ..
  3. Effects of GSH +/- Arginine on Markers of Inflammation Among Adults with CVD Risk
    Christopher D Gardner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    David Jacobs; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In addition, circulating carotenoids and adiponectin will be repeated...
    David R Jacobs; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, circulating carotenoids and adiponectin will be repeated...
  6. Diet Quality and CVD Risk Factors in a Family Based Weight Management Study
    Alice H Lichtenstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..adherence - red blood cell (RBC) 18:3n-3, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 for vegetable oil, meat and fish;plasma carotenoids and phylloquinone for highly pigmented fruits and vegetables;RBC 15:0 for full-fat milk and dairy products;and ..
  7. Risk factors for orofacial clefts
    Suzan L Carmichael; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..abstract_text> ..
  8. Characterizing Mitochondrial DNA Susceptibility to Breast, Colorectal, and Prosta
    Iona Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..tumors, colon/rectum tumors), environmental factors related to mitochondrial activity (smoking, BMI, fat, carotenoids, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron, lycopene and selenium) and susceptibility loci for breast, colorectal and/or ..
  9. Cleavage Products of Dietary Carotenoids: Occurrence &Nutritional Function
    EARL HOWARD HARRISON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Consumption of dietary carotenoids is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Humans obtain carotenoids in the diet by ingesting fruits and vegetables...
  10. Molecular Components Affecting Ocular Retinoid Homeostasis
    ..abstract_text> ..
  11. Environment, Novel Aging Outcomes, and Genetics
    Sung Kyun Park; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..between pollutants and age-related diseases are modified by dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamins C and E, carotenoids, and cruciferous vegetables) and omega-3 fatty acids...
  12. Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study (NPAAS)
    Ross L Prentice; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..whole grains) and 1- and 3- methylhistidine (meat);and blood-derived nutritional measures, including carotenoids (fruits &vegetables), 1- and 3 -tocopherols (fats &oils), phospholipid fatty acids (fats &oils), ..
    PAUL STEVEN BERNSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Lutein, zeaxanthin, and their metabolites are dietary xanthophyll carotenoids that are specifically concentrated in the macula lutea of the human eye where they are thought to provide protection ..
  14. An Integrated Study of Mitochondrial Pathways in Colorectal Cancer
    Bharat Thyagarajan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the ROS detoxification system, dietary intake of fruits and vegetables and more specifically by plasma carotenoids. Together, these measures provide a multi-pronged and integrated approach that addresses major aspects of ..
  15. Quantitation of In Vivo Human Lutein Metabolism
    ANDREW JOSEPH CLIFFORD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine how the human body uses lutein and other related compounds. ..
  16. The role of b-carotene in maternal-fetal nutrition
    Loredana Quadro; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Humans rely mainly on provitamin A carotenoids as a source of vitamin A...
  17. Risk Factors for Craniosynostosis
    Suzan L Carmichael; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This research will fill an important data gap by launching forward our knowledge regarding etiologies of CS and providing direction for the next generation of studies of CS. ..
  18. Telomeres and lung cancer incidence and survival
    Jennifer Anne Doherty; Fiscal Year: 2013
  19. Validity of Diet and Activity Measures in Men
    Meir Stampfer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..intake), sodium and potassium, and two fasting blood samples for assessment of fatty acids, standard lipids, carotenoids, and folate...
    Lori Laffel; Fiscal Year: 2009 consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes, as assessed by dietary report and serum carotenoids; d. a decrease in consumption of refined carbohydrates as assessed by dietary report; e...
  21. Mitochondrial Genetic Susceptibility to Breast and Prostate Cancers
    Iona Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..grade, ER+/- breast tumors), environmental factors related to mitochondrial activity (smoking, BMI, fat, carotenoids, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron, lycopene and selenium) and susceptibility loci for breast and prostate cancer ..
  22. Nutritional Epidemiology of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
    Nancy Nairi Maserejian; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..associations between intakes of carbohydrate, protein, types of fat, sodium, cholesterol, vitamin C, vitamin A, carotenoids, calcium and zinc, and LUTS, voiding symptoms, post micturition symptoms, and storage symptoms, including ..
  23. Serum 25(OH)D, Vitamin D Intake, and Breast Cancer Recurrence in the WHEL Study
    Elizabeth T Jacobs; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and supplemental intake of vitamin D and breast cancer recurrence;3) Explore whether calcium, vitamin A, carotenoids, or body size, modify the association between 25(OH)D and breast cancer recurrence using serum concentrations ..
  24. Oxidative Stree, Antioxidants and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Prospective Analysis
    A Heather Eliassen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Carotenoids, prominent micronutrients in fruits and vegetables, have been of specific interest in breast cancer because of ..
  25. Diet change among prostate cancer patients under expectant management
    James Marshall; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Diet change will be evaluated by 24-hour recalls and by blood carotenoids. Disease will be monitored by PSA and appropriate clinical surveillance for 24 months...
    Eleanore T Wurtzel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Plant-derived carotenoids are converted in humans to vitamin A...
  27. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Younger Nurses
    Walter C Willett; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Further we will assess whether specific carotenoids, and plasma enterolactone predict risk...
  28. Carotenoids as protectors against UVB induced cutaneous damage.
    Tatiana M Oberyszyn; Fiscal Year: 2013 this application are designed to test the hypothesis that the dietary consumption of tomatoes containing the carotenoids lycopene, phytoene, or phytofluene will reduce skin damage caused by UV radiation as compared to no tomato ..
  29. Biomarkers of Dietary Variables Commonly Misreported
    Megan A McCrory; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..assessing a combination of novel (urinary sucrose + fructose for foods high in sugar) and established (plasma carotenoids and serum phylloquinone for fruits and vegetables) dietary biomarkers, reported dietary intakes, and their ..
  30. 2010 Carotenoids Gordon Research Conference
    Susan T Mayne; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..provided by applicant): Abstract: This proposal requests partial support for an international meeting on Carotenoids as part of the Gordon Research Conference series to be held in Ventura, California January 17-22, 2010...
  31. Novel 13-C Tomato Carotenoids for Absorption and Metabolism Studies in Humans
    Steven K Clinton; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..because so little it known about the bioavailability, metabolism and mechanisms of action of the major tomato carotenoids lycopene (LYC), phytoene (PE) and phytofluene (PF)...
  32. Novel Combinations of Foods Targeting Prostate Cancer Prevention
    KRYSTLE ERIN ZUNIGA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In parallel, we will investigate the bioavailability of tomato carotenoids and soy isoflavones when tomato and soy germ are consumed together...
  33. Prenyl Synthase Inhibitors: Novel Anti-Infective Agents
    Eric Oldfield; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Carotenoids act to remove reactive oxygen species (ROS, from hemoglobin catabolism) and we hypothesize that carotenoid (and ..
  34. Diet and Lifestyle Factors Reducing Risk for Age-Related Eye Disease
    Julie A Mares; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..photographs which document stages of age-related macular degeneration and measurements of the density of the carotenoids in the macula of the eye, where this condition develops...
    Gary E Goodman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..3) Extend CARET follow-up with cancers, deaths, and causes of death via public registry searches. ..
  36. El Valor de Nuestra Salud (The Value of Our Health)
    Guadalupe X Ayala; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Levels of serum carotenoids collected in a 25% subsample of customers will provide evidence for the validity of dietary self- report...
  37. Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Coordinating Center
    Traci Clemons; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..These are: (1) no beta-carotene;(2) lower amounts of zinc;and (3) no beta-carotene and lower amounts of zinc. Eligible participants will be followed for a minimum of five years. ..
  38. Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Coordinating Center
    Traci Clemons; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These are: (1) no beta-carotene;(2) lower amounts of zinc;and (3) no beta-carotene and lower amounts of zinc. Eligible participants will be followed for a minimum of five years. ..
  39. Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Coordinating Center
    Traci Clemons; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These are: (1) no beta-carotene;(2) lower amounts of zinc;and (3) no beta-carotene and lower amounts of zinc. Eligible participants will be followed for a minimum of five years. ..
  40. Synthesis of atypical carotenoids: self-preserving inhibitors of lipid peroxidati
    Martin D Burke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Project Summary Synthesis of atypical carotenoids: self-preserving inhibitors of lipid peroxidation Small molecules that safely and effectively inhibit the peroxidation of lipid bilayers stand to ..
    Bruce Brown; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..As such, it has great potential public health impact. ..
  42. Mechanistic studies of enzymes in isoprenoid biosynthesis
    Pinghua Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..targeted for herbicide development because its plant mutants are not able to synthesize sufficient amounts of carotenoids and chlorophylls for normal growth...
    NORMAN KRINSKY; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..plasma and tissue levels of fat-soluble micronutrients such as alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol and carotenoids such as beta- carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, alpha-and beta-cryptoxanthins, lutein, zeaxanthin and the ..
  44. Nutritional Biochemistry of beta-Carotene Dioxygenase
    A Andersson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..BCDO), an enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of vitamin A from dietary provitamin A carotenoids. This pathway is especially crucial for persons on a vegetarian diet lacking preformed vitamin A...
    Robert Russell; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..and procarcinogenic effects of beta-carotene is important due to continuing interest in the potential use of carotenoids as chemopreventive agents -- and the conflicting results of observational studies vs. intervention trials...
    Cheryl Rock; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..epidemiologic studies strongly supports a role for a diet emphasizing fruits and vegetables, which provides carotenoids among an array of nutrients and other possibly protective factors, in promoting the regression of cervical ..
    HANNAI CAMPOS; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..defined as common genetic variants that modulate the effect of intake of specific fatty acids, tocopherols, and carotenoids on atherosclerosis...
    Chandrika Piyathilake; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These activities, along with advanced studies of epidemiology and statistical analysis and experience in teaching, will provide the expertise needed for a career as a successful, independent investigator. ..
    Julie Buring; Fiscal Year: 2002
    William Christen; Fiscal Year: 2002
  51. Plasma Markers of Dietry Intervention to Delay Cognitiv*
    JAE KANG; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Importantly, results from the proposed grant will lay the groundwork for a future, large-scale comprehensive study to examine dietary interventions to delay cognitive function. ..
  52. Chronic Ingestion of Lutein and Zeaxanthin in Primates
    Frederick Khachik; Fiscal Year: 2003 has concluded that high consumption of fruits and vegetables, rich specifically in two dietary carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, reduces the risk of a degenerative eye disease called Age-related Macular Degeneration (..
    Julie Buring; Fiscal Year: 2000
    Robert Liu; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..we also propose new routes using the pre- assembled (commercially available) all-trans isomer of vitamin A or carotenoids for their conversion to the less available hindred isomers...
    Louise Canfield; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..This project will be conducted in two phases. As detailed quantitative information about retinoids and carotenoids in human milk is lacking, our objective in Phase I is to identify the major carotenoids and retinoids in pooled ..
    Guohua Cao; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The positive data will indicate that anthocyanins are an important part of the antioxidant defense network in the body. The negative data will suggest that anthocyanins may not function as antioxidants in vivo. ..
    Sohrab Mobarhan; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..each subject, the jejunal flora and the net alimentary tract endogenous losses of macronutrients, retinoids and carotenoids will be measured...
    Mark Cullen; Fiscal Year: 1993
    Richard van Breemen; Fiscal Year: 2000
    Andrew Clifford; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..on the underlying structure and dynamics of the lipoprotein system, which in turn, clarifies the role of carotenoids and retinoids in health and disease...
    William Doering; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..A second goal is to facilitate the testing of the known cis isomers of beta-carotene...
    Andrew Clifford; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Since nutrients function at and disease begins at the cellular and tissue level, an improved ability to predict tissue levels from blood measurements is desirable...
    James Shikany; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..If smoking cessation is associated with increased plasma micronutrients as hypothesized, this would provide further justification for encouraging smokers to quit. ..
    Jarmo Virtamo; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Further follow-up of the 25,000 living participants from this intervention study is of undeniable importance in the field of cancer prevention. ..
    DAVID NIERENBERG; Fiscal Year: 1993
    Retinol, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and perhaps other carotenoids all appear to have possible cancer chemopreventive effects in either in vitro or epidemiological studies (based on dietary history or serological data)...
    YEI MEI PENG; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Smokers have less carotenoids and vitamins C and E than do nonsmokers, perhaps due in part to an increased clearance and/or a decreased ..
    Ruth Patterson; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..content), (ii) micronutrient associated with fruits and vegetables, including vitamins C and E, folate, and carotenoids, and (iii) serum carotenoids and vitamin E. 2...