bacterial toxins

Summary

Summary: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Structure of FitAB from Neisseria gonorrhoeae bound to DNA reveals a tetramer of toxin-antitoxin heterodimers containing pin domains and ribbon-helix-helix motifs
    Kirsten Mattison
    Department of Biochemistry, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:37942-51. 2006
  2. pmc Community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Frank R Deleo
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Lancet 375:1557-68. 2010
  3. ncbi Toxin-antitoxin systems in bacteria and archaea
    Yoshihiro Yamaguchi
    Department of Biochemistry, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Annu Rev Genet 45:61-79. 2011
  4. pmc Diversity of bacterial type II toxin-antitoxin systems: a comprehensive search and functional analysis of novel families
    Raphael Leplae
    Laboratoire de Bioinformatique des Génomes et des Réseaux BiGRe, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bld du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:5513-25. 2011
  5. pmc Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes: worldwide emergence
    Francois Vandenesch
    INSERM E0230, Lyon, France
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:978-84. 2003
  6. ncbi Structure of staphylococcal alpha-hemolysin, a heptameric transmembrane pore
    L Song
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Chicago, 920 East 58 Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Science 274:1859-66. 1996
  7. ncbi A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality
    Vivian G Loo
    Department of Microbiology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Que, Canada
    N Engl J Med 353:2442-9. 2005
  8. ncbi The role of toxin A and toxin B in Clostridium difficile infection
    Sarah A Kuehne
    Clostridia Research Group, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
    Nature 467:711-3. 2010
  9. pmc Bacterial persistence by RNA endonucleases
    Etienne Maisonneuve
    Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:13206-11. 2011
  10. ncbi Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin stress response loci
    Kenn Gerdes
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK 5230 Odense M, Denmark
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:371-82. 2005

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications354 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Structure of FitAB from Neisseria gonorrhoeae bound to DNA reveals a tetramer of toxin-antitoxin heterodimers containing pin domains and ribbon-helix-helix motifs
    Kirsten Mattison
    Department of Biochemistry, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:37942-51. 2006
    ..Interactions between two FitB molecules result in the formation of a tetramer of FitAB heterodimers, which binds to the 36-bp DNA fragment and provides an explanation for how FitB enhances the DNA binding affinity of FitA...
  2. pmc Community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Frank R Deleo
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Lancet 375:1557-68. 2010
    ..Here we review the most up-to-date knowledge and provide a perspective for the future prophylaxis or new treatments for CA-MRSA infections...
  3. ncbi Toxin-antitoxin systems in bacteria and archaea
    Yoshihiro Yamaguchi
    Department of Biochemistry, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Annu Rev Genet 45:61-79. 2011
    ..The elucidation of their cellular function and regulation is thus crucial for our understanding of bacterial physiology under various stress conditions...
  4. pmc Diversity of bacterial type II toxin-antitoxin systems: a comprehensive search and functional analysis of novel families
    Raphael Leplae
    Laboratoire de Bioinformatique des Génomes et des Réseaux BiGRe, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bld du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:5513-25. 2011
    ..Therefore, addiction might play a major role in the evolutionary success of TA systems both on mobile genetic elements and in bacterial chromosomes...
  5. pmc Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes: worldwide emergence
    Francois Vandenesch
    INSERM E0230, Lyon, France
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:978-84. 2003
    ..Within each continent, the genetic background of CA-MRSA strains did not correspond to that of the hospital-acquired MRSA...
  6. ncbi Structure of staphylococcal alpha-hemolysin, a heptameric transmembrane pore
    L Song
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Chicago, 920 East 58 Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Science 274:1859-66. 1996
    ....
  7. ncbi A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality
    Vivian G Loo
    Department of Microbiology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Que, Canada
    N Engl J Med 353:2442-9. 2005
    ..In March 2003, several hospitals in Quebec, Canada, noted a marked increase in the incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea...
  8. ncbi The role of toxin A and toxin B in Clostridium difficile infection
    Sarah A Kuehne
    Clostridia Research Group, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
    Nature 467:711-3. 2010
    ..Our findings re-establish the importance of both toxin A and toxin B and highlight the need to continue to consider both toxins in the development of diagnostic tests and effective countermeasures against C. difficile...
  9. pmc Bacterial persistence by RNA endonucleases
    Etienne Maisonneuve
    Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:13206-11. 2011
    ..Many pathogenic bacteria known to enter dormant states have a plethora of TA genes. Therefore, in the future, the discoveries described here may lead to a mechanistic understanding of the persistence phenomenon in pathogenic bacteria...
  10. ncbi Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin stress response loci
    Kenn Gerdes
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK 5230 Odense M, Denmark
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:371-82. 2005
    ..It has been proposed that toxin-antitoxin loci function in bacterial programmed cell death, but evidence now indicates that these loci provide a control mechanism that helps free-living prokaryotes cope with nutritional stress...
  11. ncbi YeeU enhances the bundling of cytoskeletal polymers of MreB and FtsZ, antagonizing the CbtA (YeeV) toxicity in Escherichia coli
    Hisako Masuda
    Department of Biochemistry, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ, USA
    Mol Microbiol 84:979-89. 2012
    ..Here we propose to rename YeeU as CbeA for cytoskeleton bundling-enhancing factor A...
  12. pmc Ciprofloxacin causes persister formation by inducing the TisB toxin in Escherichia coli
    Tobias Dörr
    Department of Biology, Northeastern University, Antimicrobial Discovery Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 8:e1000317. 2010
    ..These results suggest that a DNA damage-induced toxin controls production of multidrug tolerant cells and thus provide a model of persister formation...
  13. ncbi An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile
    L Clifford McDonald
    Epidemiology and Laboratory Branch, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:2433-41. 2005
    ..difficile with increased virulence, resistance, or both...
  14. pmc Comparative genome and phenotypic analysis of Clostridium difficile 027 strains provides insight into the evolution of a hypervirulent bacterium
    Richard A Stabler
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
    Genome Biol 10:R102. 2009
    ..difficile (CD196), a recent epidemic and hypervirulent 027 (R20291) and a previously sequenced PCR-ribotype 012 strain (630)...
  15. ncbi Involvement of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus in primary skin infections and pneumonia
    G Lina
    Centre National de Référence de Toxémies Staphylococciques, Faculte de Medecine, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
    Clin Infect Dis 29:1128-32. 1999
    ..It thus appears that PVL is mainly associated with necrotic lesions involving the skin or mucosa...
  16. pmc Toxin-antitoxin loci are highly abundant in free-living but lost from host-associated prokaryotes
    Deo Prakash Pandey
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark DK 5230 Odense M, Denmark
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:966-76. 2005
    ....
  17. pmc Comparative analysis of USA300 virulence determinants in a rabbit model of skin and soft tissue infection
    Scott D Kobayashi
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, and Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 204:937-41. 2011
    ..The data indicate that Hla, PSMα, and Agr contribute to the pathogenesis of USA300 skin infections in rabbits, whereas a role for PVL could not be detected...
  18. pmc Comprehensive functional analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis toxin-antitoxin systems: implications for pathogenesis, stress responses, and evolution
    Holly R Ramage
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000767. 2009
    ..The expansion and maintenance of TA genes in the MTBC, coupled with the finding that a subset is transcriptionally activated by stress, suggests that TA systems are important for M. tuberculosis pathogenesis...
  19. pmc Toxin-antitoxin systems influence biofilm and persister cell formation and the general stress response
    Xiaoxue Wang
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 3122, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:5577-83. 2011
    ..Specifically, upon stress, the sequence-specific mRNA interferases MqsR and MazF mediate cell survival. In addition, we propose that TA systems are not redundant, as they may have developed to respond to specific stresses...
  20. doi Clostridium difficile--more difficult than ever
    Ciaran P Kelly
    Gastroenterology Division, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    N Engl J Med 359:1932-40. 2008
  21. pmc The phage abortive infection system, ToxIN, functions as a protein-RNA toxin-antitoxin pair
    Peter C Fineran
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QW, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:894-9. 2009
    ..This is the first demonstration of a novel mechanistic class of TA systems and of an Abi system functioning in different bacterial genera, both with implications for the dynamics of phage-bacterial interactions...
  22. ncbi Poring over pores: alpha-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin in Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia
    Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
    Nat Med 13:1405-6. 2007
  23. pmc Toxin B is essential for virulence of Clostridium difficile
    Dena Lyras
    Australian Bacterial Pathogenesis Program, Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia
    Nature 458:1176-9. 2009
    ....
  24. pmc Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt toxins and their potential for insect control
    Alejandra Bravo
    Departamento de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo, Postal 510 3, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62250, Mexico
    Toxicon 49:423-35. 2007
    ..Also, we discuss their use in the control of agricultural insect pests and insect vectors of human diseases...
  25. pmc Clostridium difficile toxins: mechanism of action and role in disease
    Daniel E Voth
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 18:247-63. 2005
    ..Collectively, the present review provides a comprehensive update on TcdA and TcdB's mechanism of action as well as the role of these toxins in disease...
  26. ncbi Regulation of growth and death in Escherichia coli by toxin-antitoxin systems
    Yoshihiro Yamaguchi
    Department of Biochemistry, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 9:779-90. 2011
    ..In this Review, we describe these TA systems in light of their functions and roles in the regulation of cell growth and death...
  27. ncbi Toxin-antitoxin systems are ubiquitous and versatile modulators of prokaryotic cell fate
    Christopher F Schuster
    Interfakultäres Institut für Mikrobiologie und Infektionsmedizin, Lehrbereich Mikrobielle Genetik, Eberhard Karls Universitat Tubingen, Waldhäuser Str 70 8, Tubingen, Germany
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 340:73-85. 2013
    ..TA toxin activity can then result in cell death or in the formation of drug-tolerant persister cells. The versatile properties of TA systems have also been exploited in biotechnology and may aid in combating infectious diseases...
  28. pmc Importance of the global regulators Agr and SaeRS in the pathogenesis of CA-MRSA USA300 infection
    Christopher P Montgomery
    Section of Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e15177. 2010
    ..We conclude that agr and saeRS each independently contribute to the remarkable virulence of USA300, likely by means of their effects on expression of secreted toxins...
  29. ncbi Epsilon toxin: a fascinating pore-forming toxin
    Michel R Popoff
    Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    FEBS J 278:4602-15. 2011
    ..The precise mode of action of ETX remains to be determined. ETX is a powerful toxin, however, it also represents a unique tool with which to vehicle drugs into the central nervous system or target glutamatergic neurons...
  30. ncbi Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North America and Europe
    Michel Warny
    Acambis Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA
    Lancet 366:1079-84. 2005
    ..We characterised the dominant strain of this epidemic to determine whether it produces higher amounts of toxins A and B than those produced by non-epidemic strains...
  31. pmc Defense islands in bacterial and archaeal genomes and prediction of novel defense systems
    Kira S Makarova
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, NLM, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
    J Bacteriol 193:6039-56. 2011
    ....
  32. ncbi Toxins-antitoxins: diversity, evolution and function
    Finbarr Hayes
    Faculty of Life Sciences and Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
    Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 46:386-408. 2011
    ..TAs also play important roles in bacterial persistence, biofilm formation and multidrug tolerance, and have considerable potential both as new components of the genetic toolbox and as targets for novel antibacterial drugs...
  33. ncbi Bacterial protein toxins that modify host regulatory GTPases
    Klaus Aktories
    Institut fur Experimentelle und Klinische Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Albert Ludwigs Universitat Freiburg, Albertstr 25, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Nat Rev Microbiol 9:487-98. 2011
    ....
  34. pmc RNAIII-independent target gene control by the agr quorum-sensing system: insight into the evolution of virulence regulation in Staphylococcus aureus
    Shu Y Queck
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Mol Cell 32:150-8. 2008
    ..By establishing a two-level model of quorum-sensing target gene regulation in S. aureus, our study gives important insight into the evolution of virulence control in this leading human pathogen...
  35. ncbi Is Panton-Valentine leukocidin the major virulence determinant in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease?
    Jovanka M Voyich
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    J Infect Dis 194:1761-70. 2006
    ..Although the toxin may be a highly linked epidemiological marker for CA-MRSA strains, we conclude that PVL is not the major virulence determinant of CA-MRSA...
  36. ncbi Basis of virulence in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Michael Otto
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 64:143-62. 2010
    ..All these toxins impact disease progression in animal models of USA300 infection. In contrast, the basis of virulence in other CA-MRSA epidemics, which also include PVL-negative strains, is poorly understood...
  37. pmc Vaccine protection against Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia
    Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
    Department of Microbiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    J Exp Med 205:287-94. 2008
    ..aureus challenge and prevents the injury of human lung epithelial cells during infection. Thus, Hla vaccination or immunotherapy may prevent S. aureus pneumonia in humans...
  38. ncbi Haploid genetic screens in human cells identify host factors used by pathogens
    Jan E Carette
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Science 326:1231-5. 2009
    ..This approach has both conceptual and practical parallels with genetic approaches in haploid yeast...
  39. pmc Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems: more than selfish entities?
    Laurence Van Melderen
    Laboratoire de Génétique et Physiologie Bactérienne, IBMM, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Gosselies, Belgium
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000437. 2009
    ..This Review discusses current hypotheses regarding the biological roles of these evolutionarily successful small operons. We consider the various selective forces that could drive the maintenance of TA systems in bacterial genomes...
  40. pmc The innate immune modulators staphylococcal complement inhibitor and chemotaxis inhibitory protein of Staphylococcus aureus are located on beta-hemolysin-converting bacteriophages
    Willem J B Van Wamel
    Eijkman Winkler Institute, Room G04 614, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Bacteriol 188:1310-5. 2006
    ..In conclusion, the four human-specific innate immune modulators SCIN, CHIPS, SAK, and SEA form an IEC that is easily transferred among S. aureus strains by a diverse group of beta-hemolysin-converting bacteriophages...
  41. pmc Global changes in Staphylococcus aureus gene expression in human blood
    Natalia Malachowa
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e18617. 2011
    ..These findings, along with a requirement of specific growth conditions for leukotoxin expression, may explain the apparent limited contribution of any single two-component leukotoxin to USA300 immune evasion and virulence...
  42. pmc Abundance of type I toxin-antitoxin systems in bacteria: searches for new candidates and discovery of novel families
    Elizabeth M Fozo
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:3743-59. 2010
    ..Our results suggest that type I toxin-antitoxin modules are much more widely distributed among bacteria than previously appreciated...
  43. pmc The key sigma factor of transition phase, SigH, controls sporulation, metabolism, and virulence factor expression in Clostridium difficile
    Laure Saujet
    Laboratoire de Pathogénèse des Bactéries Anaérobies, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    J Bacteriol 193:3186-96. 2011
    ..Among the 286 genes positively regulated by SigH, about 40 transcriptional units presenting a SigH consensus in their promoter regions are good candidates for direct SigH targets...
  44. pmc Staphylococcus epidermidis surfactant peptides promote biofilm maturation and dissemination of biofilm-associated infection in mice
    Rong Wang
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:238-48. 2011
    ....
  45. ncbi Anthrax
    M Mock
    Toxines et Pathogénie Bactérienne, CNRS URA 2172, Institut Pasteur, Paris Cedex 15, France
    Annu Rev Microbiol 55:647-71. 2001
    ..Spore-structure analysis could contribute to the improvement of human nonliving vaccines. The phylogeny of B. anthracis within the Bacillus cereus group is also reviewed...
  46. pmc Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin directly targets mitochondria and induces Bax-independent apoptosis of human neutrophils
    Anne Laure Genestier
    Centre National de Référence des Staphylocoques, INSERM E0230, Lyon, France
    J Clin Invest 115:3117-27. 2005
    ....
  47. ncbi Caspase-1 activation of lipid metabolic pathways in response to bacterial pore-forming toxins promotes cell survival
    Laure Gurcel
    Department Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, University of Geneva, 1 rue Michel Servet, CH 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Cell 126:1135-45. 2006
    ....
  48. pmc Mobile genetic element-encoded cytolysin connects virulence to methicillin resistance in MRSA
    Shu Y Queck
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000533. 2009
    ..Thus, our study reveals a previously unknown role of methicillin resistance clusters in staphylococcal pathogenesis and shows that important virulence and antibiotic resistance determinants may be combined in staphylococcal MGEs...
  49. pmc Relationships between Staphylococcus aureus genetic background, virulence factors, agr groups (alleles), and human disease
    Sophie Jarraud
    Faculte de Medecine Laennec, Centre national de référence des toxémies à staphylocoques, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
    Infect Immun 70:631-41. 2002
    ..While these results do not show a direct role of the agr type in the type of human disease caused by S. aureus, the agr group may reflect an ancient evolutionary division of S. aureus in terms of this species' fundamental biology...
  50. pmc Polymorphonuclear leukocytes mediate Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin-induced lung inflammation and injury
    Binh An Diep
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5587-92. 2010
    ..These findings provide insights into the mechanism of PVL-induced lung injury and inflammation and demonstrate the utility of the rabbit for studying PVL-mediated pathogenesis...
  51. ncbi Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in the United States, 2001-2002
    Matthew J Kuehnert
    National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 193:172-9. 2006
    ..Although methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection has become increasingly reported, population-based S. aureus and MRSA colonization estimates are lacking...
  52. ncbi BsrG/SR4 from Bacillus subtilis--the first temperature-dependent type I toxin-antitoxin system
    Natalie Jahn
    Friedrich Schiller Universitat Jena, Biologisch Pharmazeutische Fakultät, AG Bakteriengenetik, Philosophenweg 12, Jena, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 83:579-98. 2012
    ..A heat shock at 48°C results in faster degradation and, therefore, significantly decreased amounts of bsrG RNA...
  53. pmc Global functional analyses of cellular responses to pore-forming toxins
    Cheng Yuan Kao
    Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1001314. 2011
    ....
  54. pmc The protective antigen component of anthrax toxin forms functional octameric complexes
    Alexander F Kintzer
    Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, 94720, USA
    J Mol Biol 392:614-29. 2009
    The assembly of bacterial toxins and virulence factors is critical to their function, but the regulation of assembly during infection has not been studied. We begin to address this question using anthrax toxin as a model...
  55. pmc Targeting of alpha-hemolysin by active or passive immunization decreases severity of USA300 skin infection in a mouse model
    Adam D Kennedy
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:1050-8. 2010
    ..We conclude that Hla is a potential target for therapeutics or vaccines designed to moderate severe S. aureus skin infections...
  56. pmc Crystal structure of the octameric pore of staphylococcal γ-hemolysin reveals the β-barrel pore formation mechanism by two components
    Keitaro Yamashita
    Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060 0810, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:17314-9. 2011
    ....
  57. pmc Conditional cooperativity in toxin-antitoxin regulation prevents random toxin activation and promotes fast translational recovery
    Ilaria Cataudella
    Center for Models of Life, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Nucleic Acids Res 40:6424-34. 2012
    ..At the same time it enables quick removal of free toxin when the starvation is terminated...
  58. pmc RTX proteins: a highly diverse family secreted by a common mechanism
    Irena Linhartova
    Institute of Microbiology AS CR v v i, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 34:1076-112. 2010
    ....
  59. ncbi Methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections among patients in the emergency department
    Gregory J Moran
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Olive View UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, Calif 91342, USA
    N Engl J Med 355:666-74. 2006
    ..Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasingly recognized in infections among persons in the community without established risk factors for MRSA...
  60. pmc Characterization of the sporulation initiation pathway of Clostridium difficile and its role in toxin production
    Sarah Underwood
    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Leeds University, Leeds, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 191:7296-305. 2009
    ..difficile is controlled by a two-component signal transduction system rather than a multicomponent phosphorelay. The implications of these findings for C. difficile sporulation, virulence, and transmission are discussed...
  61. pmc Persisters: a distinct physiological state of E. coli
    Devang Shah
    Department of Biology, Northeastern University, 134 Mugar Hall, 360 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    BMC Microbiol 6:53. 2006
    ..Recent progress in understanding persisters is encouraging, but the main obstacle in understanding their nature was our inability to isolate these elusive cells from a wild-type population since their discovery in 1944...
  62. pmc Anthrax lethal factor cleavage of Nlrp1 is required for activation of the inflammasome
    Jonathan L Levinsohn
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002638. 2012
    ..These results identify both a previously unrecognized mechanism of activation of an NLR and a new, physiologically relevant protein substrate of LT...
  63. ncbi Toxin-antitoxin systems: why so many, what for?
    Laurence Van Melderen
    Laboratoire de Génétique et Physiologie Bactérienne, Faculte des Sciences, Institut de Biologie et de Médecine Moléculaires, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
    Curr Opin Microbiol 13:781-5. 2010
    ..Conflicting hypotheses about chromosomally encoded systems, from programmed cell death and starvation-induced stasis to protection against invading DNA and stabilization of large genomic fragments have been proposed...
  64. pmc Staphylococcus aureus panton-valentine leukocidin is a very potent cytotoxic factor for human neutrophils
    Bettina Löffler
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital of Munster, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000715. 2010
    ....
  65. pmc Cellular and systemic effects of anthrax lethal toxin and edema toxin
    Mahtab Moayeri
    Bacterial Toxins and Therapeutics Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 33, Room 1W20B, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Aspects Med 30:439-55. 2009
    ..A brief reexamination of early historic findings on toxin in vivo effects in the context of our current knowledge is also presented...
  66. pmc Pseudomonas syringae phytotoxins: mode of action, regulation, and biosynthesis by peptide and polyketide synthetases
    C L Bender
    Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 3032, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 63:266-92. 1999
    ..Genetic reprogramming of peptide and polyketide synthetases has been successful, and portions of the coronatine and syringomycin gene clusters could be valuable resources in developing new antimicrobial agents...
  67. pmc Comparative analysis of virulence and toxin expression of global community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains
    Min Li
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai 200040, People s Republic of China
    J Infect Dis 202:1866-76. 2010
    ..Our study indicates a major but not exclusive impact of virulence on the epidemiological success of USA300 and other CA-MRSA strains and emphasizes the importance of core genome-encoded toxins in CA-MRSA skin infections...
  68. pmc Human hypervirulent Clostridium difficile strains exhibit increased sporulation as well as robust toxin production
    Michelle Merrigan
    Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USA
    J Bacteriol 192:4904-11. 2010
    ..Increased sporulation, potentially in synergy with robust toxin production, may therefore contribute to the widespread disease now associated with hypervirulent C. difficile strains...
  69. ncbi ExoU is a potent intracellular phospholipase
    Hiromi Sato
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA
    Mol Microbiol 53:1279-90. 2004
    ..ExoU likely represents a unique enzyme and is the first identified phopholipase virulence factor that is translocated into the cytosol by TTSS...
  70. pmc A widespread family of polymorphic contact-dependent toxin delivery systems in bacteria
    Stephanie K Aoki
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of California Santa Barbara UCSB, Santa Barbara, California 93106 9625, USA
    Nature 468:439-42. 2010
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that CDI systems constitute an intricate immunity network with an important function in bacterial competition...
  71. pmc Bacterial programmed cell death and multicellular behavior in bacteria
    Hanna Engelberg-Kulka
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel
    PLoS Genet 2:e135. 2006
    ..We relate these two bacterial PCD systems to the ways in which bacterial populations resemble multicellular organisms...
  72. pmc Cholesterol exposure at the membrane surface is necessary and sufficient to trigger perfringolysin O binding
    John J Flanagan
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
    Biochemistry 48:3977-87. 2009
    ....
  73. pmc Novel structurally designed vaccine for S. aureus α-hemolysin: protection against bacteremia and pneumonia
    Rajan P Adhikari
    Integrated Biotherapeutics Inc, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e38567. 2012
    ..aureus vaccine. Furthermore, identification of protective epitopes within AT-62aa could lead to novel immunotherapy for S. aureus infection...
  74. pmc Regulation of enteric vapBC transcription: induction by VapC toxin dimer-breaking
    Kristoffer S Winther
    Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, NE2 4AX Newcastle, UK
    Nucleic Acids Res 40:4347-57. 2012
    ..We present evidence that an excess of VapC toxin leads to operator complex destabilization by breaking of toxin dimers...
  75. pmc Characterization of the gene cluster responsible for cylindrospermopsin biosynthesis
    Troco Kaan Mihali
    The University of New South Wales, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:716-22. 2008
    ..These findings enable the design of toxic strain-specific probes and allow the future study of the regulation and biological role of cylindrospermopsin...
  76. pmc A Staphylococcus aureus pore-forming toxin subverts the activity of ADAM10 to cause lethal infection in mice
    Ichiro Inoshima
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Nat Med 17:1310-4. 2011
    ....
  77. pmc Mechanisms of NK cell-macrophage Bacillus anthracis crosstalk: a balance between stimulation by spores and differential disruption by toxins
    Maria Klezovich-Bénard
    Laboratoire Pathogénie et Toxi Infections Bactériennes, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002481. 2012
    ..This highlights the potential implication of the crosstalk between host innate defences and B. anthracis in initial anthrax control mechanisms...
  78. ncbi Anthrax toxins: a weapon to systematically dismantle the host immune defenses
    Jean Nicolas Tournier
    Unité Interactions Hôte Pathogène, Département de Biologie des Agents Transmissibles, Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, 24 Avenue des Maquis du Gresivaudan, 38702 La Tronche, France
    Mol Aspects Med 30:456-66. 2009
    ..We also discuss some open issues which should be addressed to gain a comprehensive insight into the complex relationship that B. anthracis establishes with the host...
  79. pmc Neutrophil responses to staphylococcal pathogens and commensals via the formyl peptide receptor 2 relates to phenol-soluble modulin release and virulence
    Maren Rautenberg
    Cellular and Molecular Microbiology Division, Interfaculty Institute of Microbiology and Infection Medicine, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    FASEB J 25:1254-63. 2011
    ..These findings suggest that the innate immune system may be able to respond in different ways to pathogenic or innocuous staphylococci by monitoring the presence of PSMs via FPR2...
  80. pmc YeeV is an Escherichia coli toxin that inhibits cell division by targeting the cytoskeleton proteins, FtsZ and MreB
    Qian Tan
    Department of Biochemistry, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 679 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Mol Microbiol 79:109-18. 2011
    ..The YeeV toxin is distinct from other well-studied toxins: it directs the binding of two cytoskeletal proteins and inhibits FtsZ and MreB simultaneously...
  81. ncbi Anthrax lethal factor cleaves the N-terminus of MAPKKs and induces tyrosine/threonine phosphorylation of MAPKs in cultured macrophages
    G Vitale
    Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Universita di Padova, Italy
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 248:706-11. 1998
    ..The possible implications of these findings for the cytolysis of macrophage cells induced by LF are discussed. These results open the way to the design and screening of specific inhibitors of LF...
  82. ncbi A nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene (mgoA) of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae is involved in mangotoxin biosynthesis and is required for full virulence
    Eva Arrebola
    Departamento de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, Malaga, Spain
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 20:500-9. 2007
    ..syringae pv. syringae. The involvement of an NRPS in the production of an antimetabolite toxin from P. syringae inhibiting ornithine acetyltransferase activity is proposed...
  83. pmc Structural basis for the unfolding of anthrax lethal factor by protective antigen oligomers
    Geoffrey K Feld
    Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 17:1383-90. 2010
    ..This structure provides insight into the mechanism of translocation-coupled protein unfolding...
  84. pmc High resolution crystallographic studies of alpha-hemolysin-phospholipid complexes define heptamer-lipid head group interactions: implication for understanding protein-lipid interactions
    Stefania Galdiero
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Protein Sci 13:1503-11. 2004
    ..These structures provide a molecular basis for understanding why alpha-hemolysin preferentially assembles on membranes comprised of phosphocholine lipids...
  85. pmc Caspase and bid involvement in Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced apoptosis and modulation of toxin A effects by glutamine and alanyl-glutamine in vivo and in vitro
    Benedito A Carneiro
    Center for Global Health, Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia, MR4, Lane Road, Room 3148, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Infect Immun 74:81-7. 2006
    ..Glutamine and alanyl-glutamine inhibited the apoptosis of T84 cells by preventing caspase 8 activation and reduced TxA-induced intestinal secretion and disruption...
  86. pmc Human capillary morphogenesis protein 2 functions as an anthrax toxin receptor
    Heather M Scobie
    McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:5170-4. 2003
    ..These studies distinguish CMG2 as a second anthrax toxin receptor and identify a potent antitoxin that may prove useful for the treatment of anthrax...
  87. pmc The role of virulence determinants in community-associated MRSA pathogenesis
    Binh An Diep
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 1001 Potrero Avenue, Box 0811, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    Trends Microbiol 16:361-9. 2008
    ..Here, we discuss the roles of PVL, the arginine catabolic mobile element and phenol-soluble modulins in the pathogenesis of prevalent CA-MRSA strains...
  88. pmc A mechanism of cell death involving an adenylyl cyclase/PKA signaling pathway is induced by the Cry1Ab toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis
    Xuebin Zhang
    Biological Targets Inc, Dallas, TX 75235, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:9897-902. 2006
    ..The discovery of a toxin-induced cell death pathway specifically linked to BT-R(1) in insect cells should provide insights into how insects evolve resistance to Bt and into the development of new, safer insecticides...
  89. pmc TADB: a web-based resource for Type 2 toxin-antitoxin loci in bacteria and archaea
    Yucheng Shao
    Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism and School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030, PR China
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:D606-11. 2011
    ..The TADB database, envisaged as a one-stop shop for Type 2 TA-related research, will be maintained, updated and improved regularly to ensure its ongoing maximum utility to the research community...
  90. pmc A novel mechanism of programmed cell death in bacteria by toxin-antitoxin systems corrupts peptidoglycan synthesis
    Hannes Mutschler
    Department of Biomolecular Mechanisms, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Heidelberg, Germany
    PLoS Biol 9:e1001033. 2011
    ..Finally, we discuss how phosphorylated UNAG likely poisons additional pathways of bacterial cell wall synthesis, making it an attractive lead compound for development of new antibiotics...
  91. ncbi Treatment with monoclonal antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxins
    Israel Lowy
    Medarex, Princeton, NJ, USA
    N Engl J Med 362:197-205. 2010
    ..New therapies are needed to manage the increasing incidence, severity, and high rate of recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection...
  92. ncbi Anthrax toxins cooperatively inhibit endocytic recycling by the Rab11/Sec15 exocyst
    Annabel Guichard
    Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0349, USA
    Nature 467:854-8. 2010
    ..This coordinated disruption of the Rab11/Sec15 exocyst by anthrax toxins may contribute to toxin-dependent barrier disruption and vascular dysfunction during B. anthracis infection...
  93. pmc Hypoxia and the hypoxic response pathway protect against pore-forming toxins in C. elegans
    Audrey Bellier
    Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000689. 2009
    ....
  94. pmc Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins, a family of versatile pore-forming toxins
    Rodney K Tweten
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, 73104, USA
    Infect Immun 73:6199-209. 2005
  95. pmc Repair of injured plasma membrane by rapid Ca2+-dependent endocytosis
    Vincent Idone
    Section of Microbial Pathogenesis and 2Department of Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    J Cell Biol 180:905-14. 2008
    ..These findings provide an important new insight into how cells protect themselves not only from mechanical injury but also from microbial toxins and pore-forming proteins produced by the immune system...
  96. ncbi Nalp1b controls mouse macrophage susceptibility to anthrax lethal toxin
    Eric D Boyden
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Genet 38:240-4. 2006
    ....
  97. pmc Comparative phylogenomics of Clostridium difficile reveals clade specificity and microevolution of hypervirulent strains
    R A Stabler
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 188:7297-305. 2006
    ..This study has provided insight into the possible origins of C. difficile and its evolution that may have implications in disease control strategies...
  98. pmc Anthrax lethal toxin and Salmonella elicit the common cell death pathway of caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis via distinct mechanisms
    Susan L Fink
    Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Departments of Microbiology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4312-7. 2008
    ....
  99. pmc The relBE2Spn toxin-antitoxin system of Streptococcus pneumoniae: role in antibiotic tolerance and functional conservation in clinical isolates
    Concha Nieto
    Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
    PLoS ONE 5:e11289. 2010
    ..We conclude that even though the relBE2Spn TAS is not essential for pneumococcus, it may provide additional advantages to the bacteria for colonization and/or infection...
  100. ncbi Transcriptome dysregulation by anthrax lethal toxin plays a key role in induction of human endothelial cell cytotoxicity
    Monica Rolando
    INSERM, U895, Centre Méditerranéen de Médecine Moléculaire, C3M, Nice, 06204 Cedex 3, France
    Cell Microbiol 12:891-905. 2010
    ..Together our data establish that the modulation of the cell transcriptome by LT plays a key role in triggering human endothelial cell toxicity...
  101. pmc Human formyl peptide receptor 2 senses highly pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus
    Dorothee Kretschmer
    Cellular and Molecular Microbiology Division, Interfaculty Institute of Microbiology and Infection Medicine, University of Tubingen, Elfriede Aulhorn Strasse 6, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Cell Host Microbe 7:463-73. 2010
    ..FPR2/ALX represents an attractive target for new anti-infective or anti-inflammatory strategies...

Research Grants62

  1. Robust Peptide-Based Diagnostics of Botulinum Toxins
    John E Mueller; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..diagnostic devices capable of rapidly detecting multiple critical biological threat agents, such as bacterial toxins, in the field is premised on the availability of low cost, robust, and stable capture reagens integrated with ..
  2. GI Endotoxin as an Environmental Trigger in an alpha-Synuclein Transgenic Mouse
    Robert L Nussbaum; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These include viral infection, heavy metals, bacterial toxins, microbe-induced inflammation, and chemical agents including pesticides...
  3. Mechanism of Translation Elongation Factor 2 Inhibition by Bacterial Toxins
    Terri Goss Kinzy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  4. A common denominator of pathogenesis;a rare opportunity for novel therapeutic de
    DOUGLAS ALAN MITCHELL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Described herein is an unconventional strategy to exploit bacterial toxins as both novel targets for antibacterial agents and antigens for vaccine development...
  5. Rho-Modifying Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor of E. coli
    ALISON DAVIS O'BRIEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (CNF1) is a member of a family of bacterial toxins that deamidate single glutamine residues in RhoA, Rac, and Cdc42 and thereby constitutively activate these small GTPases...
  6. PLCgamma regulates HNE3 activity through direct binding and dynamic complexes
    NICHOLAS CONSTANTINE ZACHOS; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..elevation of intracellular second messengers, such as calcium (Ca2+), by neurohumoral substances and bacterial toxins results in decreased sodium absorption in the intestine and colon...
  7. Polymicrobial interactions in the lung.
    JENNIFER MELINDA BOMBERGER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to viral pathogens, and there is minimal data elucidating how the host immune response alters the release of bacterial toxins from microbial pathogens...
  8. Deciphering of the Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in E. coli
    Masayori Inouye; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..diversified and yet are conserved in many other bacteria, they are ideal paradigms for the study of not only bacterial toxins, but also previously unknown bacterial physiology governed by the TA network...
  9. CONTROL OF BACTERIAL TOXINS BY VIRUSES AND PLASMIDS
    Randall K Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tuberculosis and potential value as chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of tuberculosis. ..
  10. Polymicrobial Interactions in the Lung
    JENNIFER MELINDA BOMBERGER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to viral pathogens, and there is minimal data elucidating how the host immune response alters the release of bacterial toxins from microbial pathogens...
  11. V-ATPase H+ PUMP REGULATION IN FUEL ENERGY SELECTION
    Karlett J Parra; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..sustain the acidic luminal pH needed for protein sorting and degradation;and for entry of viruses and bacterial toxins into host cells...
  12. Diphthamide biosynthesis
    Hening Lin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..infections, this modified residue (but not the unmodified histidine residue) is specifically recognized by bacterial toxins, including diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas exotoxin A...
  13. SHIGA-TOXINS: PRE-CLINICAL ANIMAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND THERAPEUTIC TESTING
    Shinichiro Kurosawa; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This proposal uses animal models to test new drugs that are predicted to be effective in preventing or limiting the damage done by the bacterial toxins.
  14. MOLECULAR BASIS OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN SWITCH
    JANET M STAVNEZER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..IgM to producing IgG, IgA or IgE, which improves the ability of the antibody to remove pathogens and bacterial toxins from the body...
  15. Structural Biology of Enterotoxin Secretion from Bacterial Cells
    WILHELMUS G J HOL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Given the sophistication of the bacterial toxins and the T2SS secretion system, and their wide-spread occurrence in harmful bacteria, our studies will ..
  16. Cryopyrin/NLRP3 Signaling in Inflammation and Innate Immunity
    Gabriel Nunez; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the mechanisms governing the activation and function of the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to ATP and bacterial toxins with a focus on ATP and S. aureus as model systems...
  17. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: the role of cell interaction in toxin functio
    JOSHUA CLARK EBY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies will shed light upon the mechanism of pore formation by bacterial toxins, and the pathogenesis of disease caused by all Bordetellae...
  18. Receptor disulfide allosteric regulation of anthrax toxin action
    Jianjun Sun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Interaction between bacterial toxins and cellular surface receptors is an important component of host-pathogen interaction...
  19. IND Enabling Studies for Small Molecule Anthrax Lethal Factor Inhibitors
    ALAN THOMAS JOHNSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To achieve these aims we have assembled a team of scientists who are leaders in the field of bacterial toxins and anthrax disease...
  20. Genetic requirements of Helicobacter pylori infection
    NINA REDA SALAMA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..H. pylori associated diseases cannot be attributed solely to expression of particular bacterial toxins. Instead, our overall working hypothesis is that H...
  21. The Role of bacterial toxins in human skin disease.
    DONALD YM LEUNG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies will likely identify therapeutic approaches in the control of skin inflammation initiated by staphylococcal toxins and atopy. ..
  22. ROLE OF TOXINS IN ENDOPHTHALMITIS
    MEREDITH GREGORY-KSANDER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This competing renewal aims to continue research that has led to the delineation of specific roles of bacterial toxins and host factors in the pathogenesis of endophthalmitis...
  23. Mechanism of cholera toxin retro-translocation
    Billy Tsai; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Bacterial toxins are the causative agents for a variety of human diseases. However, the molecular basis of infection, in many cases, remains enigmatic...
  24. Functional Subdomain Organization of the Recycling Endosome
    David R Sheff; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Basolateral secretory traffic and retrograde traffic bacterial toxins and endogenous TGN38/46 transit the RE...
  25. Functional characterization of Rho inactivation by Vibro cholerae RTX toxin
    BRETT L GEISSLER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in our laboratory indicates that the mechanism for Rho-inactivation by RID is unlike any used by known bacterial toxins. That RID may utilize a unique approach to inactivate Rho further emphasizes the importance of characterizing ..
  26. ASDAMTS-13 and Inflammation
    TRUNG CHANH NGUYEN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The hypotheses of this grant are: 1) inflammatory cytokines and bacterial toxins suppress ADAMTS-13 synthesis and function...
  27. In vivo effects of anthrax toxins:imaging host response & bacterial proliferation
    Ian Justin Glomski; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..To determine the effect of bacterial toxins on the immune response, bacteria that are deficient in toxin will be compared to toxin-producing bacteria, so ..
  28. A Small Molecule Approach Toward Understanding Bacterial Toxin Transport
    JOSE BERNARDO SAENZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It has become increasingly apparent that this retrograde trafficking pathway is not unique to bacterial toxins. Rather, bacterial toxins are believed to hijack existing host transport pathways...
  29. Cellular Intoxication Pathway of Cytolethal Distending Toxin
    KENNETH ALAN BRADLEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies of the mechanisms by which bacterial toxins are internalized have provided fundamental advances in several areas of cell biology, including receptor ..
  30. Staph keratitis: mechanism and arrest of ocular damage
    RICHARD JOSEPH O'CALLAGHAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..aureus is due to the action of bacterial toxins. Killing bacteria with antibiotics does not prevent the action of these damaging toxins once they are ..
  31. Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin
    Mark S McClain; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE The Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin is one of the most potent bacterial toxins. The U.S...
  32. Chemically Interrogating Clostridium difficile Glucosylating Toxin Activation
    Aimee Shen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and delineated a role for a cysteine protease domain (CPD) in autoprocessing a newly recognized family of bacterial toxins. I have identified the first chemical inhibitors of this novel protease family and have begun developing ..
  33. Acute Renal Failure: An Endotoxin Hyper-Responsive State
    Richard A Zager; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..kidney injury (AKI) leads to renal production of inflammatory mediators and sensitizes/primes the kidney to bacterial toxins. These renal inflammatory mediators gain access to the systemic circulation and can induce extra-renal tissue ..
  34. GATING OF PROTEIN CHANNELS IN LIPID BILAYER MEMBRANES
    Alan Finkelstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..toxin;(2) to develop detailed molecular models of the ion-conducting pathways in channels formed by several bacterial toxins, that account for their ion permeability and protein translocation characteristics...
  35. Long-term effects of botulinum neurotoxins on neuronal viability
    Min Dong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Botulinum neurotoxins are a family of seven bacterial toxins (BoNT/A-G) that cause the disease botulism in humans and animals...
  36. MULTI-ANALYTE IMMUNOCHROMATOGRAPHIC TEST STRIP FOR BACTERIAL TOXIN DETECTION
    THOMAS W OWEN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..inexpensive lateral flow strip test with high sensitivity and selectivity for the multiplexed detection of bacterial toxins that cause foodborne illnesses...
  37. Physical Principles of Bacterial Toxin Translocation across Membranes
    BRYAN ANDREW KRANTZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Bacterial toxins, like anthrax toxin, are particularly well-suited for these studies, because they carry their own translocase-..
  38. Mechanisms of host defense against membrane damage by pore-forming toxins
    MARY O'RIORDAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..aspartate protease, caspase-7, as a pivotal regulator of the macrophage response to pore formation by bacterial toxins. Caspase-7 activation is triggered during Listeria monocytogenes infection by the cholesterol dependent ..
  39. Mechanisms of Bacterial Toxin Action
    Joseph T Barbieri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Bacterial pathogens often damage their host through the action of toxins. Bacterial toxins modify host targets, primarily proteins, through covalent and non-covalent mechanisms and have several ..
  40. New England Regional Center of Excellence in Biodefense and Emerging Infectious D
    Dennis L Kasper; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..this mission by supporting research addressing three primary themes - "Highly Pathogenic RNA Viruses", "Bacterial Toxins and other Pathogenic Proteins", and "Gram-Negative Bacteria - Pathogenesis and Immunity"...
  41. Chemically Interrogating Clostridium difficile Glucosylating Toxin Activation
    Aimee Shen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and delineated a role for a cysteine protease domain (CPD) in autoprocessing a newly recognized family of bacterial toxins. I have identified the first chemical inhibitors of this novel protease family and have begun developing ..
  42. Development and Treatment of Pre-Clinical EHEC Models with HUS
    Shinichiro Kurosawa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Long-term renal sequelae occur in 25-36% of patients who survive diarrhea- associated HUS. Bacterial toxins (Stx1,Stx2) drive organ damage, yet toxin-specific therapeutics are not available because drug development is ..
  43. Cytotoxicity of botulinum neurotoxins
    Min Dong; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are a family of bacterial toxins causing botulism in humans and animals...
  44. Identification of small molecule furin-like protease inhibitors
    JULIA COPPOLA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Furin-like proteases activate bacterial toxins found in anthrax, shigella, botulinum, pseudomonas, and diphtheria...
  45. Next generation of botulinum neurotoxins with enhanced binding to human receptors
    Min Dong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Project Summary Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are a family of bacterial toxins that block synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Two types of BoNTs (BoNT/A and B) are now widely used to treat a growing list of medical conditions...
  46. FERN Microbiological Cooperative Agreement Program in Texas
    GRACE KUBIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..analysis of food and food products by the rapid detection and identification of pathogenic microorganisms or bacterial toxins. This testing would support enhancement of the FERN in surge situations and surveillance of food samples...
  47. Type III effector regulation of host GTPase signaling
    NEAL MATHEW ALTO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Human Rho-family GTPases are major targets of bacterial toxins and effector proteins...
  48. Nanoliter Lab-on-a-chip for Protein Crystallization
    Vamsee Pamula; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Crystal structures of proteins such as enzymes, ribosomal proteins, bacterial toxins, hormones, and receptors are essential to understand important physiological processes and also to understand ..
  49. CFTR/REGULATION OF CL SECRETION IN NORMAL AND CF AIRWAYS
    William Guggino; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the CAL-CFTR interaction with these two associated proteins has an important role in how CFTR responds to bacterial toxins that lead to diarrheal diseases and infection in the airways...
  50. Fluorescent probes for quantitation of secretory protein levels in single cells
    Erik L Snapp; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..More specifically, by combining modified bacterial toxins with nuclease stabilized aptamer beacons specific for secreted proteins such as VEGF or the UPR-induced ..
  51. Evolution of Stress-Induced Bacterial Toxins
    Margaret A Riley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  52. SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION IN T CELLS
    CONSTANTINE TSOUKAS; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Alpha subunits in membranes of human T cells by using 32p-NAD and by taking advantage of the ability of bacterial toxins (cholera and pertussis toxin) to specifically ADP- ribosylate the Alpha subunits in vitro using the ..
  53. Elucidating a role for Calcium signaling in activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome
    Tiffany Horng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..uric acid crystals that accumulate during arthritis, cholesterol crystals in atherosclerotic plaques, various bacterial toxins, and misfolded protein aggregates linked to neurodegenerative diseases...
  54. FASEB Summer Research Conference on Molecular Biophysics of Cellular Membranes
    Kalina Hristova; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..membrane protein folding, design, structure, and modeling), to highly biological (viral entry/exit and bacterial toxins)...
  55. CONTROL OF BACTERIAL TOXINS BY VIRUSES AND PLASMIDS
    Randall Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The investigators will also use molecular genetic methods to identify novel mechanisms for super-repressor activity and new lead compounds for development as tools against these bacterial infections. ..
  56. Glycolipid Trafficking of Cholera Toxin by Lipid Rafts
    David E Saslowsky; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..pathway from the plasma membrane (PM) to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a route exploited by various bacterial toxins and viruses...
  57. BACTERIAL TOXIN ACTION ON THE DEVELOPING HUMAN GUT
    W Walker; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..pathogenesis of neonatal bacterial inflammatory intestinal diseases and certain secretory diarrheas involving bacterial toxins is principally due to an immature (inappropriate) enterocyte response to the bacterial toxin stimulation...
  58. EFFECT OF COLOSTRUM ON GUT MATURATION AND HOST DEFENSE
    W Walker; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..of antigens noted in the newborn (possibly leading to allergic illness) and for an increase response to bacterial toxins (toxigenic diarrhea)...
  59. Extracorporeal Blood Purification For Sepsis Therapy
    Susan Szathmary; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Therefore, finding new strategies would benefit public health. The current proposal addresses the removal of bacterial toxins from human plasma or whole blood to be applied to the extracorporeal treatment of septic patients...
  60. ROLE OF G PROTEINS IN PROLACTIN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
    Jennifer Larsen; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Previously, it has been shown that bacterial toxins, pertussis toxin, (islet activating protein: IAP) and cholera toxin (CT), can modify PRL-stimulated ..
  61. ADP RIBOSYLATION OF A POTENT INDUCER OF PROLIFERATION
    Mark Francis; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Abnormalities of signal transduction proteins have been identified in both cancer and immunodeficiencies. Bacterial toxins have been useful tools to dissect the function of G proteins, a group of signal transduction proteins...
  62. Specificity and Structure: The Kex 2 and Furin Proteases
    Robert Fuller; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..in maturation of growth factors and growth factor receptors, coagulation factors, viral glycoproteins and bacterial toxins. Work in the previous funding periods has given the principal investigator a comprehensive, quantitative and ..