- Structure of FitAB from Neisseria gonorrhoeae bound to DNA reveals a tetramer of toxin-antitoxin heterodimers containing pin domains and ribbon-helix-helix motifs
Department of Biochemistry, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
J Biol Chem 281:37942-51. 2006
..Interactions between two FitB molecules result in the formation of a tetramer of FitAB heterodimers, which binds to the 36-bp DNA fragment and provides an explanation for how FitB enhances the DNA binding affinity of FitA...
- Community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Frank R Deleo
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
Lancet 375:1557-68. 2010
..Here we review the most up-to-date knowledge and provide a perspective for the future prophylaxis or new treatments for CA-MRSA infections...
- Toxin-antitoxin systems in bacteria and archaea
Department of Biochemistry, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
Annu Rev Genet 45:61-79. 2011
..The elucidation of their cellular function and regulation is thus crucial for our understanding of bacterial physiology under various stress conditions...
- Diversity of bacterial type II toxin-antitoxin systems: a comprehensive search and functional analysis of novel families
Laboratoire de Bioinformatique des Génomes et des Réseaux BiGRe, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bld du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium
Nucleic Acids Res 39:5513-25. 2011
..Therefore, addiction might play a major role in the evolutionary success of TA systems both on mobile genetic elements and in bacterial chromosomes...
- Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes: worldwide emergence
INSERM E0230, Lyon, France
Emerg Infect Dis 9:978-84. 2003
..Within each continent, the genetic background of CA-MRSA strains did not correspond to that of the hospital-acquired MRSA...
- Structure of staphylococcal alpha-hemolysin, a heptameric transmembrane pore
Department of Biochemistry, University of Chicago, 920 East 58 Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Science 274:1859-66. 1996
- A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality
Vivian G Loo
Department of Microbiology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Que, Canada
N Engl J Med 353:2442-9. 2005
..In March 2003, several hospitals in Quebec, Canada, noted a marked increase in the incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea...
- The role of toxin A and toxin B in Clostridium difficile infection
Sarah A Kuehne
Clostridia Research Group, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
Nature 467:711-3. 2010
..Our findings re-establish the importance of both toxin A and toxin B and highlight the need to continue to consider both toxins in the development of diagnostic tests and effective countermeasures against C. difficile...
- Bacterial persistence by RNA endonucleases
Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:13206-11. 2011
..Many pathogenic bacteria known to enter dormant states have a plethora of TA genes. Therefore, in the future, the discoveries described here may lead to a mechanistic understanding of the persistence phenomenon in pathogenic bacteria...
- Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin stress response loci
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK 5230 Odense M, Denmark
Nat Rev Microbiol 3:371-82. 2005
..It has been proposed that toxin-antitoxin loci function in bacterial programmed cell death, but evidence now indicates that these loci provide a control mechanism that helps free-living prokaryotes cope with nutritional stress...
- YeeU enhances the bundling of cytoskeletal polymers of MreB and FtsZ, antagonizing the CbtA (YeeV) toxicity in Escherichia coli
Department of Biochemistry, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ, USA
Mol Microbiol 84:979-89. 2012
..Here we propose to rename YeeU as CbeA for cytoskeleton bundling-enhancing factor A...
- Ciprofloxacin causes persister formation by inducing the TisB toxin in Escherichia coli
Department of Biology, Northeastern University, Antimicrobial Discovery Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
PLoS Biol 8:e1000317. 2010
..These results suggest that a DNA damage-induced toxin controls production of multidrug tolerant cells and thus provide a model of persister formation...
- An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile
L Clifford McDonald
Epidemiology and Laboratory Branch, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA
N Engl J Med 353:2433-41. 2005
..difficile with increased virulence, resistance, or both...
- Comparative genome and phenotypic analysis of Clostridium difficile 027 strains provides insight into the evolution of a hypervirulent bacterium
Richard A Stabler
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
Genome Biol 10:R102. 2009
..difficile (CD196), a recent epidemic and hypervirulent 027 (R20291) and a previously sequenced PCR-ribotype 012 strain (630)...
- Involvement of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus in primary skin infections and pneumonia
Centre National de Référence de Toxémies Staphylococciques, Faculte de Medecine, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
Clin Infect Dis 29:1128-32. 1999
..It thus appears that PVL is mainly associated with necrotic lesions involving the skin or mucosa...
- Toxin-antitoxin loci are highly abundant in free-living but lost from host-associated prokaryotes
Deo Prakash Pandey
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark DK 5230 Odense M, Denmark
Nucleic Acids Res 33:966-76. 2005
- Comparative analysis of USA300 virulence determinants in a rabbit model of skin and soft tissue infection
Scott D Kobayashi
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, and Bethesda, Maryland, USA
J Infect Dis 204:937-41. 2011
..The data indicate that Hla, PSMα, and Agr contribute to the pathogenesis of USA300 skin infections in rabbits, whereas a role for PVL could not be detected...
- Comprehensive functional analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis toxin-antitoxin systems: implications for pathogenesis, stress responses, and evolution
Holly R Ramage
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
PLoS Genet 5:e1000767. 2009
..The expansion and maintenance of TA genes in the MTBC, coupled with the finding that a subset is transcriptionally activated by stress, suggests that TA systems are important for M. tuberculosis pathogenesis...
- Toxin-antitoxin systems influence biofilm and persister cell formation and the general stress response
Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 3122, USA
Appl Environ Microbiol 77:5577-83. 2011
..Specifically, upon stress, the sequence-specific mRNA interferases MqsR and MazF mediate cell survival. In addition, we propose that TA systems are not redundant, as they may have developed to respond to specific stresses...
- Clostridium difficile--more difficult than ever
Ciaran P Kelly
Gastroenterology Division, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
N Engl J Med 359:1932-40. 2008
- The phage abortive infection system, ToxIN, functions as a protein-RNA toxin-antitoxin pair
Peter C Fineran
Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QW, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:894-9. 2009
..This is the first demonstration of a novel mechanistic class of TA systems and of an Abi system functioning in different bacterial genera, both with implications for the dynamics of phage-bacterial interactions...
- Poring over pores: alpha-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin in Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia
Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
Nat Med 13:1405-6. 2007
- Toxin B is essential for virulence of Clostridium difficile
Australian Bacterial Pathogenesis Program, Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia
Nature 458:1176-9. 2009
- Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt toxins and their potential for insect control
Departamento de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo, Postal 510 3, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62250, Mexico
Toxicon 49:423-35. 2007
..Also, we discuss their use in the control of agricultural insect pests and insect vectors of human diseases...
- Clostridium difficile toxins: mechanism of action and role in disease
Daniel E Voth
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
Clin Microbiol Rev 18:247-63. 2005
..Collectively, the present review provides a comprehensive update on TcdA and TcdB's mechanism of action as well as the role of these toxins in disease...
- Regulation of growth and death in Escherichia coli by toxin-antitoxin systems
Department of Biochemistry, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
Nat Rev Microbiol 9:779-90. 2011
..In this Review, we describe these TA systems in light of their functions and roles in the regulation of cell growth and death...
- Toxin-antitoxin systems are ubiquitous and versatile modulators of prokaryotic cell fate
Christopher F Schuster
Interfakultäres Institut für Mikrobiologie und Infektionsmedizin, Lehrbereich Mikrobielle Genetik, Eberhard Karls Universitat Tubingen, Waldhäuser Str 70 8, Tubingen, Germany
FEMS Microbiol Lett 340:73-85. 2013
..TA toxin activity can then result in cell death or in the formation of drug-tolerant persister cells. The versatile properties of TA systems have also been exploited in biotechnology and may aid in combating infectious diseases...
- Importance of the global regulators Agr and SaeRS in the pathogenesis of CA-MRSA USA300 infection
Christopher P Montgomery
Section of Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
PLoS ONE 5:e15177. 2010
..We conclude that agr and saeRS each independently contribute to the remarkable virulence of USA300, likely by means of their effects on expression of secreted toxins...
- Epsilon toxin: a fascinating pore-forming toxin
Michel R Popoff
Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
FEBS J 278:4602-15. 2011
..The precise mode of action of ETX remains to be determined. ETX is a powerful toxin, however, it also represents a unique tool with which to vehicle drugs into the central nervous system or target glutamatergic neurons...
- Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North America and Europe
Acambis Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA
Lancet 366:1079-84. 2005
..We characterised the dominant strain of this epidemic to determine whether it produces higher amounts of toxins A and B than those produced by non-epidemic strains...
- Defense islands in bacterial and archaeal genomes and prediction of novel defense systems
Kira S Makarova
National Center for Biotechnology Information, NLM, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
J Bacteriol 193:6039-56. 2011
- Toxins-antitoxins: diversity, evolution and function
Faculty of Life Sciences and Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 46:386-408. 2011
..TAs also play important roles in bacterial persistence, biofilm formation and multidrug tolerance, and have considerable potential both as new components of the genetic toolbox and as targets for novel antibacterial drugs...
- Bacterial protein toxins that modify host regulatory GTPases
Institut fur Experimentelle und Klinische Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Albert Ludwigs Universitat Freiburg, Albertstr 25, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
Nat Rev Microbiol 9:487-98. 2011
- RNAIII-independent target gene control by the agr quorum-sensing system: insight into the evolution of virulence regulation in Staphylococcus aureus
Shu Y Queck
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
Mol Cell 32:150-8. 2008
..By establishing a two-level model of quorum-sensing target gene regulation in S. aureus, our study gives important insight into the evolution of virulence control in this leading human pathogen...
- Is Panton-Valentine leukocidin the major virulence determinant in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease?
Jovanka M Voyich
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
J Infect Dis 194:1761-70. 2006
..Although the toxin may be a highly linked epidemiological marker for CA-MRSA strains, we conclude that PVL is not the major virulence determinant of CA-MRSA...
- Basis of virulence in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Annu Rev Microbiol 64:143-62. 2010
..All these toxins impact disease progression in animal models of USA300 infection. In contrast, the basis of virulence in other CA-MRSA epidemics, which also include PVL-negative strains, is poorly understood...
- Vaccine protection against Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia
Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
Department of Microbiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
J Exp Med 205:287-94. 2008
..aureus challenge and prevents the injury of human lung epithelial cells during infection. Thus, Hla vaccination or immunotherapy may prevent S. aureus pneumonia in humans...
- Haploid genetic screens in human cells identify host factors used by pathogens
Jan E Carette
Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
Science 326:1231-5. 2009
..This approach has both conceptual and practical parallels with genetic approaches in haploid yeast...
- Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems: more than selfish entities?
Laurence Van Melderen
Laboratoire de Génétique et Physiologie Bactérienne, IBMM, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Gosselies, Belgium
PLoS Genet 5:e1000437. 2009
..This Review discusses current hypotheses regarding the biological roles of these evolutionarily successful small operons. We consider the various selective forces that could drive the maintenance of TA systems in bacterial genomes...
- The innate immune modulators staphylococcal complement inhibitor and chemotaxis inhibitory protein of Staphylococcus aureus are located on beta-hemolysin-converting bacteriophages
Willem J B Van Wamel
Eijkman Winkler Institute, Room G04 614, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
J Bacteriol 188:1310-5. 2006
..In conclusion, the four human-specific innate immune modulators SCIN, CHIPS, SAK, and SEA form an IEC that is easily transferred among S. aureus strains by a diverse group of beta-hemolysin-converting bacteriophages...
- Global changes in Staphylococcus aureus gene expression in human blood
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America
PLoS ONE 6:e18617. 2011
..These findings, along with a requirement of specific growth conditions for leukotoxin expression, may explain the apparent limited contribution of any single two-component leukotoxin to USA300 immune evasion and virulence...
- Abundance of type I toxin-antitoxin systems in bacteria: searches for new candidates and discovery of novel families
Elizabeth M Fozo
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 38:3743-59. 2010
..Our results suggest that type I toxin-antitoxin modules are much more widely distributed among bacteria than previously appreciated...
- The key sigma factor of transition phase, SigH, controls sporulation, metabolism, and virulence factor expression in Clostridium difficile
Laboratoire de Pathogénèse des Bactéries Anaérobies, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
J Bacteriol 193:3186-96. 2011
..Among the 286 genes positively regulated by SigH, about 40 transcriptional units presenting a SigH consensus in their promoter regions are good candidates for direct SigH targets...
- Staphylococcus epidermidis surfactant peptides promote biofilm maturation and dissemination of biofilm-associated infection in mice
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
J Clin Invest 121:238-48. 2011
Toxines et Pathogénie Bactérienne, CNRS URA 2172, Institut Pasteur, Paris Cedex 15, France
Annu Rev Microbiol 55:647-71. 2001
..Spore-structure analysis could contribute to the improvement of human nonliving vaccines. The phylogeny of B. anthracis within the Bacillus cereus group is also reviewed...
- Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin directly targets mitochondria and induces Bax-independent apoptosis of human neutrophils
Anne Laure Genestier
Centre National de Référence des Staphylocoques, INSERM E0230, Lyon, France
J Clin Invest 115:3117-27. 2005
- Caspase-1 activation of lipid metabolic pathways in response to bacterial pore-forming toxins promotes cell survival
Department Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, University of Geneva, 1 rue Michel Servet, CH 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
Cell 126:1135-45. 2006
- Mobile genetic element-encoded cytolysin connects virulence to methicillin resistance in MRSA
Shu Y Queck
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA
PLoS Pathog 5:e1000533. 2009
..Thus, our study reveals a previously unknown role of methicillin resistance clusters in staphylococcal pathogenesis and shows that important virulence and antibiotic resistance determinants may be combined in staphylococcal MGEs...
- Relationships between Staphylococcus aureus genetic background, virulence factors, agr groups (alleles), and human disease
Faculte de Medecine Laennec, Centre national de référence des toxémies à staphylocoques, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
Infect Immun 70:631-41. 2002
..While these results do not show a direct role of the agr type in the type of human disease caused by S. aureus, the agr group may reflect an ancient evolutionary division of S. aureus in terms of this species' fundamental biology...
- Polymorphonuclear leukocytes mediate Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin-induced lung inflammation and injury
Binh An Diep
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5587-92. 2010
..These findings provide insights into the mechanism of PVL-induced lung injury and inflammation and demonstrate the utility of the rabbit for studying PVL-mediated pathogenesis...
- Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in the United States, 2001-2002
Matthew J Kuehnert
National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
J Infect Dis 193:172-9. 2006
..Although methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection has become increasingly reported, population-based S. aureus and MRSA colonization estimates are lacking...
- BsrG/SR4 from Bacillus subtilis--the first temperature-dependent type I toxin-antitoxin system
Friedrich Schiller Universitat Jena, Biologisch Pharmazeutische Fakultät, AG Bakteriengenetik, Philosophenweg 12, Jena, Germany
Mol Microbiol 83:579-98. 2012
..A heat shock at 48°C results in faster degradation and, therefore, significantly decreased amounts of bsrG RNA...
- Global functional analyses of cellular responses to pore-forming toxins
Cheng Yuan Kao
Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 7:e1001314. 2011
- The protective antigen component of anthrax toxin forms functional octameric complexes
Alexander F Kintzer
Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, 94720, USA
J Mol Biol 392:614-29. 2009
The assembly of bacterial toxins and virulence factors is critical to their function, but the regulation of assembly during infection has not been studied. We begin to address this question using anthrax toxin as a model...
- Targeting of alpha-hemolysin by active or passive immunization decreases severity of USA300 skin infection in a mouse model
Adam D Kennedy
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
J Infect Dis 202:1050-8. 2010
..We conclude that Hla is a potential target for therapeutics or vaccines designed to moderate severe S. aureus skin infections...
- Crystal structure of the octameric pore of staphylococcal γ-hemolysin reveals the β-barrel pore formation mechanism by two components
Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060 0810, Japan
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:17314-9. 2011
- Conditional cooperativity in toxin-antitoxin regulation prevents random toxin activation and promotes fast translational recovery
Center for Models of Life, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
Nucleic Acids Res 40:6424-34. 2012
..At the same time it enables quick removal of free toxin when the starvation is terminated...
- RTX proteins: a highly diverse family secreted by a common mechanism
Institute of Microbiology AS CR v v i, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic
FEMS Microbiol Rev 34:1076-112. 2010
- Methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections among patients in the emergency department
Gregory J Moran
Department of Emergency Medicine, Olive View UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, Calif 91342, USA
N Engl J Med 355:666-74. 2006
..Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasingly recognized in infections among persons in the community without established risk factors for MRSA...
- Characterization of the sporulation initiation pathway of Clostridium difficile and its role in toxin production
Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Leeds University, Leeds, United Kingdom
J Bacteriol 191:7296-305. 2009
..difficile is controlled by a two-component signal transduction system rather than a multicomponent phosphorelay. The implications of these findings for C. difficile sporulation, virulence, and transmission are discussed...
- Persisters: a distinct physiological state of E. coli
Department of Biology, Northeastern University, 134 Mugar Hall, 360 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
BMC Microbiol 6:53. 2006
..Recent progress in understanding persisters is encouraging, but the main obstacle in understanding their nature was our inability to isolate these elusive cells from a wild-type population since their discovery in 1944...
- Anthrax lethal factor cleavage of Nlrp1 is required for activation of the inflammasome
Jonathan L Levinsohn
Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 8:e1002638. 2012
..These results identify both a previously unrecognized mechanism of activation of an NLR and a new, physiologically relevant protein substrate of LT...
- Toxin-antitoxin systems: why so many, what for?
Laurence Van Melderen
Laboratoire de Génétique et Physiologie Bactérienne, Faculte des Sciences, Institut de Biologie et de Médecine Moléculaires, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
Curr Opin Microbiol 13:781-5. 2010
..Conflicting hypotheses about chromosomally encoded systems, from programmed cell death and starvation-induced stasis to protection against invading DNA and stabilization of large genomic fragments have been proposed...
- Staphylococcus aureus panton-valentine leukocidin is a very potent cytotoxic factor for human neutrophils
Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital of Munster, Germany
PLoS Pathog 6:e1000715. 2010
- Cellular and systemic effects of anthrax lethal toxin and edema toxin
Bacterial Toxins and Therapeutics Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 33, Room 1W20B, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Mol Aspects Med 30:439-55. 2009
..A brief reexamination of early historic findings on toxin in vivo effects in the context of our current knowledge is also presented...
- Pseudomonas syringae phytotoxins: mode of action, regulation, and biosynthesis by peptide and polyketide synthetases
C L Bender
Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 3032, USA
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 63:266-92. 1999
..Genetic reprogramming of peptide and polyketide synthetases has been successful, and portions of the coronatine and syringomycin gene clusters could be valuable resources in developing new antimicrobial agents...
- Comparative analysis of virulence and toxin expression of global community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai 200040, People s Republic of China
J Infect Dis 202:1866-76. 2010
..Our study indicates a major but not exclusive impact of virulence on the epidemiological success of USA300 and other CA-MRSA strains and emphasizes the importance of core genome-encoded toxins in CA-MRSA skin infections...
- Human hypervirulent Clostridium difficile strains exhibit increased sporulation as well as robust toxin production
Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USA
J Bacteriol 192:4904-11. 2010
..Increased sporulation, potentially in synergy with robust toxin production, may therefore contribute to the widespread disease now associated with hypervirulent C. difficile strains...
- ExoU is a potent intracellular phospholipase
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA
Mol Microbiol 53:1279-90. 2004
..ExoU likely represents a unique enzyme and is the first identified phopholipase virulence factor that is translocated into the cytosol by TTSS...
- A widespread family of polymorphic contact-dependent toxin delivery systems in bacteria
Stephanie K Aoki
Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of California Santa Barbara UCSB, Santa Barbara, California 93106 9625, USA
Nature 468:439-42. 2010
..Taken together, these results suggest that CDI systems constitute an intricate immunity network with an important function in bacterial competition...
- Bacterial programmed cell death and multicellular behavior in bacteria
Department of Molecular Biology, The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel
PLoS Genet 2:e135. 2006
..We relate these two bacterial PCD systems to the ways in which bacterial populations resemble multicellular organisms...
- Cholesterol exposure at the membrane surface is necessary and sufficient to trigger perfringolysin O binding
John J Flanagan
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
Biochemistry 48:3977-87. 2009
- Novel structurally designed vaccine for S. aureus α-hemolysin: protection against bacteremia and pneumonia
Rajan P Adhikari
Integrated Biotherapeutics Inc, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States of America
PLoS ONE 7:e38567. 2012
..aureus vaccine. Furthermore, identification of protective epitopes within AT-62aa could lead to novel immunotherapy for S. aureus infection...
- Regulation of enteric vapBC transcription: induction by VapC toxin dimer-breaking
Kristoffer S Winther
Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, NE2 4AX Newcastle, UK
Nucleic Acids Res 40:4347-57. 2012
..We present evidence that an excess of VapC toxin leads to operator complex destabilization by breaking of toxin dimers...
- Characterization of the gene cluster responsible for cylindrospermopsin biosynthesis
Troco Kaan Mihali
The University of New South Wales, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia
Appl Environ Microbiol 74:716-22. 2008
..These findings enable the design of toxic strain-specific probes and allow the future study of the regulation and biological role of cylindrospermopsin...
- A Staphylococcus aureus pore-forming toxin subverts the activity of ADAM10 to cause lethal infection in mice
Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Nat Med 17:1310-4. 2011
- Mechanisms of NK cell-macrophage Bacillus anthracis crosstalk: a balance between stimulation by spores and differential disruption by toxins
Laboratoire Pathogénie et Toxi Infections Bactériennes, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
PLoS Pathog 8:e1002481. 2012
..This highlights the potential implication of the crosstalk between host innate defences and B. anthracis in initial anthrax control mechanisms...
- Anthrax toxins: a weapon to systematically dismantle the host immune defenses
Jean Nicolas Tournier
Unité Interactions Hôte Pathogène, Département de Biologie des Agents Transmissibles, Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, 24 Avenue des Maquis du Gresivaudan, 38702 La Tronche, France
Mol Aspects Med 30:456-66. 2009
..We also discuss some open issues which should be addressed to gain a comprehensive insight into the complex relationship that B. anthracis establishes with the host...
- Neutrophil responses to staphylococcal pathogens and commensals via the formyl peptide receptor 2 relates to phenol-soluble modulin release and virulence
Cellular and Molecular Microbiology Division, Interfaculty Institute of Microbiology and Infection Medicine, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
FASEB J 25:1254-63. 2011
..These findings suggest that the innate immune system may be able to respond in different ways to pathogenic or innocuous staphylococci by monitoring the presence of PSMs via FPR2...
- YeeV is an Escherichia coli toxin that inhibits cell division by targeting the cytoskeleton proteins, FtsZ and MreB
Department of Biochemistry, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 679 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
Mol Microbiol 79:109-18. 2011
..The YeeV toxin is distinct from other well-studied toxins: it directs the binding of two cytoskeletal proteins and inhibits FtsZ and MreB simultaneously...
- Anthrax lethal factor cleaves the N-terminus of MAPKKs and induces tyrosine/threonine phosphorylation of MAPKs in cultured macrophages
Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Universita di Padova, Italy
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 248:706-11. 1998
..The possible implications of these findings for the cytolysis of macrophage cells induced by LF are discussed. These results open the way to the design and screening of specific inhibitors of LF...
- A nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene (mgoA) of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae is involved in mangotoxin biosynthesis and is required for full virulence
Departamento de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, Malaga, Spain
Mol Plant Microbe Interact 20:500-9. 2007
..syringae pv. syringae. The involvement of an NRPS in the production of an antimetabolite toxin from P. syringae inhibiting ornithine acetyltransferase activity is proposed...
- Structural basis for the unfolding of anthrax lethal factor by protective antigen oligomers
Geoffrey K Feld
Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
Nat Struct Mol Biol 17:1383-90. 2010
..This structure provides insight into the mechanism of translocation-coupled protein unfolding...
- High resolution crystallographic studies of alpha-hemolysin-phospholipid complexes define heptamer-lipid head group interactions: implication for understanding protein-lipid interactions
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
Protein Sci 13:1503-11. 2004
..These structures provide a molecular basis for understanding why alpha-hemolysin preferentially assembles on membranes comprised of phosphocholine lipids...
- Caspase and bid involvement in Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced apoptosis and modulation of toxin A effects by glutamine and alanyl-glutamine in vivo and in vitro
Benedito A Carneiro
Center for Global Health, Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia, MR4, Lane Road, Room 3148, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
Infect Immun 74:81-7. 2006
..Glutamine and alanyl-glutamine inhibited the apoptosis of T84 cells by preventing caspase 8 activation and reduced TxA-induced intestinal secretion and disruption...
- Human capillary morphogenesis protein 2 functions as an anthrax toxin receptor
Heather M Scobie
McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:5170-4. 2003
..These studies distinguish CMG2 as a second anthrax toxin receptor and identify a potent antitoxin that may prove useful for the treatment of anthrax...
- The role of virulence determinants in community-associated MRSA pathogenesis
Binh An Diep
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 1001 Potrero Avenue, Box 0811, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
Trends Microbiol 16:361-9. 2008
..Here, we discuss the roles of PVL, the arginine catabolic mobile element and phenol-soluble modulins in the pathogenesis of prevalent CA-MRSA strains...
- A mechanism of cell death involving an adenylyl cyclase/PKA signaling pathway is induced by the Cry1Ab toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis
Biological Targets Inc, Dallas, TX 75235, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:9897-902. 2006
..The discovery of a toxin-induced cell death pathway specifically linked to BT-R(1) in insect cells should provide insights into how insects evolve resistance to Bt and into the development of new, safer insecticides...
- TADB: a web-based resource for Type 2 toxin-antitoxin loci in bacteria and archaea
Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism and School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030, PR China
Nucleic Acids Res 39:D606-11. 2011
..The TADB database, envisaged as a one-stop shop for Type 2 TA-related research, will be maintained, updated and improved regularly to ensure its ongoing maximum utility to the research community...
- A novel mechanism of programmed cell death in bacteria by toxin-antitoxin systems corrupts peptidoglycan synthesis
Department of Biomolecular Mechanisms, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Heidelberg, Germany
PLoS Biol 9:e1001033. 2011
..Finally, we discuss how phosphorylated UNAG likely poisons additional pathways of bacterial cell wall synthesis, making it an attractive lead compound for development of new antibiotics...
- Treatment with monoclonal antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxins
Medarex, Princeton, NJ, USA
N Engl J Med 362:197-205. 2010
..New therapies are needed to manage the increasing incidence, severity, and high rate of recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection...
- Anthrax toxins cooperatively inhibit endocytic recycling by the Rab11/Sec15 exocyst
Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0349, USA
Nature 467:854-8. 2010
..This coordinated disruption of the Rab11/Sec15 exocyst by anthrax toxins may contribute to toxin-dependent barrier disruption and vascular dysfunction during B. anthracis infection...
- Hypoxia and the hypoxic response pathway protect against pore-forming toxins in C. elegans
Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
PLoS Pathog 5:e1000689. 2009
- Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins, a family of versatile pore-forming toxins
Rodney K Tweten
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, 73104, USA
Infect Immun 73:6199-209. 2005
- Repair of injured plasma membrane by rapid Ca2+-dependent endocytosis
Section of Microbial Pathogenesis and 2Department of Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
J Cell Biol 180:905-14. 2008
..These findings provide an important new insight into how cells protect themselves not only from mechanical injury but also from microbial toxins and pore-forming proteins produced by the immune system...
- Nalp1b controls mouse macrophage susceptibility to anthrax lethal toxin
Eric D Boyden
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nat Genet 38:240-4. 2006
- Comparative phylogenomics of Clostridium difficile reveals clade specificity and microevolution of hypervirulent strains
R A Stabler
Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
J Bacteriol 188:7297-305. 2006
..This study has provided insight into the possible origins of C. difficile and its evolution that may have implications in disease control strategies...
- Anthrax lethal toxin and Salmonella elicit the common cell death pathway of caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis via distinct mechanisms
Susan L Fink
Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Departments of Microbiology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4312-7. 2008
- The relBE2Spn toxin-antitoxin system of Streptococcus pneumoniae: role in antibiotic tolerance and functional conservation in clinical isolates
Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
PLoS ONE 5:e11289. 2010
..We conclude that even though the relBE2Spn TAS is not essential for pneumococcus, it may provide additional advantages to the bacteria for colonization and/or infection...
- Transcriptome dysregulation by anthrax lethal toxin plays a key role in induction of human endothelial cell cytotoxicity
INSERM, U895, Centre Méditerranéen de Médecine Moléculaire, C3M, Nice, 06204 Cedex 3, France
Cell Microbiol 12:891-905. 2010
..Together our data establish that the modulation of the cell transcriptome by LT plays a key role in triggering human endothelial cell toxicity...
- Human formyl peptide receptor 2 senses highly pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus
Cellular and Molecular Microbiology Division, Interfaculty Institute of Microbiology and Infection Medicine, University of Tubingen, Elfriede Aulhorn Strasse 6, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
Cell Host Microbe 7:463-73. 2010
..FPR2/ALX represents an attractive target for new anti-infective or anti-inflammatory strategies...