heterochromatin

Summary

Summary: The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Systematic protein location mapping reveals five principal chromatin types in Drosophila cells
    Guillaume J Filion
    Division of Gene Regulation, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Cell 143:212-24. 2010
  2. pmc RNAi-mediated targeting of heterochromatin by the RITS complex
    Andre Verdel
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA02115, USA
    Science 303:672-6. 2004
  3. ncbi Rb-mediated heterochromatin formation and silencing of E2F target genes during cellular senescence
    Masashi Narita
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Cell 113:703-16. 2003
  4. doi ATM signaling facilitates repair of DNA double-strand breaks associated with heterochromatin
    Aaron A Goodarzi
    Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, East Sussex BN1 9RQ, UK
    Mol Cell 31:167-77. 2008
  5. doi LINE-1 activity in facultative heterochromatin formation during X chromosome inactivation
    Jennifer C Chow
    Institut Curie, Paris F 75248, France
    Cell 141:956-69. 2010
  6. pmc The Arabidopsis nucleosome remodeler DDM1 allows DNA methyltransferases to access H1-containing heterochromatin
    Assaf Zemach
    Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Cell 153:193-205. 2013
  7. pmc Subdiffraction multicolor imaging of the nuclear periphery with 3D structured illumination microscopy
    Lothar Schermelleh
    Center for Integrated Protein Science, Department of Biology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, 82152 Planegg Martinsried, Germany
    Science 320:1332-6. 2008
  8. doi Step-wise methylation of histone H3K9 positions heterochromatin at the nuclear periphery
    Benjamin D Towbin
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, 4058 Basel, Switzerland
    Cell 150:934-47. 2012
  9. pmc From silencing to gene expression: real-time analysis in single cells
    Susan M Janicki
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Cell 116:683-98. 2004
  10. ncbi Cellular senescence in aging primates
    Utz Herbig
    Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA
    Science 311:1257. 2006

Detail Information

Publications314 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Systematic protein location mapping reveals five principal chromatin types in Drosophila cells
    Guillaume J Filion
    Division of Gene Regulation, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Cell 143:212-24. 2010
    ..We identify a repressive chromatin type that covers about half of the genome and lacks classic heterochromatin markers...
  2. pmc RNAi-mediated targeting of heterochromatin by the RITS complex
    Andre Verdel
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA02115, USA
    Science 303:672-6. 2004
    ..effector complex termed RITS (RNA-induced initiation of transcriptional gene silencing) that is required for heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast...
  3. ncbi Rb-mediated heterochromatin formation and silencing of E2F target genes during cellular senescence
    Masashi Narita
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Cell 113:703-16. 2003
    ..SAHF formation coincides with the recruitment of heterochromatin proteins and the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor to E2F-responsive promoters and is associated with the ..
  4. doi ATM signaling facilitates repair of DNA double-strand breaks associated with heterochromatin
    Aaron A Goodarzi
    Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, East Sussex BN1 9RQ, UK
    Mol Cell 31:167-77. 2008
    ..repaired more slowly than euchromatic DSBs, and ATM signaling is specifically required for DSB repair within heterochromatin. Significantly, knockdown of the transcriptional repressor KAP-1, an ATM substrate, or the heterochromatin-..
  5. doi LINE-1 activity in facultative heterochromatin formation during X chromosome inactivation
    Jennifer C Chow
    Institut Curie, Paris F 75248, France
    Cell 141:956-69. 2010
    ....
  6. pmc The Arabidopsis nucleosome remodeler DDM1 allows DNA methyltransferases to access H1-containing heterochromatin
    Assaf Zemach
    Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Cell 153:193-205. 2013
    ..RdDM is instead inhibited by heterochromatin and absolutely requires the nucleosome remodeler DRD1...
  7. pmc Subdiffraction multicolor imaging of the nuclear periphery with 3D structured illumination microscopy
    Lothar Schermelleh
    Center for Integrated Protein Science, Department of Biology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, 82152 Planegg Martinsried, Germany
    Science 320:1332-6. 2008
    ..We could resolve single NPCs that colocalized with channels in the lamin network and peripheral heterochromatin. We could differentially localize distinct NPC components and detect double-layered invaginations of the ..
  8. doi Step-wise methylation of histone H3K9 positions heterochromatin at the nuclear periphery
    Benjamin D Towbin
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, 4058 Basel, Switzerland
    Cell 150:934-47. 2012
    The factors that sequester transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin at the nuclear periphery are currently unknown...
  9. pmc From silencing to gene expression: real-time analysis in single cells
    Susan M Janicki
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Cell 116:683-98. 2004
    ..3 is deposited suggesting that histone exchange is a mechanism through which heterochromatin is transformed into a transcriptionally active state...
  10. ncbi Cellular senescence in aging primates
    Utz Herbig
    Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA
    Science 311:1257. 2006
    ..In addition, the same cells contain activated ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase and heterochromatinized nuclei, confirming their senescent status...
  11. doi The influence of heterochromatin on DNA double strand break repair: Getting the strong, silent type to relax
    Aaron A Goodarzi
    Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, East Sussex BN1 9RQ, United Kingdom
    DNA Repair (Amst) 9:1273-82. 2010
    ..DSBs repaired with slow kinetics predominantly localise to the periphery of genomic heterochromatin (HC)...
  12. doi Genome-wide analysis of heterochromatin associates clonally variant gene regulation with perinuclear repressive centers in malaria parasites
    Jose Juan Lopez-Rubio
    Unité de Biologie des Interactions Hôte Parasite, CNRS URA2581, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Cell Host Microbe 5:179-90. 2009
    ..Here, we determine the genome-wide distribution in P. falciparum of a histone mark of heterochromatin, trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3), using high-resolution ChIP-chip analysis...
  13. ncbi Role of histone H3 lysine 9 methylation in epigenetic control of heterochromatin assembly
    J Nakayama
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Post Office Box 100, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Science 292:110-3. 2001
    ..in vivo evidence that lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3 Lys9) is preferentially methylated by the Clr4 protein at heterochromatin-associated regions in fission yeast...
  14. pmc MORC family ATPases required for heterochromatin condensation and gene silencing
    Guillaume Moissiard
    Department of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology, University of California at Los Angeles, Terasaki Life Sciences Building, 610 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 723905, USA
    Science 336:1448-51. 2012
    ..The atmorc1 and atmorc6 mutants show decondensation of pericentromeric heterochromatin, increased interaction of pericentromeric regions with the rest of the genome, and transcriptional defects ..
  15. doi RNA elimination machinery targeting meiotic mRNAs promotes facultative heterochromatin formation
    Martin Zofall
    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 335:96-100. 2012
    Facultative heterochromatin that changes during cellular differentiation coordinates regulated gene expression, but its assembly is poorly understood...
  16. pmc Nuclear neighborhoods and gene expression
    Rui Zhao
    Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 19:172-9. 2009
    ..We are still at a very early, yet exciting stage in our journey toward deciphering the mechanism(s) that govern(s) the permissiveness of gene expression/repression within different nuclear neighborhoods...
  17. ncbi An epigenetic activation role of Piwi and a Piwi-associated piRNA in Drosophila melanogaster
    Hang Yin
    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical School, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 450:304-8. 2007
    b>Heterochromatin, representing the silenced state of transcription, consists largely of transposon-enriched and highly repetitive sequences...
  18. doi Gene silencing in X-chromosome inactivation: advances in understanding facultative heterochromatin formation
    Anton Wutz
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Rev Genet 12:542-53. 2011
    ..During development, the inactive X chromosome is further modified, a specialized form of facultative heterochromatin is formed and gene repression becomes stable and independent of Xist in somatic cells...
  19. ncbi Human SirT1 interacts with histone H1 and promotes formation of facultative heterochromatin
    Alejandro Vaquero
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Division of Nucleic Acids Enzymology, Department of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Mol Cell 16:93-105. 2004
    ..We propose a model for SirT1-mediated heterochromatin formation that includes deacetylation of histone tails, recruitment and deacetylation of histone H1, and ..
  20. pmc Heterochromatin is refractory to gamma-H2AX modification in yeast and mammals
    Jung Ae Kim
    Rosenstiel Center and Department of Biology, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454, USA
    J Cell Biol 178:209-18. 2007
    ..The presence of heterochromatin does not stop the phosphorylation of chromatin more distant from the DSB...
  21. ncbi Regulation of heterochromatic silencing and histone H3 lysine-9 methylation by RNAi
    Thomas A Volpe
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Watson School of Biological Sciences, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Science 297:1833-7. 2002
    Eukaryotic heterochromatin is characterized by a high density of repeats and transposons, as well as by modified histones, and influences both gene expression and chromosome segregation...
  22. pmc Histone H1 plays a role in heterochromatin formation and VSG expression site silencing in Trypanosoma brucei
    Megan L Povelones
    Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1003010. 2012
    ..brucei. In particular H1 plays a role in downregulating silent ESs, arguing that H1-mediated chromatin functions in antigenic variation in T. brucei...
  23. pmc BRCA1 tumour suppression occurs via heterochromatin-mediated silencing
    Quan Zhu
    Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 477:179-84. 2011
    ..expression of H2A fused to ubiquitin reverses the effects of BRCA1 loss, indicating that BRCA1 maintains heterochromatin structure via ubiquitylation of histone H2A...
  24. pmc Double-strand breaks in heterochromatin move outside of a dynamic HP1a domain to complete recombinational repair
    Irene Chiolo
    Department of Genome Dynamics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Cell 144:732-44. 2011
    ..We observe dramatic expansion and dynamic protrusions of the heterochromatin domain in response to ionizing radiation (IR) in Drosophila cells...
  25. pmc Aberrant overexpression of satellite repeats in pancreatic and other epithelial cancers
    David T Ting
    Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Science 331:593-6. 2011
    Satellite repeats in heterochromatin are transcribed into noncoding RNAs that have been linked to gene silencing and maintenance of chromosomal integrity...
  26. pmc Identification of noncoding transcripts from within CENP-A chromatin at fission yeast centromeres
    Eun Shik Choi
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology and Institute of Cell Biology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 286:23600-7. 2011
    ..In fission yeast, adjacent heterochromatin can direct CENP-A(Cnp1) chromatin establishment, but the underlying features governing where CENP-A(Cnp1) ..
  27. doi Cell cycle control of centromeric repeat transcription and heterochromatin assembly
    Ee Sin Chen
    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 451:734-7. 2008
    b>Heterochromatin in eukaryotic genomes regulates diverse chromosomal processes including transcriptional silencing...
  28. pmc DNA double-strand breaks in heterochromatin elicit fast repair protein recruitment, histone H2AX phosphorylation and relocation to euchromatin
    Burkhard Jakob
    Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:6489-99. 2011
    ..However, a lack of γH2AX formation in heterochromatin (HC) is generally observed after DNA damage induction...
  29. doi The changing faces of HP1: From heterochromatin formation and gene silencing to euchromatic gene expression: HP1 acts as a positive regulator of transcription
    So Hee Kwon
    Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO, USA
    Bioessays 33:280-9. 2011
    b>Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a positive regulator of active transcription in euchromatin. HP1 was first identified in Drosophila melanogaster as a major component of heterochromatin...
  30. ncbi Histone acetylation in chromatin structure and transcription
    M Grunstein
    Department of Biological Chemistry, UCLA School of Medicine and the Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles 90095, USA
    Nature 389:349-52. 1997
    ..These acetylation patterns may direct histone assembly and help regulate the unfolding and activity of genes...
  31. pmc T cell lineage choice and differentiation in the absence of the RNase III enzyme Dicer
    Bradley S Cobb
    Lymphocyte Development Group, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, England, UK
    J Exp Med 201:1367-73. 2005
    ..for the maintenance of transcriptional silencing at pericentromeric satellite sequences (constitutive heterochromatin), the maintenance of DNA methylation and X chromosome inactivation in female cells (facultative ..
  32. pmc TERRA RNA binding to TRF2 facilitates heterochromatin formation and ORC recruitment at telomeres
    Zhong Deng
    The Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Mol Cell 35:403-13. 2009
    ..including telomere repeat factors 1 (TRF1) and 2 (TRF2), subunits of the origin recognition complex (ORC), heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), histone H3 trimethyl K9 (H3 K9me3), and members of the DNA-damage-sensing pathway...
  33. ncbi SHREC, an effector complex for heterochromatic transcriptional silencing
    Tomoyasu Sugiyama
    Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cell 128:491-504. 2007
    Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) is the mechanism generally thought by which heterochromatin effects silencing...
  34. ncbi Establishment and maintenance of a heterochromatin domain
    Ira M Hall
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Post Office Box 100, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Science 297:2232-7. 2002
    ..Here, we study a 20-kilobase silent domain at the mating-type region of fission yeast as a model for heterochromatin formation...
  35. pmc Molecular crowding affects diffusion and binding of nuclear proteins in heterochromatin and reveals the fractal organization of chromatin
    Aurélien Bancaud
    Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, EMBL, Heidelberg, Germany
    EMBO J 28:3785-98. 2009
    The nucleus of eukaryotes is organized into functional compartments, the two most prominent being heterochromatin and nucleoli. These structures are highly enriched in DNA, proteins or RNA, and thus thought to be crowded...
  36. pmc Suv4-20h2 mediates chromatin compaction and is important for cohesin recruitment to heterochromatin
    Matthias Hahn
    Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science, Ludwig Maximilians University, Germany
    Genes Dev 27:859-72. 2013
    ..However, it is currently unknown how cohesin is recruited to pericentric heterochromatin in mammalian cells...
  37. doi LBR and lamin A/C sequentially tether peripheral heterochromatin and inversely regulate differentiation
    Irina Solovei
    Department of Biology II, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich CIPSM, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Grosshadernerstrasse 2, 82152 Planegg Martinsried, Germany
    Cell 152:584-98. 2013
    Eukaryotic cells have a layer of heterochromatin at the nuclear periphery...
  38. pmc KRAB-zinc finger proteins and KAP1 can mediate long-range transcriptional repression through heterochromatin spreading
    Anna C Groner
    School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000869. 2010
    ..we reveal that KRAB-mediated repression is established by the long-range spreading of H3K9me3 and heterochromatin protein 1 beta (HP1beta) between the repressor binding site and the promoter...
  39. pmc Hrp3 controls nucleosome positioning to suppress non-coding transcription in eu- and heterochromatin
    Young Sam Shim
    Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
    EMBO J 31:4375-87. 2012
    ..also associated with destabilization of the DNA-histone interaction and cell cycle-dependent alleviation of heterochromatin silencing...
  40. pmc Heterochromatic marks are associated with the repression of secondary metabolism clusters in Aspergillus nidulans
    Yazmid Reyes-Dominguez
    Fungal Genetics and Genomics Unit, Austrian Institute of Technology AIT and University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences BOKU Vienna, Austria
    Mol Microbiol 76:1376-86. 2010
    ..SM-gene regulation based on the finding that, in Aspergillus nidulans, mutants lacking components involved in heterochromatin formation show de-repression of genes involved in biosynthesis of sterigmatocystin (ST), penicillin and ..
  41. doi 53BP1-dependent robust localized KAP-1 phosphorylation is essential for heterochromatic DNA double-strand break repair
    Angela T Noon
    Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, East Sussex, BN1 9RQ, UK
    Nat Cell Biol 12:177-84. 2010
    ..ATM promotes DSB repair within heterochromatin by phosphorylating KAP-1 (KRAB-associated protein 1, also known as TIF1beta, TRIM28 or KRIP-1; ref. 2)...
  42. pmc Mechanism for epigenetic variegation of gene expression at yeast telomeric heterochromatin
    Tasuku Kitada
    Department of Biological Chemistry, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Genes Dev 26:2443-55. 2012
    Yeast contains heterochromatin at telomeres and the silent mating-type loci (HML/HMR)...
  43. pmc Mouse centric and pericentric satellite repeats form distinct functional heterochromatin
    Mounia Guenatri
    Institut Curie Research section, UMR218 du Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique, 26 Rue d Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France
    J Cell Biol 166:493-505. 2004
    b>Heterochromatin is thought to play a critical role for centromeric function...
  44. ncbi Functions of site-specific histone acetylation and deacetylation
    Mona D Shahbazian
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Geffen School of Medicine and the Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 76:75-100. 2007
    ..Histone acetylation also regulates the formation of heterochromatin; deacetylation of H4 lysine 16 is important for spreading of heterochromatin components, whereas acetylation ..
  45. pmc RNAi-dependent formation of heterochromatin and its diverse functions
    Shiv Is Grewal
    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 20:134-41. 2010
    ..and multicellular organisms suggest that transcription and ncRNAs provide a framework for the assembly of heterochromatin, which has been linked to various chromosomal processes...
  46. ncbi Senescence-associated heterochromatin foci are dispensable for cellular senescence, occur in a cell type- and insult-dependent manner and follow expression of p16(ink4a)
    Martin Kosar
    Department of Genome Integrity, Institute of Molecular Genetics v v i, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic
    Cell Cycle 10:457-68. 2011
    ..fibroblasts undergoing oncogene-induced or replicative senescence are known to form senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF), nuclear DNA domains stained densely by DAPI and enriched for histone modifications including ..
  47. pmc NUP-1 Is a large coiled-coil nucleoskeletal protein in trypanosomes with lamin-like functions
    Kelly N DuBois
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS Biol 10:e1001287. 2012
    ..organization is genome segregation into transcriptionally active euchromatin and transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin. In metazoa, lamin proteins preserve nuclear integrity and higher order heterochromatin organization at the ..
  48. pmc Genome-wide association of histone H3 lysine nine methylation with CHG DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Yana V Bernatavichute
    Molecular Biology Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 3:e3156. 2008
    ..These results suggest a complex interplay between H3K9m2 and different types of DNA methylation and suggest that distinct mechanisms control H3K9m2 in different compartments of the genome...
  49. pmc Arginine methylation at histone H3R2 controls deposition of H3K4 trimethylation
    Antonis Kirmizis
    Gurdon Institute and Department of Pathology, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK
    Nature 449:928-32. 2007
    ..Thus, the inability of Spp1 to recognize H3 methylated at R2 prevents Set1 from trimethylating H3K4. These results provide the first mechanistic insight into the function of arginine methylation on chromatin...
  50. pmc Altered heterochromatin binding by a hybrid sterility protein in Drosophila sibling species
    Joshua J Bayes
    Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98185, USA
    Science 326:1538-41. 2009
    ..gene Odysseus-site homeobox (OdsH) encodes a protein that localizes to evolutionarily dynamic loci within heterochromatin and leads to their decondensation. In Drosophila mauritiana x Drosophila simulans male hybrids, OdsH from D...
  51. ncbi Maintenance of stable heterochromatin domains by dynamic HP1 binding
    Thierry Cheutin
    National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 299:721-5. 2003
    One function of heterochromatin is the epigenetic silencing by sequestration of genes into transcriptionally repressed nuclear neighborhoods...
  52. pmc The Drosophila HP1 homolog Rhino is required for transposon silencing and piRNA production by dual-strand clusters
    Carla Klattenhoff
    University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Cell 138:1137-49. 2009
    ..Rhino thus appears to promote transcription of dual-strand clusters, leading to production of piRNAs that drive the ping-pong amplification cycle...
  53. ncbi Dynamic binding of histone H1 to chromatin in living cells
    T Misteli
    National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 408:877-81. 2000
    ..The residence time of H1-GFP on chromatin between exchange events is several minutes in both euchromatin and heterochromatin. In addition to the mobile fraction, we detected a kinetically distinct, less mobile fraction...
  54. doi Prdm3 and Prdm16 are H3K9me1 methyltransferases required for mammalian heterochromatin integrity
    Inês Pinheiro
    Department of Epigenetics, Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics, Stubeweg 51, 79108 Freiburg, Germany
    Cell 150:948-60. 2012
    b>Heterochromatin serves important functions, protecting genome integrity and stabilizing gene expression programs...
  55. pmc Transcription of the herpes simplex virus latency-associated transcript promotes the formation of facultative heterochromatin on lytic promoters
    Anna R Cliffe
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Virol 83:8182-90. 2009
    ..that the viral latency-associated transcript (LAT) promotes lytic gene silencing and the association of one heterochromatin marker, dimethylation of lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9me2), with viral lytic genes...
  56. doi KAP-1 phosphorylation regulates CHD3 nucleosome remodeling during the DNA double-strand break response
    Aaron A Goodarzi
    Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, East Sussex, UK
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 18:831-9. 2011
    KAP-1 poses a substantial barrier to DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair within heterochromatin that is alleviated by ATM-dependent KAP-1 phosphorylation (pKAP-1)...
  57. doi SUMOylation promotes de novo targeting of HP1α to pericentric heterochromatin
    Christèle Maison
    Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche, Paris, France
    Nat Genet 43:220-7. 2011
    HP1 enrichment at pericentric heterochromatin is considered important for centromere function...
  58. pmc Herpesviral latency-associated transcript gene promotes assembly of heterochromatin on viral lytic-gene promoters in latent infection
    Qing Yin Wang
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:16055-9. 2005
    ..to show that HSV lytic-gene promoters become complexed with modified histones associated with heterochromatin during the course of establishment of latent infection...
  59. pmc Dicer-independent primal RNAs trigger RNAi and heterochromatin formation
    Mario Halic
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 140:504-16. 2010
    Assembly of fission yeast pericentromeric heterochromatin and generation of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from noncoding centromeric transcripts are mutually dependent processes...
  60. ncbi RNA polymerase II is required for RNAi-dependent heterochromatin assembly
    Hiroaki Kato
    Department of Viral Oncology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Science 309:467-9. 2005
    ..transcripts into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and is required for the assembly of pericentromeric heterochromatin. Here we describe a mutation in the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)...
  61. ncbi Epigenetic regulation by histone methylation and histone variants
    Peter Cheung
    Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Ontario Cancer Institute, 610 University Avenue, Room 10 516, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 2M9
    Mol Endocrinol 19:563-73. 2005
    ..findings that shape the current paradigms regarding the roles of histone methylation and histone variants in heterochromatin assembly and the maintenance of the boundaries between heterochromatin and euchromatin...
  62. ncbi Genome-wide patterns of histone modifications in yeast
    Catherine B Millar
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Geffen School of Medicine and the Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 7:657-66. 2006
    ..of modified and unmodified states relate to each other and particularly to chromosomal landmarks that include heterochromatin, subtelomeric chromatin, centromeres, origins of replication, promoters and coding regions...
  63. pmc Regulation of chromatin by histone modifications
    Andrew J Bannister
    The Gurdon Institute and Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK
    Cell Res 21:381-95. 2011
    ..Here, we describe the known histone modifications, define where they are found genomically and discuss some of their functional consequences, concentrating mostly on transcription where the majority of characterisation has taken place...
  64. pmc Role for rodent Smc6 in pericentromeric heterochromatin domains during spermatogonial differentiation and meiosis
    D E Verver
    Center for Reproductive Medicine, Women s and Children s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Cell Death Dis 4:e749. 2013
    ..replication forks and prevention of recombination in repetitive sequences such as rDNA and pericentromeric heterochromatin. Although such DNA damage control mechanisms, as well as highly dynamic changes in chromatin composition and ..
  65. pmc WSTF-ISWI chromatin remodeling complex targets heterochromatic replication foci
    Ludmila Bozhenok
    Marie Curie Research Institute, Oxted, Surrey RH8 0TL, UK
    EMBO J 21:2231-41. 2002
    ..In mouse cells, WSTF interacts with the SNF2H isoform of ISWI. WSTF accumulates in pericentric heterochromatin coincident with the replication of these structures, suggesting a role for WSTF in the replication of ..
  66. pmc Plasticity in patterns of histone modifications and chromosomal proteins in Drosophila heterochromatin
    Nicole C Riddle
    Department of Biology, Washington University St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
    Genome Res 21:147-63. 2011
    Eukaryotic genomes are packaged in two basic forms, euchromatin and heterochromatin. We have examined the composition and organization of Drosophila melanogaster heterochromatin in different cell types using ChIP-array analysis of ..
  67. doi DNA-RNA hybrid formation mediates RNAi-directed heterochromatin formation
    Mina Nakama
    Laboratory of Cell Regulation and Molecular Network, Division of Systemic Life Science, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    Genes Cells 17:218-33. 2012
    ..During the formation of RNAi-directed heterochromatin in fission yeast, ncRNAs transcribed from heterochromatin are thought to recruit the RNAi machinery to ..
  68. pmc Mi-2/NuRD complex function is required for normal S phase progression and assembly of pericentric heterochromatin
    Jennifer K Sims
    Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 22:3094-102. 2011
    ..Pericentric heterochromatin is critical for silencing repetitive elements and plays an essential structural role during mitosis...
  69. doi Heterochromatin formation in bistable chromatin domains controls the epigenetic repression of clonally variant Plasmodium falciparum genes linked to erythrocyte invasion
    Valerie M Crowley
    Institute for Research in Biomedicine IRB, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    Mol Microbiol 80:391-406. 2011
    ..Repression is mediated by H3K9me3-based heterochromatin, whereas the active state is characterized by H3K9ac...
  70. pmc The kinetochore proteins Pcs1 and Mde4 and heterochromatin are required to prevent merotelic orientation
    Juraj Gregan
    Max F Perutz Laboratories, Department of Chromosome Biology, University of Vienna, Dr Bohr Gasse 1, 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Curr Biol 17:1190-200. 2007
    ..A protein called Pcs1 has been implicated in preventing merotelic attachment in mitosis and meiosis II in the fission yeast S. pombe...
  71. doi Chromatin insulator elements: establishing barriers to set heterochromatin boundaries
    Grainne Barkess
    Institute of Cancer Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK
    Epigenomics 4:67-80. 2012
    ..at the mechanisms vertebrate barrier proteins, such as USF1 and VEZF1, employ to counteract Polycomb- and heterochromatin-associated repression...
  72. pmc Retrotransposon-induced heterochromatin spreading in the mouse revealed by insertional polymorphisms
    Rita Rebollo
    Terry Fox Laboratory, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, Canada
    PLoS Genet 7:e1002301. 2011
    ..Retrotransposons, a class of TEs, are often located in repressed regions and are thought to induce heterochromatin formation and spreading...
  73. doi Heterochromatin integrity affects chromosome reorganization after centromere dysfunction
    Kojiro Ishii
    Division of Cell Biology, Institute of Life Science, Kurume University, Japan
    Science 321:1088-91. 2008
    ..telomere fusion is considerably decreased by the inactivation of genes involved in RNA interference-dependent heterochromatin formation...
  74. pmc Methyl CpG-binding proteins induce large-scale chromatin reorganization during terminal differentiation
    Alessandro Brero
    Department of Biology II, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, 82152 Planegg Martinsried, Germany
    J Cell Biol 169:733-43. 2005
    Pericentric heterochromatin plays an important role in epigenetic gene regulation. We show that pericentric heterochromatin aggregates during myogenic differentiation...
  75. pmc The PWWP domain of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b is required for directing DNA methylation to the major satellite repeats at pericentric heterochromatin
    Taiping Chen
    Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 24:9048-58. 2004
    ..and green fluorescent protein-tagged Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b are particularly concentrated in pericentric heterochromatin. Mutagenesis analysis indicates that their PWWP domains are required for their association with pericentric ..
  76. pmc Analysis of human syndromes with disordered chromatin reveals the impact of heterochromatin on the efficacy of ATM-dependent G2/M checkpoint arrest
    Holly Brunton
    Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, East Sussex BN1 9RQ, United Kingdom
    Mol Cell Biol 31:4022-35. 2011
    b>Heterochromatin (HC) poses a barrier to γH2AX focus expansion and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, the latter being relieved by ATM-dependent KAP-1 phosphorylation...
  77. pmc LEDGF hybrids efficiently retarget lentiviral integration into heterochromatin
    Rik Gijsbers
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Mol Ther 18:552-60. 2010
    ..CBX1 binds histone H3 di- or trimethylated on K9, which is associated with pericentric heterochromatin and intergenic regions...
  78. pmc Constitutive heterochromatin reorganization during somatic cell reprogramming
    Eden Fussner
    Programs in Genetics and Genome Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    EMBO J 30:1778-89. 2011
    ..In contrast to loci-specific epigenetic changes, heterochromatin domains undergo epigenetic resetting during the reprogramming process, but the effect on the heterochromatin ..
  79. ncbi "ORCanization" on heterochromatin: linking DNA replication initiation to chromatin organization
    Arindam Chakraborty
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA
    Epigenetics 6:665-70. 2011
    ..In humans, Drosophila and Xenopus, ORC associates with HP1, and this interaction is crucial for heterochromatin organization...
  80. ncbi Dynamic alterations of replication timing in mammalian cells
    Chii Mei Lin
    Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Center for Cancer Research, NCI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 4255, USA
    Curr Biol 13:1019-28. 2003
    ..The genetic and epigenetic determinants of replication timing in mammalian cells have yet to be elucidated...
  81. doi DNA methylation and the formation of heterochromatin in Neurospora crassa
    M R Rountree
    Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA
    Heredity (Edinb) 105:38-44. 2010
    ..of the control and function of DNA methylation in Neurospora crassa have led to a greater understanding of heterochromatin formation...
  82. pmc The Release 5.1 annotation of Drosophila melanogaster heterochromatin
    Christopher D Smith
    Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132, USA
    Science 316:1586-91. 2007
    ..The heterochromatin contains a minimum of 230 to 254 protein-coding genes, which are conserved in other Drosophilids and more ..
  83. pmc Early-replicating heterochromatin
    Soo Mi Kim
    Department of Cancer Genetics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263, USA
    Genes Dev 17:330-5. 2003
    Euchromatin, which has an open structure and is frequently transcribed, tends to replicate in early S phase. Heterochromatin, which is more condensed and rarely transcribed, usually replicates in late S phase...
  84. pmc Human Orc2 localizes to centrosomes, centromeres and heterochromatin during chromosome inheritance
    Supriya G Prasanth
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    EMBO J 23:2651-63. 2004
    ..Furthermore, Orc2 was tightly bound to heterochromatin and heterochromatin protein 1alpha (HP1alpha) and HP1beta in G1 and early S phase, but during late S, G2 and ..
  85. ncbi SIR2 and SIR4 interactions differ in core and extended telomeric heterochromatin in yeast
    S Strahl-Bolsinger
    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of California, Los Angeles 90095, USA
    Genes Dev 11:83-93. 1997
    Yeast core telomeric heterochromatin can silence adjacent genes and requires RAP1, SIR2, SIR3, and SIR4 and histones H3 and H4 for this telomere position effect. SIR3 overproduction can extend the silenced domain...
  86. ncbi The HP1 chromo shadow domain binds a consensus peptide pentamer
    J F Smothers
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109 1024, USA
    Curr Biol 10:27-30. 2000
    b>Heterochromatin-associated protein 1 (HP1) is thought to affect chromatin structure through interactions with other proteins in heterochromatin...
  87. ncbi A novel role for high-mobility group a proteins in cellular senescence and heterochromatin formation
    Masashi Narita
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Cell 126:503-14. 2006
    ..Our results identify a component of the senescence machinery that contributes to heterochromatin formation and imply that HMGA proteins also act in tumor suppressor networks.
  88. pmc Structural basis of HP1/PXVXL motif peptide interactions and HP1 localisation to heterochromatin
    Abarna Thiru
    Department of Biochemistry, Cambridge Centre for Molecular Recognition, University of Cambridge, UK
    EMBO J 23:489-99. 2004
    ..We show that targeting of HP1beta to heterochromatin requires shadow domain interactions with PXVXL-containing proteins in addition to chromo domain recognition ..
  89. ncbi Oncogene-induced senescence as an initial barrier in lymphoma development
    Melanie Braig
    Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin Haematology Oncology, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Nature 436:660-5. 2005
    ..Recently, Rb-mediated silencing of growth-promoting genes by heterochromatin formation associated with methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me) was identified as a critical feature of ..
  90. ncbi Tumour biology: senescence in premalignant tumours
    Manuel Collado
    Spanish National Cancer Centre CNIO, Madrid 28029, Spain
    Nature 436:642. 2005
    ..Senescence is therefore a defining feature of premalignant tumours that could prove valuable in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer...
  91. pmc The Drosophila heterochromatic gene encoding poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is required to modulate chromatin structure during development
    Alexei Tulin
    Howard Hughes Medical Research Laboratories, Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Baltimore, Maryland 21210, USA
    Genes Dev 16:2108-19. 2002
    ..We found that a single Drosophila Parp gene spans more than 150 kb of transposon-rich centromeric heterochromatin and produces several differentially spliced transcripts, including a novel isoform, PARP-e, predicted to ..
  92. ncbi Loss of the Suv39h histone methyltransferases impairs mammalian heterochromatin and genome stability
    A H Peters
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology IMP, Vienna Biocenter, Dr Bohrgasse 7, A 1030, Vienna, Austria
    Cell 107:323-37. 2001
    ..we show that the murine Suv39h histone methyltransferases (HMTases) govern H3-K9 methylation at pericentric heterochromatin and induce a specialized histone methylation pattern that differs from the broad H3-K9 methylation present at ..
  93. pmc Genetic and functional diversification of small RNA pathways in plants
    Zhixin Xie
    Center for Gene Research and Biotechnology and Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, USA
    PLoS Biol 2:E104. 2004
    ..We conclude that proliferation and diversification of DCL and RDR genes during evolution of plants contributed to specialization of small RNA-directed pathways for development, chromatin structure, and defense...
  94. ncbi Direct evidence of a role for heterochromatin in meiotic chromosome segregation
    A F Dernburg
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0554, USA
    Cell 86:135-46. 1996
    ..Our results show that the heterochromatin of homologous chromosomes remains associated throughout prophase until metaphase I regardless of whether they ..
  95. pmc Species-specific heterochromatin prevents mitotic chromosome segregation to cause hybrid lethality in Drosophila
    Patrick M Ferree
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
    PLoS Biol 7:e1000234. 2009
    ..contains 359-bp satellite repeats, suggesting either that Zhr is a rare protein-coding gene embedded within heterochromatin, or is a locus consisting of the noncoding repetitive DNA that forms heterochromatin...
  96. pmc The histone H3K79 methyltransferase Dot1L is essential for mammalian development and heterochromatin structure
    Brendan Jones
    Epigenetics Program, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 4:e1000190. 2008
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that Dot1L and H3K79 methylation play important roles in heterochromatin formation and in embryonic development.
  97. doi Polymorphic Y chromosomes harbor cryptic variation with manifold functional consequences
    Bernardo Lemos
    Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 319:91-3. 2008
    ..Functionally, they affect microtubule stability, lipid and mitochondrial metabolism, and the thermal sensitivity of spermatogenesis. Our findings provide a mechanism for adaptive phenotypic variation associated with the Y chromosome...
  98. pmc Mouse polycomb proteins bind differentially to methylated histone H3 and RNA and are enriched in facultative heterochromatin
    Emily Bernstein
    Laboratory of Chromatin Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Ave, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 26:2560-9. 2006
    ..Cbx7 associates with facultative heterochromatin and, more specifically, is enriched on the inactive X chromosome...
  99. pmc The KAP1 corepressor functions to coordinate the assembly of de novo HP1-demarcated microenvironments of heterochromatin required for KRAB zinc finger protein-mediated transcriptional repression
    Smitha P Sripathy
    Case Western Reserve University, Department of Pharmacology and Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 4965, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 26:8623-38. 2006
    ..to coordinate activities that dynamically regulate changes in histone modifications and deposition of HP1 to establish a de novo microenvironment of heterochromatin, which is required for repression of gene transcription by KRAB-zfps.
  100. ncbi HP1 and the dynamics of heterochromatin maintenance
    Christèle Maison
    Unité Mixte de Reserche 218, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Institut Curie Section de Recherche, 26 Rue d Ulm, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 5:296-304. 2004
  101. ncbi The diverse functions of histone lysine methylation
    Cyrus Martin
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7295, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:838-49. 2005
    ..One such modification, lysine methylation, has important functions in many biological processes that include heterochromatin formation, X-chromosome inactivation and transcriptional regulation...

Research Grants69

  1. Novel genomic effects of Y-linked polymorphisms
    Daniel L Hartl; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..about the Drosophila Y chromosome are likely to be quite general among organisms with genomes rich in heterochromatin including the human genome...
  2. Mechanisms of Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Aging
    PAUL CHRISTIAN SCHILLER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We expect that increased progerin expression in hMSCs will alter heterochromatin formation protein and translocation signaling molecules (i.e...
  3. Roles of RNA Polymerases IV and V in siRNA-mediated gene silencing
    CRAIG STUART PIKAARD; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..play non- redundant roles in RNA-directed DNA methylation, silencing of transposable elements, large-scale heterochromatin organization, long-distance spreading of silencing signals, and proper temporal and morphological development...
  4. Assembly and Maintenance of Centromeres in Filamentous Fungi
    Michael Freitag; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..crassa and Fusarium graminearum, are used as powerful systems to test the importance of DNA sequence and heterochromatin for centromere function...
  5. Identification of a Molecular Signature for Barrier Insulators
    LAURIE ANN STEINER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Regions of transcriptionally silent heterochromatin are dynamic, and without active intervention, will spread into areas of euchromatin resulting in gene ..
  6. Phylogenomics and functional diversification of the Heterochromatin Protein 1 gen
    MIA TAUNA LEVINE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Heterochromatin is the gene-poor, satellite-rich, transcriptionally silent compartment of our genome that supports such basic cellular processes as chromosome segregation and telomere integrity...
  7. Mdig gene and histone demethylation in lung cancer
    Fei Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..expression of mdig will compromise the tri-methylation of lysine 9 on histone H3, leading to attenuation of heterochromatin or the formation of other inhibitory epigenetic markers...
  8. Non-coding RNAs in the epigenetics of human centromere formation
    PETER WARBURTON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Surrounding the CENPA domain is the centromeric heterochromatin, characterized by histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9me) and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1)...
  9. Novel histone biotinylation sites and relationships to other epigenetic marks
    JANOS contact ZEMPLENI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g., in the repression of retrotransposons, in heterochromatin structures and DNA repair, and in gene regulation...
  10. Regulation of Age-Associated Heterochromatin Formation
    Jill Kreiling; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this application we propose to study the mechanisms that regulate age- associated heterochromatin formation in post-mitotic tissues...
  11. Mouse X Inactivation
    Christine M Disteche; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Both regions are associated with the nucleolus, a nuclear compartment that plays a role in maintenance of heterochromatin. We will examine the role of these regions by knockdown of the long non-coding RNAs in ES cells and in a ..
  12. Determining the Roles of ATRX and DAXX Abnormalities in Cancer Telomere Biology
    ALAN KEITH MEEKER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..primary hypothesis is that defects in the ATRX/DAXX complex compromise the formation and/or maintenance of heterochromatin at the telomeres, thus rendering them permissive for homologous recombination which is integral to the ALT ..
  13. GENETIC ASPECTS OF DNA METHYLATION
    Eric U Selker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..be methylated are targeted and to expand our mechanistic understanding of the downstream steps required for heterochromatin formation and DNA methylation (Aims 1 &2)...
  14. Regulation and Function of hTERT in Human Cells
    William C Hahn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..into the roles of various TERT complexes in aging and cancer but will also enhance our understanding of heterochromatin regulation...
  15. Genetic conflict shapes centromeres and heterochromatin
    Harmit S Malik; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..elements have proven intractable to genetic studies owing to their highly repetitive nature (centromeres, heterochromatin), poor definition (dosage compensation entry sites) and rapid evolution...
  16. GENETICS OF HERPESVIRUS TRANSFORMATION
    David M Knipe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..targeting of viral genome complexes and studies to determine the viral and host gene products that regulate heterochromatin levels on the viral genome. 2...
  17. Genetic analysis of DNA methylation in Neurospora crassa
    ANDREW DAVID KLOCKO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The establishment and maintenance of heterochromatin and DNA methylation is essential for the proper growth and development of all organisms...
  18. Function of the chromosomal kinase haspin in mitosis
    JONATHAN M HIGGINS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..we will use RNAi and overexpression to determine the influence of haspin on cohesin, chromosome passenger and heterochromatin protein binding at centromeres, and on patterns of histone modification...
  19. Heterochromatin on the human inactive X chromosome
    Brian P Chadwick; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..developmentally regulated gene silencing, and provides a model to explore in depth the epigenetic features of heterochromatin and to relate these to the underlying genomic DNA sequence...
  20. Role of Chromatin in Genomic Maintenance
    David A Sinclair; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Over 10 years ago, it was discovered that Sir2 extends lifespan of yeast cells by forming "silent" heterochromatin, a more compact protein-DNA structure that suppresses DNA instability, a cause of aging in that species...
  21. Regulation of repetitive chromatin structures during the human cell cycle
    Paul D Kaufman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CAF-1 is a nucleosome assembly factor important for DNA replication, DNA repair, and heterochromatin formation...
  22. Role of ORCA in DNA replication
    Supriya Gangadharan Prasanth; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Other than their bonafide roles in DNA replication, ORC proteins are required for heterochromatin organization, centrosome copy number maintenance, accurate cell cycle progression and cell division...
  23. Mechanisms of Gene Silencing in Friedreich's Ataxia
    Joel M Gottesfeld; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Gene repression is due to expansion of a GAA7TTC triplet-repeat in an intron of FXN, which leads to heterochromatin formation...
  24. Repression via Facultative Heterochomatin.
    DANNY F REINBERG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Key to cell identity is the establishment and maintenance of "facultative heterochromatin", i.e...
  25. Prevention of VZV Reactivation
    Randall J Cohrs; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Promoters for other HSV-1 genes are bound by modified histones that repress transcription (heterochromatin)...
  26. Germline Silencing of Unpaired Chromatin
    Eleanor M Maine; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for understanding the function of meiotic silencing in germline develoment, for tissue-specific formation of heterochromatin, and for chromatin regulation via small RNA-mediated mechanisms...
  27. Epigenetics of Severe Systemic Inflammation
    CHARLES EMORY MCCALL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that disrupts p65 promoter binding, directs histone H3K9 di-methylation by G9a to provide a binding site of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), which then links to DNA CpG methylation responses and chromatin structural proteins...
  28. Highly finished chromosome-based genome assembly for Anopheles gambiae
    Igor V Sharakhov; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..thrust of this R21 project is to develop a high-quality genome assembly and to explore the genetic content of heterochromatin and the Y chromosome of Anopheles gambiae S-form using high- throughput technologies...
  29. Characterization of persistent hyperemic foci and their role in photocarcinogenes
    Raymond L Konger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..whether dermal fibroblasts or epidermal keratinocytes in early hyperemic foci exhibit a senescence marker, heterochromatin protein 1g (HP1g), and markers of double stranded DNA breaks, gH2AX and p53BP1...
  30. Organization and Regulation of Eukaryotic Centromeres
    BETH SULLIVAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..proteins, is central to the chromosome inheritance process and contributes to formation of the kinetochore, heterochromatin and sister chromatid cohesion...
  31. SPECIFIC REPRESSION OF PROLACTIN GENE EXPRESSION
    Richard N Day; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..C/EBP1 in turn associates with the heterochromatin binding protein 1 alpha (HP11) in regions of centromeric heterochromatin, and Pit-1 can recruit C/EBP1 from ..
  32. Targeting stromal reaction in pancreatic cancer to overcome chemo-resistance
    Hidayatullah G Munshi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that PDAC cels grown in 3D collagen gels have increased histone H3 acetylation;decreased expression of heterochromatin protein 11 (HP11);and are protected from gemcitabine-induced checkpoint arrest...
  33. Characterization of the Synapis Checkpoint in C. elegans Meiosis
    Needhi Bhalla; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Studies that address the regulation of heterochromatin on unsynapsed chromosomes and how the PC may inhibit the DMA damage checkpoint will also be undertaken...
  34. Establishment of Heterochromatin
    Janet F Partridge; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..goal is to determine the normal mechanisms that lead to establishment and maintenance of silenced regions (heterochromatin) of the genome. The goal of this proposal is to define how heterochromatin at centromeres is established...
  35. Small Regulatory RNA Functions in the Nucleus
    Scott G Kennedy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..RNAs that function in a remarkably wide range of biological processes, including but not limited to: heterochromatin formation, developmental timing, defense against parasitic nucleic acids, and genome rearrangement...
  36. Mechanisms of Polycomb Silencing
    Yi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..study due to its critical functions in regulating multiple fundamental biological processes, including heterochromatin formation, transcriptional regulation, genomic imprinting, and dosage compensation...
  37. Spatiotemporal control of recombination by the RAG proteins and ATM
    JANE AMANDA SKOK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..break at one Ig allele induces ATM-dependent repositioning of the other allele to pericentromeric heterochromatin to prevent further cleavage (Nature Immunology, in press)...
  38. Epigenetic Regulation of Heterochromatin Condensation in Huntington's Disease
    Hoon Ryu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Increased ESET transcription in turn leads to hypermethylation of histone H3K9, transcriptional dysfunction, heterochromatin condensation and neurodegeneration in HD...
  39. Barrier Insulators in Erythropoiesis
    Patrick G Gallagher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Abstract Barrier Insulators in Erythropoiesis Barrier insulators create a "barrier" to protect against heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing, critical for regulation of cell-type specific gene expression in normal development ..
  40. Poly ADP-ribose Polymerase in Chromatin and Transcriptional Regulation
    Alexei V Tulin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Recent studies of histone H2Av by other groups have suggested this protein triggers DNA repair, apoptosis and heterochromatin formation...
  41. Variation, functions, and dynamics of human subtelomeres
    Barbara J Trask; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..plasticity, these regions are likely to have unusual chromatin structure due to their proximity to telomeric heterochromatin and abundance of other tandem repeats...
  42. Evolutionary and functional diversification of chromatin proteins
    MIA TAUNA LEVINE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The applicant's recent phylogenomic analysis of the Drosophila Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) gene family discovered abundant gene birth and death across a 40 million year snapshot...
  43. Epigenome maps of regulatory activity in Xenopus tropicalis embryos
    Gert Jan C Veenstra; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..extensive catalogue of different types of regulatory activity in the genome, identifying both euchromatin and heterochromatin at multiple levels. (2.) Identify enhancers with their functional interactions to promoters...
  44. Understanding the Role of Histone Demethylases and Heterochromatin in Cell Cycle
    Johnathan R Whetstine; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Histone 3 lysine 9 tri-methylation (H3K9me3) is considered a hallmark of heterochromatin, a repressive structure found at repetitive and telomeric regions in the genome...
  45. RNAi in DNA Sequence Elimination in Tetrahymena
    Martin A Gorovsky; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..by small RNAs that target the sequences for elimination using an RNAi-related mechanism that resembles heterochromatin formation in other eukaryotes...
  46. K-Rta as a Novel SUMO and Epigenetic Regulator
    Yoshihiro Izumiya; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a protein that regulates a wide variety of cellular processes, including heterochromatin formation, by covalent attachment (i.e., sumoylation) to a diverse array of target proteins...
  47. Dynamics of heterochromatin DNA repair: novel role of nuclear architecture
    IRENE E CHIOLO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In heterochromatin, DSBs are a major threat to genome stability, since the abundance of repetitive sequences maximizes the ..
  48. RNAi, Histone Modification and the DDB1/CPSF-like Complex Rik1
    Robert A Martienssen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Heterochromatin comprises tightly compacted repetitive regions of eukaryotic chromosomes...
  49. Regulating Pathways and Fidelity of DNA Replication and Repair by Acetylation
    Lata Balakrishnan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..we will determine whether replication/repair-associated proteins are acetylated in response to euchromatin or heterochromatin replication, different cell cycle phases, genetic alterations that reduce the fidelity of replication, or ..
  50. Control of Telomere Heterochromatin by TERRA
    Paul M Lieberman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have found that TERRA binds to key components of the shelterin complex and that it promotes heterochromatin formation through interactions with heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), histone K3 K9me3, and the Origin ..
  51. PAIRING OF HOMOLOGOUS SEQUENCES IN DROSOPHILA
    KENT GOLIC; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..wishes to determine whether this pug-D phenotype results from the pairing of the fused gene back to centric heterochromatin containing the same repeated sequence...
  52. Cellular mechanisms of transcriptional regulation near DNA double-strand breaks
    Nabil Sayed; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ND10 bodies are also recruited to hypomethylated and decondensed pericentromeric heterochromatin in a disorder known as immunodeficiency, centromere instability and facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome...
  53. Precision engineering of DNA methylation patterns in the human genome
    Ryan Lister; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..range of loci in the human genome encompassing different functional chromatin states, both open chromatin and heterochromatin. We will rapidly construct highly specific TALE-DBDs able to recognize unique ~20 bp sequences in the genome, ..
  54. Molecular Genetics of HSV Reactivation
    David C Bloom; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PRC2 then methylates histone H3 at lysine 27 which leads to heterochromatin formation...
  55. Molecular Evolution of Drosophila Y Chromosome
    Andrew G Clark; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..a fortuitous opportunity to study the effect of the loss of male-restricted transmission and the loss of heterochromatin in this region...
  56. The role of RNA Polymerase V in RNA-directed DNA methylation
    ROSS ROLAND COCKLIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..roles in a pathway that ultimately contributes to proper plant morphological development, large scale heterochromatin organization and the silencing of transposable elements and other repeats...
  57. Drosophila Linker Histone H1 Functions in Chromosome Architecture and Activity
    Arthur I Skoultchi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We identified heterochromatin structure and activity as primary targets of H1 regulation...
  58. Histone methylation controls activation of ATM and the radiation response
    Brendan D Price; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Chromatin is organized into distinct functional domains, including transcribed genes and silent heterochromatin, and the distinct chromatin architecture of these domains plays a key role in DSB repair...
  59. The Wnt-chromatin axis in aging
    John M Sedivy; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Second, the in vivo studies of John M. Sedivy (JMS) have found that a marked expansion of facultative heterochromatin occurs in association with cellular senescence and aging in mouse and primate tissues...
  60. Histone chaperones and epigenetic silencing
    Zhiguo Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..plays an important role in maintenance of genome stability and inheritance of chromatin structures including heterochromatin. Uncoupling of DNA synthesis and chromatin assembly results in genome instability, one of the hallmarks of ..
  61. RNAi-Mediated Heterochromatin Assembly
    Danesh Moazed; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Heterochromatin is a conserved feature of eukaryotic chromosomes and plays important roles in regulation of gene expression ..
  62. CHROMOSOMAL REPRESSION OF YEAST HETEROCHROMATIN
    Michael Grunstein; Fiscal Year: 2010
    b>Heterochromatin represents -30% of chromatin in flies and humans, is often found at centromeres and telomeres and remains condensed throughout the cell cycle...
  63. Epigenetics of Severe Systemic Inflammation
    Charles McCall; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..shift to lysine 9 H3 di-methylation (H3K9me2), H3 serine 10 dephosphorylation(H3S10), and repressor heterochromatin protein 1 (HP-1) promoter binding in an SSI cell model...
  64. RNA-Mediated Silencing: Mechanisms and Biological Roles in Chlamydomonas
    Heriberto Cerutti; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..suppression of gene expression in eukaryotes and can produce a variety of outcomes such as mRNA degradation, heterochromatin formation, or DMA methylation...
  65. THE ROLE OF ZINC FINGER GENES IN HEMATOPOIESIS
    Sinisa Dovat; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Subcellular localization of Ikaros and Helios showed that both proteins localize in heterochromatin and their distribution changes during different stages of cell cycle...
  66. Deep Sequencing of Small Regulatory RNAs in Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma
    Changchun Xiao; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Small regulatory RNAs recently emerged as a major class of trans-regulators, with functions ranging from heterochromatin formation to mRNA degradation and translational control...
  67. HIV-1 TAR derived miRNA: Implications for Latency and Pathogenesis
    Fatah Kashanchi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..RNAi) and is processed into a viral microRNA (miRNA) that drives remodeling of the viral LTR, leading to heterochromatin formation...
  68. Small RNA Discovery and Analysis in Ascaris
    Richard Davis; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..RNAs (19-32 nt) regulate mRNA translation and stability, lead to gene silencing through the formation of heterochromatin, and are involved in DNA elimination and rearrangements...
  69. MOLECULAR CYTOGENETICS OF HETEROCHROMATIN
    JOEL EISSENBERG; Fiscal Year: 1992
    The long-term objective of this study is to characterize heterochromatin-specific nonhistone chromosomal proteins in Drosophila, with special attention to the role of such proteins in mediating heterochromatic position effects...