euchromatin

Summary

Summary: Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Symmetric dimethylation of H3R2 is a newly identified histone mark that supports euchromatin maintenance
    Valentina Migliori
    Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 19:136-44. 2012
  2. pmc DNA double-strand breaks in heterochromatin elicit fast repair protein recruitment, histone H2AX phosphorylation and relocation to euchromatin
    Burkhard Jakob
    Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:6489-99. 2011
  3. pmc Arginine methylation at histone H3R2 controls deposition of H3K4 trimethylation
    Antonis Kirmizis
    Gurdon Institute and Department of Pathology, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK
    Nature 449:928-32. 2007
  4. pmc Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is associated with induced gene expression in Drosophila euchromatin
    Lucia Piacentini
    Istituto Pasteur, Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Dipartimento di Genetica e Biologia Molecolare, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, 00185 Roma, Italy
    J Cell Biol 161:707-14. 2003
  5. ncbi The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequence classes
    Helen Skaletsky
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Whitehead Institute, and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nature 423:825-37. 2003
  6. ncbi A whole-genome assembly of Drosophila
    E W Myers
    Celera Genomics, Inc, 45 West Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Science 287:2196-204. 2000
  7. pmc Comprehensive molecular cytogenetic analysis of sorghum genome architecture: distribution of euchromatin, heterochromatin, genes and recombination in comparison to rice
    J S Kim
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Genetics 171:1963-76. 2005
  8. pmc gammaH2AX foci form preferentially in euchromatin after ionising-radiation
    Ian G Cowell
    Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 2:e1057. 2007
  9. ncbi The putative nuclear receptor mediator TIF1alpha is tightly associated with euchromatin
    E Remboutsika
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire IGBMC, CNRS INSERM ULP, College de France, BP 163, France
    J Cell Sci 112:1671-83. 1999
  10. pmc DXZ4 chromatin adopts an opposing conformation to that of the surrounding chromosome and acquires a novel inactive X-specific role involving CTCF and antisense transcripts
    Brian P Chadwick
    Duke University Medical Center Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, and Department of Cell Biology, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Genome Res 18:1259-69. 2008

Detail Information

Publications268 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Symmetric dimethylation of H3R2 is a newly identified histone mark that supports euchromatin maintenance
    Valentina Migliori
    Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 19:136-44. 2012
    ..Our findings identify H3R2me2s as a previously unknown mark that keeps genes poised in euchromatin for transcriptional activation upon cell-cycle withdrawal and differentiation in human cells.
  2. pmc DNA double-strand breaks in heterochromatin elicit fast repair protein recruitment, histone H2AX phosphorylation and relocation to euchromatin
    Burkhard Jakob
    Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:6489-99. 2011
    ..Finally, we describe a local decondensation of HC at the sites of ion hits, potentially allowing for DSB movement via physical forces...
  3. pmc Arginine methylation at histone H3R2 controls deposition of H3K4 trimethylation
    Antonis Kirmizis
    Gurdon Institute and Department of Pathology, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK
    Nature 449:928-32. 2007
    ..Thus, the inability of Spp1 to recognize H3 methylated at R2 prevents Set1 from trimethylating H3K4. These results provide the first mechanistic insight into the function of arginine methylation on chromatin...
  4. pmc Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is associated with induced gene expression in Drosophila euchromatin
    Lucia Piacentini
    Istituto Pasteur, Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Dipartimento di Genetica e Biologia Molecolare, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, 00185 Roma, Italy
    J Cell Biol 161:707-14. 2003
    ..These data significantly broaden the current views of the roles of HP1 in vivo by demonstrating that this protein has multifunctional roles...
  5. ncbi The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequence classes
    Helen Skaletsky
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Whitehead Institute, and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nature 423:825-37. 2003
    ..The ampliconic class includes large regions (about 30% of the MSY euchromatin) where sequence pairs show greater than 99...
  6. ncbi A whole-genome assembly of Drosophila
    E W Myers
    Celera Genomics, Inc, 45 West Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Science 287:2196-204. 2000
    ..99% without manual curation. As such, this initial reconstruction of the Drosophila sequence should be of substantial value to the scientific community...
  7. pmc Comprehensive molecular cytogenetic analysis of sorghum genome architecture: distribution of euchromatin, heterochromatin, genes and recombination in comparison to rice
    J S Kim
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Genetics 171:1963-76. 2005
    ..Distal regions of euchromatin and pericentromeric regions of heterochromatin were delimited for all 10 sorghum chromosomes and their DNA ..
  8. pmc gammaH2AX foci form preferentially in euchromatin after ionising-radiation
    Ian G Cowell
    Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 2:e1057. 2007
    ..However, we observed an apparently uneven distribution of gammaH2AX foci following X-irradiation with regions of the nucleus devoid of foci...
  9. ncbi The putative nuclear receptor mediator TIF1alpha is tightly associated with euchromatin
    E Remboutsika
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire IGBMC, CNRS INSERM ULP, College de France, BP 163, France
    J Cell Sci 112:1671-83. 1999
    ..Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy reveals that TIF1alpha exhibits a finely granular distribution in euchromatin of interphase nuclei, while it is mostly excluded from condensed chromatin and metaphase chromosomes...
  10. pmc DXZ4 chromatin adopts an opposing conformation to that of the surrounding chromosome and acquires a novel inactive X-specific role involving CTCF and antisense transcripts
    Brian P Chadwick
    Duke University Medical Center Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, and Department of Cell Biology, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Genome Res 18:1259-69. 2008
    ..In contrast, on the inactive X chromosome (Xi) a proportion of DXZ4 is packaged into euchromatin characterized by H3K4me2 and H3K9Ac...
  11. pmc Heterochromatic deposition of centromeric histone H3-like proteins
    S Henikoff
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109 1024, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:716-21. 2000
    ..region drives expression of H3 and H2B histone-green fluorescent protein fusion genes in Drosophila cells, euchromatin-specific deposition results...
  12. pmc Changes to euchromatin on LAT and ICP4 following reactivation are more prevalent in an efficiently reactivating strain of HSV-1
    Clinton C Creech
    Department of Ophthalmology LSU Eye Center of Excellence, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e15416. 2010
    ..Considering that many post-translational histone marks are reversible in nature, epigenetic mechanisms may also play a critical role in the process of induced HSV-1 reactivation...
  13. pmc Oxidative stress triggers the preferential assembly of base excision repair complexes on open chromatin regions
    Rachel Amouroux
    CEA, Institut de Radiobiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, 18 route du Panorama, UMR217 F 92265 Fontenay aux Roses, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:2878-90. 2010
    ..the mammalian 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase OGG1 is recruited together with other proteins involved in BER to euchromatin regions rich in RNA and RNA polymerase II and completely excluded from heterochromatin...
  14. pmc Genome mapping and characterization of the Anopheles gambiae heterochromatin
    Maria V Sharakhova
    Department of Entomology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
    BMC Genomics 11:459. 2010
    ..Despite the availability of polytene chromosomes and genome sequence, the heterochromatin of the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae has not been mapped and characterized...
  15. pmc Islands of euchromatin-like sequence and expressed polymorphic sequences within the short arm of human chromosome 21
    Robert Lyle
    Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, and University Hospitals, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
    Genome Res 17:1690-6. 2007
    ..The sequencing of the "heterochromatic" regions of the human genome is likely to reveal many additional functional elements and provide important evolutionary information...
  16. pmc SETDB1: a novel KAP-1-associated histone H3, lysine 9-specific methyltransferase that contributes to HP1-mediated silencing of euchromatic genes by KRAB zinc-finger proteins
    David C Schultz
    The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Genes Dev 16:919-32. 2002
    ..Thus, KAP-1 is a molecular scaffold that is targeted by KRAB-ZFPs to specific loci and coordinates both histone methylation and the deposition of HP1 proteins to silence gene expression...
  17. ncbi Evidence for the existence of an HP1-mediated subcode within the histone code
    Gwen Lomberk
    Gastroenterology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, and Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Rochester, MN 55605, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 8:407-15. 2006
    ....
  18. pmc Interaction with members of the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family and histone deacetylation are differentially involved in transcriptional silencing by members of the TIF1 family
    A L Nielsen
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS INSERM ULP College de France, BP 163, 67404 Illkirch Cedex, France
    EMBO J 18:6385-95. 1999
    ..Here, we report an association of TIF1beta with both heterochromatin and euchromatin in interphase nuclei...
  19. pmc The interaction of NSBP1/HMGN5 with nucleosomes in euchromatin counteracts linker histone-mediated chromatin compaction and modulates transcription
    Mark Rochman
    Protein Section, Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Cell 35:642-56. 2009
    ..the HMGN nucleosome-binding protein family, is specifically targeted by its C-terminal domain to nucleosomes in euchromatin. We find that the interaction of NSBP1 with nucleosomes alters the compaction of cellular chromatin and that in ..
  20. pmc G9a histone methyltransferase plays a dominant role in euchromatic histone H3 lysine 9 methylation and is essential for early embryogenesis
    Makoto Tachibana
    Department of Cell Biology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Shogoin Kawara cho, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Genes Dev 16:1779-91. 2002
    ..Our results indicate that euchromatic H3-K9 methylation regulated by G9a is essential for early embryogenesis and is involved in the transcriptional repression of developmental genes...
  21. ncbi An epigenetic activation role of Piwi and a Piwi-associated piRNA in Drosophila melanogaster
    Hang Yin
    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical School, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 450:304-8. 2007
    ..This activating function is probably achieved through interaction with at least 3R-TAS1 piRNA and is essential for germline stem-cell maintenance...
  22. ncbi Acetylation of yeast histone H4 lysine 16: a switch for protein interactions in heterochromatin and euchromatin
    C B Millar
    Department of Biological Chemistry, UCLA School of Medicine and the Molecular Biology Institute, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 69:193-200. 2004
  23. ncbi HP1gamma associates with euchromatin and heterochromatin in mammalian nuclei and chromosomes
    E Minc
    Departement de Biologie Cellulaire, Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS, Universités Paris 6 and 7, Paris, France
    Cytogenet Cell Genet 90:279-84. 2000
    ..in heterochromatin by immunocytochemical methods, HP1gamma has been found either exclusively associated with euchromatin or present in both euchromatin and heterochromatin...
  24. pmc Confining euchromatin/heterochromatin territory: jumonji crosses the line
    Hisashi Tamaru
    Gregor Mendel Institute of Molecular Plant Biology, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria
    Genes Dev 24:1465-78. 2010
    Heterochromatin is typically highly condensed, gene-poor, and transcriptionally silent, whereas euchromatin is less condensed, gene-rich, and more accessible to transcription...
  25. ncbi A genome-wide BAC end-sequence survey of sugarcane elucidates genome composition, and identifies BACs covering much of the euchromatin
    Changsoo Kim
    Plant Genome Mapping Laboratory, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Plant Mol Biol 81:139-47. 2013
    ..were placed to 1,503 locations, covering ~198 Mb of the sorghum genome or about 78 % of the estimated 252 Mb of euchromatin. BESs and their analyses presented here may provide an early profile of the sugarcane genome as well as a basis ..
  26. pmc Histone deacetylase inhibition redistributes topoisomerase IIβ from heterochromatin to euchromatin
    Ian G Cowell
    Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    Nucleus 2:61-71. 2011
    ..We suggest that this redistribution of topoIIβ converts this isoform of topoII to a effective relevant target for topoisomerase poisons...
  27. pmc Chromosome-wide regulation of euchromatin-specific 5mC to 5hmC conversion in mouse ES cells and female human somatic cells
    Musashi Kubiura
    Division of Molecular and Cell Genetics, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, 683 8503, Japan
    Chromosome Res 20:837-48. 2012
    ..Therefore, enzymes that hydroxylate the methyl group of 5mC belonging to the Tet family might be excluded from inactive chromatin, which may restrict 5mC to 5hmC conversion in euchromatin to prevent nonselective de novo DNA methylation.
  28. pmc Evolution of a distinct genomic domain in Drosophila: comparative analysis of the dot chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis
    Wilson Leung
    Department of Biology, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
    Genetics 185:1519-34. 2010
    ..Collectively, despite the heterochromatin-like properties of this domain, genes on the dot evolve to maintain function while being responsive to changes in their local environment...
  29. pmc The FUN30 chromatin remodeler, Fft3, protects centromeric and subtelomeric domains from euchromatin formation
    Annelie Strålfors
    Department of Biosciences and Medical Nutrition, Center for Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden
    PLoS Genet 7:e1001334. 2011
    ..Fft3 is localized to insulator elements and inhibits euchromatin assembly in silent chromatin domains...
  30. pmc Genome organization and gene expression shape the transposable element distribution in the Drosophila melanogaster euchromatin
    Pierre Fontanillas
    Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 3:e210. 2007
    ..We test this hypothesis by comparing the TE density around germline- and soma-expressed genes in the euchromatin of Drosophila melanogaster...
  31. pmc Methyltransferase Set7/9 maintains transcription and euchromatin structure at islet-enriched genes
    Tye G Deering
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
    Diabetes 58:185-93. 2009
    The activation of beta-cell genes, particularly of those encoding preproinsulin, requires an appropriate euchromatin (or "open") DNA template characterized by hypermethylation of Lys4 of histone H3...
  32. pmc Evolutionary dynamics of segmental duplications from human Y-chromosomal euchromatin/heterochromatin transition regions
    Stefan Kirsch
    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    Genome Res 18:1030-42. 2008
    ..We have analyzed 866 kb of Y-chromosomal non-palindromic segmental duplications delineating four euchromatin/heterochromatin transition regions (Yp11.2/Yp11.1, Yq11.1/Yq11.21, Yq11.23/Yq12, and Yq12/PAR2)...
  33. ncbi CpG-binding protein is a nuclear matrix- and euchromatin-associated protein localized to nuclear speckles containing human trithorax. Identification of nuclear matrix targeting signals
    Jeong Heon Lee
    Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Section of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Department of Pediatrics and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:42259-67. 2002
    ....
  34. pmc Su(var) genes regulate the balance between euchromatin and heterochromatin in Drosophila
    Anja Ebert
    Institute of Genetics, Biologicum, Martin Luther University Halle, D 06120 Halle, Germany
    Genes Dev 18:2973-83. 2004
    ..Our data provide evidence for a dynamic balance between heterochromatin and euchromatin, and define two distinct mechanisms for Su(var) gene function...
  35. ncbi Highly specific antibodies determine histone acetylation site usage in yeast heterochromatin and euchromatin
    N Suka
    Department of Biological Chemistry, UCLA School of Medicine and, The Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles 90095, USA
    Mol Cell 8:473-9. 2001
    ..These data uncover the in vivo usage of acetylation sites in heterochromatin and euchromatin.
  36. ncbi A novel Dnmt3a isoform produced from an alternative promoter localizes to euchromatin and its expression correlates with active de novo methylation
    Taiping Chen
    Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:38746-54. 2002
    ..Dnmt3a, which was concentrated on heterochromatin, Dnmt3a2 displayed a localization pattern suggestive of euchromatin association...
  37. pmc High-resolution mapping of epigenetic modifications of the rice genome uncovers interplay between DNA methylation, histone methylation, and gene expression
    Xueyong Li
    National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206, China
    Plant Cell 20:259-76. 2008
    ..stained heterochromatin had less H3K4me2 and H3K4me3 and more methylated DNA than the less densely stained euchromatin, whereas centromeres had a unique epigenetic composition...
  38. pmc Clustering of multiple specific genes and gene-rich R-bands around SC-35 domains: evidence for local euchromatic neighborhoods
    Lindsay S Shopland
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Cell Biol 162:981-90. 2003
    ....
  39. pmc Specific loss of histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation and HP1gamma/cohesin binding at D4Z4 repeats is associated with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD)
    Weihua Zeng
    Department of Biological Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, California, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000559. 2009
    ..Based on these results, we propose a new model in which the epigenetic change initiated at 4q D4Z4 spreads its effect to other genomic regions, which compromises muscle-specific gene regulation leading to FSHD pathogenesis...
  40. pmc CXXC finger protein 1 restricts the Setd1A histone H3K4 methyltransferase complex to euchromatin
    Courtney M Tate
    Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Section of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Departments of Pediatrics and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA
    FEBS J 277:210-23. 2010
    ..of full-length Cfp1 in CXXC1(-/-) ES cells is required to restrict Setd1A and histone H3K4 trimethylation to euchromatin, indicating that both Cfp1 DNA-binding activity and interaction with the Setd1A complex are required for ..
  41. pmc Methylation-mediated transcriptional silencing in euchromatin by methyl-CpG binding protein MBD1 isoforms
    N Fujita
    Department of Tumor Genetics and Biology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Kumamoto 860 0811, Japan
    Mol Cell Biol 19:6415-26. 1999
    ..Green fluorescent protein-fused MBD1 was localized to multiple foci on the human genome, mostly in the euchromatin regions, and particularly concentrated in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 1...
  42. pmc A protein complex containing the conserved Swi2/Snf2-related ATPase Swr1p deposits histone variant H2A.Z into euchromatin
    Michael S Kobor
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
    PLoS Biol 2:E131. 2004
    The conserved histone variant H2A.Z functions in euchromatin to antagonize the spread of heterochromatin. The mechanism by which histone H2A is replaced by H2A.Z in the nucleosome is unknown...
  43. ncbi DNA representation of variegating heterochromatic P-element inserts in diploid and polytene tissues of Drosophila melanogaster
    L L Wallrath
    Department of Biology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Chromosoma 104:519-27. 1996
    ..It appears unlikely that DNA loss could account for the lack of gene expression in diploid tissues seen with these examples of PEV...
  44. pmc Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1a) positively regulates euchromatic gene expression through RNA transcript association and interaction with hnRNPs in Drosophila
    Lucia Piacentini
    Dipartimento di Genetica e Biologia Molecolare, Universita La Sapienza, Istituto Pasteur, Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Roma, Italy
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000670. 2009
    ..This suggests that, in general, similar epigenetic mechanisms have a significant role on both RNA and heterochromatin metabolisms...
  45. pmc Comparative analysis of pepper and tomato reveals euchromatin expansion of pepper genome caused by differential accumulation of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements
    Minkyu Park
    Interdisciplinary Program in Agriculture Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151 921, Korea
    BMC Genomics 12:85. 2011
    ..To determine the causes for the expansion of pepper euchromatic regions, we compared the pepper genome to that of tomato...
  46. pmc Histone methyltransferases G9a and GLP form heteromeric complexes and are both crucial for methylation of euchromatin at H3-K9
    Makoto Tachibana
    Experimental Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Genes Dev 19:815-26. 2005
    ..Here we show that GLP is also important for H3-K9 methylation of mouse euchromatin. GLP-deficiency led to embryonic lethality, a severe reduction of H3-K9 mono- and dimethylation, the induction ..
  47. pmc KAP-1 corepressor protein interacts and colocalizes with heterochromatic and euchromatic HP1 proteins: a potential role for Krüppel-associated box-zinc finger proteins in heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing
    R F Ryan
    The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 19:4366-78. 1999
    ..are normally found in centromeric heterochromatin, as well as M32 and hHP1gamma, both of which are found in euchromatin. Mapping of the region in KAP-1 required for HP1 interaction showed that amino acid substitutions which abolish ..
  48. pmc Finishing a whole-genome shotgun: release 3 of the Drosophila melanogaster euchromatic genome sequence
    Susan E Celniker
    Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project, Department of Genome Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Genome Biol 3:RESEARCH0079. 2002
    ....
  49. ncbi The structure and evolution of centromeric transition regions within the human genome
    Xinwei She
    Department of Genetics, Center for Computational Genomics and the Center for Human Genetics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Nature 430:857-64. 2004
    ..The distribution of these duplicated segments is nonrandom among pericentromeric regions, suggesting that some regions have served as preferential acceptors of euchromatic DNA...
  50. ncbi Histone H2AZ dimerizes with a novel variant H2B and is enriched at repetitive DNA in Trypanosoma brucei
    Joanna E Lowell
    Laboratory of Molecular Parasitology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Cell Sci 118:5721-30. 2005
    H2AZ is a widely conserved histone variant that is implicated in protecting euchromatin from the spread of heterochromatin...
  51. ncbi Transitions in distinct histone H3 methylation patterns at the heterochromatin domain boundaries
    C D Allis
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Post Office Box 100, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Science 293:1150-5. 2001
    ..repeats flanking the silent interval serve as boundary elements to mark the borders between heterochromatin and euchromatin. Deletions of these boundary elements lead to spreading of H3 Lys9 methylation and Swi6 into neighboring ..
  52. pmc Euchromatin and pericentromeric heterochromatin: comparative composition in the tomato genome
    Ying Wang
    Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, U S Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Plant, Soil, and Nutrition Lab, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Genetics 172:2529-40. 2006
    ..FISH to tomato pachytene chromosomes providing the first global insights into the compositional differences of euchromatin and pericentromeric heterochromatin in this model dicot species...
  53. ncbi Reduced exploration, increased anxiety, and altered social behavior: Autistic-like features of euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 heterozygous knockout mice
    Monique C M Balemans
    Department of Human Genetics, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, P O Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Behav Brain Res 208:47-55. 2010
    ..deletion syndrome is a newly defined mental retardation syndrome, caused by haplo-insufficiency of the euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1) gene...
  54. pmc Genetic and bioinformatic analysis of 41C and the 2R heterochromatin of Drosophila melanogaster: a window on the heterochromatin-euchromatin junction
    Steven H Myster
    Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599 3280, USA
    Genetics 166:807-22. 2004
    ..These approaches have been applied successfully to the euchromatin, but analysis of the heterochromatin has lagged somewhat behind...
  55. ncbi Histone modification and the control of heterochromatic gene silencing in Drosophila
    Anja Ebert
    Institute of Genetics, Biologicum, Martin Luther University Halle, Weinbergweg 10, D 06120, Halle, Germany
    Chromosome Res 14:377-92. 2006
    ..In euchromatin, bands and interbands are differentially indexed...
  56. pmc Lid2 is required for coordinating H3K4 and H3K9 methylation of heterochromatin and euchromatin
    Fei Li
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Cell 135:272-83. 2008
    ..methylation of histone H3 lysine-9 (H3K9) demarcates heterochromatin, whereas H3K4 methylation demarcates euchromatin. We show here that the S...
  57. pmc Satellite DNA-like elements associated with genes within euchromatin of the beetle Tribolium castaneum
    Josip Brajković
    Department of Molecular Biology, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, Zagreb, Croatia
    G3 (Bethesda) 2:931-41. 2012
    ..in these sequences, TCAST satellite DNAs also have been proposed to be modulators of gene expression within euchromatin. Here, we analyze the distribution of TCAST homologous repeats in T...
  58. ncbi Interaction systems between heterochromatin and euchromatin in Drosophila melanogaster
    G Palumbo
    Istituto di Genetica, Universita di Bari, Italy
    Genetica 94:267-74. 1994
    ..The results of this analysis should provide insights into the biological significance of heterochromatin and into the evolutionary forces that result in the maintainance and stability of this enigmatic genetic material...
  59. ncbi Direct evidence of a role for heterochromatin in meiotic chromosome segregation
    A F Dernburg
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0554, USA
    Cell 86:135-46. 1996
    ....
  60. pmc Comparative physical mapping links conservation of microsynteny to chromosome structure and recombination in grasses
    John E Bowers
    Plant Genome Mapping Laboratory, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:13206-11. 2005
    ..The two genomic components correspond to cytologically discernible "euchromatin" and "heterochromatin." Gene and repetitive DNA distributions support this classification...
  61. pmc Arabidopsis TFL2/LHP1 specifically associates with genes marked by trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27
    Franziska Turck
    Abteilung Entwicklungsbiologie der Pflanzen, Max Planck Institut fur Zuchtungsforschung, Cologne, Germany
    PLoS Genet 3:e86. 2007
    ..TFL2/LHP1 associates with hundreds of small domains, almost all of which correspond to genes located within euchromatin. We investigated the chromatin marks to which TFL2/LHP1 binds and show that, in vitro, TFL2/LHP1 binds to ..
  62. ncbi Novel deletion variants of 9q13-q21.12 and classical euchromatic variants of 9q12/qh involve deletion, duplication and triplication of large tracts of segmentally duplicated pericentromeric euchromatin
    Lionel R Willatt
    Cytogenetics Laboratory, Medical Genetics Department, Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK
    Eur J Hum Genet 15:45-52. 2007
    ..a large panel of BACs showed that all the deleted clones were from extensive tracts of segmentally duplicated euchromatin, copies of which map to both the long and short arms of chromosome 9...
  63. ncbi Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human euchromatic (17cen-p53) and heterochromatic (1cen-1q12) regions
    S Puerto
    , , Edifici Cn, , 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
    Mutagenesis 16:291-6. 2001
    ..The implications of these findings in biomonitoring studies are discussed...
  64. pmc The euchromatic and heterochromatic landscapes are shaped by antagonizing effects of transcription on H2A.Z deposition
    Sara Hardy
    Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000687. 2009
    ..These results show how chromatin structure and transcription can antagonize each other, therefore shaping chromatin and controlling gene expression...
  65. pmc Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation restores islet function in diabetic mice through reduction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and maintenance of euchromatin structure
    Carmella Evans-Molina
    Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 29:2053-67. 2009
    ..The restoration of the Ins1/2 and Glut2 genes corresponded to a two- to threefold increase in the euchromatin marker histone H3 dimethyl-Lys4 at their respective promoters and was coincident with increased nuclear ..
  66. pmc Euchromatin islands in large heterochromatin domains are enriched for CTCF binding and differentially DNA-methylated regions
    Bo Wen
    Center for Epigenetics and Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    BMC Genomics 13:566. 2012
    ..The microstructure of these regions has not previously been explored...
  67. pmc A role for CHROMOMETHYLASE3 in mediating transposon and euchromatin silencing during egg cell reprogramming in Arabidopsis
    Marion Pillot
    Laboratoire Génome et Développement des Plantes LGDP, UMR 5096 IRD CNRS Université de Perpignan, Montpellier, France
    Plant Signal Behav 5:1167-70. 2010
    ....
  68. ncbi Methylation of a euchromatin-heterochromatin transition region in Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5 left arm
    Olivier Mathieu
    U M R CNRS 6547 BIOMOVE, Universite Blaise Pascal, 24 avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex, France
    Chromosome Res 10:455-66. 2002
    Cytosine methylation was studied at the level of the euchromatin/heterochromatin transition genomic region of the Arabidopsis chromosome 5 left arm...
  69. ncbi Identification of conserved Drosophila-specific euchromatin-restricted non-coding sequence motifs
    Chol hee Jung
    Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD, Australia
    Genomics 96:154-66. 2010
    ..This work reports the existence of Drosophila genus-specific sequence motifs, and suggests that many more novel functional elements may be discovered in genomes using the general approach outlined herein...
  70. ncbi Dynamics and anchoring of heterochromatic loci during development
    Rajika Thakar
    Department of Biological Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Cell Sci 119:4165-75. 2006
    ..We also find a general constraint on chromatin movement is imposed during differentiation, which stabilizes changes in nuclear organization in differentiated nuclei...
  71. ncbi Cell cycle-dependent accumulation of histone H3.3 and euchromatic histone modifications in pericentromeric heterochromatin in response to a decrease in DNA methylation levels
    Kazuto Sugimura
    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu, Mie, Japan
    Exp Cell Res 316:2731-46. 2010
    ..These results suggest that DNA CpG methylation is essential for the proper organization of pericentromeric heterochromatin in differentiated mouse cells...
  72. ncbi Insulators: exploiting transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms
    Miklos Gaszner
    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institues of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0540, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 7:703-13. 2006
    ..These new insights also suggest that the mechanisms of action of both enhancer blockers and barriers might not be unique to these types of element, but instead are adaptations of other gene-regulatory mechanisms...
  73. pmc Characterization of the histone H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 isoforms in vertebrates
    Deanna Dryhurst
    Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology and The Center for Biomedical Research, University of Victoria, Petch Building, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6, Canada
    BMC Biol 7:86. 2009
    ..Z mediates its effects are not entirely understood. However, it is now known that H2A.Z has two protein isoforms in vertebrates, H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2, which are encoded by separate genes and differ by 3 amino acid residues...
  74. pmc Partitioning of the maize epigenome by the number of methyl groups on histone H3 lysines 9 and 27
    Jinghua Shi
    Department of Pathology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Genetics 173:1571-83. 2006
    ..Each methylation state identifies different regions of the epigenome. We discuss the evolutionary lability of histone methylation profiles and draw a distinction between H3K9me2-mediated gene silencing and heterochromatin formation...
  75. pmc Molecular landscape of modified histones in Drosophila heterochromatic genes and euchromatin-heterochromatin transition zones
    Jiro C Yasuhara
    Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 4:e16. 2008
    ..a sharp transition to the H3K9me2 domain, which coincided with increased retrotransposon density in the euchromatin-heterochromatin (eu-het) transition zones on the long chromosome arms...
  76. ncbi Heterochromatin formation in Drosophila is initiated through active removal of H3K4 methylation by the LSD1 homolog SU(VAR)3-3
    Thomas Rudolph
    Institute of Biology, Developmental Genetics, Martin Luther University Halle, D 06120 Halle, Germany
    Mol Cell 26:103-15. 2007
    ....
  77. pmc Annotation of the Drosophila melanogaster euchromatic genome: a systematic review
    Sima Misra
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Life Sciences Addition, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Genome Biol 3:RESEARCH0083. 2002
    ....
  78. ncbi The ISWI chromatin-remodeling protein is required for gene expression and the maintenance of higher order chromatin structure in vivo
    R Deuring
    Department of Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz 95064, USA
    Mol Cell 5:355-65. 2000
    ..These findings reveal novel functions for the ISWI ATPase and underscore its importance in chromatin remodeling in vivo...
  79. ncbi SHREC, an effector complex for heterochromatic transcriptional silencing
    Tomoyasu Sugiyama
    Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cell 128:491-504. 2007
    ..Our analyses suggest that SHREC regulates nucleosome positioning to assemble higher-order chromatin structures critical for heterochromatin functions...
  80. pmc Drosophila SETDB1 is required for chromosome 4 silencing
    Carole Seum
    Department of Zoology and Animal Biology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS Genet 3:e76. 2007
    ..It also shows that DmSETDB1 is responsible for some of the H3K9 mono- and dimethyl marks in euchromatin and for H3K9 dimethylation on Chromosome 4...
  81. ncbi Role of Drosophila HP1 in euchromatic gene expression
    Diane E Cryderman
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Dev Dyn 232:767-74. 2005
    ..On Drosophila polytene chromosomes, HP1 also localizes to 200 sites scattered throughout euchromatin. To address the role of HP1 in euchromatic gene regulation, mRNAs from wild-type and Su(var)2-5 mutants lacking ..
  82. pmc The transposable elements of the Drosophila melanogaster euchromatin: a genomics perspective
    Joshua S Kaminker
    Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EH, UK
    Genome Biol 3:RESEARCH0084. 2002
    ..Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project has provided precise sequence for the repetitive elements in the Drosophila euchromatin. We have used this genomic sequence to describe the euchromatic transposable elements in the sequenced strain ..
  83. pmc Overlapping euchromatin/heterochromatin- associated marks are enriched in imprinted gene regions and predict allele-specific modification
    Bo Wen
    Department of Medicine and Center for Epigenetics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Genome Res 18:1806-13. 2008
    ..We have explored this problem by looking for overlapping marks in the genome related to both euchromatin (histone H3 dimethyl lysine-4 [H3K4Me2]) and heterochromatin (DNA methylation [DNAm])...
  84. ncbi Chromatin architecture of the human genome: gene-rich domains are enriched in open chromatin fibers
    Nick Gilbert
    MRC Human Genetics Unit, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, Scotland
    Cell 118:555-66. 2004
    ..We show that compact chromatin fibers originate from some sites of heterochromatin (C-bands), and G-bands (euchromatin)...
  85. pmc Update of the Anopheles gambiae PEST genome assembly
    Maria V Sharakhova
    Center for Global Health and Infectious Diseases, University of Notre Dame, Galvin Life Sciences Building, Notre Dame, IN 46556 0369, USA
    Genome Biol 8:R5. 2007
    ....
  86. ncbi Heterochromatin protein 1: a pervasive controlling influence
    K Hiragami
    Gene Control Mechanisms and Disease Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    Cell Mol Life Sci 62:2711-26. 2005
    ..heterochromatin, recent data suggest that HP1 also localises and dynamically participates in gene regulation in euchromatin. Moreover, the initial definition of HP1 as a gene repressor may need to be revisited, as HP1 has been shown, ..
  87. ncbi gamma-radiation-induced gammaH2AX formation occurs preferentially in actively transcribing euchromatic loci
    Raja S Vasireddy
    Epigenetics in Human Health and Disease, BakerIDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, The Alfred Medical Research and Education Precinct, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
    Cell Mol Life Sci 67:291-4. 2010
    ..question by recent findings indicating a disparity in gamma-irradiation-induced gammaH2AX foci formation in euchromatin and heterochromatin...
  88. pmc Histone variant H2A.Z marks the 5' ends of both active and inactive genes in euchromatin
    Ryan M Raisner
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, 600 16th Street, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Cell 123:233-48. 2005
    In S. cerevisiae, histone variant H2A.Z is deposited in euchromatin at the flanks of silent heterochromatin to prevent its ectopic spread. We show that H2A.Z nucleosomes are found at promoter regions of nearly all genes in euchromatin...
  89. pmc Transcription-dependent spatial arrangements of CFTR and adjacent genes in human cell nuclei
    Daniele Zink
    Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Department of Biology II, 80336 Munich, Germany
    J Cell Biol 166:815-25. 2004
    ..heterochromatin, whereas in their actively transcribed states the gene loci preferentially associated with euchromatin in the nuclear interior...
  90. ncbi Methylation of histone H3 in euchromatin of plant chromosomes depends on basic nuclear DNA content
    Andreas Houben
    Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research IPK, 06466 Gatersleben, Germany
    Plant J 33:967-73. 2003
    ..of lysine 9 (K9) have been proposed as modifications of histone H3, typical for transcriptionally active euchromatin and the opposite for inactive heterochromatin...
  91. pmc The fourth chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster: interspersed euchromatic and heterochromatic domains
    F L Sun
    Department of Biology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:5340-5. 2000
    ..former case, the hsp26-pt gene shows an accessibility and heat-shock-inducible activity similar to that seen in euchromatin, whereas in the latter case, accessibility and inducible expression are reduced to levels typical of ..
  92. ncbi Oxymoron no more: the expanding world of heterochromatic genes
    Jiro C Yasuhara
    Department of Biology, Box 351800, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Trends Genet 22:330-8. 2006
    ..justify a broader view of heterochromatin, one that accommodates repressive, permissive and activating effects on gene expression, and recognizes chromosomal and evolutionary transitional states between heterochromatin and euchromatin.
  93. doi An overview of plant chromosome structure
    N Gill
    Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906, USA
    Cytogenet Genome Res 120:194-201. 2008
  94. ncbi Solanum lycopersicum cv. Heinz 1706 chromosome 6: distribution and abundance of genes and retrotransposable elements
    Sander A Peters
    Wageningen University Centre for Biosystems Genomics, Droevendaalsesteeg 1 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Plant J 58:857-69. 2009
    ..We assembled 25 BAC contigs and eight singleton BACs spanning 2.0 Mb of the short-arm euchromatin, 1.8 Mb of the pericentromeric heterochromatin and 6.9 Mb of the long-arm euchromatin...
  95. pmc Evolution of heterochromatic genes of Drosophila
    Jiro C Yasuhara
    Department of Biology, University of Washington, Box 351800, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:10958-63. 2005
    ..Here we document a recent evolutionary transition of a gene cluster from euchromatin to heterochromatin, which occurred <20 million years ago in the drosophilid lineage...
  96. ncbi Heterochromatin protein 1: don't judge the book by its cover!
    Florence Hediger
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH 4058 Basel, Switzerland
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 16:143-50. 2006
    ..Not only do HP1 isoforms have specific binding sites in both heterochromatic and euchromatic domains but they might also participate in the repression and activation of transcription in both compartments...
  97. ncbi A two-way street: LSD1 regulates chromatin boundary formation in S. pombe and Drosophila
    Renee Chosed
    Program in Genes and Development, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Mol Cell 26:160-2. 2007
    ..2007; Rudolph et al., 2007) implicate histone demethylation by LSD1 in the regulation of boundaries between silenced and active chromatin domains in both fission yeast and flies, but by distinct mechanisms...
  98. pmc Monoubiquitylation of H2A.Z distinguishes its association with euchromatin or facultative heterochromatin
    Elizabeth Sarcinella
    Division of Signaling Biology, Ontario Cancer Institute, 610 University Ave, Rm 10 516, Toronto, Canada M5G 2M9
    Mol Cell Biol 27:6457-68. 2007
    ..Z physically localizes to the promoters of genes and functions in part to protect active genes in euchromatin from being silenced by heterochromatin spreading. To date, the function of H2A...
  99. pmc Monomethyl histone H3 lysine 4 as an epigenetic mark for silenced euchromatin in Chlamydomonas
    Karin van Dijk
    Department of Plant Pathology and Plant Science Initiative, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 0666, USA
    Plant Cell 17:2439-53. 2005
    ..Together, our results suggest functional differentiation between dimethyl H3K4 and monomethyl H3K4, with the latter operating as an epigenetic mark for repressed euchromatin.
  100. ncbi Supernumerary der(1) marker chromosome derived from a ring chromosome 1 which has retained the original centromere and euchromatin from 1q21.1 --> q21.3 with substantial loss of 1q12 heterochromatin in a female with dysmorphic features and psychomotori
    G Barbi
    Abteilung Humangenetik, Universitatsklinikum Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    Am J Med Genet A 132:419-24. 2005
    ..The marker has retained its original centromere and euchromatin from 1q21.1-q21.3 but only small remnants of the 1q12 heterochromatin...
  101. ncbi M32, a murine homologue of Drosophila heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), localises to euchromatin within interphase nuclei and is largely excluded from constitutive heterochromatin
    D Horsley
    Department of Development and Genetics, Babraham Institute, Cambridge, UK
    Cytogenet Cell Genet 73:308-11. 1996
    ..M32 is also largely excluded from the large masses of constitutive heterochromatin that are labelled by MAC 353...

Research Grants62

  1. Identification of a Molecular Signature for Barrier Insulators
    LAURIE ANN STEINER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..silent heterochromatin are dynamic, and without active intervention, will spread into areas of euchromatin resulting in gene silencing...
  2. Protein methyltransferases as transcriptional coregulators
    Michael R Stallcup; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Knock-out mouse studies of the euchromatin-associated H3 K9 methyltransferases G9a and GLP indicated that these two enzymes are responsible for the ..
  3. Cancer epigenetics: Understanding histone methylation in leukemia stem cells
    Gang Greg Wang; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..H3K4Me3 is a prominent histone mark associated with euchromatin structure and active transcription...
  4. Heterochromatin on the human inactive X chromosome
    Brian P Chadwick; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Consequently, DXZ4 on the Xi is organized into euchromatin, whereas the array on the active X chromosome (Xa) is heterochromatic...
  5. Defining the Role of MafA in Islet Beta Cells
    Roland W Stein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..preliminary data illustrate the ability of MafA to bind MLL2, Rbbp5, Ash2, Dpy30, and Wdr5, components of the euchromatin mixed lineage leukemia 2 (MLL2) histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation complex...
  6. Prevention of VZV Reactivation
    Randall J Cohrs; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..its promoter is coated with histones containing post-translational modifications that enhance transcription (euchromatin). Promoters for other HSV-1 genes are bound by modified histones that repress transcription (heterochromatin)...
  7. Epigenetics of Severe Systemic Inflammation
    CHARLES EMORY MCCALL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This RelB-dependent process alters the state of responsive euchromatin to produce silenced facultative heterochromatin...
  8. Targeting stromal reaction in pancreatic cancer to overcome chemo-resistance
    Hidayatullah G Munshi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our central hy- pothesis is that the collagen microenvironment promotes chemo-resistance by inducing euchromatin formation and facilitating DNA repair...
  9. Epigenome maps of regulatory activity in Xenopus tropicalis embryos
    Gert Jan C Veenstra; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This provides an extensive catalogue of different types of regulatory activity in the genome, identifying both euchromatin and heterochromatin at multiple levels. (2.) Identify enhancers with their functional interactions to promoters...
  10. Regulating Pathways and Fidelity of DNA Replication and Repair by Acetylation
    Lata Balakrishnan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..yeast systems, we will determine whether replication/repair-associated proteins are acetylated in response to euchromatin or heterochromatin replication, different cell cycle phases, genetic alterations that reduce the fidelity of ..
  11. Epigenetics of Severe Systemic Inflammation
    Charles McCall; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We hypothesize that SSI generates a shift from a euchromatin (responsive) heterochromatin (silenced) at the proximal promoter of acute proinflammatory genes...
  12. Cancer epigenetics: Understanding histone methylation in leukemia stem cells
    Gang Greg Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..H3K4Me3 is a prominent histone mark associated with euchromatin structure and active transcription...
  13. Intracellular Defenses Against Foreign DNA: Insights From Poxvirus-Infected Cells
    Matthew S Wiebe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..replication proteins via steric hindrance, in much the same way heterochromatic DNA is less accessible than euchromatin. Further examination of BAF's antipoxviral activity will yield unique insights into its mechanism of ..
  14. Regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression by H3S10 phosphorylation
    Kristen M Johansen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..first aim we will test the hypothesis that H3S10 phosphorylation functions to regulate the epigenetic state of euchromatin by using a LacI-tethering system to ectopically induce H3S10 phosphorylation and determine the changes in the ..
  15. Analysis of higher order chromatin structures in normal and cancer epigenomes
    Tae Hoon Kim; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..experiments represent an integrated effort to determine the function of CTCF in restricting heterochromatin and euchromatin, to uncover additional mechanisms that control genome expression, and to extend our understanding of the human ..
  16. KSHV Epigenetic Regulation
    Jae U Jung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of KSHV genome in oral epithelial cells where the KSHV genome primarily undergoes transcriptionally active euchromatin formation, leading to spontaneous lytic replication...
  17. Chromatin Cofactors in Islet Development and Function
    Raghavendra G Mirmira; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in mammalian gene transcription, particularly how such modifications enable states of open or closed chromatin (euchromatin or heterochromatin, respectively) at specific genetic loci...
  18. TLR4-dependent reprogramming of translation regulates acute systemic inflammation
    MOHAMED A ELGAZZAR; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of RelB, which initiates assembly of a multicomponent complex of histone and DNA modifiers that convert euchromatin to facultative heterochromatin...
  19. Translational and epigenetic profiling of cell types associated with addiction
    Nathaniel Heintz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and H3K27m3 specific antibodies to identify genomic loci associated with suppression of gene expression in euchromatin. This project will provide information and experimental animals that will stimulate addiction research in a ..
  20. The repeat genome in interphase chromosome structure and regulation
    Jeanne Bentley Lawrence; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g. XIST) inducing heterochromatin or gene silencing, we hypothesize that repeat RNAs can promote open euchromatin, and may compete for binding of the same structural protein...
  21. RADIATION CYTOGENETICS
    Joel Bedford; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..studies would be carried out to determine whether interphase chromosome breakage occurs preferentially in euchromatin or heterochromatin and whether metaphase aberrations from U.V...
  22. MECHANISM AND INSTABILITY OF SEGMENTAL DUPLICATIONS
    Evan E Eichler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..a new model to explain the non-random spatial-temporal distribution of segmental duplications in human and great ape euchromatin and will provide fundamental information regarding the birth-death process of genes and gene families.
  23. STUDIES OF NORMAL AND NEOPLASTIC PROSTATE
    Khalil Ahmed; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..in the activity of certain nuclear cAMP-independent PKs which may be involved in the phosphorylation of euchromatin NHP, nuclear matrix NHP, and androgen receptor...
  24. DISTRIBUTION OF IRON AND HEME BY PROTEINS
    URSULA MULLER EBERHARD; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..5 kDa vs 14 kDa) has also been identified, named p15.5, and found to localize in euchromatin-containing regions of the nucleus and nucleolus. We are proposing: I. To characterize nuclear p15...
  25. GENOME EVOLUTION AND THE INSERTION/DELETION SPECTRUM
    Daniel Hartl; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..present in heterochromatin, and the insertion/deletion (indel) spectrum may differ between heterochromatin and euchromatin. A third possibility is that Helena and other transposable elements have an elevated deletion spectrum owing to ..
  26. PHYSICAL MAPPING OF DROSOPHILA HETEROCHROMATIN
    Daniel Hartl; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Initial targets are to extend the existing large contigs that cover the euchromatin-heterochromatin junction of chromosome arm 3L, the Rsp-Bari region located deep in the heterochromatin of 2R, ..
  27. HETEROCHROMATIC LOCI AND POSITION EFFECTS IN DROSOPHILA
    Barbara Wakimoto; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The chromosomes of most higher organisms are divided into two cytologically distinct domains known as euchromatin and heterochromatin...
  28. MECHANISMS OF RADIATION INDUCED GENOMIC INSTABILITY
    ANDREW GROSOVSKY; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Furthermore, we postulate that chromosomal rearrangements involving the novel juxtaposition of euchromatin with centromeric (alpha) or pericentromeric (classical) heterochromatin is one such critical structural ..
  29. Structure-Function of a Uterine P-type ATPase
    Beverly Chilton; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The large, conformationally flexible loop extends into the nucleoplasm to contact euchromatin. Competitive reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and HPLC analysis showed that endometrial RFBP ..
  30. Epigenetic modifications during hematopoiesis
    Michael Litt; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..heterochromatin, X inactivation, Polycomb-mediated gene silencing, and transcriptional repression at euchromatin positions. All these function involve the formation of repressive chromatin...
  31. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF MEIOTIC CENTROMERE FUNCTION
    JOHN TOMKIEL; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..In addition, a collection of deficiency-bearing chromosomes that together delete 80 percent of the autosomal euchromatin will be tested in trans for effects on the segregation of this dicentric chromosome...
  32. Variation of D. melanogaster chromosome 4
    Manyuan Long; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..region in the chromosome, we will characterize the polymorphism distribution in natural populations in whole euchromatin regions of the D. melanogaster fourth chromosome. (3) To compare the high variation region of D...
  33. CONTROL OF PROSTATE CELL GROWTH AND CELL DIVISION
    Ken Anderson; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..and function of DNA replication complexes isolated by a procedure originally used to separate prostate "euchromatin"...
  34. Epigenetic Changes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    CARMELLA MOLINA; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..this de-differentiation of the beta-cell results from changes in chromatin structure that function to decrease euchromatin at the insulin gene. To test this hypothesis, the following aims are proposed: 1...
  35. Improved HSV Vectors: Gene Transfer into Nervous System
    Howard Federoff; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In Specific Aim 1 we examine multiple different approaches to stimulate euchromatin formation, that chromatin state posited to support long term gene expression...
  36. Genomewide discovery & analysis of alternative promoters
    Ramana Davuluri; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..ChlP-on-chip assay, previously developed in our laboratory will be extended to simultaneously assess the euchromatin status of approximately 1,500 putative promoters of 250 pairs of human and mouse orthologous genes...
  37. Mechanism of Meiotic Pairing in Drosophila
    BRUCE MCKEE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..3) What is the molecular basis for homologous pairing in early prophase. 4) How are homologous pairing and conjunction related? We will use predominant genetic and cell biological methods to address these questions. ..
  38. Planning Grant for Institutional Clinical and Translational Science Award
    Charles McCall; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  39. Function and Metabolic Properties of Toxic Neutrophils
    Charles McCall; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This research will advance our understanding of the functional genetics of innate immune mechanisms that are associated with septicemia. ..
  40. EDUCATION IN PATIENT ORIENTED RESEARCH
    Charles McCall; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The PEPOR of WFUSM will meet the challenge of training talented clinical investigators. ..
  41. FUNCTIONAL AND METABOLIC PROPERTIES OF TOXIC NEUTROPHILS
    Charles McCall; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These investigations will increase our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate pro- inflammatory gene expression and contribute to improving the management of patients with sepsis. ..
  42. ALIGNMENT BASED METHODS FOR MOLECULAR SEQUENCE ANALYSIS
    Steven Henikoff; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..This effort could yield new eukaryotic family members of great importance for understanding epigenetic phenomena, some of which, such as parental imprinting, are relevant to human disease. ..
  43. Maintenance of blocks-based tools for functional genomic
    Steven Henikoff; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These various components will be packaged to facilitate updates and local implementations. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  44. Microfilaments in Giardia Attachment and Virulence
    HEIDI ELMENDORF; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This work will advance our understanding of parasite pathogenesis and develop our knowledge of microfilaments as a target for drug design. ..
  45. O-GlcNAc:Developing New Tool for Assessment of Glycemia
    Gerald Hart; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The project also represents a new inter-disciplinary, inter-departmental basic science-clinical research collaboration between Biological Chemistry and The Department of Medicine. ..
  46. PROBING FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION WITHIN THE NUCLEUS
    Jeanne Lawrence; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..It further has potential for diagnosing and elucidating the molecular pathology of splicing defects in OI Type I and other genetic diseases. ..
  47. FORMATION, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN HETEROCHROMATIN
    Sarah Elgin; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..map with a sequence map should provide insights into chromosome organization, helping to define the differences between heterochromatin and euchromatin and potentially leading to identification of boundaries between these domains.
  48. Developmental Regulation of MacroH2A1 Chromatin Assembly
    Theodore Rasmussen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Research proposed here will provide basic insights into differentiation biology and provide a framework for future attempts to achieve rationally-guided ES cell differentiation. ..
  49. The Role of Odorant Binding Proteins in Anopheline Mosquito Odor Perception
    Marika Walter; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  50. Nuclear and genomic organization of gene expression
    Jeanne Lawrence; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Hypotheses tested have potential to elucidate the functional evolution of the karyotype and such features as cytogenetic bands and conserved gene clusters, which may associate with distinct intranuclear compartments. ..
  51. MATURATION OF HERPESVIRAL NUCLEAR PROTEINS
    David Knipe; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These studies should provide information that is important for designing antiviral strategies for HSV and for engineering HSV-2 strains for genital herpes vaccines. ..
  52. The CXCR4-SDF-1 Axis in Metastatic Rhabdomyosarcoma
    Mariusz Ratajczak; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This work will be of relevance for designing strategies to block the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis to treat CXCR4-positive cancers. ..
  53. Neurochemical Organization of Brain Stem Respiratory Nuclei
    MARGARET TT WONG RILEY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  54. STRUCTURAL AND GENETIC STUDIES OF CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS
    Sarah Elgin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Such knowledge is important for our understanding of human growth and development, including health problems such as cancer and aging. ..
  55. Immune Complex Stimulation of TNFalpha
    Kathleen Sullivan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In the third aim, we will define the role of chromatin in the regulation of responses to immune complexes. ..
  56. GLYCOCONJUGATES IN DEVELOPMENT AND IMMUNITY
    Gerald Hart; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies are fundamentally important to the regulation of transcription and signal transduction processes important to virtually all aspects of development and disease. ..
  57. Transcriptional Regulation in Giardia lamblia
    HEIDI ELMENDORF; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These studies will build an understanding of transcription in Giardia lamblia and lay foundations for study of the role of the regulation of gene expression in disease. ..
  58. RNAi-directed assembly of heterochromatin in Drosophila
    Sarah Elgin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  59. TNF Alpha In Inflammation
    Kathleen Sullivan; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This proposal will address the hypothesis that DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and location with euchromatin are variables, which are regulated independently and govern the competence of the TNF alpha locus for ..
  60. THE PATHOBIOLOGY OF INHERITED RETINAL DEGENERATION
    Dean Bok; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..