Summary: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from sperm flagella, cilia, and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to colchicine, vincristine, and vinblastine.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi HDAC6 is a microtubule-associated deacetylase
    Charlotte Hubbert
    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 417:455-8. 2002
  2. pmc MEC-17 is an alpha-tubulin acetyltransferase
    Jyothi S Akella
    Department of Cellular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Nature 467:218-22. 2010
  3. ncbi The human Sir2 ortholog, SIRT2, is an NAD+-dependent tubulin deacetylase
    Brian J North
    Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, 94141, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Mol Cell 11:437-44. 2003
  4. ncbi Refined structure of alpha beta-tubulin at 3.5 A resolution
    J Lowe
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK
    J Mol Biol 313:1045-57. 2001
  5. pmc Systematic analysis of human protein complexes identifies chromosome segregation proteins
    James R A Hutchins
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology IMP, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Science 328:593-9. 2010
  6. pmc In vivo destabilization of dynamic microtubules by HDAC6-mediated deacetylation
    Akihisa Matsuyama
    Chemical Genetics Laboratory, Wako, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    EMBO J 21:6820-31. 2002
  7. doi Microtubule nucleation by γ-tubulin complexes
    Justin M Kollman
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 12:709-21. 2011
  8. ncbi Visualization of cellulose synthase demonstrates functional association with microtubules
    Alexander R Paredez
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, 260 Panama Street, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 312:1491-5. 2006
  9. doi Microtubules and resistance to tubulin-binding agents
    Maria Kavallaris
    Children s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia
    Nat Rev Cancer 10:194-204. 2010
  10. ncbi Microtubule nucleation at non-spindle pole body microtubule-organizing centers requires fission yeast centrosomin-related protein mod20p
    Kenneth E Sawin
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JR, United Kingdom
    Curr Biol 14:763-75. 2004

Detail Information

Publications415 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi HDAC6 is a microtubule-associated deacetylase
    Charlotte Hubbert
    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 417:455-8. 2002
    Reversible acetylation of alpha-tubulin has been implicated in regulating microtubule stability and function. The distribution of acetylated alpha-tubulin is tightly controlled and stereotypic...
  2. pmc MEC-17 is an alpha-tubulin acetyltransferase
    Jyothi S Akella
    Department of Cellular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Nature 467:218-22. 2010
    ..cells, subsets of microtubules are adapted for specific functions by post-translational modifications (PTMs) of tubulin subunits...
  3. ncbi The human Sir2 ortholog, SIRT2, is an NAD+-dependent tubulin deacetylase
    Brian J North
    Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, 94141, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Mol Cell 11:437-44. 2003
    ..SIRT2 deacetylates lysine-40 of alpha-tubulin both in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of SIRT2 via siRNA results in tubulin hyperacetylation...
  4. ncbi Refined structure of alpha beta-tubulin at 3.5 A resolution
    J Lowe
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK
    J Mol Biol 313:1045-57. 2001
    We present a refined model of the alpha beta-tubulin dimer to 3.5 A resolution...
  5. pmc Systematic analysis of human protein complexes identifies chromosome segregation proteins
    James R A Hutchins
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology IMP, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Science 328:593-9. 2010
    ..of previously unknown, evolutionarily conserved subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex and the gamma-tubulin ring complex--large complexes that are essential for spindle assembly and chromosome segregation...
  6. pmc In vivo destabilization of dynamic microtubules by HDAC6-mediated deacetylation
    Akihisa Matsuyama
    Chemical Genetics Laboratory, Wako, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    EMBO J 21:6820-31. 2002
    ..Using this approach, alpha-tubulin was identified as an HDAC6 substrate. HDAC6 deacetylated alpha-tubulin both in vivo and in vitro...
  7. doi Microtubule nucleation by γ-tubulin complexes
    Justin M Kollman
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 12:709-21. 2011
    Microtubule nucleation is regulated by the γ-tubulin ring complex (γTuRC) and related γ-tubulin complexes, providing spatial and temporal control over the initiation of microtubule growth...
  8. ncbi Visualization of cellulose synthase demonstrates functional association with microtubules
    Alexander R Paredez
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, 260 Panama Street, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 312:1491-5. 2006
    ..Inhibition of microtubule polymerization changed the fine-scale distribution and pattern of moving CESA complexes in the membrane, indicating a relatively direct mechanism for guidance of cellulose deposition by the cytoskeleton...
  9. doi Microtubules and resistance to tubulin-binding agents
    Maria Kavallaris
    Children s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia
    Nat Rev Cancer 10:194-204. 2010
    Microtubules are dynamic structures composed of alpha-beta-tubulin heterodimers that are essential in cell division and are important targets for cancer drugs...
  10. ncbi Microtubule nucleation at non-spindle pole body microtubule-organizing centers requires fission yeast centrosomin-related protein mod20p
    Kenneth E Sawin
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JR, United Kingdom
    Curr Biol 14:763-75. 2004
    ..These are the equatorial MTOC, which nucleates microtubules from the cell division site at the end of mitosis, and interphase MTOCs, which nucleate microtubules from multiple sites near the cell nucleus during interphase...
  11. pmc CDK5RAP2 is a pericentriolar protein that functions in centrosomal attachment of the gamma-tubulin ring complex
    Ka Wing Fong
    Department of Biochemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
    Mol Biol Cell 19:115-25. 2008
    Microtubule nucleation and organization by the centrosome require gamma-tubulin, a protein that exists in a macromolecular complex called the gamma-tubulin ring complex (gammaTuRC)...
  12. pmc An extended γ-tubulin ring functions as a stable platform in microtubule nucleation
    Sarah Erlemann
    Zentrum fur Molekulare Biologie der Universitat Heidelberg, DKFZ ZMBH Allianz, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Cell Biol 197:59-74. 2012
    b>Tubulin complexes are essential for microtubule (MT) nucleation. The γ-tubulin small complex (γ-TuSC) consists of two molecules of γ-tubulin and one molecule each of Spc97 and Spc98...
  13. pmc Soluble levels of cytosolic tubulin regulate ciliary length control
    Neeraj Sharma
    Department of Cell Biology, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 22:806-16. 2011
    ..The effects of pharmacological agents on cilia length are associated with a subsequent increase in soluble tubulin levels and can be impaired by depletion of soluble tubulin with taxol...
  14. pmc Domain-selective small-molecule inhibitor of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6)-mediated tubulin deacetylation
    Stephen J Haggarty
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, and Harvard Institute of Chemistry and Cell Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:4389-94. 2003
    ..chemical genetic screen of 7,392 small molecules was used to discover "tubacin," which inhibits alpha-tubulin deacetylation in mammalian cells...
  15. doi Post-translational regulation of the microtubule cytoskeleton: mechanisms and functions
    Carsten Janke
    Department of Signalling, Neurobiology and Cancer, Institut Curie, Bat 110, Centre Universitaire, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 12:773-86. 2011
    ..Cells generate distinct microtubule subtypes through expression of different tubulin isotypes and through post-translational modifications, such as detyrosination and further cleavage to Δ2-tubulin,..
  16. ncbi Histone deacetylase 6 inhibition compensates for the transport deficit in Huntington's disease by increasing tubulin acetylation
    Jim P Dompierre
    Institut Curie and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche 146, Orsay, France
    J Neurosci 27:3571-83. 2007
    ..neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by inhibiting HDAC6, thereby increasing acetylation at lysine 40 of alpha-tubulin. MT acetylation in vitro and in cells causes the recruitment of the molecular motors dynein and kinesin-1 to MTs...
  17. ncbi Microtubule-organizing centres: a re-evaluation
    Jens Lüders
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, CA 94305, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 8:161-7. 2007
    ..microtubule-organizing centres, which nucleate and anchor microtubule minus ends in a process that requires gamma-tubulin. Here we discuss recent evidence indicating that gamma-tubulin-dependent formation of new microtubules is not ..
  18. doi HDAC6 inhibitors reverse axonal loss in a mouse model of mutant HSPB1-induced Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
    Constantin d'Ydewalle
    Vesalius Research Center, VIB and K U Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium
    Nat Med 17:968-74. 2011
    ..Expression of mutant HSPB1 decreased acetylated α-tubulin abundance and induced severe axonal transport deficits...
  19. doi HDAC6: a key regulator of cytoskeleton, cell migration and cell-cell interactions
    Agustin Valenzuela-Fernandez
    Departamento de Medicina Física y Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina and Instituto de Tecnologías Biomédicas ITB, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
    Trends Cell Biol 18:291-7. 2008
    ..HDAC6 deacetylates tubulin, Hsp90 and cortactin, and forms complexes with other partner proteins...
  20. pmc Human TUBB3 mutations perturb microtubule dynamics, kinesin interactions, and axon guidance
    Max A Tischfield
    Department of Neurology, Children s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 140:74-87. 2010
    We report that eight heterozygous missense mutations in TUBB3, encoding the neuron-specific beta-tubulin isotype III, result in a spectrum of human nervous system disorders that we now call the TUBB3 syndromes...
  21. pmc HDAC-6 interacts with and deacetylates tubulin and microtubules in vivo
    Yu Zhang
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, 4058 Basel, Switzerland
    EMBO J 22:1168-79. 2003
    ..Reversible acetylation on the epsilon-amino group of alpha-tubulin Lys40 marks stabilized microtubule structures and may contribute to regulating microtubule dynamics...
  22. pmc Identification and characterization of two novel proteins affecting fission yeast gamma-tubulin complex function
    Srinivas Venkatram
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 15:2287-301. 2004
    The gamma-tubulin complex, via its ability to organize microtubules, is critical for accurate chromosome segregation and cytokinesis in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. To better understand its roles, we have purified the S...
  23. pmc Proper recruitment of gamma-tubulin and D-TACC/Msps to embryonic Drosophila centrosomes requires Centrosomin Motif 1
    Jiuli Zhang
    Department of Pharmacology, The Cecil and Ida Green Center for Reproductive Biology Sciences, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390 9051, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 18:4037-49. 2007
    ..Cnn Motif 1 is necessary for proper recruitment of gamma-tubulin, D-TACC (the homolog of vertebrate transforming acidic coiled-coil proteins [TACC]), and Minispindles (Msps) to ..
  24. pmc Molecular basis of tubulin transport within the cilium by IFT74 and IFT81
    Sagar Bhogaraju
    Department of Structural Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany
    Science 341:1009-12. 2013
    Intraflagellar transport (IFT) of ciliary precursors such as tubulin from the cytoplasm to the ciliary tip is involved in the construction of the cilium, a hairlike organelle found on most eukaryotic cells...
  25. pmc A TOG:αβ-tubulin complex structure reveals conformation-based mechanisms for a microtubule polymerase
    Pelin Ayaz
    Department of Biophysics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Science 337:857-60. 2012
    Stu2p/XMAP215/Dis1 family proteins are evolutionarily conserved regulatory factors that use αβ-tubulin-interacting tumor overexpressed gene (TOG) domains to catalyze fast microtubule growth...
  26. pmc Mice lacking histone deacetylase 6 have hyperacetylated tubulin but are viable and develop normally
    Yu Zhang
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Novartis Research Foundation, P O Box 2543, Maulbeerstrasse 66, 4058 Basel, Switzerland
    Mol Cell Biol 28:1688-701. 2008
    ..was recently identified as a multisubstrate protein deacetylase that can act on acetylated histone tails, alpha-tubulin and Hsp90...
  27. doi Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 phosphorylates brain tubulin-beta isoforms and modulates microtubule stability--a point of convergence in parkinsonian neurodegeneration?
    Frank Gillardon
    Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Birkendorfer Str 65, 88397 Biberach an der Riss, Germany
    J Neurochem 110:1514-22. 2009
    ..Here we show that recombinant human LRRK2 preferentially phosphorylates tubulin-beta purified from bovine brain and that phosphorylation is three-fold enhanced by the LRRK2(G2019S) mutation...
  28. pmc Phenotypic spectrum of the tubulin-related disorders and functional implications of disease-causing mutations
    Max A Tischfield
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins Medical School, 725 North Wolfe St, PCTB 804, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 21:286-94. 2011
    ..and maintenance have recently been attributed to missense and splice-site mutations in the genes that encode α-tubulin and β-tubulin isotypes TUBA1A, TUBA8, TUBB2B, and TUBB3, all of which putatively coassemble into neuronal ..
  29. pmc The major alpha-tubulin K40 acetyltransferase alphaTAT1 promotes rapid ciliogenesis and efficient mechanosensation
    Toshinobu Shida
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5345, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:21517-22. 2010
    Long-lived microtubules found in ciliary axonemes, neuronal processes, and migrating cells are marked by α-tubulin acetylation on lysine 40, a modification that takes place inside the microtubule lumen...
  30. ncbi Anti-tubulin monoclonal antibodies that bind to specific neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans
    S S Siddiqui
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60201
    J Neurosci 9:2963-72. 1989
    We have identified 2 anti-tubulin monoclonal antibodies that bind to 2 different subpopulations of identified neurons in the simple nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
  31. ncbi Promotion of microtubule assembly in vitro by taxol
    P B Schiff
    Nature 277:665-7. 1979
  32. pmc Asymmetric CLASP-dependent nucleation of noncentrosomal microtubules at the trans-Golgi network
    Andrey Efimov
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Dev Cell 12:917-30. 2007
    ..Both centrosomal and Golgi-emanating microtubules need gamma-tubulin for nucleation...
  33. ncbi The growth-related, translationally controlled protein P23 has properties of a tubulin binding protein and associates transiently with microtubules during the cell cycle
    Y Gachet
    Divisions of Biochemistry and Immunology, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    J Cell Sci 112:1257-71. 1999
    ..Here, we present evidence that P23 has properties of a tubulin binding protein that associates with microtubules in a cell cycle-dependent manner...
  34. pmc Removal of a single alpha-tubulin gene intron suppresses cell cycle arrest phenotypes of splicing factor mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    C Geoffrey Burns
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 22:801-15. 2002
    ..defects in pre-mRNA splicing discovered through intron microarray analysis, inefficient splicing of the alpha-tubulin-encoding TUB1 mRNA was considered as a potential cause of the cef1-13 cell cycle arrest because cef1-13 cells ..
  35. ncbi The molecular motor toolbox for intracellular transport
    Ronald D Vale
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Cell 112:467-80. 2003
    ..Remarkably, fungi, parasites, plants, and animals have distinct subsets of Toolbox motors in their genomes, suggesting an underlying diversity of strategies for intracellular transport...
  36. pmc Tubulin binding blocks mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel and regulates respiration
    Tatiana K Rostovtseva
    Laboratory of Physical and Structural Biology, Program in Physical Biology, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:18746-51. 2008
    ..We solve this puzzle by finding a missing player in the regulation of MOM permeability: the cytoskeletal protein tubulin. We show that nanomolar concentrations of dimeric tubulin induce voltage-sensitive reversible closure of VDAC ..
  37. pmc Genetically separable functions of the MEC-17 tubulin acetyltransferase affect microtubule organization
    Irini Topalidou
    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
    Curr Biol 22:1057-65. 2012
    Microtubules (MTs) are formed from the lateral association of 11-16 protofilament chains of tubulin dimers, with most cells containing 13-protofilament (13-p) MTs...
  38. ncbi Assembly dynamics of microtubules at molecular resolution
    Jacob W J Kerssemakers
    Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics AMOLF, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nature 442:709-12. 2006
    ..Although microtubules are known to self-assemble from tubulin dimers, information on the assembly dynamics of microtubules has been limited, both in vitro and in vivo, to ..
  39. pmc Tubulin polyglutamylation is essential for airway ciliary function through the regulation of beating asymmetry
    Koji Ikegami
    Department of Molecular Anatomy, Molecular Imaging Advanced Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431 3192, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:10490-5. 2010
    ..We report here that the beating asymmetry is crucial for ciliary function and requires tubulin glutamylation, a unique posttranslational modification that is highly abundant in cilia...
  40. pmc Myc-nick: a cytoplasmic cleavage product of Myc that promotes alpha-tubulin acetylation and cell differentiation
    Maralice Conacci-Sorrell
    Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Cell 142:480-93. 2010
    ..Myc-nick induces alpha-tubulin acetylation and altered cell morphology by recruiting histone acetyltransferase GCN5 to microtubules...
  41. doi Tubulin post-translational modifications: encoding functions on the neuronal microtubule cytoskeleton
    Carsten Janke
    Institut Curie, Batiment 110, Centre Universitaire, F 91405 Orsay cedex, France
    Trends Neurosci 33:362-72. 2010
    ..By contrast, several tubulin-modifying enzymes were only discovered in the last few years, and studies on molecular mechanisms and cellular ..
  42. pmc Post-translational modifications of microtubules
    Dorota Wloga
    Department of Cell Biology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Science, 02 093 Warsaw, Poland
    J Cell Sci 123:3447-55. 2010
    Microtubules--polymers of tubulin--perform essential functions, including regulation of cell shape, intracellular transport and cell motility. How microtubules are adapted to perform multiple diverse functions is not well understood...
  43. ncbi Microtubule-targeted anticancer agents and apoptosis
    Kapil N Bhalla
    Department of Interdisciplinary Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, University of South Florida, 12902 Magnolia Drive, MRC 3 East, Room 3056, Tampa, FL, USA
    Oncogene 22:9075-86. 2003
    ..In the same period, the microtubule-targeted tubulin-polymerizing agents (MTPAs), notably paclitaxel and taxotere, have come to occupy a central role in the treatment ..
  44. doi Control of centriole length by CPAP and CP110
    Thorsten I Schmidt
    Department of Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Curr Biol 19:1005-11. 2009
    ..we show that overexpression of the centriolar protein CPAP in human cells enhances the accumulation of centriolar tubulin, leading to centrioles of strikingly increased length...
  45. pmc Tubulin modifications and their cellular functions
    Jennetta W Hammond
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Curr Opin Cell Biol 20:71-6. 2008
    All microtubules are built from a basic alpha/beta-tubulin building block, yet subpopulations of microtubules can be differentially marked by a number of post-translational modifications...
  46. ncbi Gamma-tubulin complexes and microtubule organization
    Brigitte Raynaud-Messina
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Pierre Fabre, UMR 2587, 3 rue des Satellites, 31400 Toulouse, France
    Curr Opin Cell Biol 19:24-30. 2007
    Microtubule nucleation requires gamma-tubulin, which exists in two main protein complexes: the gamma-tubulin small complex, and the gamma-tubulin ring complex...
  47. pmc The role of γ-tubulin in centrosomal microtubule organization
    Boulder Laboratory for 3 D Electron Microscopy of Cells, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e29795. 2012
    As part of a multi-subunit ring complex, γ-tubulin has been shown to promote microtubule nucleation both in vitro and in vivo, and the structural properties of the complex suggest that it also seals the minus ends of the polymers with a ..
  48. pmc Gamma-tubulin is required for bipolar spindle assembly and for proper kinetochore microtubule attachments during prometaphase I in Drosophila oocytes
    Stacie E Hughes
    Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 7:e1002209. 2011
    ..Previous studies of Drosophila oocytes failed to detect the native form of the germline-specific γ-tubulin (γTub37C) in meiosis I spindles, and genetic studies have yielded conflicting data regarding the role of γ..
  49. doi Axon extension occurs independently of centrosomal microtubule nucleation
    Michael Stiess
    Independent Junior Research Group Axonal Growth and Regeneration, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Science 327:704-7. 2010
    ..Thus, decentralized microtubule assembly enables axon extension and regeneration, and, after axon initiation, acentrosomal microtubule nucleation arranges the cytoskeleton, which is the source of the sophisticated morphology of neurons...
  50. pmc C6-ceramide synergistically potentiates the anti-tumor effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors via AKT dephosphorylation and α-tubulin hyperacetylation both in vitro and in vivo
    Q Y Zhu
    Department of Physiology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, PR China
    Cell Death Dis 2:e117. 2011
    ..with perturbations in diverse cell signaling pathways, including inactivation of Akt/mTOR and increase in α-tubulin acetylation (both in vivo and in vitro)...
  51. pmc SIRT2 ablation has no effect on tubulin acetylation in brain, cholesterol biosynthesis or the progression of Huntington's disease phenotypes in vivo
    Anna Bobrowska
    Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King s College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e34805. 2012
    ..SIRT2 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase that has been proposed to deacetylate α-tubulin, histone H4 K16 and to regulate cholesterol biogenesis - a pathway which is dysregulated in HD patients and HD ..
  52. pmc An inducible RNA interference system in Physcomitrella patens reveals a dominant role of augmin in phragmoplast microtubule generation
    Yuki Nakaoka
    Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8602, Japan
    Plant Cell 24:1478-93. 2012
    ..We applied this technique to two microtubule regulators, augmin and γ-tubulin complexes, whose mitotic roles remain obscure in plant cells...
  53. pmc Aurora-A kinase is required for centrosome maturation in Caenorhabditis elegans
    E Hannak
    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, 01307 Dresden, Germany
    J Cell Biol 155:1109-16. 2001
    Centrosomes mature as cells enter mitosis, accumulating gamma-tubulin and other pericentriolar material (PCM) components. This occurs concomitant with an increase in the number of centrosomally organized microtubules (MTs)...
  54. pmc Characterization of the Arabidopsis augmin complex uncovers its critical function in the assembly of the acentrosomal spindle and phragmoplast microtubule arrays
    Takashi Hotta
    Department of Plant Biology, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Plant Cell 24:1494-509. 2012
    ..Our recent findings in Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that AUGMIN subunit3 (AUG3), a homolog of animal dim γ-tubulin 3, plays a critical role in γ-tubulin-dependent MT nucleation and amplification during mitosis...
  55. ncbi Targeted anti-mitotic therapies: can we improve on tubulin agents?
    Jeffrey R Jackson
    GlaxoSmithKline, Oncology Center of Excellence in Drug Discovery, Department of Biology, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, USA
    Nat Rev Cancer 7:107-17. 2007
    ..new agents interfere with mitosis provides the potential to not only overcome certain limitations of current tubulin-targeted anti-mitotic drugs, but to expand the scope of clinical efficacy that those drugs have established...
  56. pmc A mutation in gamma-tubulin alters microtubule dynamics and organization and is synthetically lethal with the kinesin-like protein pkl1p
    J L Paluh
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 3200, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 11:1225-39. 2000
    ..gamma-Tubulin is essential for nucleation, and we now extend its role to these latter processes...
  57. doi Class III β-tubulin and the cytoskeletal gateway for drug resistance in ovarian cancer
    Marta De Donato
    Laboratory of Antineoplastic Pharmacology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy
    J Cell Physiol 227:1034-41. 2012
    The Class III β-tubulin isotype (βIII-tubulin) is a predictive biomarker in ovarian cancer and other solid tumor malignancies...
  58. pmc Gamma-tubulin regulates the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome during interphase
    Tania Nayak
    Department of Molecular Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    J Cell Biol 190:317-30. 2010
    A cold-sensitive gamma-tubulin allele of Aspergillus nidulans, mipAD159, causes defects in mitotic and cell cycle regulation at restrictive temperatures that are apparently independent of microtubule nucleation defects...
  59. pmc The posttranslational modification of tubulin undergoes a switch from detyrosination to acetylation as epithelial cells become polarized
    Geraldine B Quinones
    Department of Biology and Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 22:1045-57. 2011
    b>Tubulin posttranslational modifications (PTMs) have been suggested to provide navigational cues for molecular motors to deliver cargo to spatially segregated subcellular domains, but the molecular details of this process remain unclear...
  60. doi Amyloid-β-induced mitochondrial dysfunction impairs the autophagic lysosomal pathway in a tubulin dependent pathway
    Diana F F Silva
    Centro de Neurociencias e Biologia Celular, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
    J Alzheimers Dis 26:565-81. 2011
    ..induced an increase in NAD+levels and a decrease in ATP levels, which was related with decreases in acetylated tubulin levels and tau hyperphosphorylation...
  61. doi Elongator controls the migration and differentiation of cortical neurons through acetylation of alpha-tubulin
    Catherine Creppe
    GIGA Signal Transduction, University of Liege, C H U Sart Tilman, 4000 Liege, Belgium
    Cell 136:551-64. 2009
    ..Strikingly, neurons defective in Elongator show reduced levels of acetylated alpha-tubulin. Reduction of alpha-tubulin acetylation via expression of a nonacetylatable alpha-tubulin mutant leads to ..
  62. pmc HDAC6 controls major cell response pathways to cytotoxic accumulation of protein aggregates
    Cyril Boyault
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale INSERM, U823, Institut Albert Bonniot, Grenoble F 38706, France
    Genes Dev 21:2172-81. 2007
    ..HDAC6 therefore appears as a master regulator of the cell protective response to cytotoxic protein aggregate formation...
  63. doi MJ-29 inhibits tubulin polymerization, induces mitotic arrest, and triggers apoptosis via cyclin-dependent kinase 1-mediated Bcl-2 phosphorylation in human leukemia U937 cells
    Jai Sing Yang
    Department of Pharmacology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 334:477-88. 2010
    ..MJ-29 interacted with alpha- and beta-tubulin, inhibited tubulin polymerization both in vitro and in vivo, and disrupted microtubule organization...
  64. pmc Structural basis for tubulin recognition by cytoplasmic linker protein 170 and its autoinhibition
    Masaki Mishima
    Graduate School of Biological Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916 5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630 0192, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:10346-51. 2007
    ..of CLIP-170, CAP-Gly-1 and CAP-Gly-2, revealed positively charged basic grooves of both CAP-Gly domains for tubulin binding, whereas the CAP-Gly-2 domain possesses a more basic groove and directly binds the EExEEY/F motif of the ..
  65. ncbi Review: tubulin function, action of antitubulin drugs, and new drug development
    Federico Pellegrini
    Experimental Therapeutics Section, Don Monti Division of Oncology, North Shore University Hospital, New York University School of Medicine, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Cancer Invest 23:264-73. 2005
    ..b>Tubulin has been recently described in the nucleus of cells and in mitochondria...
  66. pmc Posttranslational acetylation of α-tubulin constrains protofilament number in native microtubules
    Juan G Cueva
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Curr Biol 22:1066-74. 2012
    Microtubules are built from linear polymers of α-β tubulin dimers (protofilaments) that form a tubular quinary structure...
  67. pmc Phosphorylation of the yeast γ-tubulin Tub4 regulates microtubule function
    Tien Chen Lin
    Zentrum fur Molekulare Biologie der Universitat Heidelberg, DKFZ ZMBH Allianz, Heidelberg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e19700. 2011
    The yeast γ-tubulin Tub4 is assembled with Spc97 and Spc98 into the small Tub4 complex...
  68. ncbi Post-translational modifications regulate microtubule function
    Stefan Westermann
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4:938-47. 2003
  69. pmc Assays to detect beta-tubulin codon 200 polymorphism in Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides
    Aissatou Diawara
    Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e397. 2009
    ..phenylalanine to tyrosine, known to be associated with benzimidazole resistance, has been found in parasite beta-tubulin at position 200. We have developed pyrosequencer assays for codon 200 (TTC or TAC) in A. lumbricoides and T...
  70. ncbi A role for alpha1 tubulin-expressing Müller glia in regeneration of the injured zebrafish retina
    Blake V Fausett
    The Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Neurosci 26:6303-13. 2006
    Alpha1 tubulin (alpha1T) is a neuron-specific microtubule protein whose expression is induced in the developing and regenerating CNS. In the adult CNS, alpha1T expression remains high in neural progenitors...
  71. pmc EB1 recognizes the nucleotide state of tubulin in the microtubule lattice
    Marija Zanic
    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden, Germany
    PLoS ONE 4:e7585. 2009
    ..The interaction of EB1 with the GMPCPP microtubule lattice depends on the E-hook of tubulin, as well as the amount of salt in solution...
  72. ncbi The oncoprotein 18/stathmin family of microtubule destabilizers
    Lynne Cassimeris
    Department of Biological Sciences, 111 Research Drive, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA18015, USA
    Curr Opin Cell Biol 14:18-24. 2002
    ..New structural information has clearly shown how members of the Op18/stathmin protein family bind tubulin dimers and suggests models for how these proteins stimulate catastrophe, the transition from microtubule growth ..
  73. doi From signaling pathways to microtubule dynamics: the key players
    Sandrine Etienne-Manneville
    Institut Pasteur, Cell Polarity and Migration Group and CNRS URA 2582, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Curr Opin Cell Biol 22:104-11. 2010
    ..I review here how modifications of the tubulin dimer, tubulin modifying enzymes, and microtubule-associated proteins are directly involved in the regulation of ..
  74. ncbi Tubulin and CRMP-2 complex is transported via Kinesin-1
    Toshihide Kimura
    Department of Cell Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Showa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    J Neurochem 93:1371-82. 2005
    The transport of tubulin and microtubules in a growing axon is essential for axonal growth and maintenance. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the linkage of tubulin and microtubules to motor proteins is not yet clear...
  75. ncbi p27(Kip1)-stathmin interaction influences sarcoma cell migration and invasion
    Gustavo Baldassarre
    Oncologia Sperimentale 2, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, IRCCS, Aviano 33081, Italy
    Cancer Cell 7:51-63. 2005
    ..This study provides a functional link between proliferation and invasion of tumor cells based on diverse activities of p27(kip1) in different subcellular compartments...
  76. ncbi Taxanes, microtubules and chemoresistant breast cancer
    Barbara T McGrogan
    UCD School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1785:96-132. 2008
  77. pmc plusTipTracker: Quantitative image analysis software for the measurement of microtubule dynamics
    Kathryn T Applegate
    The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Struct Biol 176:168-84. 2011
    ..To illustrate the enhanced performance of the new software we thus compare computer-assembled +TIP-marked trajectories to manually-traced MT trajectories from the same movie used in Matov et al. (2010)...
  78. pmc Effects of {gamma}-tubulin complex proteins on microtubule nucleation and catastrophe in fission yeast
    Sabina Zimmerman
    Department of Microbiology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 16:2719-33. 2005
    Although gamma-tubulin complexes (gamma-TuCs) are known as microtubule (MT) nucleators, their function in vivo is still poorly defined...
  79. pmc The fission yeast gamma-tubulin complex is required in G(1) phase and is a component of the spindle assembly checkpoint
    L Vardy
    Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, PO Box 123, 44 Lincoln s Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, UK
    EMBO J 19:6098-111. 2000
    Microtubule polymerization is initiated from the microtubule organizing centre (MTOC), which contains the gamma-tubulin complex...
  80. pmc Linking axonal degeneration to microtubule remodeling by Spastin-mediated microtubule severing
    Katia J Evans
    Department of Pathology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    J Cell Biol 168:599-606. 2005
    ..show that Spastin severs microtubules when added to permeabilized, cytosol-depleted cells stably expressing GFP-tubulin. Using purified components, we also show that Spastin interacts directly with microtubules and is sufficient for ..
  81. pmc Mechanisms of Taxol resistance related to microtubules
    George A Orr
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Oncogene 22:7280-95. 2003
    ..This review focuses on mechanisms of Taxol resistance that occur directly at the microtubule, such as mutations, tubulin isotype selection and post-translational modifications, and also at the level of regulatory proteins...
  82. doi Post-translational modifications of tubulin in the nervous system
    Nobuyuki Fukushima
    Department of Life Science, Kinki University, Higashiosaka, Japan
    J Neurochem 109:683-93. 2009
    ..have been proposed to be regulated in part by highly diverse, unusual post-translational modifications (PTMs) of tubulin, including acetylation, tyrosination, detyrosination, Delta2 modification, polyglutamylation, polyglycylation, ..
  83. ncbi Microtubule nucleation: gamma-tubulin and beyond
    Christiane Wiese
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison, 433 Babcock Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    J Cell Sci 119:4143-53. 2006
    ..In particular, it has shown that gamma-tubulin and its associated proteins play key roles in microtubule nucleation and spindle assembly in evolutionarily ..
  84. pmc The tubulin deglutamylase CCPP-1 regulates the function and stability of sensory cilia in C. elegans
    Department of Genetics, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Curr Biol 21:1685-94. 2011
    ..Cilia, which are conserved organelles that play important diverse roles in animal development and sensation, contain axonemes comprising microtubules that are especially prone to PTMs...
  85. pmc XMAP215 polymerase activity is built by combining multiple tubulin-binding TOG domains and a basic lattice-binding region
    Per O Widlund
    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:2741-6. 2011
    ..Repeats at their N termini, called TOG domains, are important for this function. While TOG domains directly bind tubulin dimers, it is unclear how this interaction translates to polymerase activity...
  86. doi αTAT1 is the major α-tubulin acetyltransferase in mice
    Nereo Kalebic
    Mouse Biology Unit, EMBL, Via Ramarini 32, Monterotondo 00015, Italy
    Nat Commun 4:1962. 2013
    Post-translational modification of tubulin serves as a powerful means for rapidly adjusting the functional diversity of microtubules...
  87. ncbi Gamma-tubulin complexes and microtubule nucleation
    M Moritz
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143 0448, USA
    Curr Opin Struct Biol 11:174-81. 2001
    Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal polymers that assemble from alpha/beta-tubulin and are vital for the establishment of cell polarity, vesicle trafficking and formation of the mitotic/meiotic spindle...
  88. ncbi Evaluation of antimitotic agents by quantitative comparisons of their effects on the polymerization of purified tubulin
    Ernest Hamel
    Screening Technologies Branch, Developmental Therapeutics Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Dignosis, National Cancer Instittue at Frederick, National Institutes of Health, MD 21702, USA
    Cell Biochem Biophys 38:1-22. 2003
    Most antimitotic compounds have highly specific interactions with tubulin, the major protein component of microtubules. It is, therefore, often desirable to characterize interactions of these agents with tubulin...
  89. pmc EBs recognize a nucleotide-dependent structural cap at growing microtubule ends
    Sebastian P Maurer
    Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, Lincoln s Inn Fields Laboratories, 44 Lincoln s Inn Fields, London WC2A 3LY, UK
    Cell 149:371-82. 2012
    ..This insight supports a common structural link between two important biological phenomena, microtubule dynamic instability and end tracking...
  90. ncbi The ClpX chaperone modulates assembly of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ
    Richard B Weart
    Department of Biology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Mol Microbiol 57:238-49. 2005
    Summary Assembly of the tubulin-like cytoskeletal protein FtsZ into a ring structure establishes the location of the nascent division site in prokaryotes...
  91. pmc Association between response to albendazole treatment and β-tubulin genotype frequencies in soil-transmitted helminths
    Aissatou Diawara
    Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2247. 2013
    ..may develop, which, in veterinary nematodes is caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the β-tubulin gene at positions 200, 167 or 198...
  92. pmc LRRK2 phosphorylates tubulin-associated tau but not the free molecule: LRRK2-mediated regulation of the tau-tubulin association and neurite outgrowth
    Fumitaka Kawakami
    Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Japan
    PLoS ONE 7:e30834. 2012
    ..In the present study, we demonstrated for the first time that (i) LRRK2 interacts with tau in a tubulin-dependent manner; (ii) LRRK2 directly phosphorylates tubulin-associated tau, but not free tau; (iii) LRRK2 ..
  93. doi Crystal structure of the open conformation of the mammalian chaperonin CCT in complex with tubulin
    Inés G Muñoz
    Macromolecular Crystallography Group, Structural Biology and Biocomputing Programme, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre CNIO, Madrid, Spain
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 18:14-9. 2011
    ..This chaperonin regulates the folding of important proteins including actin, α-tubulin and β-tubulin. We used an electron density map at 5...
  94. pmc Rasamsonia, a new genus comprising thermotolerant and thermophilic Talaromyces and Geosmithia species
    J Houbraken
    Department of Applied and Industrial Mycology, CBS KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 101:403-21. 2012
    ..Rasamsonia were distinguished using a combination of phenotypic characters, extrolite patterns, ITS and partial calmodulin and β-tubulin sequences. Rasamsonia brevistipitata sp. nov. is described and five new combinations are proposed.
  95. ncbi Rotenone inhibits mammalian cell proliferation by inhibiting microtubule assembly through tubulin binding
    Pallavi Srivastava
    School of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, India
    FEBS J 274:4788-801. 2007
    ..It also inhibited the binding of colchicine to tubulin, perturbed the secondary structure of tubulin, and reduced the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of tubulin and ..
  96. pmc Rapid microtubule self-assembly kinetics
    Melissa K Gardner
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Cell 146:582-92. 2011
    ..We find that because both the association and the dissociation rates increase at higher free subunit concentrations, the kinetics of microtubule assembly are an order-of-magnitude higher than currently estimated in the literature...
  97. doi Regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor trafficking by lysine deacetylase HDAC6
    Yonathan Lissanu Deribe
    Institute of Biochemistry II and Cluster of Excellence Macromolecular Complexes, Goethe University School of Medicine, Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Sci Signal 2:ra84. 2009
    ..we found negatively regulated EGFR endocytosis and degradation by controlling the acetylation status of alpha-tubulin and, subsequently, receptor trafficking along microtubules...
  98. pmc Hdac6 knock-out increases tubulin acetylation but does not modify disease progression in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease
    Anna Bobrowska
    Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King s College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e20696. 2011
    ..Loss of HDAC6 resulted in a marked increase in tubulin acetylation throughout the brain...
  99. pmc Crystal structure of γ-tubulin complex protein GCP4 provides insight into microtubule nucleation
    Valerie Guillet
    Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Toulouse, France
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 18:915-9. 2011
    Microtubule nucleation in all eukaryotes involves γ-tubulin small complexes (γTuSCs) that comprise two molecules of γ-tubulin bound to γ-tubulin complex proteins (GCPs) GCP2 and GCP3...
  100. pmc Microtubule plus-end tracking by CLIP-170 requires EB1
    Ram Dixit
    Department of Physiology and Pennsylvania Muscle Institute, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:492-7. 2009
    ..short dwell time at growing plus-ends, an observation inconsistent with the copolymerization of this complex with tubulin for plus-end-specific localization...
  101. pmc Acetylation of microtubules influences their sensitivity to severing by katanin in neurons and fibroblasts
    Haruka Sudo
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19129, USA
    J Neurosci 30:7215-26. 2010
    ..During interphase, fibroblasts display long microtubules with discrete regions rich in acetylated tubulin. Overexpression of katanin for short periods of time produced breaks preferentially in these regions...

Research Grants79

  1. Mechanisms of Dinitroaniline Action, Selectivity and Resistance
    Naomi S Morrissette; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and computational biology to conclude that the dinitroanilines have a novel mechanism of action: they bind to a-tubulin and disrupt protofilament contacts...
  2. Novel TIRF microscopy analyzing trafficking & signaling at the cell cortex
    Derek Toomre; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Consistent with the recovery act's goal, this funding will provide full-time summer employment for 4 undergraduate students and accelerate scientific achievement of the parent DP2 award...
  3. Gamma-Synuclein-Mediated Regulation of Norepinephrine Transporter
    Anita Sidhu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..be conducted to measure interactions between -Syn and microtubule binding proteins [MAPs, tau] and microtubules [tubulin]...
  4. Immune Mechanism of Rejection in Human Lung Allografts
    Thalachallour Mohanakumar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..from our center) has demonstrated that 30% have pre-existing Abs to self-Ags (collagen V (ColV) and K-alpha 1 Tubulin (K?1T)) and these patients demonstrate an increased risk of developing PGD (odds ratio of 3.09, (p<0...
  5. Diverse Roles for RIC8 During G Protein Signaling in Fungi
    Katherine A Borkovich; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The localization of actin, tubulin and GFP-tagged RIC8, RHO-4, Ga and G? proteins will be determined in various mutant strain backgrounds...
  6. Chemoprevention of urinary bladder carcinogenesis by flavokawain A
    Xiaolin Zi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..A, similar to some other chalcones, leads us to predict that it would cause no direct damage to DNA, bind to beta-tubulin, and induce phase II enzymes to protect against carcinogenesis...
  7. Targeting GRK2 (BARK1) in Heart Failure
    Walter J Koch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Molecules shown to interact with GRK2 such as tubulin and Akt suggest that this GRK may play roles in adaptive myocyte shape and size as well as cell survival...
  8. Mechanisms of assembly of photoreceptor G protein complexes
    Barry M Willardson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cells is the cytosolic chaperonin complex (CCT, Chaperonin Containing Tailless polypeptide 1) which folds actin, tubulin and dozens of other cytosolic proteins...
  9. The Effects of Ethanol on Microtubules during Mouse Pre-implantation Development
    Yixian Zheng; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Comprised of 1- and 2-tubulin subunits, microtubule assembly are tightly regulated to ensure proper execution of intracellular organization, ..
  10. Mechanisms of Ubiquitin Trafficking in Neurons
    Michael C Wooten; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our preliminary findings reveal that p62 converges upon HDAC6 to regulate it activity and thereby influences tubulin acetylation, leading to impaired clearance of aggregated proteins...
  11. Optimization of HDAC6 Inhibitors in the Treatment of CMT
    Ludo Van Den Bosch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These mice show all features of CMT2. Expression of mutant HSPB1 decreased acetylated [unreadable]-tubulin levels and induced severe axonal transport deficits...
  12. Keratin Biology and Disease Aspects in Simple Epithelia
    Bishr Omary; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is that IF proteins, one of the three major cytoskeletal protein families that include actin microfilaments and tubulin microtubules, play important physiologic and disease-related roles whose significance is rapidly unfolding...
  13. HDAC6: a target for regeneration following injury in the nervous system
    BRETT CAMERON LANGLEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A primary, and non-nuclear, function of HDAC6 is the deacetylation of 1-tubulin lysine 40 and, in turn, the modulation of microtubule dynamics...
    Susan K Dutcher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..defining and understanding the complexity of basal bodies, to identifying critically important roles for two new tubulin family members in basal body/centriole function, and to recognizing that basal bodies serve as a complex ..
  15. Discovery of Novel Antitumor Agents Effective Against Pancreatic Cancer
    Amy E Wright; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..agent with selective activity for tumor cells that effects microtubule dynamics but not though direct binding to tubulin;neopeltolide, a polyketide that inhibits mitochondrial ATP synthesis through inhibition of the cytochrome bc1 ..
  16. Characterization of a bacteriophage tubulin involved in viral replication
    JOSEPH A POGLIANO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In bacteria, only a few distinct families of tubulin have been characterized: FtsZ, a widely distributed protein critical for cell division, TubZ, involved in plasmid ..
    Elizabeth C Engle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..previous grant cycle, we identified the CFEOM3 gene to be TUBB3, which encodes the neuron-specific [unreadable]-tubulin isotype III, and defined this as a fourth disorder of axon guidance...
  18. Morphogenesis of the organ of Corti
    Ping Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..During development, the polarity of stereocilia in a hair cell is preceded by the polarity of a tubulin- based primary cilium, known as the kinocilium...
  19. Molecular Mechanisms of Cytoskeletal Regulators
    Kevin C Slep; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Microtubules are polymers of a[unreadable]-tubulin heterodimers...
  20. Cytoplasmic trafficking of non-viral gene therapy vectors
    David A Dean; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by a mechanism mediated by inhibition of the cytoplasmic histone deacetylase HDAC6, whose main target is 1-tubulin. It has been shown that microtubule acetylation causes the recruitment of dynein motors and increases cytoplasmic ..
    DOUGLAS COLE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..kinesin-2 and cytoplasmic dynein 1b;(3) to directly visualize the transport of hypothesized IFT cargo including tubulin and radial spoke complexes;and (4) to address the function of separate IFT particle proteins...
  22. Mechanisms of radiosensitization by 2-methoxyestradiol in prostate cancer models
    James M Larner; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..microscopy and other quantitative techniques to test whether 2-ME disrupts the known binding between MAPK and 2-tubulin. Involvement of anti-angiogenic effects will be measured by evaluating endothelial cell proliferation (in vitro) ..
    Thalachallour Mohanakumar; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Towards this, we will determine: a) kinetics of auto-Ab production to collagen V and K-11 tubulin, b) define the role of T regulatory cells in the production of auto-Abs, c) analyze BAL fluid for their cytokine ..
  24. Identification of a protein that elicits immune-mediated neuronal dysfunction
    Bonnie N Dittel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..self-reactive T cells produce a secreted protein that induces neuronal injury by destabilization of microtubule -tubulin in axons...
    Irina V Zhdanova; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and integrity of the neuronal ensembles will be evaluated in transgenic fish with fluorescent markers for alpha-1-tubulin and f-spondin...
  26. Connexin Distribution in Physiological Versus Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy
    Michael R Zile; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Major findings have been that 1) it is based both on increased tubulin, and thus microtubules, and on greater microtubule stability, 2) the major car- diac microtubule-stabilizing ..
  27. Discovery of Novel Antitumor Agents Effective Against Pancreatic Cancer
    Amy Wright; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of leideormatolide, a potent antimitotic agent, with selective activity for tumor cells, that does not work via tubulin;neopeltolide, a polyketide that induces G1 cell cycle arrest in cancer cells;and the finding that manzamine A can ..
  28. Lipid Regulation of Transient Receptor Potential Channels
    Tibor Rohacs; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This effect was mimicked by disruption of the tubulin cytoskeleton...
  29. Co-chaperone role of phosducin-like protein in G protein subunit assembly
    Barry M Willardson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..4) Assess the effects of PhLP3 phosphorylation on actin and tubulin folding. 5) Determine the function of PhLP 2A in 14-3-3 protein and alpha-tubulin folding...
    LISA MARIE LANDINO; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Our in vitro work with microtubule proteins including tubulin, tau and microtubule-associated protein- 2 shows that cysteine oxidation by peroxynitrite anion correlates with a ..
  31. Evaluation of antiangiogenic role of EM011, a novel tubulin-binding agent
    Ritu Aneja; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our preliminary data strongly suggest that a semisynthetic tubulin-binding anticancer~ agent,(S)-3-((R)-9-bromo-4-methoxy-6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-[1,3]-dioxolo[4,5-g]-..
  32. Clinical Translation of a Neuron Protective Recombinant Human Antibody
    Moses Rodriguez; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..a mechanism of action in which the IgM clusters neuron membrane domains by binding to gangliosides, activating tubulin and initiating signals that result in axon protection and process extension...
  33. Microtubule dependent AR signaling predicts taxane sensitivity
    Paraskevi Giannakakou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specific Aim 2) Investigate the role of tubulin acetylation in taxane sensitivity in prostate cancer cell lines...
  34. Novel Antimicrobials Targeting Cell Division
    Iwao Ojima; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, we have selected FtsZ, the tubulin homologue in bacterial cells and essential to bacterial cell division, as the specific target to develop a new ..
  35. Regulation of cell growth and proliferation by Myc
    ROBERT NEIL EISENMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our preliminary data suggest that Myc-nick binds to and mediates acetylation of tubulin and promotes differentiation...
  36. The Role of the Actin Cytoskeleton and Cholesterol in Influenza Virus Assembly
    Samuel T Hess; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Along with actin and tubulin, the candidate adaptor proteins were found in purified influenza virus as observed by mass spectroscopy...
  37. The effect of pathological mutations in beta-III tubulin on microtubules and axon
    ADRIANNE LYNN KOLPAK; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Eight different missense mutations underlying this disorder mapped to beta-tubulin isotype III (TUBB3), a highly dynamic, neuron-specific tubulin isoform whose expression is upregulated during the ..
  38. Tubulin-Binding Upconversion Nanoparticles for Breast-Cancer Imaging and Therapy
    Chuanbin Mao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, if the MT assembly is inhibited by tubulin-binding agents, the mitotic spindle functions will be perturbed, resulting in the inhibition of cell division at ..
  39. Role and Mechanism of Microtubule Nucleation within the Mitotic Spindle
    Sabine Petry; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Spindle assembly is initiated by MT nucleation through the gamma tubulin ring complex (gTuRC) at centrosomes, chromatin and the spindle itself, yet it is unknown how gTuRC is localized ..
  40. Role and Mechanism of Microtubule Nucleation within the Mitotic Spindle
    Sabine Petry; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Spindle assembly is initiated by MT nucleation through the gamma tubulin ring complex (gTuRC) at centrosomes, chromatin and the spindle itself, yet it is unknown how gTuRC is localized ..
  41. Molecular Mechanisms of Organelle Assembly by the Prokaryotic Actin Homolog MamK
    Arash Komeili; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..has been the demonstration that prokaryotic organisms contain functional and structural homologs of eukaryotic tubulin, actin and intermediate filaments...
  42. Microtubule Complexes Involved in Intracelluar Transport
    Ronald D Vale; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..developed a model suggesting that these proteins function as "polymerization chaperones" that deliver oligomeric tubulin to the growing end of the microtubules...
  43. Epidemiology and molecular mechanisms of anthelminthic treatment failure in Kinta
    Michael D Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In another preliminary study we interrogated the ?-tubulin gene as a potential benzimidazole resistance marker in human hookworms isolated from the same sites and have ..
  44. Test to Predict Effectiveness of Docetaxel Treatment
    Carol Swartz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Effects on microtubules will be assessed using an assay measuring tubulin polymerization within the cell...
  45. Fine tuning the catalytic cycle of kinesin motors
    FREDRICK JON KULL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..we have developed a bacterial-based system for the high level expression of a eukaryotic-like nonpolymerizing tubulin dimer...
  46. Role of RepX Protein in Replication/Partitioning of Anthrax Toxin Plasmid pXO1
    Saleem A Khan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..RepX resembles the FtsZ/tubulin proteins and we have shown that the purified RepX protein is a GTPase that can undergo GTP-dependent dynamic ..
  47. Targeting microtubule stabilization to reduce breast tumor metastasis
    Stuart S Martin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Importantly, since McTNs are supported by tubulin, the common breast cancer drug, Paclitaxel (Taxol), actually strengthens McTNs and speeds tumor cell reattachment...
  48. The role of the primary cilium in glomerular podocyte cells
    ROBERT JOHN KOLB; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..after vertical flow stimulus and 3) reorganization of the cytoskeleton by immunofluorescent labeling of actin and tubulin. The second aim will determine molecular components responsible for the flow stimulated calcium response after ..
  49. DNA segregation during Bacillus growth and development
    JOSEPH A POGLIANO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..studying plasmid pBtoxis in Bacillus thuringiensis, we identified a novel segregation protein belonging to the tubulin superfamily...
  50. The Mechanism of Pericentriolar Material Assembly During Centrosome Biogenesis
    Tomer Avidor-Reiss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The aims proposed here are to analyze (1) a potentially key interaction between Sas-4 and tubulin, (2), the role of Sas-4 complexes in cilia formation and (3) the role of Sas-4 complexes in astral microtubule ..
  51. Characterizing the role of TTBK proteins in ciliogenesis and neural function
    Sarah Goetz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mouse mutant I have begun to characterize during my postdoctoral studies, which is a null allele of Tau tubulin kinase 2 (Ttbk2)...
  52. Targeting Replication-Segregation of plasmid pX01 in Bacillus anthracis
    Debabrata RayChaudhuri; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..anthracis. Intriguingly, RepX shows significant homology to the tubulin-like bacterial FtsZ protein, which is widely conserved in the Prokaryotic Kingdom, and plays an essential ..
    PETRA A LEVIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In bacteria this ring is composed of the essential tubulin-like GTPase FtsZ...
  54. Functional Adaptation of Microtubules by Acetylation
    Jacek Gaertig; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): Microtubules are ubiquitous eukaryotic structures, built of dimers of 1- and 2-tubulin. Microtubules play key roles in cell motility, intracellular trafficking and cell polarization...
  55. Mechanisms involved in HIV-1 Tat mediated neuronal damage
    Francesca Peruzzi; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..It involves the binding of Tat to tubulin, recruitment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to the proximity of microtubules, and degradation of ..
  56. Drug development of orally active anti-trypanosomiasis agents
    Bin Su; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Cellulr division and locomotion are essential for the trypanosome survival. Therefore, tubulin inhibitors are expected to be promising anti-trypanosomiasis agents, since they interfere with microtubule ..
  57. Alcohol, iNOS upregulation, leaky gut & liver disease
    Ali Keshavarzian; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..i) leaky gut, endotoxemia, HNIC, upregulation of intestinal iNOS, NO overproduction &oxidation of actin &tubulin occurs;ii) preventing gut leakiness (by oats, iNOS inhibitors or Arginine) prevents LD...
  58. Assembly dynamics and cellular function of Actin-like proteins in bacteria
    R Dyche Mullins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): Eubacteria and archaea use cytoskeletal elements including, actin-like filaments, tubulin- related polymers, and even intermediate filaments, to: (1) control their shape;(2) to divide;(3) to establish ..
  59. Mechanisms of Chemoprevention by Isothiocyanates
    Fung Lung Chung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We identified tubulin as one of the protein targets of ITCs and its binding by ITCs can trigger conformational changes, disruption of ..
  60. Identifying Proteins in the Microtubule Lumen
    Susan L Bane; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The tubes are composed entirely of a single protein:a,b- tubulin. All of the transporter proteins and virtually all of the regulatory proteins bind to the outside or to the ends ..
  61. Role of microtubule-based transport in neuronal polarity
    JILL C WILDONGER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..in developing neurons in vivo? To answer these questions, I will use genomic engineering to knock-in multiple tubulin alleles with targeted mutations that block different microtubule modifications, both singly and in combination...
  62. Electron Microscopy of Biological Macromolecules
    Kenneth H Downing; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..applications focus on aspects of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and include: (Project A) Studies of the structure of tubulin and its interactions with ligands and other proteins that affect the function of the microtubule cytoskeleton;(..
  63. Microtubule Polymerization and Depolymerization Mechanisms by Conserved Proteins
    JAWDAT MH AL BASSAM; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These proteins act as tubulin polymerases and depolymerases at MT plus ends. Under the mentorship of Dr. Stephen C...
  64. Remodeling the Microtubule Cytoskeleton for Polarized Transport
    Lee Ligon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..suggests that modification of the surface of the microtubule filament by post-translational modification of tubulin subunits or decoration by microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) may provide navigational cues for molecular ..
    Clarence Chan; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..and cloned 4 of them. They turned out to be: TUB3 and TUB1 (the alpha subunit of tubulin), CIN8 (one of 2 yeast kinesins), and BUB1 (one subunit of a checkpoint kinase)...
    JOHN CORREIA; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..extensive thermodynamic and kinetic studies of the binding of guanine nucleotides and their analogues to the tubulin heterodimer over a wide range of temperatures and assembly conditions...
    Gerald Schatten; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Does the binding of maternal gamma-tubulin vary predictably in sperm from infertile donors? Aim #3...
    Gunda Georg; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The cryptophycins are antimitotic agents, interacting with tubulin in a vinca-alkaloid-like fashion...
  69. Mechanisms of Action of Anti-Mitotic Drugs
    Mary Jordan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..It is hypothesized that a) the tubulin isotype composition of the microtubules in tumor cells, the composition of microtubule-associated mitotic ..
    Richard Luduena; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Microtubules are composed of the protein tubulin, consisting of two subunits called a and b. Both of these exist in numerous isotypic forms...
    Harish Joshi; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Our current research focus is driven by two general hypotheses. First, y-tubulin is responsible for anchoring microtubules in a specific, polarized orientation through precise interactions with microtubule subunits and with the Spc97p/..
  72. Cadmium Cytoskeletal Toxicology in the Lung
    Iih Nan Chou; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The binding of Cd to the sulfhydryls of MT proteins (e.g. tubulin), perturbs its dynamics in favor of MT disassembly, which occurs as a collective result of blocking essential ..
    Michael Caplow; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Microtubules are dynamic polymers of the tubulin alpha/beta dimer that provide the tracks for the motor proteins dynein and kinesin and are, therefore, involved in intracellular transport and chromosome separation...
    Jacek Gaertig; Fiscal Year: 2000
    DESCRIPTION: This proposal is to study the significance of post- translational modifications of tubulin in the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila...
    CAROLYN SILFLOW; Fiscal Year: 1991
    The tubulin gene family in the flagellated unicellular eukaryote, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, consists of two beta tubulin genes coding for identical proteins, and two alpha tubulin genes coding for slightly different products...
    LYNWOOD YARBROUGH; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..They are composed primarily of two genetically related proteins of molecular weight 50,000 termed alpha and beta tubulin. Tubulins isolated from lower eukaryotes such as yeast, fungi, and protozoa (which may differ by as much as 30% ..
  77. COBRA-1: A Novel Tubulin Depolymerizing Anticancer Agent
    Alexei Vassilev; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Microtubules, which are formed by the self-association of the alpha/beta-tubulin heterodimers, provide structural support for a cell and play key roles in cell motility, mitosis, and meiosis...
  78. PHI-381: A Novel Anti-Leukemic Agent
    Marina Cetkovic Cvrlje; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Microtubules, which are formed by the self-association of the alpha/beta-tubulin heterodimers, provide structural support for a cell and play key roles in cell motility, mitosis, and meiosis...
    Gunda Georg; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Several new natural products with taxol-like activity towards tubulin and microtubules have been identified recently. Of these, the epothiones are the most promising and exciting...