synapsins

Summary

Summary: A family of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins involved in the short-term regulation of NEUROTRANSMITTER release. Synapsin I, the predominant member of this family, links SYNAPTIC VESICLES to ACTIN FILAMENTS in the presynaptic nerve terminal. These interactions are modulated by the reversible PHOSPHORYLATION of synapsin I through various signal transduction pathways. The protein is also a substrate for cAMP- and CALCIUM-CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is believed that these functional properties are also shared by synapsin II.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The synapsins: key actors of synapse function and plasticity
    F Cesca
    Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, The Italian Institute of Technology, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova, Italy
    Prog Neurobiol 91:313-48. 2010
  2. ncbi SYN1 loss-of-function mutations in autism and partial epilepsy cause impaired synaptic function
    Anna Fassio
    Department of Experimental Medicine, National Institute of Neuroscience, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 3, 16132 Genova, Italy
    Hum Mol Genet 20:2297-307. 2011
  3. ncbi Different presynaptic roles of synapsins at excitatory and inhibitory synapses
    Daniel Gitler
    Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 24:11368-80. 2004
  4. ncbi Lack of synapsin I reduces the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles at central inhibitory synapses
    Pietro Baldelli
    Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, The Italian Institute of Technology, 16163 Genova, Italy
    J Neurosci 27:13520-31. 2007
  5. pmc Synapsin selectively controls the mobility of resting pool vesicles at hippocampal terminals
    Ayelet Orenbuch
    Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
    J Neurosci 32:3969-80. 2012
  6. ncbi Essential functions of synapsins I and II in synaptic vesicle regulation
    T W Rosahl
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas 75235, USA
    Nature 375:488-93. 1995
  7. ncbi Association of intronic polymorphism rs3773364 A>G in synapsin-2 gene with idiopathic epilepsy
    Ram Lakhan
    Department of Genetics, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226014, India
    Synapse 64:403-8. 2010
  8. pmc Identification of a mutation in synapsin I, a synaptic vesicle protein, in a family with epilepsy
    C C Garcia
    Institute of Human Genetics, International Centre for Life, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    J Med Genet 41:183-6. 2004
  9. ncbi Opposite changes in glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission underlie the diffuse hyperexcitability of synapsin I-deficient cortical networks
    Michela Chiappalone
    Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, The Italian Institute of Technology, Genova, Italy
    Cereb Cortex 19:1422-39. 2009
  10. ncbi Synapsins contribute to the dynamic spatial organization of synaptic vesicles in an activity-dependent manner
    Eugenio F Fornasiero
    San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita Salute University, I 20132 Milan, Italy
    J Neurosci 32:12214-27. 2012

Research Grants

  1. Alpha-Synuclein and the Synaptic Vesicle Cycle
    Robert H Edwards; Fiscal Year: 2013
  2. Alpha-Synuclein and the Synaptic Vesicle Cycle
    TODD PHILIP LOGAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
  3. NEURAL MECHANISMS OF CYCLOSPORINE-INDUCED HYPERTENSION
    Ronald Victor; Fiscal Year: 2006
  4. SYNAPSINS--REGULATORS OF NEUROTRANSMITTER RELEASE
    Paul Greengard; Fiscal Year: 2000
  5. Synapsins - Regulators of Neurotransmitter Release
    Paul Greengard; Fiscal Year: 2006
  6. NEURAL MECHANISMS OF CYCLOSPORINE-INDUCED HYPERTENSION
    Robert Augustyniak; Fiscal Year: 2003
  7. SYNAPSINS, SYNAPTOGENESIS AND ALZHEIMERS DISEASE
    Paul Greengard; Fiscal Year: 2002
  8. Transmission at Synapsin-deficient Synapses
    George Augustine; Fiscal Year: 2006
  9. Synapsins: Structure and Function in Neurotransmission
    Peter Bronk; Fiscal Year: 2006
  10. Beta-amyloid Regulation of Presynaptic Transmission
    Javier Sanchez; Fiscal Year: 2006

Detail Information

Publications241 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The synapsins: key actors of synapse function and plasticity
    F Cesca
    Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, The Italian Institute of Technology, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova, Italy
    Prog Neurobiol 91:313-48. 2010
    The synapsins are a family of neuronal phosphoproteins evolutionarily conserved in invertebrate and vertebrate organisms...
  2. ncbi SYN1 loss-of-function mutations in autism and partial epilepsy cause impaired synaptic function
    Anna Fassio
    Department of Experimental Medicine, National Institute of Neuroscience, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 3, 16132 Genova, Italy
    Hum Mol Genet 20:2297-307. 2011
    ..These results demonstrate that SYN1 is a novel predisposing gene to ASDs, in addition to epilepsy, and strengthen the hypothesis that a disturbance of synaptic homeostasis underlies the pathogenesis of both diseases...
  3. ncbi Different presynaptic roles of synapsins at excitatory and inhibitory synapses
    Daniel Gitler
    Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 24:11368-80. 2004
    The functions of synapsins were examined by characterizing the phenotype of mice in which all three synapsin genes were knocked out...
  4. ncbi Lack of synapsin I reduces the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles at central inhibitory synapses
    Pietro Baldelli
    Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, The Italian Institute of Technology, 16163 Genova, Italy
    J Neurosci 27:13520-31. 2007
    b>Synapsins (Syns) are synaptic vesicle (SV) phosphoproteins that play a role in neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity by acting at multiple steps of exocytosis...
  5. pmc Synapsin selectively controls the mobility of resting pool vesicles at hippocampal terminals
    Ayelet Orenbuch
    Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
    J Neurosci 32:3969-80. 2012
    ..The synapsins are a family of proteins that associate with synaptic vesicles and determine vesicle numbers at the terminal, ..
  6. ncbi Essential functions of synapsins I and II in synaptic vesicle regulation
    T W Rosahl
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas 75235, USA
    Nature 375:488-93. 1995
    Synaptic vesicles are coated by synapsins, phosphoproteins that account for 9% of the vesicle protein. To analyse the functions of these proteins, we have studied knockout mice lacking either synapsin I, synapsin II, or both...
  7. ncbi Association of intronic polymorphism rs3773364 A>G in synapsin-2 gene with idiopathic epilepsy
    Ram Lakhan
    Department of Genetics, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226014, India
    Synapse 64:403-8. 2010
    ..Results from our study indicate the involvement of SYN2 gene polymorphism in conferring risk to epilepsy; however, the genetic variant does not seem to modulate drug-response in epilepsy pharmacotherapy...
  8. pmc Identification of a mutation in synapsin I, a synaptic vesicle protein, in a family with epilepsy
    C C Garcia
    Institute of Human Genetics, International Centre for Life, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    J Med Genet 41:183-6. 2004
    ..Synapsin I is a synaptic vesicle associated protein involved in the regulation of synaptogenesis and neurotransmitter release. The SYN1 nonsense mutation that was identified is the likely cause of the phenotype in this family...
  9. ncbi Opposite changes in glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission underlie the diffuse hyperexcitability of synapsin I-deficient cortical networks
    Michela Chiappalone
    Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, The Italian Institute of Technology, Genova, Italy
    Cereb Cortex 19:1422-39. 2009
    b>Synapsins (Syns) are synaptic vesicle (SV) phosphoproteins that play a role in synaptic transmission and plasticity...
  10. ncbi Synapsins contribute to the dynamic spatial organization of synaptic vesicles in an activity-dependent manner
    Eugenio F Fornasiero
    San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita Salute University, I 20132 Milan, Italy
    J Neurosci 32:12214-27. 2012
    ..The synapsins (Syns) are a family of presynaptic proteins that control the availability of SVs for exocytosis by reversibly ..
  11. ncbi Neuroethologically delineated differences in the seizure behavior of synapsin 1 and synapsin 2 knock-out mice
    Lars Etholm
    Section of Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway
    Epilepsy Res 99:252-9. 2012
    ..The specific behavioral phenotypes of the two strains suggest that the slight differences in structure, function and expression of these highly related proteins could be important factors during seizure generating neural activity...
  12. ncbi Synapsin-I- and synapsin-II-null mice display an increased age-dependent cognitive impairment
    Anna Corradi
    Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genova and Istituto Nazionale di Neuroscienze, Viale Benedetto XV, 3 16132 Genova, Italy
    J Cell Sci 121:3042-51. 2008
    ..The data indicate that SynI and SynII have specific and non-redundant functions, and that synaptic dysfunctions associated with synapsin mutations negatively modulate cognitive performances and neuronal survival during senescence...
  13. ncbi Behavioral abnormalities in synapsin II knockout mice implicate a causal factor in schizophrenia
    Bailee A Dyck
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Synapse 63:662-72. 2009
    ....
  14. ncbi Site-specific synapsin I phosphorylation participates in the expression of post-tetanic potentiation and its enhancement by BDNF
    Pierluigi Valente
    Section of Physiology, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genoa and National Institute of Neuroscience, 16132 Genova, Italy
    J Neurosci 32:5868-79. 2012
    ....
  15. ncbi Synaptic and extrasynaptic origin of the excitation/inhibition imbalance in the hippocampus of synapsin I/II/III knockout mice
    Pasqualina Farisello
    Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, The Italian Institute of Technology, 16163 Genova, Italy
    Cereb Cortex 23:581-93. 2013
    b>Synapsins (Syn I, Syn II, and Syn III) are a family of synaptic vesicle phosphoproteins regulating synaptic transmission and plasticity...
  16. ncbi Synapsins: from synapse to network hyperexcitability and epilepsy
    Anna Fassio
    Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Physiology and National Institute of Neuroscience, University of Genova, Genova, Italy
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 22:408-15. 2011
    ..b>Synapsins, although not essential for the basic development and functioning of neuronal networks, are extremely important ..
  17. ncbi Compensatory network alterations upon onset of epilepsy in synapsin triple knock-out mice
    M Ketzef
    Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
    Neuroscience 189:108-22. 2011
    ..We therefore suggest that while deletion of the synapsins initially increases cortical network activity, this enhanced excitability is insufficient to elicit seizures...
  18. ncbi From songs to synapses: molecular mechanisms of birdsong memory. Molecular mechanisms of auditory learning in songbirds involve immediate early genes, including zenk and arc, the ERK/MAPK pathway and synapsins
    Sanne Moorman
    Behavioral Biology, Department of Biology and Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
    Bioessays 33:377-85. 2011
    ..Here we review the involvement of immediate early genes (e.g. zenk and arc), their downstream targets (e.g. synapsins), and their regulatory signaling pathways (e.g. MAPK/ERK) in songbird memory...
  19. ncbi The role of synapsins in neuronal development
    Eugenio F Fornasiero
    San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita Salute University, Via Olgettina 58, 20132, Milan, Italy
    Cell Mol Life Sci 67:1383-96. 2010
    The synapsins, the first identified synaptic vesicle-specific proteins, are phosphorylated on multiple sites by a number of protein kinases and are involved in neurite outgrowth and synapse formation as well as in synaptic transmission...
  20. pmc Impairment of synaptic vesicle clustering and of synaptic transmission, and increased seizure propensity, in synapsin I-deficient mice
    L Li
    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:9235-9. 1995
    ..These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that synapsin I plays a key role in the regulation of nerve terminal function in mature synapses...
  21. ncbi Synapsins as mediators of BDNF-enhanced neurotransmitter release
    J N Jovanovic
    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nat Neurosci 3:323-9. 2000
    ..These results indicate a causal link of synapsin phosphorylation via BDNF, TrkB receptors and MAP kinase with downstream facilitation of neurotransmitter release...
  22. pmc Impairment of axonal development and of synaptogenesis in hippocampal neurons of synapsin I-deficient mice
    L S Chin
    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:9230-4. 1995
    ..Furthermore, synapse formation was significantly delayed in these mutant neurons. These results indicate that synapsin I plays a role in regulation of axonogenesis and synaptogenesis...
  23. ncbi Synaptic vesicle phosphoproteins and regulation of synaptic function
    P Greengard
    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021
    Science 259:780-5. 1993
    ..This article describes current understanding of the mechanism by which synapsin I modulates communication between nerve cells and reviews the properties and putative functions of other phosphoproteins associated with synaptic vesicles...
  24. pmc Synaptic functions of invertebrate varicosities: what molecular mechanisms lie beneath
    Carlo Natale Giuseppe Giachello
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Torino, Corso Raffaello 30, 10125 Torino, Italy
    Neural Plast 2012:670821. 2012
    ..In particular, the role of invertebrate synapsin in the formation of presynaptic terminals and the cell-to-cell interactions that induce specific structural and functional changes in their respective targets will be analyzed...
  25. ncbi Exercise reverses the harmful effects of consumption of a high-fat diet on synaptic and behavioral plasticity associated to the action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor
    R Molteni
    Department of Physiological Science, Brain Injury Research Center, University of California at Los Angeles, 621 Charles E Young Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Neuroscience 123:429-40. 2004
    ..Results unveil a possible molecular mechanism by which lifestyle factors can interact at a molecular level, and provide information for potential therapeutic applications to decrease the risk imposed by certain lifestyles...
  26. ncbi Medial prefrontal cortical synapsin II knock-down induces behavioral abnormalities in the rat: examining synapsin II in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia
    Bailey A Dyck
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada, L8N 3Z5
    Schizophr Res 130:250-9. 2011
    ....
  27. ncbi A new look at an old visual system: structure and development of the compound eyes and optic ganglia of the brine shrimp Artemia salina Linnaeus, 1758 (Branchiopoda, anostraca)
    Miriam Wildt
    Fakultat fur Biologie, Universitat Bielefeld, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany
    J Neurobiol 52:117-32. 2002
    ..of bromodeoxyuridine) and the developmental expression of synaptic proteins (immunohistochemistry against synapsins) in the developing optic neuropils of the brine shrimp Artemia salina Linnaeus, 1758 (Crustacea, Entomostraca, ..
  28. ncbi Synapsin II knockout mice show sensorimotor gating and behavioural abnormalities similar to those in the phencyclidine-induced preclinical animal model of schizophrenia
    Bailee A Dyck
    Schizophr Res 97:292-3. 2007
  29. pmc Brain architecture in the terrestrial hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus (Anomura, Coenobitidae), a crustacean with a good aerial sense of smell
    Steffen Harzsch
    Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Department of Evolutionary Neuroethology, Beutenberg Campus, Hans Knöll Str, 8, D 07745 Jena, Germany
    BMC Neurosci 9:58. 2008
    ....
  30. ncbi Afferent input modulates neurotrophins and synaptic plasticity in the spinal cord
    Fernando Gomez-Pinilla
    Department of Physiological Science, UCLA Brain Injury Research Center, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Neurophysiol 92:3423-32. 2004
    ..Combined, these results indicate that the level of supraspinal and muscle afferent input plays an important role in modulating the levels of BDNF and NT-3 in the spinal cord...
  31. ncbi Early-life fluoxetine exposure reduced functional deficits after hypoxic-ischemia brain injury in rat pups
    Ying Chao Chang
    Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Guang University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Neurobiol Dis 24:101-13. 2006
    ..These findings suggest that functional deficits after HI in the developing brain can be reduced by agents that enhance neural plasticity and neurogenesis through CREB activation...
  32. pmc Family-based association study of synapsin II and schizophrenia
    Qi Chen
    Neuropsychiatric and Human Genetics Group, Bio X Life Science Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
    Am J Hum Genet 75:873-7. 2004
    ..6%; chi (2) = 20.8; P =.0000051). This confirms our previous study and provides further support for the role of synapsin II variants in susceptibility to schizophrenia...
  33. ncbi Seizure elements and seizure element transitions during tonic-clonic seizure activity in the synapsin I/II double knockout mouse: a neuroethological description
    Lars Etholm
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Blindern, Oslo, Norway
    Epilepsy Behav 14:582-90. 2009
    ..These differences may point to neurobiological mechanisms relevant to both rodent and human epilepsies...
  34. ncbi Phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase is essential for synapsin-induced enhancement of neurotransmitter release in invertebrate neurons
    Ferdinando Fiumara
    Department of Neuroscience, Section of Physiology, University of Torino, Corso Raffaello 30, 10125, Italy
    J Cell Sci 117:5145-54. 2004
    b>Synapsins are synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoproteins involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and synapse formation; they are substrates for multiple protein kinases that phosphorylate them on distinct sites...
  35. pmc Colocalization of synapsin and actin during synaptic vesicle recycling
    Ona Bloom
    The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Cell Biol 161:737-47. 2003
    ....
  36. ncbi Molecular determinants of synapsin targeting to presynaptic terminals
    Daniel Gitler
    Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 24:3711-20. 2004
    Although synapsins are abundant synaptic vesicle proteins that are widely used as markers of presynaptic terminals, the mechanisms that target synapsins to presynaptic terminals have not been elucidated...
  37. pmc Local sharing as a predominant determinant of synaptic matrix molecular dynamics
    Shlomo Tsuriel
    The Rappaport Family Institute for Research in the Medical Sciences, Technion Faculty of Medicine, Haifa, Israel
    PLoS Biol 4:e271. 2006
    ....
  38. ncbi Regulation of neurotransmitter release by synapsin III
    Jian Feng
    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience and Laboratory of Endocrinology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Neurosci 22:4372-80. 2002
    ..Our data indicate that synapsin III plays unique roles both in early axon outgrowth and in the regulation of synaptic vesicle trafficking...
  39. ncbi Regulation of synapsin I gene expression by the zinc finger transcription factor zif268/egr-1
    G Thiel
    Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany
    J Biol Chem 269:15294-301. 1994
    ..From this data we conclude that the synapsin I gene is a target of the zif268 transcription factor; however, intermediate factors may also be involved in the activation...
  40. ncbi Assessment of PC12 cell differentiation and neurite growth: a comparison of morphological and neurochemical measures
    Kaberi P Das
    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 26:397-406. 2004
    ..However, ET-18 did not alter the expression of GAP-43 or synapsin I. These data suggest that GAP-43 may be a useful indicator of the status of PC12 cell differentiation...
  41. ncbi Mapping sites of O-GlcNAc modification using affinity tags for serine and threonine post-translational modifications
    Lance Wells
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    Mol Cell Proteomics 1:791-804. 2002
    ..In addition, our studies emphasize the importance of distinguishing between O-phosphate versus O-GlcNAc when mapping sites of serine and threonine post-translational modification using beta-elimination/Michael addition methods...
  42. ncbi Molecular characterization of schizophrenia viewed by microarray analysis of gene expression in prefrontal cortex
    K Mirnics
    Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    Neuron 28:53-67. 2000
    ..The combined data suggest that subjects with schizophrenia share a common abnormality in presynaptic function. We set forth a predictive, testable model...
  43. ncbi Cortico-hippocampal hyperexcitability in synapsin I/II/III knockout mice: age-dependency and response to the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam
    D Boido
    Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, The Italian Institute of Technology, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova, Italy
    Neuroscience 171:268-83. 2010
    b>Synapsins (SynI, SynII, SynIII) are a multigene family of synaptic vesicle (SV) phosphoproteins implicated in the regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity...
  44. pmc Synapsin IIa controls the reserve pool of glutamatergic synaptic vesicles
    Daniel Gitler
    Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 28:10835-43. 2008
    b>Synapsins regulate synaptic transmission by controlling the reserve pool of synaptic vesicles. Each of the three mammalian synapsin genes is subject to alternative splicing, yielding several isoforms whose roles are unknown...
  45. ncbi Heterogeneity of glutamatergic and GABAergic release machinery in cerebral cortex
    L Bragina
    Department of Neuroscience, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Tronto 10 A, Torrette di Ancona, I 60020, Ancona, Italy
    Neuroscience 146:1829-40. 2007
    ....
  46. ncbi Ecological, evolutionary, and functional correlates of sensilla number and glomerular density in the olfactory system of decapod crustaceans
    Barbara S Beltz
    Department of Biological Sciences, Wellesley College, Wellesley, Massachusetts 02481, USA
    J Comp Neurol 455:260-9. 2003
    ..The potential functional consequences of these differences are discussed...
  47. ncbi Voluntary exercise induces a BDNF-mediated mechanism that promotes neuroplasticity
    Fernando Gomez-Pinilla
    Department of Physiological Science, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Neurophysiol 88:2187-95. 2002
    ..These results indicate that basal levels of neuromuscular activity are required to maintain normal levels of BDNF in the neuromuscular system and the potential for neuroplasticity...
  48. ncbi MAPK/Erk-dependent phosphorylation of synapsin mediates formation of functional synapses and short-term homosynaptic plasticity
    Carlo Natale Giuseppe Giachello
    Department of Neuroscience, Section of Physiology, University of Torino, Torino, Italy
    J Cell Sci 123:881-93. 2010
    ....
  49. ncbi Positive association between synapsin II and schizophrenia
    Qi Chen
    Bio X Life Science Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
    Biol Psychiatry 56:177-81. 2004
    ..The synapsin II gene is located on 3p25, a region that has been implicated to be associated with schizophrenia by genetic linkage. All these findings suggest synapsin II as a candidate gene for schizophrenia...
  50. pmc Epileptogenic Q555X SYN1 mutant triggers imbalances in release dynamics and short-term plasticity
    Gabriele Lignani
    Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, Genova 16163, Italy
    Hum Mol Genet 22:2186-99. 2013
    ..Our data indicate that imbalances in STP and release dynamics of inhibitory and excitatory synapses trigger network hyperexcitability potentially leading to epilepsy/autism manifestations...
  51. pmc Interaction of Grb2 via its Src homology 3 domains with synaptic proteins including synapsin I
    P S McPherson
    Department of Cell Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06536
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:6486-90. 1994
    ..These data suggest that Grb2, or other proteins containing SH3 domains, may play a role in the regulation of the exo/endocytotic cycle of synaptic vesicles and therefore of neurotransmitter release...
  52. pmc Autism-related behavioral abnormalities in synapsin knockout mice
    Barbara Greco
    Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Italy
    Behav Brain Res 251:65-74. 2013
    ..b>Synapsins (Syn I/II/III) are a multigene family of synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoproteins playing multiple roles in ..
  53. ncbi Ginsenoside Rb1 promotes neurotransmitter release by modulating phosphorylation of synapsins through a cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathway
    Jian Fei Xue
    Institute of Material Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, PR China
    Brain Res 1106:91-8. 2006
    ..b>Synapsins are abundant phosphoproteins essential for regulating neurotransmitter release...
  54. ncbi Absence of synapsin I and II is accompanied by decreases in vesicular transport of specific neurotransmitters
    Inger Lise Bogen
    Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
    J Neurochem 96:1458-66. 2006
    ..In conclusion, distinct vesicular transporters show a variable degree of colocalization with synapsin proteins and, hence, distinct sensitivities to inactivation of the genes encoding synapsin I and II...
  55. pmc Association of synapsin 2 with schizophrenia in families of Northern European ancestry
    Viatcheslav Saviouk
    Department of Genetics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Schizophr Res 96:100-11. 2007
    ..Review of the literature suggests that Syn2 is likely to be involved in the etiology or pathogenesis of schizophrenia...
  56. ncbi Synapsin regulation of vesicle organization and functional pools
    Maria Bykhovskaia
    Universidad Central del Caribe, Neuroscience Department, 2U6 Ave Laurel, Bayamon, PR 00956, USA
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 22:387-92. 2011
    ..Different synapsin isoforms have unique and non-redundant roles in the multifaceted synapsin function...
  57. ncbi Inhibition of exocytosis or endocytosis blocks activity-dependent redistribution of synapsin
    Ayelet Orenbuch
    Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
    J Neurochem 120:248-58. 2012
    ..Our results therefore reveal hitherto unidentified feedback within the synaptic vesicle cycle involving the synapsin-managed reserve pool...
  58. ncbi A developmental switch in neurotransmitter flux enhances synaptic efficacy by affecting AMPA receptor activation
    J J Renger
    RIKEN-MIT Neuroscience Research Center, Center for Learning and Memory, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Neuron 29:469-84. 2001
    ..This work reveals that functional maturation of synaptic transmission involves transformation of presynaptic silent secretion into mature synaptic transmitter release...
  59. ncbi Synapsin controls both reserve and releasable synaptic vesicle pools during neuronal activity and short-term plasticity in Aplysia
    Y Humeau
    , Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IFR-37 des Neurosciences, , France
    J Neurosci 21:4195-206. 2001
    ..vesicles in the reserve pool are thought to be reversibly tethered to the actin-based cytoskeleton by the synapsins, a family of synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoproteins that have been shown to play a role in the formation, ..
  60. ncbi RE-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) regulates human synaptophysin gene transcription through an intronic sequence-specific DNA-binding site
    Michael Lietz
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Saarland Medical Center, Homburg, Germany
    Eur J Biochem 270:2-9. 2003
    ..Using a dominant-negative approach we have identified the transcription factor Sp1 as one of the regulators responsible for constitutive transcription of the human synaptophysin gene...
  61. pmc Synapsin II and calcium regulate vesicle docking and the cross-talk between vesicle pools at the mouse motor terminals
    William L Coleman
    Department of Biological Sciences, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA
    J Physiol 586:4649-73. 2008
    The synapsins, an abundant and highly conserved family of proteins that associate with synaptic vesicles, have been implicated in regulating the synaptic vesicle cycle...
  62. ncbi Chromatin structure and expression of synapsin I and synaptophysin in retinal precursor cells
    Myriam Ekici
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Saarland Medical Center, D 66421 Homburg, Germany
    Neurochem Int 53:165-72. 2008
    ..These data reveal that the synapsin I and synaptophysin genes are bona fide target genes for REST in R28 retinal precursor cells...
  63. ncbi Synapsin I-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase mediates synaptic vesicle delivery to the readily releasable pool
    Michael A Cousin
    Cell Signalling Unit, Children s Medical Research Institute, Locked Bag 23, Wentworthville 2145, NSW, Australia
    J Biol Chem 278:29065-71. 2003
    ..This also suggests that PI 3-kinase contributes to the maintenance of synaptic transmission during periods of high activity, indicating a possible role in synaptic plasticity...
  64. ncbi Cytoskeletal interactions of synapsin I in non-neuronal cells
    Sandra L Hurley
    Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ont, Canada K1S 5B6
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 317:16-23. 2004
    ..These results demonstrate that synapsin I interacts with F-actin in non-neuronal cells and suggest that synapsin I may have a role in regions where actin is highly dynamic...
  65. pmc BDNF-exercise interactions in the recovery of symmetrical stepping after a cervical hemisection in rats
    Z Ying
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1527, USA
    Neuroscience 155:1070-8. 2008
    ..The results indicate that BDNF levels play an important role in shaping the synaptic plasticity and in defining the level of recovery of locomotor performance after a SCI...
  66. ncbi Electroencephalographic characterization of seizure activity in the synapsin I/II double knockout mouse
    Lars Etholm
    Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, University of Oslo, PO Box 1103 Blindern, N 0317 Oslo, Norway
    Brain Res 1383:270-88. 2011
    ..Our findings suggest that seizure behavior in SynDKO mice is not solely determined by cortical activity but rather reflects interplay between cortical activity and activity in other brain regions...
  67. ncbi Neuron-specific gene expression of synapsin I. Major role of a negative regulatory mechanism
    S Schoch
    Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, D 50674 Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany
    J Biol Chem 271:3317-23. 1996
    The synapsins are a family of neuron-specific phosphoproteins that selectively bind to small synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic nerve terminal...
  68. pmc Synapsins differentially control dopamine and serotonin release
    Brian M Kile
    Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Neurosci 30:9762-70. 2010
    b>Synapsins are a family of synaptic vesicle proteins that are important for neurotransmitter release...
  69. pmc Phosphorylation of synapsin domain A is required for post-tetanic potentiation
    Ferdinando Fiumara
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Torino, Corso Raffaello 30, 10125 Torino, Italy
    J Cell Sci 120:3228-37. 2007
    ..The synapsins, a family of synaptic vesicle (SV)-associated phosphoproteins, have been implicated in PTP...
  70. pmc Lentivirus-based genetic manipulations of cortical neurons and their optical and electrophysiological monitoring in vivo
    Tanjew Dittgen
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:18206-11. 2004
    ..This approach is ideally suited for analysis of gene functions in individual neurons in the intact brain...
  71. ncbi The highly conserved synapsin domain E mediates synapsin dimerization and phospholipid vesicle clustering
    Ilaria Monaldi
    Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
    Biochem J 426:55-64. 2010
    b>Synapsins are abundant SV (synaptic vesicle)-associated phosphoproteins that regulate synapse formation and function...
  72. ncbi Neuron-specific expression of therapeutic proteins: evaluation of different cellular promoters in recombinant adenoviral vectors
    S Kugler
    Neuro Regeneration Laboratory, University of Tubingen, Medical School, Verfügungsgebäude, Auf der Morgenstelle 15, Tubingen, 72076, Germany
    Mol Cell Neurosci 17:78-96. 2001
    ..The excellent suitability of the synapsin promoter as a strong panneuronal promoter was further demonstrated by its restricted neuronal activity in various brain regions of adult rats in vivo...
  73. ncbi Synapsin III: developmental expression, subcellular localization, and role in axon formation
    A Ferreira
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology and Institute for Neuroscience, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Neurosci 20:3736-44. 2000
    ..The results indicate that synapsin III has a developmental time course, a subcellular localization, and a developmental function very different from those of synapsin I and synapsin II...
  74. ncbi The presynaptic particle web: ultrastructure, composition, dissolution, and reconstitution
    G R Phillips
    The Corinne Goldsmith Dickinson Center for Multiple Sclerosis, Department of Neurology and The Fishberg Research Center for Neurobiology, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Neuron 32:63-77. 2001
    ..The CNS synaptic junction may therefore be conceptualized as a complicated macromolecular scaffold that isostatically bridges two closely aligned plasma membranes...
  75. ncbi The human synapsin II gene promoter. Possible role for the transcription factor zif268/egr-1, polyoma enhancer activator 3, and AP2
    D Petersohn
    Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, Germany
    J Biol Chem 270:24361-9. 1995
    ..We postulate that zif268/egr-1 and PEA3 couple extracellular signals to long-term responses by regulating synapsin II gene expression...
  76. pmc Modulation of presynaptic plasticity and learning by the H-ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/synapsin I signaling pathway
    Steven A Kushner
    Department of Neurobiology, Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 1761, USA
    J Neurosci 25:9721-34. 2005
    ..Together with previous invertebrate studies, these results demonstrate that presynaptic plasticity represents an important evolutionarily conserved mechanism for modulating learning and memory...
  77. ncbi Synapsin utilization differs among functional classes of synapses on thalamocortical cells
    Anders Kielland
    Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, N 0317 Oslo, Norway
    J Neurosci 26:5786-93. 2006
    Several proteins in nerve terminals participate in synaptic transmission between neurons. The synapsins, which are synaptic vesicle-associated proteins, have widespread distribution in the brain and are assumed essential for sustained ..
  78. ncbi Site-specific phosphorylation of synapsin I by mitogen-activated protein kinase and Cdk5 and its effects on physiological functions
    M Matsubara
    Division of Biomedical Polymer Science, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Aichi 470 11, Japan
    J Biol Chem 271:21108-13. 1996
    ..These results raise the possibility that the so-called proline-directed protein kinases together with CaM kinase II and cAMP-dependent protein kinase play an important role in the regulation of synapsin I function...
  79. pmc Leptin promotes rapid dynamic changes in hippocampal dendritic morphology
    Neil MacDonald
    Neurosciences Institute, Division of Pathology and Neuroscience, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 9SY, UK
    Mol Cell Neurosci 35:559-72. 2007
    ....
  80. ncbi A phospho-switch controls the dynamic association of synapsins with synaptic vesicles
    M Hosaka
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas 75235, USA
    Neuron 24:377-87. 1999
    b>Synapsins constitute a family of synaptic vesicle proteins essential for regulating neurotransmitter release...
  81. pmc Synapsins are late activity-induced genes regulated by birdsong
    Tarciso A F Velho
    Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA
    J Neurosci 28:11871-82. 2008
    ..Here we show that the expression of several isoforms of synapsins, a group of phosphoproteins thought to regulate the dynamics of synaptic vesicle storage and release, is induced ..
  82. ncbi Behavioral effects of non-viral mediated RNA interference of synapsin II in the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat
    Bailey A Dyck
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
    Schizophr Res 137:32-8. 2012
    ....
  83. ncbi Effects of phosphorylation and neuronal activity on the control of synapse formation by synapsin I
    Laura E Perlini
    San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita Salute University, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milano, Italy
    J Cell Sci 124:3643-53. 2011
    b>Synapsins are synaptic vesicle (SV)-associated proteins that regulate synaptic transmission and neuronal differentiation...
  84. ncbi A rare polymorphism affects a mitogen-activated protein kinase site in synapsin III: possible relationship to schizophrenia
    Barbara Porton
    Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, New York 10962, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 55:118-25. 2004
    ..To determine if synapsin III plays a role in this disease, we searched for polymorphisms in this gene in patients with schizophrenia and controls...
  85. ncbi Chronic stress and antidepressant agomelatine induce region-specific changes in synapsin I expression in the rat brain
    Girstaute Dagyte
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Neurosci Res 89:1646-57. 2011
    ..Moreover, agomelatine partially counteracts the stress effects on SynI, suggesting a modulation of synaptic function by this antidepressant...
  86. ncbi Synapsin I is expressed in epithelial cells: localization to a unique trans-Golgi compartment
    R Bustos
    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205-2105, USA
    J Cell Sci 114:3695-704. 2001
    ..We conclude that synapsin I is present in epithelial cells and is associated with a trans-Golgi network-derived compartment; this localization suggests that it plays a role in modulating post-TGN trafficking pathways...
  87. ncbi Specificity of the binding of synapsin I to Src homology 3 domains
    F Onofri
    Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Physiology, University of Genova, Via Benedetto XV 3, I 16132 Genova, Italy
    J Biol Chem 275:29857-67. 2000
    b>Synapsins are synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoproteins involved in synapse formation and regulation of neurotransmitter release. Recently, synapsin I has been found to bind the Src homology 3 (SH3) domains of Grb2 and c-Src...
  88. ncbi Synaptic vesicle mobility in mouse motor nerve terminals with and without synapsin
    Michael A Gaffield
    Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado Medical School, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA
    J Neurosci 27:13691-700. 2007
    ..Thus, in TKO mice, and perhaps WT mice, a phospho-protein different from synapsin but otherwise of unknown identity is the primary regulator of synaptic vesicle mobility...
  89. ncbi Structural domains involved in the regulation of transmitter release by synapsins
    Sabine Hilfiker
    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Neurosci 25:2658-69. 2005
    b>Synapsins are a family of neuron-specific phosphoproteins that regulate neurotransmitter release by associating with synaptic vesicles. Synapsins consist of a series of conserved and variable structural domains of unknown function...
  90. ncbi Vesicle pools and synapsins: new insights into old enigmas
    Elena Fdez
    Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine López Neyra, CSIC Spanish National Research Council, 18100, Granada, Spain
    Brain Cell Biol 35:107-15. 2006
    b>Synapsins are a multigene family of neuron-specific phosphoproteins and comprise the most abundant synaptic vesicle proteins...
  91. ncbi Changes in the distribution of calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II at the presynaptic bouton after depolarization
    Jung Hwa Tao-Cheng
    EM Facility, NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Brain Cell Biol 35:117-24. 2006
    ..Activity-induced redistribution of CaMKII leaves it in a position to facilitate phosphorylation of additional presynaptic proteins regulating neurotransmitter release...
  92. pmc Synapsins regulate use-dependent synaptic plasticity in the calyx of Held by a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent pathway
    Jianyuan Sun
    Center for Basic Neuroscience, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390 9111, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:2880-5. 2006
    b>Synapsins are abundant synaptic-vesicle phosphoproteins that are known to regulate neurotransmitter release but whose precise function has been difficult to pinpoint...
  93. ncbi Spatial learning induces neurotrophin receptor and synapsin I in the hippocampus
    F Gomez-Pinilla
    Department of Physiological Science, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1527, USA
    Brain Res 904:13-9. 2001
    ..Behavioral regulation of neurotrophins may provide a molecular basis for the enhanced cognitive function associated with active lifestyles, and guide development of strategies to promote neural healing after CNS injury or disease...
  94. ncbi Differential expression of synapsin in visual neurons of the locust Schistocerca gregaria
    Gerd Leitinger
    Institut fur Zellbiologie, Histologie und Embryologie, Medizinische Universitat Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria
    J Comp Neurol 480:89-100. 2004
    ..A common feature of such neurons in vertebrates is that they have not been found to contain synapsins, a family of proteins that indicate the presence of a reserve pool of synaptic vesicles at synaptic sites...
  95. ncbi Role of efficient neurotransmitter release in barrel map development
    Hui Chen Lu
    Department of Neuroscience, Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Neurosci 26:2692-703. 2006
    ..These results demonstrate how efficient synaptic transmission mediated by AC1 function contributes to the development of cortical barrel maps...
  96. ncbi A protein kinase A-dependent molecular switch in synapsins regulates neurite outgrowth
    Hung Teh Kao
    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nat Neurosci 5:431-7. 2002
    ..laevis embryos, that the nerve growth-promoting action of cAMP/PKA is mediated in part by the phosphorylation of synapsins at a single amino acid residue...
  97. ncbi The synapsin cycle: a view from the synaptic endocytic zone
    E Evergren
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Neurosci Res 85:2648-56. 2007
    ..Recent studies have demonstrated that synapsins migrate to the endocytic zone of central synapses during neurotransmitter release, which suggests that there are ..
  98. pmc Synapsin-regulated synaptic transmission from readily releasable synaptic vesicles in excitatory hippocampal synapses in mice
    Øivind Hvalby
    Molecular Neurobiology Research Group, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1103 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway
    J Physiol 571:75-82. 2006
    ..pool have been examined by comparing excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices from mice devoid of synapsins I and II and from wild-type control animals...
  99. ncbi Reduction of synapsin III in the prefrontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia
    Barbara Porton
    Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research and Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 140 Old Orangeburg Road, Orangeburg, New York 10962, United States
    Schizophr Res 94:366-70. 2007
    ..These findings are consistent with growing evidence of presynaptic abnormalities and prefrontal cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia...
  100. ncbi Homo- and heterodimerization of synapsins
    M Hosaka
    Center for Basic Neuroscience and Department of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas 75235, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:16747-53. 1999
    In vertebrates, synapsins constitute a family of synaptic vesicle proteins encoded by three genes...
  101. pmc A third member of the synapsin gene family
    H T Kao
    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 6399, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:4667-72. 1998
    b>Synapsins are a family of neuron-specific synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoproteins that have been implicated in synaptogenesis and in the modulation of neurotransmitter release...

Research Grants39

  1. Alpha-Synuclein and the Synaptic Vesicle Cycle
    Robert H Edwards; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of synaptic vesicle protein and membrane after exocytosis;3) assess the relationship between synuclein, synapsins and synphilin in synaptic vesicle mobilization;and 4) determine whether the effects of synuclein on ..
  2. Alpha-Synuclein and the Synaptic Vesicle Cycle
    TODD PHILIP LOGAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..acts indirectly to inhibit synaptic vesicle exocytosis by affecting another family of synaptic proteins, the synapsins. To address this possibility, I will overexpress alpha-synuclein in neurons taken from mice that lack all ..
  3. NEURAL MECHANISMS OF CYCLOSPORINE-INDUCED HYPERTENSION
    Ronald Victor; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..models, we recently showed that CsA raises blood pressure by stimulating renal sensory nerve endings containing synapsins, a family of vesicle-associated phosphoproteins that constitute putative substrates for calcineurin...
  4. SYNAPSINS--REGULATORS OF NEUROTRANSMITTER RELEASE
    Paul Greengard; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The sequencing data indicate that synapsins Ia and lb are highly homologous to another pair of synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoproteins, synapsins IIa ..
  5. Synapsins - Regulators of Neurotransmitter Release
    Paul Greengard; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..By a variety of in vitro and in vivo techniques, we have demonstrated that synapsins are tightly associated with the cytoplasmic face of synaptic vesicles and can bind simultaneously to both ..
  6. NEURAL MECHANISMS OF CYCLOSPORINE-INDUCED HYPERTENSION
    Robert Augustyniak; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..blood pressure and sympathetic outflow, at least acutely, by stimulating renal sensory nerve endings containing synapsins, a family of vesicle-associated phosphoproteins that constitute putative in vivo substrates for calcineurin...
  7. SYNAPSINS, SYNAPTOGENESIS AND ALZHEIMERS DISEASE
    Paul Greengard; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms which underlie the trophic actions of the synapsins may lead to novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease...
  8. Transmission at Synapsin-deficient Synapses
    George Augustine; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In this project, molecular genetic approaches will be used to define the functions of synapsins, a family of proteins thought to be important for neurotransmitter release...
  9. Synapsins: Structure and Function in Neurotransmission
    Peter Bronk; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..A family of proteins, synapsins, is proposed to play a role in this regulation...
  10. Beta-amyloid Regulation of Presynaptic Transmission
    Javier Sanchez; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Disease (AD) beta-amyloid peptide in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-induced regulation of synapsins, molecules that regulate the number of vesicles available for neurotransmitter release...
  11. Voluntary Exercise Therapy after Traumatic Brain Injury
    GRACE GRIESBACH; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In order to address these specific aims, I will utilize the lateral fluid-percussion injury model in rats and voluntary running wheel exposure. Protein, gene, histological and behavioral studies will be conducted. ..
  12. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INDUCES NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS
    Fernando Gomez Pinilla; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Thirdly, the PI will determine whether locomotor deficit caused by degeneration of large muscle afferents (by using high doses of pyridoxine) can be countered by daily locomotion induction of neurotrophins. ..
  13. Activity-Induced Recovery Following Brain Trauma
    Fernando Gomez Pinilla; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Therefore, the unique aspect of our proposal is to evaluate experience as a modulator of neuronal plasticity that can be used to enhance functional recovery following TBI. ..
  14. NEUROTROPHIN REGULATION IN THE SPINAL CORD
    Fernando Gomez Pinilla; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  15. GENOME-WIDE ANALYSIS FOR ADDICTION SUSCEPTIBILITY GENES
    Herbert Lachman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..By the end of the project, which will coincide with the completion of the human genome project, they will be able to analyze all of the specific candidate genes that map to linked markers. ..
  16. Novel Tau-mediated Neurodegeneration Mechanisms
    ADRIANA B FERREIRA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The data obtained could provide useful for the diagnosis, prevention, and eventually the treatment of AD and other tauopathies. ..
  17. Retinal drive of spontaneous system activity
    MATTHEW COLONNESE; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This information will aid in the development of accurate models of activity dependent development. ..
  18. Tat, NADPH oxidase, and HIV-dementia
    Annadora Bruce Keller; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Completion of these studies will result in a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of Tat-mediated neurotoxicity and could highlight a novel target for therapeutic intervention in HIVD. ..
  19. Regulation of Signal Transduction on Vesicles
    Hung Teh Kao; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..b>Synapsins, a family of abundant, neuron-specific phosphoproteins that coat vesicles, are ideal candidate molecules for ..
  20. Environmental Regulation of Neurogenesis
    BARBARA BELTZ; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The relationship between photoperiod, serotonin levels and the rate of neurogenesis also will be examined, and the photoreceptive system(s) that are important in regulating neurogenesis will be defined. ..
  21. Chromatin Remodeling as a Mechanism to Produce Drug Tolerance
    Nigel Atkinson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We will provide a unified description of how this gene senses and responds to the effects of abused solvent sedation. ..
  22. Alzheimer disease biomarkers in lens
    Peter H Frederikse; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These studies build on our earlier studies to understand the role of AbetaPP and Abeta in the lens which are already providing a new and specific conceptual basis for understanding cataract and its links with the brain. ..
  23. QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF PRESYNAPTIC FACILITATION
    Maria Bykhovskaia; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Synapsins, a family of neuron specific phosphoproteins, regulate binding of vesicles to actin filaments and thereby ..
  24. MORPHOLOGIC BASIS FOR CENTRAL VESTIBULAR INHIBITION
    GAY HOLSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  25. Connexin acetylation: Impact on gap junction function and HDAC inhibitor respons
    JEANNETTE CHLOE BULINSKI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In a broader view, we will also demonstrate novel roles by which protein acetylation regulates cellular functions not directly involved with gene expression. ..
  26. Immune reactivity to synapsin in the neuropathy and ataxia of celiac disease
    Armin Alaedini; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  27. PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS CHOLINE
    Richard Wurtman; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  28. Abused inhalants and Drosphila K+ channel transcription
    Nigel Atkinson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We have already shown that a sodium channel gene does not. Future directions include a mutagenic screen to isolate mutations that interfere with the acquisition of acute resistance. ..
  29. Parkin--In vivo Function and Role in Parkinson's Disease
    Jian Feng; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This animal model would also be a valuable tool for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies for PD patients. ..
  30. Mutants Showing SLO-1 Synaptic Mislocalization
    Zhao Wen Wang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..elegans. Analysis of these mutants in subsequent studies may allow the identification of molecules mediating SLO-1 synaptic targeting and localization. ..
  31. Estrogen, NADPH Oxidase, and Neurotrauma
    Annadora Bruce Keller; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  32. Mechanism of rapid alcohol tolerance in Drosophila
    Nigel Atkinson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The following day, we will determine if the expression level of the slo gene has increased and we will determine if the animals have acquired alcohol resistance. ..
  33. CAN MICROGLIAL CELLS PREVENT NEURONAL INJURY?
    Annadora Bruce Keller; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  34. ALZHEIMER PATHOPHYSIOLOGY IN HUMAN CATARACT FORMATION
    PETER FREDERIKSE; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  35. Chemoanatomic bases for peripheral vestibular function
    GAY HOLSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed research is unique, and will have direct bearing on the development of more effective therapeutic interventions, both medicinal and device-oriented, for peripheral vestibular disorders. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  36. THE ROLE OF AGRIN IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CENTRAL NEURONS
    Adriana Ferreira; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  37. OspA and autoimmunity in chronic Lyme disease
    Armin Alaedini; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Identification of specific immune reactivity to an autoantigen might also be useful as a diagnostic marker and for monitoring of disease activity in affected patients. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  38. NEURAL AND ENDOCRINE REGULATION OF BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR
    Richard Wurtman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..