connexins

Summary

Summary: A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The impact of astrocytic gap junctional coupling on potassium buffering in the hippocampus
    Anke Wallraff
    Department of Experimental Neurobiology, Neurosurgery, University of Bonn, 53105 Bonn, Germany
    J Neurosci 26:5438-47. 2006
  2. pmc Differentially altered Ca2+ regulation and Ca2+ permeability in Cx26 hemichannels formed by the A40V and G45E mutations that cause keratitis ichthyosis deafness syndrome
    Helmuth A Sánchez
    Dominick P Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    J Gen Physiol 136:47-62. 2010
  3. pmc Mutation analysis of congenital cataract in a Chinese family identified a novel missense mutation in the connexin 46 gene (GJA3)
    Zhou Zhou
    Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China
    Mol Vis 16:713-9. 2010
  4. pmc Pannexin 1: the molecular substrate of astrocyte "hemichannels"
    Rodolfo Iglesias
    The Dominick P Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    J Neurosci 29:7092-7. 2009
  5. ncbi Structure of the connexin 26 gap junction channel at 3.5 A resolution
    Shoji Maeda
    Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, OLABB, 6 2 3, Furuedai, Suita, Osaka 565 0874, Japan
    Nature 458:597-602. 2009
  6. ncbi Plasma membrane channels formed by connexins: their regulation and functions
    Juan C Saez
    Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Alameda 340, Santiago, Chile
    Physiol Rev 83:1359-400. 2003
  7. pmc Pannexin-1 mediates large pore formation and interleukin-1beta release by the ATP-gated P2X7 receptor
    Pablo Pelegrin
    Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
    EMBO J 25:5071-82. 2006
  8. pmc Pannexin 1 channels mediate 'find-me' signal release and membrane permeability during apoptosis
    Faraaz B Chekeni
    Beirne B Carter Center for Immunology Research, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    Nature 467:863-7. 2010
  9. pmc ATP signaling is deficient in cultured Pannexin1-null mouse astrocytes
    Sylvia O Suadicani
    Dominick P Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Glia 60:1106-16. 2012
  10. pmc The pannexin 1 channel activates the inflammasome in neurons and astrocytes
    William R Silverman
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:18143-51. 2009

Detail Information

Publications323 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The impact of astrocytic gap junctional coupling on potassium buffering in the hippocampus
    Anke Wallraff
    Department of Experimental Neurobiology, Neurosurgery, University of Bonn, 53105 Bonn, Germany
    J Neurosci 26:5438-47. 2006
    ..In general, a surprisingly large capacity for K+ clearance was conserved in mice with coupling-deficient astrocytes, indicating that gap junction-dependent processes only partially account for K+ buffering in the hippocampus...
  2. pmc Differentially altered Ca2+ regulation and Ca2+ permeability in Cx26 hemichannels formed by the A40V and G45E mutations that cause keratitis ichthyosis deafness syndrome
    Helmuth A Sánchez
    Dominick P Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    J Gen Physiol 136:47-62. 2010
    ..A40V produces leaky hemichannels, whereas G45E provides a route for excessive entry of Ca(2+). These aberrant properties, alone or in combination, can severely compromise cell integrity and lead to increased cell death...
  3. pmc Mutation analysis of congenital cataract in a Chinese family identified a novel missense mutation in the connexin 46 gene (GJA3)
    Zhou Zhou
    Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China
    Mol Vis 16:713-9. 2010
    ..To identify the genetic defects in a three-generation Chinese family with congenital nuclear cataract...
  4. pmc Pannexin 1: the molecular substrate of astrocyte "hemichannels"
    Rodolfo Iglesias
    The Dominick P Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    J Neurosci 29:7092-7. 2009
    ..Moreover, quantification of the amount of ATP released from wild-type, Cx43-null, and Panx1-KD astrocytes indicates that downregulation of Panx1, but not of Cx43, prevented ATP release from these cells...
  5. ncbi Structure of the connexin 26 gap junction channel at 3.5 A resolution
    Shoji Maeda
    Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, OLABB, 6 2 3, Furuedai, Suita, Osaka 565 0874, Japan
    Nature 458:597-602. 2009
    ..The structure of the Cx26 gap junction channel also has implications for the gating of the channel by the transjunctional voltage...
  6. ncbi Plasma membrane channels formed by connexins: their regulation and functions
    Juan C Saez
    Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Alameda 340, Santiago, Chile
    Physiol Rev 83:1359-400. 2003
    ..Most cells express two or more connexins. Open connexons found at the nonjunctional plasma membrane connect the cell interior with the extracellular ..
  7. pmc Pannexin-1 mediates large pore formation and interleukin-1beta release by the ATP-gated P2X7 receptor
    Pablo Pelegrin
    Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
    EMBO J 25:5071-82. 2006
    ....
  8. pmc Pannexin 1 channels mediate 'find-me' signal release and membrane permeability during apoptosis
    Faraaz B Chekeni
    Beirne B Carter Center for Immunology Research, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    Nature 467:863-7. 2010
    ..Collectively, these data identify PANX1 as a plasma membrane channel mediating the regulated release of find-me signals and selective plasma membrane permeability during apoptosis, and a new mechanism of PANX1 activation by caspases...
  9. pmc ATP signaling is deficient in cultured Pannexin1-null mouse astrocytes
    Sylvia O Suadicani
    Dominick P Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Glia 60:1106-16. 2012
    ..Thus, on the basis of our present findings and our previous report, we propose that Panx1 channels serve as K(+) sensors for changes in the extracellular milieu such as those occurring under pathological conditions...
  10. pmc The pannexin 1 channel activates the inflammasome in neurons and astrocytes
    William R Silverman
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:18143-51. 2009
    ..Thus, in contrast to macrophages and monocytes in which low intracellular K(+) has been suggested to trigger inflammasome activation, in neural cells, high extracellular K(+) activates caspase-1 probably through pannexin 1...
  11. ncbi Pannexin-1 is required for ATP release during apoptosis but not for inflammasome activation
    Yan Qu
    Physiological Chemistry Department, Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    J Immunol 186:6553-61. 2011
    ..These data are consistent with pannexin-1 liberating ATP and other yet to be defined "find me" signals necessary for macrophage recruitment to apoptotic cells...
  12. pmc The role of connexins in ear and skin physiology - functional insights from disease-associated mutations
    Ji Xu
    Department of Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1828:167-78. 2013
    Defects in several different connexins have been associated with several different diseases...
  13. pmc Gap junctions
    Daniel A Goodenough
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 1:a002576. 2009
    ..Gap-junctional channels are composed of hexamers of medium-sized families of integral proteins: connexins in chordates and innexins in precordates...
  14. pmc The diverse functional roles and regulation of neuronal gap junctions in the retina
    Stewart A Bloomfield
    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:495-506. 2009
    ..The networks formed by electrically coupled neurons are plastic and reconfigurable, and those in the retina are positioned to play key and diverse parts in the transmission and processing of visual information at every retinal level...
  15. ncbi Purinergic control of T cell activation by ATP released through pannexin-1 hemichannels
    Ursula Schenk
    Institute for Research in Biomedicine, 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland
    Sci Signal 1:ra6. 2008
    ..Thus, pharmacological inhibition of ATP release and signaling could be beneficial in treating T cell-mediated inflammatory diseases...
  16. ncbi Ischemia opens neuronal gap junction hemichannels
    Roger J Thompson
    Department of Psychiatry and Brain Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2B5, Canada
    Science 312:924-7. 2006
    ..Both the current and dye flux were blocked by inhibitors of hemichannels. Therefore, hemichannel opening contributes to the profound ionic dysregulation during stroke and may be a ubiquitous component of ischemic neuronal death...
  17. ncbi Gap junctions and the connexin protein family
    Goran Sohl
    Institut fur Genetik, Abteilung Molekulargenetik, Universitat Bonn, 53117 Bonn, Germany
    Cardiovasc Res 62:228-32. 2004
    ..Among the known "cardiovascular" connexins, Cx37 and Cx40 were demonstrated to be functionally expressed in mouse and human endothelial cells and Cx40, ..
  18. pmc Connexin channel permeability to cytoplasmic molecules
    Andrew L Harris
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, New Jersey Medical School of UMDNJ, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    Prog Biophys Mol Biol 94:120-43. 2007
    ..At this time, the nature of those interactions is unclear. One hopes that with more detailed permeability and structural information, the specific molecular mechanisms of the selectivity can be elucidated...
  19. ncbi The biochemistry and function of pannexin channels
    Silvia Penuela
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1828:15-22. 2013
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The communicating junctions, roles and dysfunctions...
  20. pmc Pannexin 1 in erythrocytes: function without a gap
    Silviu Locovei
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, P O Box 016430, Miami, FL 33101, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:7655-9. 2006
    ..Furthermore, under conditions of ATP release, erythrocytes took up fluorescent tracer molecules permeant to gap junction channels...
  21. ncbi Emerging complexities in identity and function of glial connexins
    Martin Theis
    Institut fur Genetik, Abteilung Molekulargenetik, Universitat Bonn, Romerstrasse 164, D 53117 Bonn, Germany
    Trends Neurosci 28:188-95. 2005
    ..Molecular analysis has revealed a surprising diversity of connexin expression and function, and this has led to new hypotheses regarding their roles in the brain, which could be tested using new approaches...
  22. pmc Probenecid, a gout remedy, inhibits pannexin 1 channels
    William Silverman
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33101, USA
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 295:C761-7. 2008
    ..Probenecid did not affect channels formed by connexins. Thus probenecid allows for discrimination between channels formed by connexins and pannexins.
  23. ncbi Pannexin-1-mediated recognition of bacterial molecules activates the cryopyrin inflammasome independent of Toll-like receptor signaling
    Thirumala Devi Kanneganti
    Department of Pathology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Immunity 26:433-43. 2007
    ..These results provide evidence for cytosolic delivery and sensing of bacterial molecules as a unifying model for caspase-1 activation and position pannexin-1 as a mechanistic link between bacterial stimuli and the cryopyrin inflammasome...
  24. ncbi Pharmacological properties of homomeric and heteromeric pannexin hemichannels expressed in Xenopus oocytes
    Roberto Bruzzone
    Department of Neuroscience, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    J Neurochem 92:1033-43. 2005
    Several new findings have emphasized the role of neuron-specific gap junction proteins (connexins) and electrical synapses in processing sensory information and in synchronizing the activity of neuronal networks...
  25. pmc The effects of connexin phosphorylation on gap junctional communication
    Paul D Lampe
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North DE 320, Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36:1171-86. 2004
    ..In most cases examined, connexins are modified post-translationally by phosphorylation...
  26. pmc Pannexin1 is part of the pore forming unit of the P2X(7) receptor death complex
    Silviu Locovei
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami School of Medicine, 1600 NW 10th Ave, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    FEBS Lett 581:483-8. 2007
    ..Thus, pannexin1 appears to be the molecular substrate for the permeabilization pore (or death receptor channel) recruited into the P2X(7)R signaling complex...
  27. pmc Autophagy modulates dynamics of connexins at the plasma membrane in a ubiquitin-dependent manner
    Eloy Bejarano
    Department of Development and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY 10461, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 23:2156-69. 2012
    Different pathways contribute to the turnover of connexins, the main structural components of gap junctions (GJs)...
  28. ncbi Structural and functional diversity of connexin genes in the mouse and human genome
    Klaus Willecke
    Institut fur Genetik, Abteilung Molekulargenetik, Universitat Bonn, Germany
    Biol Chem 383:725-37. 2002
    ..In this review we compare currently identified connexin genes in both the mouse and human genome and discuss the functions of gap junctions deduced from targeted mouse mutants and human genetic disorders...
  29. ncbi The mammalian pannexin family is homologous to the invertebrate innexin gap junction proteins
    Ancha Baranova
    Vavilov Institute of General Genetics RAS, Gubkina str, 3 GSP 1, Moscow 119991, Russia
    Genomics 83:706-16. 2004
    ..In silico evaluation of Panx3 expression predicts gene expression in osteoblasts and synovial fibroblasts. The apparent conservation of pannexins between species merits further investigation...
  30. pmc Glycosylation regulates pannexin intermixing and cellular localization
    Silvia Penuela
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1, Canada
    Mol Biol Cell 20:4313-23. 2009
    ..Collectively, these results reveal that the functional state and cellular distribution of mouse pannexins are regulated by their glycosylation status and interactions among pannexin family members...
  31. ncbi Connexins: key mediators of endocrine function
    Domenico Bosco
    Department of Surgery, University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland
    Physiol Rev 91:1393-445. 2011
    ..of membrane "hemi-channels," for the extracellular release of cytosolic signals, direct interactions between connexins and other cell proteins, and coordinated influence on the expression of multiple genes...
  32. pmc Neuroinflammation leads to region-dependent alterations in astrocyte gap junction communication and hemichannel activity
    Nikolay Karpuk
    Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198, USA
    J Neurosci 31:414-25. 2011
    ..This relationship may extend to other CNS diseases typified with an inflammatory component...
  33. pmc ATP and glutamate released via astroglial connexin 43 hemichannels mediate neuronal death through activation of pannexin 1 hemichannels
    Juan A Orellana
    Departamento de Fisiologia, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    J Neurochem 118:826-40. 2011
    ....
  34. pmc The P2X7 receptor-pannexin-1 complex decreases muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated seizure susceptibility in mice
    Ji Eun Kim
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Epilepsy Research, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, South Korea
    J Clin Invest 121:2037-47. 2011
    ..Therefore, we suggest that the P2X7R-Panx1 complex may play an important role as a negative modulator of M1 receptor-mediated seizure activity in vivo...
  35. ncbi Gap junctions and connexin-interacting proteins
    Ben N G Giepmans
    Department of Neurosciences, The National Center of Microscopy and Imaging Research, University of California San Diego, School of Medicine, 1000 BSB, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC0608, La Jolla, CA 92093 0608, USA
    Cardiovasc Res 62:233-45. 2004
    Gap junctions form channels between adjacent cells. The core proteins of these channels are the connexins. Regulation of gap junction communication (GJC) can be modulated by connexin-associating proteins, such as regulatory protein ..
  36. ncbi Emerging issues of connexin channels: biophysics fills the gap
    A L Harris
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 185 South Orange Ave, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    Q Rev Biophys 34:325-472. 2001
    ..conserved in the transmembrane and extracellular domains, yet many of the key functional differences between connexins are determined by amino-acid differences in these largely conserved domains...
  37. pmc Targeting pannexin1 improves seizure outcome
    Marcelo F Santiago
    The Dominick P Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e25178. 2011
    ..These data thus indicate that the activation of Panx1 in juvenile mouse hippocampi contributes to neuronal hyperactivity in seizures...
  38. ncbi Loss of connexin36 channels alters beta-cell coupling, islet synchronization of glucose-induced Ca2+ and insulin oscillations, and basal insulin release
    Magalie A Ravier
    Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University of Geneva, C M U, 1 rue Michel Servet, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Diabetes 54:1798-807. 2005
    ..These data show that Cx36-dependent signaling is essential for the proper functioning of beta-cells, particularly for the pulsatility of [Ca(2+)](i) and insulin secretion during glucose stimulation...
  39. ncbi Cardiac connexins and impulse propagation
    John A Jansen
    Department of Medical Physiology, Division Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 48:76-82. 2010
    ..The component parts of gap junctions are proteins called connexins (Cx), of which three main isoforms are found in the conductive and working myocardial cells: Cx40, Cx43, and ..
  40. pmc Pannexin channels are not gap junction hemichannels
    Gina E Sosinsky
    National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Channels (Austin) 5:193-7. 2011
    ..similarities in their membrane topologies and pharmacological sensitivities with the gap junction proteins, connexins. However, the functional role for the pannexin oligomers, or pannexons, is different from connexin oligomers, ..
  41. pmc Biological role of connexin intercellular channels and hemichannels
    Rekha Kar
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229 3900, USA
    Arch Biochem Biophys 524:2-15. 2012
    Gap junctions (GJ) and hemichannels (HC) formed from the protein subunits called connexins are transmembrane conduits for the exchange of small molecules and ions...
  42. ncbi Activation of pannexin 1 channels by ATP through P2Y receptors and by cytoplasmic calcium
    Silviu Locovei
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami, School of Medicine, P O Box 016430, 1600 NW 10th Avenue, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    FEBS Lett 580:239-44. 2006
    ..Based on its properties, including ATP permeability, pannexin 1 may be involved in both initiation and propagation of calcium waves...
  43. pmc Staphylococcus aureus-derived peptidoglycan induces Cx43 expression and functional gap junction intercellular communication in microglia
    Sarita Garg
    Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA
    J Neurochem 95:475-83. 2005
    ....
  44. pmc Genetic ablation of Pannexin1 protects retinal neurons from ischemic injury
    Galina Dvoriantchikova
    Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e31991. 2012
    ..Thus, our work presents the in vivo evidence for neurotoxicity elicited by neuronal Panx1, and identifies this channel as a new therapeutic target in ischemic pathologies...
  45. pmc Pannexin 1, an ATP release channel, is activated by caspase cleavage of its pore-associated C-terminal autoinhibitory region
    Joanna K Sandilos
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:11303-11. 2012
    ....
  46. pmc FGF-1 induces ATP release from spinal astrocytes in culture and opens pannexin and connexin hemichannels
    Juan M Garré
    Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República Oriental del Uruguay, C P 11800 Montevideo, Uruguay
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:22659-64. 2010
    ..HCs can be formed by connexins or pannexins; they can open to extracellular space or can form gap junction (GJ) channels, one HC from each cell...
  47. ncbi Somatic mutations in the connexin 40 gene (GJA5) in atrial fibrillation
    Michael H Gollob
    Arrhythmia Research Laboratory and Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Canada
    N Engl J Med 354:2677-88. 2006
    ..We hypothesized that idiopathic atrial fibrillation has a genetic basis and that tissue-specific mutations in GJA5, the gene encoding connexin 40, may predispose the atria to fibrillation...
  48. pmc Rho signaling regulates pannexin 1-mediated ATP release from airway epithelia
    Lucia Seminario-Vidal
    Cystic Fibrosis Pulmonary Research and Treatment Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:26277-86. 2011
    ..Lastly, knocking down TRPV4 impaired hypotonicity-evoked airway epithelial ATP release. Our data suggest that TRPV4 and Rho transduce cell membrane stretch/strain into pannexin 1-mediated ATP release in airway epithelia...
  49. ncbi Key functions for gap junctions in skin and hearing
    Claire A Scott
    Centre for Cutaneous Research, The Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, UK
    Biochem J 438:245-54. 2011
    ..3 and Cx31 which lead to skin disease and deafness. Functional studies with Cx proteins have given insights into disease-associated mechanisms and non-gap junctional roles for Cx proteins...
  50. ncbi Cell membrane permeabilization via connexin hemichannels in living and dying cells
    Juan C Saez
    Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    Exp Cell Res 316:2377-89. 2010
    Vertebrate cells that express connexins likely express connexin hemichannels (Cx HCs) at their surface...
  51. ncbi Comprehensive mutational screening in a cohort of Danish families with hereditary congenital cataract
    Lars Hansen
    Wilhelm Johannsen Centre for Functional Genome Research, Institute of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:3291-303. 2009
    ..Seven families have been published previously, and the data of the remaining 21 families are presented together with an overview of the results in all families...
  52. pmc Pannexins in ischemia-induced neurodegeneration
    Panagiotis Bargiotas
    Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Lubeck, 23538 Lubeck, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:20772-7. 2011
    ..In conclusion, our data demonstrate that Px1 and Px2 underlie channel function in neurons and contribute to ischemic brain damage...
  53. ncbi Gap junctions: structure and function (Review)
    W Howard Evans
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Diagnostic Radiology, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff, UK
    Mol Membr Biol 19:121-36. 2002
    Gap junctions are plasma membrane spatial microdomains constructed of assemblies of channel proteins called connexins in vertebrates and innexins in invertebrates...
  54. ncbi Implications and challenges of connexin connections to cancer
    Christian C Naus
    Life Sciences Institute, Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada
    Nat Rev Cancer 10:435-41. 2010
    The idea that the gap junction family of proteins, connexins, are tumour suppressors has been widely supported through numerous cancer models...
  55. pmc Congenital cataracts and their molecular genetics
    J Fielding Hejtmancik
    MOGS OGVFB NEI NIH, Building 10, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 19:134-49. 2008
    ..The increasing availability of more detailed information about these proteins and their functions and is making it possible to understand the pathophysiology of cataracts and the biology of the lens in general...
  56. ncbi Synchronous activity of inhibitory networks in neocortex requires electrical synapses containing connexin36
    M R Deans
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neuron 31:477-85. 2001
    ..However, the synchrony of these rhythms was weaker and more spatially restricted in the knockout. We conclude that electrical synapses containing Cx36 are critical for the generation of widespread, synchronous inhibitory activity...
  57. ncbi Inhibition of proliferation of a hepatoma cell line by fucoxanthin in relation to cell cycle arrest and enhanced gap junctional intercellular communication
    Cheng Ling Liu
    Department of Food Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung, 402, Taiwan
    Chem Biol Interact 182:165-72. 2009
    ..The enhanced GJIC may be responsible for the increase of the intracellular calcium level, which then causes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis...
  58. pmc Life cycle of connexins in health and disease
    Dale W Laird
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C1
    Biochem J 394:527-43. 2006
    ..the direct control of regulatory events associated with channel assembly and turnover, as the vast majority of connexins have remarkably short half-lives of only a few hours...
  59. ncbi Mutations in connexin genes and disease
    Anna Pfenniger
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    Eur J Clin Invest 41:103-16. 2011
    b>Connexins are a family of transmembrane proteins that are widely expressed in the human body...
  60. pmc Pannexins, a family of gap junction proteins expressed in brain
    Roberto Bruzzone
    Department of Clinical Neurobiology, Interdisciplinary Center for Neurosciences, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:13644-9. 2003
    ....
  61. ncbi Lens gap junctions in growth, differentiation, and homeostasis
    Richard T Mathias
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 8661, USA
    Physiol Rev 90:179-206. 2010
    ..Gap junction channels are made from the connexin (Cx) family of proteins. There are at least 20 isoforms of connexins, and most tissues express more than 1 isoform...
  62. ncbi Activation of pannexin-1 hemichannels augments aberrant bursting in the hippocampus
    Roger J Thompson
    Department of Psychiatry and Brain Research Centre, University of British Columbia, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2B5, Canada
    Science 322:1555-9. 2008
    ..We conclude that Px1 hemichannel opening is triggered by NMDAR stimulation and can contribute to epileptiform seizure activity...
  63. ncbi Spatially and temporally distinct expression of fibroblast connexins after sheep ventricular infarction
    Patrizia Camelliti
    Laboratory of Physiology, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PT, UK
    Cardiovasc Res 62:415-25. 2004
    ..We hypothesize that gap junction coupling and fibroblast invasion provide a substrate for progressive infarction via a gap junction mediated bystander effect...
  64. ncbi Innexins: members of an evolutionarily conserved family of gap-junction proteins
    Pauline Phelan
    Department of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NJ, UK
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1711:225-45. 2005
    ....
  65. ncbi Tumor-suppressive effects of pannexin 1 in C6 glioma cells
    Charles P K Lai
    Departments of Cellular and Physiological Sciences and Psychiatry, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Cancer Res 67:1545-54. 2007
    Mammalian gap junction proteins, connexins, have long been implicated in tumor suppression...
  66. pmc Human and mouse microglia express connexin36, and functional gap junctions are formed between rodent microglia and neurons
    K Dobrenis
    Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    J Neurosci Res 82:306-15. 2005
    ....
  67. ncbi Pannexin 1 and pannexin 3 are glycoproteins that exhibit many distinct characteristics from the connexin family of gap junction proteins
    Silvia Penuela
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5C1, Canada
    J Cell Sci 120:3772-83. 2007
    ..Collectively, these studies show that Panx1 and Panx3 have many characteristics that are distinct from Cx43 and that these proteins probably play an important biological role as single membrane channels...
  68. ncbi Functional expression of connexin57 in horizontal cells of the mouse retina
    Sonja Hombach
    Institute of Genetics, Division of Molecular Genetics, University of Bonn, 53117 Bonn, Germany
    Eur J Neurosci 19:2633-40. 2004
    ..the vertebrate retina that exhibit strong electrical and tracer coupling but the identity of the channel-forming connexins has remained elusive. Here we show that horizontal cells of the mouse retina express connexin57 (Cx57)...
  69. pmc Pannexin 1 constitutes the large conductance cation channel of cardiac myocytes
    Marie Cecile Kienitz
    Department of Cellular Physiology, Ruhr University Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany
    J Biol Chem 286:290-8. 2011
    ..Sporadic openings of single Panx1 channels in the absence of Ca(2+) release can trigger action potentials, suggesting that Panx1 channels potentially promote arrhythmogenic activities...
  70. pmc P2X7 receptor-Pannexin1 complex: pharmacology and signaling
    R Iglesias
    The Dominick P Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 295:C752-60. 2008
    ....
  71. pmc Cell-specific expression of connexins and evidence of restricted gap junctional coupling between glial cells and between neurons
    J E Rash
    Department of Anatomy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA
    J Neurosci 21:1983-2000. 2001
    ..coupling in the CNS are the following: (1) generalized coupling occurs between neurons and glia, with some connexins expressed in both neurons and glia, and (2) intercellular junctional coupling is restricted to specific coupling ..
  72. ncbi Functional significance of the negative-feedback regulation of ATP release via pannexin-1 hemichannels under ischemic stress in astrocytes
    Sadahiro Iwabuchi
    Laboratory of Cellular Cybernetics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060 0814, Japan
    Neurochem Int 58:376-84. 2011
    ..This negative-feedback mechanism, suppressing the loss of cellular ATP and Ca(2+) influx, might contribute to the survival of astrocytes under ischemic stress...
  73. ncbi Gap junctions and the propagation of cell survival and cell death signals
    D V Krysko
    Department of Human Anatomy, Embryology, Histology and Medical Physics, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
    Apoptosis 10:459-69. 2005
    ..of two hemichannels or connexons and each connexon is formed by the aggregation of six protein subunits known as connexins. Gap junction channels allow the intercellular passage of small (< 1...
  74. ncbi Connexins and gap junctions of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the CNS
    J I Nagy
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 32:29-44. 2000
    ..composition of gap junctions between astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, and the differential expression of glial connexins in adult and developing mammalian CNS...
  75. ncbi Connexins, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome
    Romain Hamelin
    Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University of Geneva School of Medicine, 1 rue Michel Servet, Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Curr Protein Pept Sci 10:18-29. 2009
    ..that depend on the contact between adjacent cells and, specifically, on the interactions that are dependent on connexins. The widespread distribution of these membrane proteins, their multiple modes of action, and their interactions ..
  76. pmc Consortin, a trans-Golgi network cargo receptor for the plasma membrane targeting and recycling of connexins
    Francisco J del Castillo
    Unite de Genetique et Physiologie de l Audition, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Hum Mol Genet 19:262-75. 2010
    ..We identified consortin as a binding partner of connexins, the building blocks of gap junctions...
  77. ncbi The cataract-inducing S50P mutation in Cx50 dominantly alters the channel gating of wild-type lens connexins
    Adam M DeRosa
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics and the Graduate Program in Genetics, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
    J Cell Sci 120:4107-16. 2007
    ..Additionally, mixed channels displayed significantly altered gating properties, a phenomenon that may contribute to the cataract that is associated with this mutation...
  78. ncbi Gap junctions or hemichannel-dependent and independent roles of connexins in cataractogenesis and lens development
    J X Jiang
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229 3900, USA
    Curr Mol Med 10:851-63. 2010
    ..GIA3 and GIA8 genes encode gap junction-forming proteins, connexin (Cx) 46 and Cx50, respectively. These two connexins are predominantly expressed in lens fiber cells...
  79. pmc Connexins protect mouse pancreatic β cells against apoptosis
    Philippe Klee
    Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University of Geneva, Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland
    J Clin Invest 121:4870-9. 2011
    ..Thus, we conclude that Cx36 is central to β cell protection from toxic insults...
  80. pmc Connexin30.2 containing gap junction channels decelerate impulse propagation through the atrioventricular node
    Maria M Kreuzberg
    Institut fur Genetik, Abteilung Molekulargenetik, Universitat Bonn, Romerstrasse 164, 53117 Bonn, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:5959-64. 2006
    ..g., atrial fibrillation) by preventing rapid conduction to the ventricles potentially associated with hemodynamic deterioration...
  81. ncbi A large cohort study of GJB2 mutations in Japanese hearing loss patients
    K Tsukada
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3 1 1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390 8621, Japan
    Clin Genet 78:464-70. 2010
    ..Additional clinical features in hearing loss patients with GJB2 mutations in this study were the near absence of tinnitus, vestibular dysfunction and inner ear malformations...
  82. ncbi Connexins and their channels in cell growth and cell death
    Mathieu Vinken
    Department of Toxicology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, Laarbeeklaan 103, B 1090 Brussels, Belgium
    Cell Signal 18:592-600. 2006
    ..show that the picture is more complicated than initially thought, as structural precursors of gap junctions, connexins and gap junction hemichannels, can affect the cellular homeostatic balance independently of gap junctional ..
  83. ncbi Cell death in retinitis pigmentosa: gap junctions and the 'bystander' effect
    Harris Ripps
    Lions of Illinois Eye Research Institute, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Exp Eye Res 74:327-36. 2002
    ..communication, but if the rod-cone channel is to be targeted, it will be essential to identify the connexins that form the gap junctions between the two types of photoreceptor, and to develop drugs that selectively affect ..
  84. pmc Connexins in vascular physiology and pathology
    Anne C Brisset
    Division of Cardiology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
    Antioxid Redox Signal 11:267-82. 2009
    ..Gap-junction channels arise from the docking of two hemichannels or connexons, formed by the assembly of six connexins, and achieve direct cellular communication by allowing the transport of small metabolites, second messengers, ..
  85. pmc ATP release through connexin hemichannels and gap junction transfer of second messengers propagate Ca2+ signals across the inner ear
    Fabio Anselmi
    Foundation for Advanced Biomedical Research, Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, 35129 Padua, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:18770-5. 2008
    ..Our results demonstrate that these connexins play a dual crucial role in inner ear Ca(2+) signaling: as hemichannels, they promote ATP release, sustaining ..
  86. ncbi Gap junctions and ovarian folliculogenesis
    Gerald M Kidder
    Department of Physiology, The University of Western Ontario, London, N6A 5C1, Canada
    Reproduction 123:613-20. 2002
    ..Gap junction channels are composed of connexins, a homologous family of more than 20 proteins...
  87. pmc Comprehensive molecular etiology analysis of nonsyndromic hearing impairment from typical areas in China
    Yongyi Yuan
    Department of Otolaryngology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing, PR China
    J Transl Med 7:79. 2009
    ..To provide appropriate genetic testing and counseling to families, we performed a comprehensive investigation of the molecular etiology of nonsyndromic deafness in two typical areas from northern and southern China...
  88. ncbi Non-junction functions of pannexin-1 channels
    Brian A MacVicar
    Brain Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Trends Neurosci 33:93-102. 2010
    ..Novel functions for the pannexin channels are likely to be discovered as current understanding of how they are regulated in physiological and pathological situations improves...
  89. ncbi Beyond the gap: functions of unpaired connexon channels
    Daniel A Goodenough
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4:285-94. 2003
    ..Recent studies indicate that connexons are also active in single plasma membranes and that they might be essential in intercellular signalling beyond their incorporation into gap junctions...
  90. pmc Connexin43: a protein from rat heart homologous to a gap junction protein from liver
    E C Beyer
    Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    J Cell Biol 105:2621-9. 1987
    ..In this nomenclature, the homologous proteins in gap junctions would be called connexins, each distinguished by its predicted molecular mass in kilodaltons...
  91. pmc GJB2 mutations and degree of hearing loss: a multicenter study
    Rikkert L Snoeckx
    Department of Medical Genetics, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B 2610 Antwerp, Belgium
    Am J Hum Genet 77:945-57. 2005
    ..Two genotypes--35delG/R143W (median 105 dB) and 35delG/dela(GJB6-D13S1830) (median 108 dB)--had significantly more-severe HI than that of 35delG homozygotes...
  92. ncbi Functional connexin "hemichannels": a critical appraisal
    David C Spray
    Dominick P Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    Glia 54:758-73. 2006
    ..We advise hemichannel researchers to proceed with caution and an open mind...
  93. pmc The role of pannexin 1 hemichannels in ATP release and cell-cell communication in mouse taste buds
    Yi Jen Huang
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:6436-41. 2007
    ..They also indicate a route for cell-cell communication and signal processing within the taste bud...
  94. ncbi The role of connexins in controlling cell growth and gene expression
    Elissavet Kardami
    Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Manitoba and St Boniface Research Centre, Winnipeg, Man, Canada
    Prog Biophys Mol Biol 94:245-64. 2007
    The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of current thinking on the role of connexins, in particular Cx43, in growth regulation, and a more detailed discussion as to potential mechanisms involved with an emphasis on gene ..
  95. ncbi Gap junction systems in the mammalian cochlea
    T Kikuchi
    Department of Otolaryngology, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 32:163-6. 2000
    ..Interruption of this recirculation, which may be caused by the mutation in connexin 26 gene, would deprive the stria vascularis of K(+) and result in hearing loss...
  96. pmc GJB2 mutation spectrum in 2,063 Chinese patients with nonsyndromic hearing impairment
    Pu Dai
    Department of Otolaryngology and Genetic Testing Center for Deafness, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, PR China
    J Transl Med 7:26. 2009
    ..Mutations in GJB2 are the most common molecular defects responsible for autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (NSHI). The mutation spectra of this gene vary among different ethnic groups...
  97. ncbi Carrier frequency of GJB2 (connexin-26) mutations causing inherited deafness in the Korean population
    Sung Hee Han
    Division of Molecular Genetics, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul Clinical Laboratories, Seoul Medical Science Institute, 7 14, Dongbingo dong, Yongsan gu, Seoul, South Korea
    J Hum Genet 53:1022-8. 2008
    ..235delC (1.25%, 26/2,072). These data provide information about carrier frequency for GJB2-based hearing loss and have important implications for genetic diagnostic testing for inherited deafness in the Korean population...
  98. pmc New roles for astrocytes: gap junction hemichannels have something to communicate
    Michael V L Bennett
    Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Trends Neurosci 26:610-7. 2003
    ..Most of these studies utilized cells in tissue culture that expressed a specific gap junction protein, connexin 43. Several such examples are reviewed here, with a particular focus on astrocytes...
  99. ncbi The gap junction proteome and its relationship to disease
    Dale W Laird
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, and Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1, Canada
    Trends Cell Biol 20:92-101. 2010
    In recent years our understanding of connexins has advanced from viewing them simply as proteins with a surprisingly short lifespan that form gap junction channels...
  100. ncbi Molecular architecture of the human specialised atrioventricular conduction axis
    I D Greener
    Cardiovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester, UK
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 50:642-51. 2011
    ..There is a complex and heterogeneous pattern of expression of ion and gap junction channels and Ca(2+)-handling proteins in the human atrioventricular conduction axis that explains the function of this crucial pathway...
  101. pmc Mutation analysis of 12 genes in Chinese families with congenital cataracts
    Wenmin Sun
    State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, China
    Mol Vis 17:2197-206. 2011
    ..To identify mutations in 12 genes in Chinese families with congenital cataracts...

Research Grants78

  1. Connexins in Neuronal and Glial Gap Junctions in the Central Nervous System
    John E Rash; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..chemical plus electrical) synapses, and compare the distributions of gap junctions and their constituent connexins proteins in mouse vs. normal human cerebral cortex and hippocampus...
  2. Cx43 phosphorylation modulates Kras mediated pancreas cancer progression
    Paul D Lampe; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g., Ca2+ and IP3) between neighboring cells. Connexins, like other junctional proteins, also play critical signaling and growth control roles that are independent of ..
  3. Microvascular Dysfunction in Hyperhomocysteinemia
    Shawn E Bearden; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..explore a set of potential mechanisms for homocysteine-mediated dysfunction in conducted vasodilation and the connexins proteins that form gap junction communication pathways...
  4. Liver Cell Membrane Protein-Expression and Function
    Allan W Wolkoff; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..membrane proteins on specific cytoskeletal elements (Project 1), the regulation of expression and trafficking of connexins (Project 2), the identification of trafficking steps in endocytosis mutants (Project 3), and mechanisms of ..
  5. The Role of Connexin32 in the Pathogensis of CMTX
    STEVEN SIMON SCHERER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of sulforhodamine-B (SR- B), examine the ultrastructure of O: O junctions, and examine the expression of glial connexins (Cx30, Cx32, Cx43, Cx47) in two tracts - the optic nerve and the ventral funiculus of the cervical spinal cord...
  6. Adhesion Mechanisms Mediating Sickle Cell Vasooclusion In Vivo
    Paul S Frenette; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..David Spray (Einstein). We will identify genetically the cellular and molecular basis by specific deletion of connexins or beta2 adrenergic receptors (Adrb2fl/fl) in pericytes or endothelial cells, and we will investigate the ..
  7. Sex-specific fetal programming of adult vascular dysfunction and hypertension
    KUNJU REDDIAR SATHISH KUMAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..EDHF-mediated vasodilation by determining mRNA and protein levels of EDHF components SK3 and IK1 channels and connexins (CX37, CX40, and CX47), their subcellular localization, and functional activity using vascular reactivity and ..
  8. Membrane skeleton regulation of cell shape and interactions in lens development
    Velia M Fowler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The transparency of the vertebrate lens depends on assembly of connexins into gap junctions that are required for lens ionic homeostasis and metabolite circulation...
  9. Internalization of gap junctions as a regulatory mechanism of direct GJIC
    Matthias M Falk; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, a growing number of publications indicate that connexins and GJs also play important, yet underestimated functions in physical cell-cell coupling, and in cellular ..
  10. GENETIC STUDIES OF ODDD
    Ethylin Wang Jabs; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  11. Probing localiztion, interactions, and effector properties of Shigella lpaD
    NICHOLAS EUGENE DICKENSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g. connexins) will be done to allow for a more precise understanding of IpaD's possible role as an effector...
  12. Characterization of the role of gap junction proteins in ER stress and obesity
    Amir Tirosh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The aim of this study is to assess the potential role of the gap junction proteins (connexins [Cxs]) in the adaptation of liver and adipose tissue to ER stress, overnutrition and obesity...
  13. Gap junctions in Vascular Smooth Muscle: growth control
    Janis M Burt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In our previous studies, we demonstrated that these connexins form gap junction channels with vastly different permselective and growth suppressive properties that are ..
  14. Connexin 43 Hemichannels and Signaling In Bone
    LILIAN IRENE PLOTKIN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Connexins (Cx) are a family of proteins essential for cell-to-cell communication and for the communication of cells with their environment. Cx43 is the most abundant connexin expressed in bone cells...
  15. Cyclic nucleotide permeability of connexin mutants related to genetic disease
    Virginijus Valiunas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will quantify and compare the permeability of gap junction channels formed by mutated connexins to their wild-type counterparts...
  16. Cx26 mutations in syndromic deafness linked to skin disease
    Thomas W White; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Connexins are the subunit proteins of gap junctions, which allow the exchange of ions, second messengers and small metabolites between adjacent cells through intercellular channels...
  17. Connexin Distribution in Physiological Versus Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy
    Michael R Zile; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pathological hypertrophy, with ex- tensively characterized cytoskeletal properties in each setting. ..
  18. PHOSPHORYLATION OF GAP JUNCTION PROTEINS
    Paul D Lampe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These channels are necessary for proper development and genetic linkage analyses have implicated connexins in at least 14 human diseases...
  19. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF GAP JUNCTION TRAFFICKING
    Gina E Sosinsky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..descriptions depicting gap junctions as static, stand-alone structures now are replaced with a new paradigm of connexins, hemichannels, channels and gap junctions as very mobile, dynamic and interactive assemblies...
  20. Pathogenesis of connexin 47 associated diseases
    Charles K Abrams; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The connexins are integral membrane proteins that form gap junction channels...
  21. Connexin acetylation: Impact on gap junction function and HDAC inhibitor respons
    JEANNETTE CHLOE BULINSKI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We recently discovered that several connexins undergo acetylation...
  22. Pharmacology of Connexin Channels: Structure-Activity Studies.
    Miduturu Srinivas; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The multi-gene family of proteins called connexins form intercellular gap junctions that directly mediate signaling between adjacent cells...
  23. 2010 Ligand Recognition and Molecular Gating Gordon Research Conference
    NANCY RYAN GRAY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..coupled receptors), neurodegenerative diseases, skin diseases, deafness, and developmental abnormalities (connexins) to neurological diseases (ion channels)...
  24. Mechanisms of coronary endothelial dysfunction in diabetes
    Ayako Makino; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Gap junctions, formed by connexins (Cxs), provide important pathways for the cell-cell communication and Cx40 is known to be specially important in ..
  25. Mechanisms of Gap Junction Regulation
    Paul L Sorgen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Connexins are integral membrane proteins that oligomerize to form intercellular gap junction channels...
  26. Electrical Synapses and Network Signaling
    Gianmaria Maccaferri; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Discovering new mechanisms of synaptic modulation could reveal additional targets for therapeutic intervention that could be exploited by a new generation of drugs, which is currently under development and testing. ..
  27. Mechanisms of Intercelllar Communication
    VYTAUTAS K VERSELIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Training areas will be: i) Connexins: Structure/Function and Electrical Synaptic Transmission...
  28. Lens intercellular communication connexins and cataract
    Thomas W White; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Connexins are the subunit proteins of gap junctions, which allow the exchange of ions, second messengers and small metabolites between adjacent cells through intercellular channels...
  29. Connexin-Mediated Hemichannel Activity in Experimental Periodontitis
    Karen F Ross; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Connexins are proteins that form cell-to-cell channels, which are concentrated within gap junctions...
  30. GAP JUNCTIONS AND IONIC CURRENTS IN DEVELOPING HEART
    Jenny J Yang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Of the over twenty identified mammalian connexin genes, only four connexins, connexin40 (Cx40), connexin43 (Cx43), connexin45 (Cx45), and connexin 31.9 (Cx31.9), are expressed in the heart...
  31. Mechanisms enhancing functional coupling between native and embryonic stem cell d
    Karen Maass; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  32. INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION IN THE LENS
    Lisa Ebihara; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The overall objective of this research proposal is to better understand the role of connexins in the lens...
  33. Structure and Dynamics of Gap Junction Channels
    MARK JAY YEAGER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a unique set of molecular pores called gap junction channels, which are assembled from protein subunits called connexins. Gap junction channels are formed by the coupling of two half channels called connexons, which are themselves ..
  34. Homeostatic Roles of Connexin43 in Response to DNA Damage
    DANNY SAM ROH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In particular, genes involved in intercellular communication, such as connexins, have been identified as key components in cellular responses to numerous stressors...
  35. International Gap Junction Conference 2013
    Robert G Gourdie; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These structures are membrane channels composed of proteins (connexins) that connect apposing cells and provide for the direct movement of small molecules between cells...
  36. SiRNA therapeutics: Gap junction delivery in vitro and in vivo
    Richard T Mathias; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have already established that cells that make connexins (the building block of gap junctions) can transfer siRNAs...
  37. GAP JUNCTION INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION AND POLYAMINES
    YURIY KUCHERYAVYKH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Significance: The results of these studies will provide a link between two targets of anti-cancer therapy;connexins and polyamines. We will define the effects polyamines on the different Cxs...
  38. Regulation of Osteoblast Differentiation and Function by Connexin 43
    Joseph P Stains; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Indeed, understanding the coordination of osteoblast, osteocyte and osteoclasts networks is vital to the understanding nearly all diseases of skeletal metabolism. ..
  39. Retinoid effects on inflammation and cell growth associated with endometriosis
    Neil Sidell; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Through our demonstration that retinoids can also alter the expression of certain connexins (Cxs) involved in endometrial gap junction communication, Aim 3 will test our hypothesis that Cxs play ..
  40. INFLAMMATORY MECHANISMS IN LUNG VASCULAR SEGMENTS
    Kaushik Parthasarathi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..If our preliminary data hold, then our research will prove for the first time that connexins play a critical role in the spatial spread of inflammation...
  41. Mucociliary Function in Chronic Bronchitis
    MATTHIAS A SALATHE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We propose that pannexins, proteins related to but different from connexins, form channels to the outside of cells (called pannexons) and are responsible, at least in part, for the release ..
  42. Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Preeclampsia
    Ian M Bird; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..in the relative levels of expression of P2Y2 receptors, G proteins, PLC, IP3 receptors, TRPC channels, or connexins. SpAim 3: Hypothesis: In short term culture, the sustained [Ca2+]i burst responses to ATP in HUVEC from normal ..
  43. Osteoblastic lineage cells regulate osteoclastogenesis via Cx43 and gap junctions
    Yue Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Each gap junction is composed of two hemichannels or connexons and each connexon is comprised of 6 connexins. The predominant form of connexin in bone cells is Cx43...
  44. MIR-1-2 FUNCTION IN CARDIAC CONDUCTION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE
    Yong Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specific Aim 1);to determine how miR-1-2 establishes a precise level of calcium signaling, ion channels, and connexins during differentiation and maintenance of the CCS (Specific Aim 2);to identify affected genetic pathways upon ..
  45. Autocrine control of neutrophil chemotaxis
    Wolfgang G Junger; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g., calcium signaling and MAPK activation that lead to the opening of ATP release channels such as connexins or pannexins and release of ATP via vesicular transport. Specific Aim 2...
  46. Mechanisms of Heterocellular Signaling at the Myoendothelial Junction
    Brant E Isakson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will determine which connexins and second messengers are involved in intercellular signaling, and will test whether polarization of calcium ..
  47. An Enabling Technology for Improving Engraftment of Implanted Materials and Cells
    Michael J Yost; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is our aim to develop an enabling technology that promotes scar-free healing after surgery of implanted biological and synthetic materials in the human body. ..
  48. Mutational Analysis of Tunicate Development
    William Smith; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Experiments in the first two Specific Aims of this proposal will test these hypotheses. Because some connexins have biological activities distinct from their channel forming role, in the first Specific Aim we will ..
  49. CONNEXONS IN CARDIOVASCULAR CELL COMMUNICATION
    Eric C Beyer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Two major connexins (CX40 and CX43) are expressed in the atrium...
  50. Structure-Function relation of Connexin disease mutations
    TERRY L DOWD; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..suggesting that identical or homologous amino acid substitutions cause different structural defects in the two connexins. Studies will be guided by the crystal structure of a Cx26 hemichannel and a Cx32 homology model, both refined ..
  51. Coronary Artery Regulation by Small Conduction Ca2+-activated K+ Channels
    MARK STEPHEN TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Ca2+ signals to holes in the internal elastic lamina (IEL) as well as to SK3 channels and specific gap junction connexins expressed along the endothelial-vascular smooth muscle (VSM) interface, suggest the existence of a localized ..
  52. STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF CONNEXIN26 GAP JUNCTIONS
    Gina E Sosinsky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..processes, however, there is a fundamental knowledge gap in understanding how gap junction proteins, the connexins, are regulated and gated based on a structure that has rigid and flexible domains...
  53. BIOLOGY OF LENS INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION
    Eric C Beyer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We hypothesize that lens cells expressing mutant connexins that form cytoplasmic inclusions or are retained within the secretory pathway will exhibit unique abnormalities ..
  54. Low ph alters intracellular and extracellular communication in the acinar cell
    ANAMIKA MARAGRET REED; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  55. Regulation of Cx26 and Cx32 Channels by Cytosolic Interdomain Interactions
    Andrew L Harris; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Mutations in connexins cause human pathologies...
  56. Functional activity in glia
    Gerald Dienel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of connexin channels to biological molecules in cultured astrocytes, N2A cells stably transfected with different connexins, and adult rat brain slices...
  57. CYTOSOLIC REGULATION OF INNER EAR ION TRANSPORT
    A PHILINE WANGEMANN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This proposal is designed to further our under- standing of potassium cycling, by determining the role of connexins in potassium cycling, glutamate metabolism and the prevention of apoptosis and to determine whether a ..
  58. Molecular and genetic mechanisms of cardiac conduction development and disease
    Neil C Chi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies may prove rewarding for prognosis and diagnosis of patients susceptible to sudden cardiac death as well as for developing therapeutic options aimed at maintaining and/or improving overall cardiac conduction. ..
  59. INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION IN THE LENS
    Miduturu Srinivas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Mass spectrometric methods will be employed to identify modifications to connexins with aging and during cataractogenesis...
  60. From human keratinocytes to biological pacemakers
    Ira S Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..locations (atrium or ventricle) in vitro and whether the pacing rate generated is target dependent (b) which connexins HFKT-pacemakers express and the ability of the HFKT-pacemakers to couple to cells expressing fibroblast ..
  61. Control of Junctional Conductance at Auditory Afferent
    Alberto Pereda; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The scaffold protein ZO-1 is known to interact with many connexins to regulate their surface expression...
  62. Embryonic Expression and Roles of Neuronal Connexin 35 in Zebrafish Spinal Cord
    Tara Martin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proteins responsible for most gap junction formations, connexins, have been implicated in a number of neurodevelopmental processes...
  63. Function and Expression of Connexins in the pre-Botzinger Complex
    JONATHAN KELTY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..channels are made up of joined hemichannels, each a hexamer of integral membrane protein subunits termed connexins (Cx)...
  64. MYOMETRIAL GAP JUNCTION MODULATION IN PRETERM LABOR
    WILLIAM LARSEN; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Data obtained in these studies should provide a fundamental basis for the development of new preventative therapies and risk assessment for preterm labor...
  65. NEURONAL DEVELOPMENT INTERACTION AND ORGANIZATION
    Michael Bennett; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..with a wide range of expertise to focus on gap unctions, which are intercellular channels comprised of connexins. The overall goal is to analyze physiological roles of gap unctions formed by connexins that are found in the ..
  66. Communication and Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer
    Parmender Mehta; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Gap junctions, which are formed of proteins called connexins, are a special class of cell junctions that provide a direct cell-cell communication pathway for the passage of ..
  67. Connexins in Ischemia-Induced Neuronal Death
    Michael Bennett; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Experiments will determine the effects of acute knockdown of specific connexins by antisense oligonucleotides on neuronal vulnerability and will examine neuronal vulnerability in Cx32(Y/-) ..
  68. Gap Junctions in Placental Development
    Stephen Lye; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Complementary studies in Aim II will take advantage of the power of trophoblast stem cells to define connexins that modulate differentiation to invasive trophoblast, determine whether mutation of these connexins disrupts ..
  69. Structure/Function Analysis of Low pl Connexin Isoforms
    ELLIOT HERTZBERG; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Several gap junction proteins, termed connexins, serve prominent roles in the nervous system...
  70. CONNEXINS AND THEIR ROLE IN EPIDERMAL DIFFERENTIATION
    Gabriele Richard; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..the spectrum of connexin defects involved in human inherited skin disorders, and to elucidate the role of connexins and gap junctional intercellular communication in normal and diseased skin...
  71. STRUCTURE-FUNCTION OF CONNEXIN PORES
    Andrew Harris; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..proposal explores the structure-function of the connexin channel by the use of pore blockers, focusing on two connexins in which defects cause neurological pathologies...
  72. The Role of Connexin32 in the Pathogenesis of CMTX
    Steven Scherer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Six connexins oligomerize to form a hemi-channel (or connexon), which forms a channel when apposed to another hemi-channel on ..
  73. Connexin Mutations in Deafness
    Thomas White; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..to reconcile this model with the available data on potassium permeation through gap junction channels, as all connexins are readily permeated by this cation and the loss of a single cochlear connexin would still leave two functional ..
  74. Gap junctional regulation of prostate cancer progression
    Magnus Edlund; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Evidence is now accumulating that profiles of connexin proteins are critical for invasive behavior. How connexins are regulated during aging, cancer progression and invasion, and how connexins themselves regulate cell ..
  75. Mutant cochlear connexins associated with deafness
    Guillermo Altenberg; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In most cells of the normal cochlea gap-junctional channels are heteromeric assemblies formed by the connexins Cx26 and Cx30...
  76. LENS CELL COUPLING--ASSEMBLY AND ROLE OF GAP JUNCTIONS
    LINDA MUSIL; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Three closely related types of gap junction proteins (connexins) participate in joining lens cells into a syncytium with respect to molecules smaller than approximately 1 kD: ..
  77. Transfer of Metabolites through Lens Gap Junctions
    Gary Goldberg; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Knockout or mutations of genes encoding these connexins cause cataracts in mice and humans, respectively...
  78. Regulation of lens connexins
    Charles Louis; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..using a sheep lens cell culture system, as well as HeLa cell lines stably transfected with different lens connexins. These objectives will be achieved in two specific aims...