epidermal growth factor receptor

Summary

Summary: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA, amphiregulin, and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.

Top Publications

  1. doi Screening for epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in lung cancer
    Rafael Rosell
    Catalan Institute of Oncology and Autonomous University of Barcelona, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Barcelona, Spain
    N Engl J Med 361:958-67. 2009
  2. doi Gefitinib versus cisplatin plus docetaxel in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer harbouring mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (WJTOG3405): an open label, randomised phase 3 trial
    Tetsuya Mitsudomi
    Department of Thoracic Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Chikusa ku, Nagoya, Japan
    Lancet Oncol 11:121-8. 2010
  3. ncbi Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor underlying responsiveness of non-small-cell lung cancer to gefitinib
    Thomas J Lynch
    Cancer Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston 02129, USA
    N Engl J Med 350:2129-39. 2004
  4. doi Phase III study of bevacizumab plus docetaxel compared with placebo plus docetaxel for the first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer
    David W Miles
    Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, United Kingdom
    J Clin Oncol 28:3239-47. 2010
  5. ncbi Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in cancer
    Nicola Normanno
    Cell Biology and Preclinical Models Unit, INT Fondazione Pascale, 80131 Naples, Italy
    Gene 366:2-16. 2006
  6. ncbi Epidermal growth factor receptor: mechanisms of activation and signalling
    Robert N Jorissen
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Exp Cell Res 284:31-53. 2003
  7. ncbi Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study
    Lisa A Carey
    Division of Hematology Oncology, School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7305, USA
    JAMA 295:2492-502. 2006
  8. doi K-ras mutations and benefit from cetuximab in advanced colorectal cancer
    Christos S Karapetis
    Flinders Medical Centre and Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
    N Engl J Med 359:1757-65. 2008
  9. ncbi EGFR mutations in lung cancer: correlation with clinical response to gefitinib therapy
    J Guillermo Paez
    Departments of Medical Oncology and Cancer Biology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 304:1497-500. 2004
  10. ncbi American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing in breast cancer
    Antonio C Wolff
    American Society of Clinical Oncology, Alexandria, VA, USA
    J Clin Oncol 25:118-45. 2007

Detail Information

Publications360 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi Screening for epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in lung cancer
    Rafael Rosell
    Catalan Institute of Oncology and Autonomous University of Barcelona, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Barcelona, Spain
    N Engl J Med 361:958-67. 2009
    Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) confer hypersensitivity to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer...
  2. doi Gefitinib versus cisplatin plus docetaxel in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer harbouring mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (WJTOG3405): an open label, randomised phase 3 trial
    Tetsuya Mitsudomi
    Department of Thoracic Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Chikusa ku, Nagoya, Japan
    Lancet Oncol 11:121-8. 2010
    Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer harbouring mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene respond well to the EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib...
  3. ncbi Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor underlying responsiveness of non-small-cell lung cancer to gefitinib
    Thomas J Lynch
    Cancer Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston 02129, USA
    N Engl J Med 350:2129-39. 2004
    ..lung cancer have no response to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib, which targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, about 10 percent of patients have a rapid and often dramatic clinical response...
  4. doi Phase III study of bevacizumab plus docetaxel compared with placebo plus docetaxel for the first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer
    David W Miles
    Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, United Kingdom
    J Clin Oncol 28:3239-47. 2010
    ..5 and 15 mg/kg) with docetaxel as first-line therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -negative, locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer (MBC) was investigated in a three-..
  5. ncbi Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in cancer
    Nicola Normanno
    Cell Biology and Preclinical Models Unit, INT Fondazione Pascale, 80131 Naples, Italy
    Gene 366:2-16. 2006
    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) belongs to the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK). These trans-membrane proteins are activated following binding with peptide growth factors of the EGF-family of proteins...
  6. ncbi Epidermal growth factor receptor: mechanisms of activation and signalling
    Robert N Jorissen
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Exp Cell Res 284:31-53. 2003
    ..The recent crystal structures of different domains from several members of the EGFR family have challenged our concepts of these processes...
  7. ncbi Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study
    Lisa A Carey
    Division of Hematology Oncology, School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7305, USA
    JAMA 295:2492-502. 2006
    Gene expression analysis has identified several breast cancer subtypes, including basal-like, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive/estrogen receptor negative (HER2+/ER-), luminal A, and luminal B.
  8. doi K-ras mutations and benefit from cetuximab in advanced colorectal cancer
    Christos S Karapetis
    Flinders Medical Centre and Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
    N Engl J Med 359:1757-65. 2008
    Treatment with cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor, improves overall and progression-free survival and preserves the quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer that has not ..
  9. ncbi EGFR mutations in lung cancer: correlation with clinical response to gefitinib therapy
    J Guillermo Paez
    Departments of Medical Oncology and Cancer Biology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 304:1497-500. 2004
    ..Somatic mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene EGFR were found in 15of 58 unselected tumors from Japan and 1 of 61 from the United States...
  10. ncbi American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing in breast cancer
    Antonio C Wolff
    American Society of Clinical Oncology, Alexandria, VA, USA
    J Clin Oncol 25:118-45. 2007
    To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing in invasive breast cancer and its utility as a predictive marker.
  11. pmc Acquired resistance of lung adenocarcinomas to gefitinib or erlotinib is associated with a second mutation in the EGFR kinase domain
    William Pao
    Program in Cancer Biology and Genetics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA
    PLoS Med 2:e73. 2005
    ..usually harbor somatic gain-of-function mutations in exons encoding the kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)...
  12. doi Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cervical cancer: correlation with tumor progression, epidermal growth factor receptor overexpression, and snail up-regulation
    Mei Yi Lee
    Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
    Clin Cancer Res 14:4743-50. 2008
    ..Little is known about the existence and function of EMT in cervical cancer. This study aims to investigate the regulation of EMT in cervical squamous cell carcinoma...
  13. ncbi EGFR mutation and resistance of non-small-cell lung cancer to gefitinib
    Susumu Kobayashi
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA
    N Engl J Med 352:786-92. 2005
    Mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene have been identified in specimens from patients with non-small-cell lung cancer who have a response to anilinoquinazoline EGFR inhibitors...
  14. doi Cetuximab and chemotherapy as initial treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer
    Eric Van Cutsem
    University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Digestive Oncology Unit, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    N Engl J Med 360:1408-17. 2009
    ....
  15. doi Stem cell-related "self-renewal" signature and high epidermal growth factor receptor expression associated with resistance to concomitant chemoradiotherapy in glioblastoma
    Anastasia Murat
    Laboratory of Tumor Biology and Genetics, Centre Universitaire Romand de Neurochirurgie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne 1011, Switzerland
    J Clin Oncol 26:3015-24. 2008
    ..Here, we aimed to identify molecular profiles specific for treatment resistance to the current standard of care of concomitant chemoradiotherapy with the alkylating agent temozolomide...
  16. ncbi TRIBUTE: a phase III trial of erlotinib hydrochloride (OSI-774) combined with carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer
    Roy S Herbst
    University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA
    J Clin Oncol 23:5892-9. 2005
    Erlotinib is a potent reversible HER1/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor with single-agent activity in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
  17. ncbi An allosteric mechanism for activation of the kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor
    Xuewu Zhang
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, 94720, USA
    Cell 125:1137-49. 2006
    The mechanism by which the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated upon dimerization has eluded definition...
  18. doi Chemotherapy, bevacizumab, and cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer
    Jolien Tol
    Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    N Engl J Med 360:563-72. 2009
    ..We studied the effect of adding the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody cetuximab to a combination of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab for ..
  19. ncbi Reiterative use of the EGF receptor triggers differentiation of all cell types in the Drosophila eye
    M Freeman
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Cell 87:651-60. 1996
    ..I have used a dominant-negative form of the Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor (DER) to show that this receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) is required for the differentiation of all ..
  20. doi miR-200 expression regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in bladder cancer cells and reverses resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor therapy
    Liana Adam
    The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 15:5060-72. 2009
    ..Recent studies have implied that EMT may contribute to resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-directed therapy...
  21. pmc Nuclear trafficking of the epidermal growth factor receptor family membrane proteins
    Y N Wang
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Oncogene 29:3997-4006. 2010
    Multiple membrane-bound receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB-2, have been reported to be localized in the nucleus, where emerging evidence suggests that they are involved in ..
  22. doi Assessment of somatic k-RAS mutations as a mechanism associated with resistance to EGFR-targeted agents: a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and metastatic colorectal cancer
    Helena Linardou
    1st Department of Medical Oncology, Metropolitan Hospital, Athens, Greece
    Lancet Oncol 9:962-72. 2008
    Somatic mutations of the k-RAS oncogene have been assessed as a mechanism of de-novo resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibition in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and to anti-EGFR ..
  23. pmc The T790M mutation in EGFR kinase causes drug resistance by increasing the affinity for ATP
    Cai Hong Yun
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:2070-5. 2008
    Lung cancers caused by activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are initially responsive to small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), but the efficacy of these agents is often limited because of the ..
  24. pmc Structures of lung cancer-derived EGFR mutants and inhibitor complexes: mechanism of activation and insights into differential inhibitor sensitivity
    Cai Hong Yun
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, MA 02115, USA
    Cancer Cell 11:217-27. 2007
    ..Strikingly, direct binding measurements show that gefitinib binds 20-fold more tightly to the L858R mutant than to the wild-type enzyme...
  25. ncbi Genetic heterogeneity of the epidermal growth factor receptor in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines revealed by a rapid and sensitive detection system, the peptide nucleic acid-locked nucleic acid PCR clamp
    Yoshiaki Nagai
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Saitama Medical School, Moroyama machi, Iruma gun, Saitama, Japan
    Cancer Res 65:7276-82. 2005
    ..Gefitinib is an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and has been introduced in the treatment of advanced lung cancers...
  26. ncbi A heparin-binding growth factor secreted by macrophage-like cells that is related to EGF
    S Higashiyama
    Department of Surgical Research, Children s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115
    Science 251:936-9. 1991
    ..HB-EGF is also expressed in cultured human macrophages and may be involved in macrophage-mediated cellular proliferation...
  27. ncbi The EGFR family and its ligands in human cancer. signalling mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities
    Y Yarden
    Department of Biological Regulation, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Eur J Cancer 37:S3-8. 2001
    ....
  28. doi Mechanisms of acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer
    Jeffrey A Engelman
    Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 14:2895-9. 2008
    b>Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib are effective therapies for non-small cell lung cancer patients whose tumors harbor somatic mutations in EGFR...
  29. ncbi Signal transduction by receptors with tyrosine kinase activity
    A Ullrich
    Max Planck Institut fur Biochemie, Martinsried, Federal Republic of Germany
    Cell 61:203-12. 1990
  30. ncbi EGF-ERBB signalling: towards the systems level
    Ami Citri
    Department of Biological Regulation, The Weizmann Institute of Science, 1 Hertzl Street, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 7:505-16. 2006
    ..Because network fragility is an inevitable trade-off of robustness, systems-level understanding is expected to generate therapeutic opportunities to intercept aberrant network activation...
  31. ncbi Epithelial to mesenchymal transition is a determinant of sensitivity of non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell lines and xenografts to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition
    Stuart Thomson
    Departments of Translational Research and Oncology Research, OSI Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Farmingdale, NY 11735, USA
    Cancer Res 65:9455-62. 2005
    Treatment of second- and third-line patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitor erlotinib significantly increased survival relative to placebo...
  32. ncbi Epithelial versus mesenchymal phenotype determines in vitro sensitivity and predicts clinical activity of erlotinib in lung cancer patients
    Robert L Yauch
    Department of Molecular Diagnostics, Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 11:8686-98. 2005
    ..the outcome of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) have been reported in patients treated with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, erlotinib...
  33. doi Hepatocyte growth factor induces gefitinib resistance of lung adenocarcinoma with epidermal growth factor receptor-activating mutations
    Seiji Yano
    Division of Medical Oncology, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
    Cancer Res 68:9479-87. 2008
    Lung cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-activating mutations responds favorably to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib...
  34. pmc EGF receptor gene mutations are common in lung cancers from "never smokers" and are associated with sensitivity of tumors to gefitinib and erlotinib
    William Pao
    Program in Cancer Biology and Genetics and Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:13306-11. 2004
    Somatic mutations in the tyrosine kinase (TK) domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene are reportedly associated with sensitivity of lung cancers to gefitinib (Iressa), kinase inhibitor...
  35. pmc Escape from HER-family tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy by the kinase-inactive HER3
    Natalia V Sergina
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Nature 445:437-41. 2007
    ..However, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) against the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family show only limited activity against HER2-driven breast cancers, despite effective ..
  36. pmc Immunologic escape after prolonged progression-free survival with epidermal growth factor receptor variant III peptide vaccination in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma
    John H Sampson
    Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Clin Oncol 28:4722-9. 2010
    ..b>Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is a constitutively activated and immunogenic mutation not expressed in normal ..
  37. doi Regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in human cancer cells by microRNA-7
    Rebecca J Webster
    Laboratory for Cancer Medicine, University of Western Australia Center for Medical Research, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research, Perth, WA, Australia
    J Biol Chem 284:5731-41. 2009
    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently overexpressed in cancer and is an important therapeutic target. Aberrant expression and function of microRNAs have been associated with tumorigenesis...
  38. ncbi An open-and-shut case? Recent insights into the activation of EGF/ErbB receptors
    Antony W Burgess
    Cooperative Research Centre for Cellular Growth Factors, P O Box 2008, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria 3050, Australia
    Mol Cell 12:541-52. 2003
    ..We outline a mechanistic view of ErbB receptor homo- and heterodimerization, which suggests new approaches for interfering with these processes when they are implicated in human cancers...
  39. ncbi Ubiquitin ligase activity and tyrosine phosphorylation underlie suppression of growth factor signaling by c-Cbl/Sli-1
    G Levkowitz
    Department of Biological Regulation, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
    Mol Cell 4:1029-40. 1999
    ..Our study identifies Cbl proteins as components of the ubiquitin ligation machinery and implies that they similarly suppress many other signaling pathways...
  40. pmc Irreversible inhibitors of the EGF receptor may circumvent acquired resistance to gefitinib
    Eunice L Kwak
    Center for Molecular Therapeutics, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:7665-70. 2005
    Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) with activating mutations in the kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) demonstrate dramatic, but transient, responses to the reversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib (..
  41. ncbi Prospective phase II study of gefitinib for chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations
    Akira Inoue
    Department of Respiratory Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Institute of Development, Aging, and Cancer, Tohoku University, 4 1, Seiryomachi, Aoba ku, Sendai 980 8575, Japan
    J Clin Oncol 24:3340-6. 2006
    This study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy and the feasibility of gefitinib for chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations.
  42. pmc A phase I dose escalation study of BIBW 2992, an irreversible dual inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (EGFR) and 2 (HER2) tyrosine kinase in a 2-week on, 2-week off schedule in patients with advanced solid tumours
    F A L M Eskens
    Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Br J Cancer 98:80-5. 2008
    To assess tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD) and clinical activity of the dual epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) 1 and 2 (HER2) tyrosine kinase inhibitor BIBW 2992...
  43. ncbi Crystal structure of the complex of human epidermal growth factor and receptor extracellular domains
    Hideo Ogiso
    RIKEN Genomic Sciences Center, 1 7 22 Suehiro cho, Tsurumi, 230 0045, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
    Cell 110:775-87. 2002
    ..The unique "receptor-mediated dimerization" was verified by EGFR mutagenesis...
  44. ncbi Targeted disruption of mouse EGF receptor: effect of genetic background on mutant phenotype
    D W Threadgill
    Department of Genetics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 4955, USA
    Science 269:230-4. 1995
    Gene targeting was used to create a null allele at the epidermal growth factor receptor locus (Egfr). The phenotype was dependent on genetic background...
  45. ncbi Epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent, NF-kappaB-independent activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway inhibits ultraviolet irradiation-induced caspases-3, -8, and -9 in human keratinocytes
    Hui Qin Wang
    Department of Dermatology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0609, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:45737-45. 2003
    ..UV (50 mJ/cm2 from UVB source) irradiation caused rapid recruitment of PI3K to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)...
  46. ncbi Impact of epidermal growth factor receptor expression on survival and pattern of relapse in patients with advanced head and neck carcinoma
    K Kian Ang
    Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Cancer Res 62:7350-6. 2002
    A correlative study was performed to address the impact of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression on survival and pattern of failure in patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) enrolled in a ..
  47. ncbi Prognostic effect of epidermal growth factor receptor and EGFRvIII in glioblastoma multiforme patients
    Amy B Heimberger
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 442, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 11:1462-6. 2005
    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in approximately 50% to 60% of glioblastoma multiforme tumors, and the most common EGFR mutant, EGFRvIII, is expressed in 24% to 67% of cases...
  48. ncbi Estrogen-induced activation of Erk-1 and Erk-2 requires the G protein-coupled receptor homolog, GPR30, and occurs via trans-activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor through release of HB-EGF
    E J Filardo
    Department of Medicine and Surgery, Rhode Island Hospital and Brown University, Providence 02903, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 14:1649-60. 2000
    ..Our data imply that ER-negative breast tumors that continue to express GPR30 may use estrogen to drive growth factor-dependent cellular responses...
  49. ncbi c-Src-mediated phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor on Tyr845 and Tyr1101 is associated with modulation of receptor function
    J S Biscardi
    Department of Microbiology and Cancer Center, Box 441, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:8335-43. 1999
    Accumulating evidence indicates that interactions between the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase c-Src may contribute to an aggressive phenotype in multiple human tumors...
  50. ncbi Proapoptotic BH3-only BCL-2 family protein BIM connects death signaling from epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition to the mitochondrion
    Jing Deng
    Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cancer Res 67:11867-75. 2007
    A subset of lung cancers expresses mutant forms of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that are constitutively activated. Cancers bearing activated EGFR can be effectively targeted with EGFR inhibitors such as erlotinib...
  51. doi Gefitinib versus docetaxel in previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (INTEREST): a randomised phase III trial
    Edward S Kim
    The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA
    Lancet 372:1809-18. 2008
    ..We compared gefitinib with docetaxel in patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer who had been pretreated with platinum-based chemotherapy...
  52. ncbi Radiotherapy plus cetuximab for squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck
    James A Bonner
    Department of Medicine, University of Alabama, Birmingham, USA
    N Engl J Med 354:567-78. 2006
    ..randomized study to compare radiotherapy alone with radiotherapy plus cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor, in the treatment of locoregionally advanced squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
  53. ncbi Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor and in KRAS are predictive and prognostic indicators in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer treated with chemotherapy alone and in combination with erlotinib
    David A Eberhard
    Department of Pathology, Genentech Inc, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Clin Oncol 23:5900-9. 2005
    b>Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations have been associated with tumor response to treatment with single-agent EGFR inhibitors in patients with relapsed non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
  54. doi Epidermal growth factor receptor expression identifies functionally and molecularly distinct tumor-initiating cells in human glioblastoma multiforme and is required for gliomagenesis
    Stefania Mazzoleni
    Neural Stem Cell Biology Unit, Division of Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cells and Gene Therapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    Cancer Res 70:7500-13. 2010
    b>Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a known diagnostic and, although controversial, prognostic marker of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, its functional role and biological significance in GBM remain elusive...
  55. ncbi Mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene predict prolonged survival after gefitinib treatment in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer with postoperative recurrence
    Tetsuya Mitsudomi
    Department of Thoracic Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, 1 1 Kanokoden, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8681, Japan
    J Clin Oncol 23:2513-20. 2005
    To evaluate the relationship between mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene and the effectiveness of gefitinib treatment in patients with recurrent lung cancer after pulmonary resection.
  56. ncbi Exon 19 deletion mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor are associated with prolonged survival in non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with gefitinib or erlotinib
    David M Jackman
    Lowe Center of Thoracic Oncology, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 12:3908-14. 2006
    Somatic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been detected in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and are associated with sensitivity to treatment with gefitinib or erlotinib...
  57. ncbi Novel D761Y and common secondary T790M mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant lung adenocarcinomas with acquired resistance to kinase inhibitors
    Marissa N Balak
    Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Thoracic Oncology Service, Varmus Lab, Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 12:6494-501. 2006
    In patients whose lung adenocarcinomas harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase domain mutations, acquired resistance to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) gefitinib (Iressa) and erlotinib (Tarceva) has been ..
  58. ncbi EGF activates its receptor by removing interactions that autoinhibit ectodomain dimerization
    Kathryn M Ferguson
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Mol Cell 11:507-17. 2003
    ..This contrasts starkly with other RTK activation mechanisms and suggests new approaches for designing ErbB receptor antagonists...
  59. pmc Impact of epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS mutations on clinical outcomes in previously untreated non-small cell lung cancer patients: results of an online tumor registry of clinical trials
    David M Jackman
    Lowe Center for Thoracic Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 15:5267-73. 2009
    The impact of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS genotypes on outcomes with erlotinib or gefitinib therapy continues to be debated...
  60. pmc Multiple mechanisms collectively regulate clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the epidermal growth factor receptor
    Lai Kuan Goh
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    J Cell Biol 189:871-83. 2010
    Endocytosis of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is important for the regulation of EGFR signaling...
  61. pmc Epidermal growth factor receptor cooperates with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer cells via up-regulation of TWIST gene expression
    Hui Wen Lo
    Department of Surgery, The Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Cancer Res 67:9066-76. 2007
    Aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is a major cause of tumor progression and metastasis; the underlying mechanisms, however, are not well understood...
  62. ncbi Mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene and related genes as determinants of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors sensitivity in lung cancer
    Tetsuya Mitsudomi
    Department of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, 1 1 Kanokoden, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8681, Japan
    Cancer Sci 98:1817-24. 2007
    Recent discovery of mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in lung adenocarcinoma greatly stimulated biomarker research on predictive factors for EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), ..
  63. ncbi Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in lung cancer
    Sreenath V Sharma
    Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, 149 13th Street, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Nat Rev Cancer 7:169-81. 2007
    The development and clinical application of inhibitors that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) provide important insights for new lung cancer therapies, as well as for the broader field of targeted cancer therapies...
  64. doi PTEN expression and KRAS mutations on primary tumors and metastases in the prediction of benefit from cetuximab plus irinotecan for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer
    Fotios Loupakis
    Department of Oncology, Azienda USL 6, Istituto Toscano Tumori, Livorno, Italy
    J Clin Oncol 27:2622-9. 2009
    PTEN, AKT, and KRAS are epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) downstream regulators. KRAS mutations confer resistance to cetuximab...
  65. doi EGFR antagonists in cancer treatment
    Fortunato Ciardiello
    Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine and Surgery F Magrassi and A Lanzara, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
    N Engl J Med 358:1160-74. 2008
  66. ncbi Analysis of epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and acquired resistance to gefitinib
    Takayuki Kosaka
    Department of Thoracic Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, 1 1 Kanokoden, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8681, Japan
    Clin Cancer Res 12:5764-9. 2006
    Non-small cell lung cancers carrying activating mutations in the gene for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are highly sensitive to EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors...
  67. ncbi KRAS mutation status is predictive of response to cetuximab therapy in colorectal cancer
    Astrid Lievre
    Universite Paris Descartes, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale UMR 775, Paris, France
    Cancer Res 66:3992-5. 2006
    The anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) cetuximab has been proven to be efficient in metastatic colorectal cancer. The molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical response to this drug remain unknown...
  68. ncbi Strain-dependent epithelial defects in mice lacking the EGF receptor
    M Sibilia
    Institute of Molecular Pathology IMP, Vienna, Austria
    Science 269:234-8. 1995
    Mice and cells lacking the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were generated to examine its physiological role in vivo...
  69. ncbi Dual-agent molecular targeting of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR): combining anti-EGFR antibody with tyrosine kinase inhibitor
    Shyhmin Huang
    Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Comprehensive Cancer Center, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792 0600, USA
    Cancer Res 64:5355-62. 2004
    Molecular inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1) signaling is under active investigation as a promising cancer treatment strategy...
  70. ncbi Epidermal growth factor receptor is a cellular receptor for human cytomegalovirus
    Xin Wang
    Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7295, USA
    Nature 424:456-61. 2003
    ..Here we show that HCMV infects cells by interacting with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and inducing signalling...
  71. ncbi Nuclear interaction of EGFR and STAT3 in the activation of the iNOS/NO pathway
    Hui Wen Lo
    Cancer Cell 7:575-89. 2005
    b>Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exists in the nucleus of highly proliferative cells where it functions as a transcription factor...
  72. ncbi Cetuximab monotherapy and cetuximab plus irinotecan in irinotecan-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer
    David Cunningham
    Royal Marsden Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 351:337-45. 2004
    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which participates in signaling pathways that are deregulated in cancer cells, commonly appears on colorectal-cancer cells. Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody that specifically blocks the EGFR...
  73. doi First-line gefitinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer harboring somatic EGFR mutations
    Lecia V Sequist
    Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, 32 Fruit St, Yawkey Suite 7B, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Clin Oncol 26:2442-9. 2008
    Somatic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) correlate with increased response in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs)...
  74. ncbi The epidermal growth factor receptor: from development to tumorigenesis
    Maria Sibilia
    Department of Medicine I, Institute for Cancer Research, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Differentiation 75:770-87. 2007
    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated by many ligands and belongs to a family of tyrosine kinase receptors, including ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4...
  75. ncbi Epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations and increased copy numbers predict gefitinib sensitivity in patients with recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer
    Toshimi Takano
    Division of Internal Medicine, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5 1 1 Tsukiji, Chuo Ku, Tokyo 104 0045, Japan
    J Clin Oncol 23:6829-37. 2005
    To evaluate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and copy number as predictors of clinical outcome in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving gefitinib.
  76. ncbi An angiotensin II type 1 receptor mutant lacking epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation does not induce angiotensin II-mediated cardiac hypertrophy
    Peiyong Zhai
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark 07103, USA
    Circ Res 99:528-36. 2006
    ..C terminus of angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptors (AT(1)Rs) is essential for transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in vitro...
  77. pmc Oncogenic transformation by inhibitor-sensitive and -resistant EGFR mutants
    Heidi Greulich
    Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Med 2:e313. 2005
    Somatic mutations in the kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase gene EGFR are common in lung adenocarcinoma...
  78. ncbi Efficacy of gefitinib, an inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, in symptomatic patients with non-small cell lung cancer: a randomized trial
    Mark G Kris
    Thoracic Oncology Service, Division of Solid Tumor Oncology, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and the Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    JAMA 290:2149-58. 2003
    ..In preclinical testing, oral gefitinib inhibited the growth of NSCLC tumors that express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a mediator of cell signaling, and phase 1 trials have demonstrated that a fraction of ..
  79. doi In vivo molecular imaging of colorectal cancer with confocal endomicroscopy by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor
    Martin Goetz
    I Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Universit├Ątsmedizin Mainz, Mainz, Germany
    Gastroenterology 138:435-46. 2010
    b>Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a therapeutic target for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, technical challenges have limited in vivo imaging of EGFR in CRCs...
  80. pmc MUC1 regulates nuclear localization and function of the epidermal growth factor receptor
    Benjamin G Bitler
    Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
    J Cell Sci 123:1716-23. 2010
    ..Specifically, aberrant nuclear localization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a receptor tyrosine kinase, is a poor prognostic indicator in several epithelial carcinomas...
  81. pmc Ultraviolet irradiation-induces epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nuclear translocation in human keratinocytes
    Yiru Xu
    Department of Dermatology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Cell Biochem 107:873-80. 2009
    b>Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a critical role in mediating ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced signal transduction and gene expression in human keratinocytes...
  82. doi Basal-like breast cancer defined by five biomarkers has superior prognostic value than triple-negative phenotype
    Maggie C U Cheang
    Genetic Pathology Evaluation Centre, Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, British Columbia Cancer Agency, and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Clin Cancer Res 14:1368-76. 2008
    ..a triple-negative phenotype definition [estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2, all negative] is commonly used to identify such cases...
  83. doi Lung cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor exon 20 mutations is associated with poor gefitinib treatment response
    Jenn Yu Wu
    Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    Clin Cancer Res 14:4877-82. 2008
    ..to gefitinib treatment in patients of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with mutations in exon 20 of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are limited...
  84. ncbi Downregulation of caveolin-1 function by EGF leads to the loss of E-cadherin, increased transcriptional activity of beta-catenin, and enhanced tumor cell invasion
    Zhimin Lu
    Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cancer Cell 4:499-515. 2003
    ..We propose that EGF-induced negative regulation of caveolin-1 plays a central role in the complex cellular changes leading to metastasis...
  85. pmc The phosphatase and tensin homolog regulates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor response by targeting EGFR for degradation
    Igor Vivanco
    Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:6459-64. 2010
    ..PTEN loss has been associated with resistance to inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), but the molecular basis of this resistance is unclear...
  86. pmc Frequent deregulations in the hedgehog signaling network and cross-talks with the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway involved in cancer progression and targeted therapies
    Murielle Mimeault
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer, and Allied Diseases, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5870, USA
    Pharmacol Rev 62:497-524. 2010
    ..cross-talk with different growth factor pathways, including tyrosine kinase receptors, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Wnt/beta-catenin, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)/TGF-beta receptors...
  87. ncbi Multiple monoubiquitination of RTKs is sufficient for their endocytosis and degradation
    Kaisa Haglund
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Husargatan 3, SE 75 124 Uppsala, Sweden
    Nat Cell Biol 5:461-6. 2003
    ..Thus, monoubiquitination is the principal signal responsible for the movement of RTKs from the plasma membrane to the lysosome...
  88. pmc BIM mediates EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced apoptosis in lung cancers with oncogenic EGFR mutations
    Daniel B Costa
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    PLoS Med 4:1669-79; discussion 1680. 2007
    b>Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are present in the majority of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) responsive to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib or erlotinib...
  89. ncbi Levels of TGF-alpha and EGFR protein in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and patient survival
    J Rubin Grandis
    Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, PA, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 90:824-32. 1998
    ..Since elevated levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and of its ligand, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), have been detected in primary ..
  90. ncbi Human breast cancer cells selected for resistance to trastuzumab in vivo overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor and ErbB ligands and remain dependent on the ErbB receptor network
    Christoph A Ritter
    Institute of Pharmacology, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
    Clin Cancer Res 13:4909-19. 2007
    ..We have investigated mechanisms of acquired resistance to the HER2 antibody trastuzumab in BT-474 human breast cancer cells...
  91. ncbi EGF converts transit-amplifying neurogenic precursors in the adult brain into multipotent stem cells
    Fiona Doetsch
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Neuron 36:1021-34. 2002
    ..Furthermore, purified C cells are 53-fold enriched for neurosphere generation. We conclude that transit-amplifying cells retain stem cell competence under the influence of growth factors...
  92. ncbi Autocrine ligands for the epidermal growth factor receptor mediate interleukin-8 release from bronchial epithelial cells in response to cigarette smoke
    Audrey Richter
    Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology Division, School of Medicine, Southampton General Hospital, United Kingdom
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 27:85-90. 2002
    ..Our data indicate that secretion of IL-8 in response to CSE is dependent on EGFR activation and that autocrine production of TGF-alpha makes a substantial contribution to this response...
  93. ncbi Epidermal growth factor receptor blockade mediates smooth muscle cell apoptosis and improves survival in rats with pulmonary hypertension
    Sandra L Merklinger
    Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
    Circulation 112:423-31. 2005
    ..This suggests that blockade of these downstream effectors may also induce regression of PAH...
  94. doi Clathrin-mediated internalization is essential for sustained EGFR signaling but dispensable for degradation
    Sara Sigismund
    IFOM, Fondazione Istituto FIRC di Oncologia Molecolare, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milan, Italy
    Dev Cell 15:209-19. 2008
    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major pathway of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) internalization...
  95. ncbi Clathrin- and non-clathrin-mediated endocytic regulation of cell signalling
    Christine Le Roy
    Program in Molecular Biology and Cancer, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Room 1075, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:112-26. 2005
    ..This functions to control the activity of signalling cascades and the termination of signalling events, and therefore has a key role in defining how a cell responds to its environment...
  96. pmc Mechanism for activation of the EGF receptor catalytic domain by the juxtamembrane segment
    Natalia Jura
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Cell 137:1293-307. 2009
    Signaling by the epidermal growth factor receptor requires an allosteric interaction between the kinase domains of two receptors, whereby one activates the other...
  97. pmc Mechanisms of acquired resistance to cetuximab: role of HER (ErbB) family members
    D L Wheeler
    Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA
    Oncogene 27:3944-56. 2008
    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a central regulator of proliferation and progression in human cancers...
  98. doi Prognostic significance of epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation and mutation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
    Takanori Hama
    Division of Molecular Epidemiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Minato ku, Tokyo, Japan
    Oncologist 14:900-8. 2009
    The molecular status of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has not been as well studied in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) as in lung cancer...
  99. ncbi A unique structure for epidermal growth factor receptor bound to GW572016 (Lapatinib): relationships among protein conformation, inhibitor off-rate, and receptor activity in tumor cells
    Edgar R Wood
    Department of Computational, Analytical and Structural Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Inc, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cancer Res 64:6652-9. 2004
    ..is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor in clinical development for cancer that is a potent dual inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, ErbB-1) and ErbB-2. We determined the crystal structure of EGFR bound to GW572016...
  100. ncbi FAK integrates growth-factor and integrin signals to promote cell migration
    D J Sieg
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 2:249-56. 2000
    ..Our results establish that FAK is an important receptor-proximal link between growth-factor-receptor and integrin signalling pathways...
  101. pmc (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate causes internalization of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human colon cancer cells
    Seiji Adachi
    Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, HHSC 1509, 701 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032 2704, USA
    Carcinogenesis 29:1986-93. 2008
    ..effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with alterations in lipid organization in the plasma membrane of colon cancer ..

Research Grants74

  1. Xenoestrogen regulation of Leydig cells
    BENSON TOKUNBO AKINGBEMI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Research training to be afforded by the present application to professional veterinary students will contribute to efforts geared to preparing future veterinarians to meet these challenges. ..
  2. Phosphotyrosine signaling pathways controlling tracheal tube geometry
    KAI G ZINN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..involves the loss of negative regulation by the RPTPs of three growth factor receptor TK orthologs: epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr), Btl, and Pvr (VEGFR ortholog)...
  3. Regulation of PTHrP in Squamous Cell Carcinoma by the EGF Receptor
    GWENDOLEN LORCH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Her research goal is to investigate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase signaling that leads to perturbed signal transduction and increased parathyroid hormone-..
  4. Evaluating Novel Multi-kinase Peptide Inhibitors as a Treatment for Rheumatoid Ar
    DAVID MEN HWEI TSAI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have isolated a novel milk peptide mixture (AX-3) that inhibits the tyrosine kinase activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), and insulin receptor (IR)...
  5. Regulation of Human Papillomavirus Replication via Cell Signaling Pathways
    ANASTACIA GRIEGO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Early proteins E5, E6, And E7 from oncogenic HPV types are known to regulate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene transcription and recycling in infected cells...
  6. Zot, Zonulin, and Pathophysiology of Intestinal Tight Junctions
    Alessio Fasano; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that Zot and zonulin both induce proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2)-mediated transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)...
  7. Theranostic Nanomedicine for Breast Cancer Prevention and Image-Guided Therapy
    Prakash R Rai; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Nanotechnology has made major contributions to BrCa therapy. We propose an innovative nanotechnology-based approach for BrCa prevention and treatment that could significantly impact patient care. ..
  8. Experimental COPD: remediation, mitigation
    DONALD JOHN MASSARO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Specific aim 1a tests the hypothesis that signaling via epidermal growth factor receptor induces alveolar regeneration and increases lung tissue recoil in mice with elastase induced ..
  9. REGULATION OF CXC CHEMOKINE EXPRESSION BY H. PYLORI
    Yoshio Yamaoka; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will focus on the cell surface receptors epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and G protein coupled receptor (GPCR)...
  10. Regulation of Fibronectin Matrix Assembly by uPAR
    PAULA J MC KEOWN-LONGO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..uPAR ligation results in a Src-dependent transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) which results in the formation of EGFR/1521 integrin complexes, integrin activation and ..
  11. microRNAs as novel biomarkers for management of breast cancer
    LORENZO SEMPERE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The activation status of the Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PR) and Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor-like 2 (HER2) are the main diagnostic and prognostic factors and dictate treatment selection...
  12. Mechanisms of Coronary Arteriolar Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes
    Khalid Matrougui; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase, of the many factors involved in cell growth and migration has been shown to ..
  13. COMBINATORIAL-DESIGNED NANO-PLATFORMS TO OVERCOME TUMOR DRUG RESISTANCE
    Zhenfeng Duan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..dextran-based macrostructures with fatty acids, thiol groups, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)- targeting peptide for combinatorial self-assembly in aqueous media into nanostructures that ..
  14. Theranostic Nanomedicine for Breast Cancer Prevention and Image-Guided Therapy
    Prakash R Rai; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This provides the potential for rapid screening to establish individualized patient-specific molecular targets and forms the basis for designing personalized prevention and treatments. ..
  15. Inhibiting EGFR and ER pathways in NSCLC
    Edward B Garon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..proposal entails evaluation of the role of the estrogen receptor (ER) pathway in combination with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
  16. GPCR Signaling &Vascular Wall Remodeling
    Gadiparthi N Rao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..thrombin possesses the capacity to transactivate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), among which epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gained more attention...
  17. In vivo imaging of encapsulated stem cells in mouse models of tumor resection
    Khalid A Shah; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..studies which indicate that a novel anti-tumor agent consisting of a secretable version of epidermal growth factor receptor targeted nanobody fused to tumor necrosis factor apoptosis inducing ligand (Enb-TRAIL), induces GBM ..
  18. EGF RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNALING IN DROSOPHILA
    GERTRUD M SCHUPBACH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): This research project investigates the mechanisms that activate the Drosophila Epidermal Growth Factor receptor (Egfr) during oogenesis, and the cellular pathways that mediate the response to this receptor ..
  19. MOLECULAR REGULATION OF CORNEAL WOUND HEALING
    Fu Shin X Yu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The studies in the current grant period demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is the key receptor tyrosine kinase activated upon wounding, and the wound-induced activation ..
  20. Immune activation by cetuximab in head and neck cancer patients
    Robert L Ferris; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): There is convincing clinical evidence that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), cetuximab, is effective therapy only for a subset of advanced head and neck ..
  21. CYTOSKELETAL REGULATION OF VESICLE TRANSPORT IN LIVER
    MARK A MC NIVEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These include the transferrin receptors (TfRs), the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and lysosomal hydrolases used in their degradation...
  22. Polymorphism and mutation spectrum in minorities with non-small cell lung cancer
    David P Carbone; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For example, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is important in the development, progression, and invasion of non-small cell ..
  23. Gene therapy in the cornea
    RAJIV RAVINDRA MOHAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We found decorin in the cornea interacts with transforming growth factor ? (TGF??), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)...
  24. Brain tumors with regulatory T-cells treated with EGFRvIII-specific T-cells
    John H Sampson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..EGFRvIII is a tumor-specific mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor that is expressed in GBMs and several other neoplasms...
  25. Alcohol and Breast Cancer
    Jia Luo; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..ErbB2, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase family, is frequently over-expressed in human breast cancers...
  26. Molecular Analysis of NeoAdjuvant Platinum in Triple Negative Breast Cancer
    MARK DANIEL contact PEGRAM; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..defined by lack of expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), accounts for 15-20% of all breast cancers and is associated with poor clinical outcome, in ..
  27. Biomarkers to Guide Treatment and Improve Survival in Oral/Oropharyngeal Cancer
    Thomas E Carey; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..risk human papilloma virus type and copy number, p53 status and expression, BCLXL expression, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and p16...
  28. Modifiable lifestyle-related factors and triple negative breast cancer prognosis
    SARAH JEAN NECHUTA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..breast cancers (TNBCs) are defined as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) negative...
  29. Gene Targeted Therapy of Brain Tumors
    John H Sampson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..chemotherapy in GBM and the other identifying a significant association between clinical response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors in patients and tumors that co-express PTEN and EGFRvIII...
  30. EGFRvIII in Pancreatic Cancer
    Maneesh Jain; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Based on the preliminary findings we hypothesize that "naturally occurring epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) contributes to the pathogenesis of pancreatic adenocarcinomas"...
  31. Genetic and Molecular Mechanisms of Ethanol-Induced Developmental Defects
    RACHAEL LOUISE FRENCH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..behavioral defects are due to ethanol's effects on insulin signaling, as well as effects on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EgfR) pathway...
  32. Targeted Therapy of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Using Theranostic Nanoparticles
    Lily Yang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..First, urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) will be validated as molecular targets for targeted therapeutics using two large cohorts (>..
  33. Development of mutant selective EGFR kinase inhibitors against EGFR T790M
    John Chant; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Recently, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as gefitinib and erlotinib, have demonstrated clinical ..
  34. Inflammation in the pathogenesis of lung cancer
    Steven M Dubinett; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In fact, targeted therapy with an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) has been shown to prolong survival in advanced non-small cell ..
  35. Trafficking of the EGF receptor to the nucleus: Mechanisms and Effects
    Michael H Nathanson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specifically, the hypothesis of this FIRCA application is that the Epidermal Growth Factor receptor (EGFR), like c-met, regulates cell growth by inducing InsP3-mediated Ca2+ signals within the nucleus, ..
  36. Protein-DNA Drug Carriers for Tumor Targeting
    Lali K Medina-Kauwe; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..HER2+ breast tumors, which overexpress subunit 2 of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER), comprise a significant subset of breast cancers that are recalcitrant to standard methods of ..
  37. ASTATINE AND IODINE RADIOLABELED MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES
    Michael Rod Zalutsky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..With the emergence of the epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) as a tumor-specific molecular target on glioma and other tumors, research ..
  38. Exploiting synthetic-lethal interactions to target triple-negative breast cancers
    Dai Horiuchi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..breast cancer, the most difficult-to-treat form of breast cancer, which does not overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and lacks the expression of the estrogen and progesterone receptors...
  39. Role of PUMA in EGFR targeted therapy in HNSCC
    Jian Yu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..More than 80% of HNSCC express high levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which correlate with poor prognosis...
  40. Mutant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling in Lung Cancer
    Udayan Guha; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This proposal focuses on lung cancer, the cancer with the highest mortality. Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene have been associated with sensitivity of lung cancer patients to tyrosine kinase ..
  41. The central role of c-Met in H. pylori pathogenesis.
    Sarah E Keates; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..pylori infection;and 3) examine the cross-talk between c-Met and the epidermal growth factor receptor in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells...
  42. GI PEPTIDE SIGNALING THROUGH TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION
    JUAN ENRIQUE ROZENGURT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..GPCR stimulation also induces rapid epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation...
  43. Role of Reishi on cell surface proteins and signaling modulation in IBC
    IVETTE SUAREZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..IBC invasion remain to be fully elucidated, IBC cell lines and human tissues, overexpress E-cadherin, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), and Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 (HER2) which are cell surface proteins associated with ..
  44. Single Cell Analysis of EGFR Activity in Human Airway Cells Exposed to Pollutants
    RYAN MATTHEW PHILLIPS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a cell surface protein that helps regulate cell growth and response to external stimuli, ..
  45. Role of EGFR signaling in bone formation and the anabolic actions of PTH
    Ling Qin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PTH strongly stimulates the expression of amphiregulin, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand, in osteoblasts and osteocytes...
  46. Understanding and Eliminating Oncogenic EGFR Signaling in Malignant Glioma
    Alain Charest; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): For decades, we have known that overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a major component of the etiology of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), yet little is known regarding the ..
  47. Cadherin-catenin Mediated Contact Inhibition of Cell Growth
    Barry M Gumbiner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..between E-cadherin-2-catenin mediate adhesion, Hippo pathway signaling, SFK signaling, and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling...
  48. SPORE in Pancreatic Cancer
    James Abbruzzese; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..assess the impact of EGFR inhibition, a clinical trial entitled "Phase II Randomized Trial of Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Antibody Cetuximab vs...
  49. c-Src/EGF Receptors Interactions and Therapeutic Resistance in Breast Cancer
    Sarah J Parsons; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..determine in breast cancer patients the utilization of a novel signaling pathway emanating from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that mediates resistance to drug therapy and to identify the downstream targets of this ..
  50. CAML in T cell Development and Function
    Richard J Bram; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We discovered an essential role for CAML in mediating the proliferative effects of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), and identified a direct interaction between CAML and the kinase domain of EGF-activated EGFR...
  51. siRNA-gold nanoparticle mediated ganglioside depletion for diabetic wound healing
    AMY SUSAN PALLER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..gangliosides on insulin receptor (IR), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor-integrin (IGF- 1R), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation, all of which impact KC wound healing...
  52. Role of EGFR in DNA Repair and Radiation Response in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer
    CHAITANYA SURESH NIRODI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The epidermal growth factor receptor is an important determinant of radioresponse, whose elevated expression and activity frequently ..
  53. Phase I Trial with Two HER-2 B Cell Epitope Vaccine in Patients with Solid Tumors
    PRAVIN T P contact KAUMAYA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) signaling inhibition plays a major role in targeted cancer therapies...
  54. Regulation of Inflammation by EGFR in Otitis Media
    Xiangbin Xu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Interestingly, our recent preliminary data showed that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is also required for NTHi-induced NF-?B activation and inflammatory response via PI3K/AKt and ..
  55. Injury and Recovery in Developing Brain
    Flora M Vaccarino; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The factors under investigation include Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), the Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), TrkB and its ligand Brain derived neurotropic growth factor (BDNF), the mitochondrial ..
  56. Rational Combined Inhibition of NF-kB and EGFR to Optimize Lung Cancer Treatment
    Trever G Bivona; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Improved, rational treatments are needed. NSCLC's with activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) often respond to treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) but the magnitude of ..
  57. Roles of EGFR and miR-143/miR-145 in Western diet-promoted colonic tumorigenesis
    BRUCE MARC BISSONNETTE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our proposal will clarify the role of ADAM17 and test a novel hypothesis that EGFR and these miRNAs form a self-amplifying loop that drives diet-promoted tumorigenesis. ..
  58. Targeting RET in Lung Cancer
    Pasi A Janne; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Compelling clinical examples include somatic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), BRAF mutations in melanoma, and BCR-ABL translocations ..
  59. CHEMOPREVENTION WITH GREEN TEA POLYPHENON E (PPE) AND EGFR-TKIs IN HEAD AND NECK
    DONG MOON SHIN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..tea polyphenon E (PPE) and erlotinib (Tarceva or OSI-774), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), to prevent advanced premalignant lesions of the head and neck...
  60. Modulation of EGFR Signaling to Promote Corneal Epithelial Wound Healing
    Brian P Ceresa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is necessary and sufficient for the homeostasis and repair of the corneal epithelium...
  61. Dual Oxidase in Airway Epithelial Injury and Inflammation
    Albert van Der Vliet; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cycle, we have identified oxidative mechanisms by which DUOX1 activation promotes the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as a critical event in wound responses and inflammatory mediator production, and observed ..
  62. Regulation of EGFR Signaling by the Endocytic Pathway
    Brian P Ceresa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To understand this process, we are using the prototypical receptor tyrosine kinase, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), as a model...
  63. Mechanistic Studies of EGFR/ErbB Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
    Daniel J Leahy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB) family of receptor tyrosine kinases includes four family members in humans: EGFR (HER1, ErbB1), HER2 (ErbB2, Neu), HER3 (ErbB3), and HER4 (ErbB4)...
  64. Bile acid-induced colon cancer cell proliferation
    Jean Pierre Raufman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..3c) The mechanism whereby bile acids activate metalloproteases will be determined by exploring the roles of PKC, Ca2+, and Src in bile acid-induced HB-EGF release. ..
  65. DEVELOPMENT OF CANCER IMAGING AGENTS
    Henry VanBrocklin; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..a paradigm to develop unique positron and single photon emitting radiopharmaceuticals using the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFRtk) and breast cancer as model systems...
  66. Pyrophosphorolysis-activatable helicase dependent amplification assay for lung ca
    BERTRAND LEMIEUX; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Cancers over expressing the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been shown to increase resistance to chemotherapy, thus increasing the risk of metastases...
  67. EGFR antisense DNA added to cetuximab and radiotherapy for head and neck cancer
    Athanassios Argiris; Fiscal Year: 2009
    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is upregulated in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and has been associated with poor prognosis...
  68. C/EBPbeta Isoform Function & Regulation by Tyrosine Kinases
    Cynthia Zahnow; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..To address this issue, we have demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling selectively regulates expression of the LIP isoform in mammary epithelial cells...
  69. Coexpression of EGFRvlll/ErbB2 in Human Breast Cancer
    Careen Tang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract) EGFRvIII is a tumor specific, ligand-independent, constitutively active variant of the epidermal growth factor receptor. Our pilot results demonstrated that 70 percent (103/147) of invasive breast cancer express EGFRvIII...
  70. PROGNOSTIC BIOMARKERS FOR HEAD AND NECK CANCER
    K Ang; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..One potential marker is epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a transmembrane glycoprotein with an intracellular domain possessing intrinsic tyrosine ..
  71. Prognostic and predictive gene sets in HER2-positive breast cancer:The HERA Trial
    Brian Leyland Jones; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..cancer, based on combined expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), have important implications in breast cancer etiology, systemic therapies prescribed, ..
  72. Targeting Akt/NF-kappa beta for Pancreatic Cancer Therapy
    Fazlul Sarkar; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Its etiology is largely unknown and no curative treatment is presently available. Over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) occurs in approximately 90% of human pancreatic cancer...
  73. ETHANOL OXIDATION EFFECTS ON EGF SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
    Dahn Clemens; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..is that alcohol dehydrogenase mediated oxidation of ethanol impairs the biological activities of the epidermal growth factor receptor. Inactivation of this receptor dramatically alters the ability of hepatocytes to respond ..
  74. ETHANOL OXIDATION EFFECTS ON EGF SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
    Dahn Clemens; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..is that alcohol dehydrogenase mediated oxidation of ethanol impairs the biological activities of the epidermal growth factor receptor. Inactivation of this receptor dramatically alters the ability of hepatocytes to respond ..