ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors

Summary

Summary: A family of GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are specific for RAS PROTEINS.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Proteins regulating Ras and its relatives
    M S Boguski
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20894
    Nature 366:643-54. 1993
  2. ncbi Epac is a Rap1 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor directly activated by cyclic AMP
    J de Rooij
    Laboratory for Physiological Chemistry and Centre for Biomedical Genetics, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
    Nature 396:474-7. 1998
  3. ncbi Expression of rasgef1b in zebrafish
    Daniel Epting
    University of Freiburg, Biology1, Hauptstr 1, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Gene Expr Patterns 7:389-95. 2007
  4. pmc The role of Ras guanine nucleotide releasing protein 4 in Fc epsilonRI-mediated signaling, mast cell function, and T cell development
    Minghua Zhu
    Department of Immunology, Duke University, Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:8135-43. 2012
  5. ncbi RasGRP4, a new mast cell-restricted Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein with calcium- and diacylglycerol-binding motifs. Identification of defective variants of this signaling protein in asthma, mastocytosis, and mast cell leukemia patients and demon
    Yi Yang
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:25756-74. 2002
  6. ncbi RasGEF-containing proteins GbpC and GbpD have differential effects on cell polarity and chemotaxis in Dictyostelium
    Leonard Bosgraaf
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Cell Sci 118:1899-910. 2005
  7. ncbi RasGRP4 is a novel Ras activator isolated from acute myeloid leukemia
    Gary W Reuther
    Department of Pharmacology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7295, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:30508-14. 2002
  8. ncbi Early endosome localization and activity of RasGEF1b, a toll-like receptor-inducible Ras guanine-nucleotide exchange factor
    W A Andrade
    Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
    Genes Immun 11:447-57. 2010
  9. pmc Parasexual genetics of Dictyostelium gene disruptions: identification of a ras pathway using diploids
    Jason King
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    BMC Genet 4:12. 2003
  10. pmc Cyclic AMP signalling in Dictyostelium: G-proteins activate separate Ras pathways using specific RasGEFs
    Helmut Kae
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, 3540 2350 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada
    EMBO Rep 8:477-82. 2007

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications179 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Proteins regulating Ras and its relatives
    M S Boguski
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20894
    Nature 366:643-54. 1993
    ..Many of these proteins are much larger and more complex than their targets, containing multiple domains capable of interacting with an intricate network of cellular enzymes and structures...
  2. ncbi Epac is a Rap1 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor directly activated by cyclic AMP
    J de Rooij
    Laboratory for Physiological Chemistry and Centre for Biomedical Genetics, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
    Nature 396:474-7. 1998
    ..cAMP strongly induces the GEF activity of Epac towards Rap1 both in vivo and in vitro. We conclude that Epac is a GEF for Rap1 that is regulated directly by cAMP and that Epac is a new target protein for cAMP...
  3. ncbi Expression of rasgef1b in zebrafish
    Daniel Epting
    University of Freiburg, Biology1, Hauptstr 1, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Gene Expr Patterns 7:389-95. 2007
    The rasgef genes encode a subgroup of highly conserved Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors. While EST projects revealed the presence of rasgef genes in organisms that range from nematodes to humans, their functions remain to be ..
  4. pmc The role of Ras guanine nucleotide releasing protein 4 in Fc epsilonRI-mediated signaling, mast cell function, and T cell development
    Minghua Zhu
    Department of Immunology, Duke University, Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:8135-43. 2012
    ..Our data suggest that after the engagement of immunoreceptors, immune cells likely employ multiple members of the RasGRP family to transduce critical signals...
  5. ncbi RasGRP4, a new mast cell-restricted Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein with calcium- and diacylglycerol-binding motifs. Identification of defective variants of this signaling protein in asthma, mastocytosis, and mast cell leukemia patients and demon
    Yi Yang
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:25756-74. 2002
    ..HMC-1 leukemia cells differentiated and underwent granule maturation when induced to express a normal form of RasGRP4. Thus, RasGRP4 plays an important role in the final stages of MC development...
  6. ncbi RasGEF-containing proteins GbpC and GbpD have differential effects on cell polarity and chemotaxis in Dictyostelium
    Leonard Bosgraaf
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Cell Sci 118:1899-910. 2005
    ..GbpD induces the formation of substrate-attached pseudopodia, resulting in increased attachment and suppression of polarity...
  7. ncbi RasGRP4 is a novel Ras activator isolated from acute myeloid leukemia
    Gary W Reuther
    Department of Pharmacology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7295, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:30508-14. 2002
    ..We identified a new member of the Ras guanyl nucleotide-releasing protein (RasGRP) family of Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors, designating it RasGRP4...
  8. ncbi Early endosome localization and activity of RasGEF1b, a toll-like receptor-inducible Ras guanine-nucleotide exchange factor
    W A Andrade
    Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
    Genes Immun 11:447-57. 2010
    ..Altogether, these results indicate that on TLR activation, RasGEF1b may trigger Ras-like proteins and regulate specific biological activities described for this subtype of GTPases...
  9. pmc Parasexual genetics of Dictyostelium gene disruptions: identification of a ras pathway using diploids
    Jason King
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    BMC Genet 4:12. 2003
    ..However, the field has been hamstrung by the lack of techniques to recombine disrupted genes...
  10. pmc Cyclic AMP signalling in Dictyostelium: G-proteins activate separate Ras pathways using specific RasGEFs
    Helmut Kae
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, 3540 2350 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada
    EMBO Rep 8:477-82. 2007
    In general, mammalian Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs) show little substrate specificity, although they are often thought to regulate specific pathways...
  11. pmc Very-KIND, a KIND domain containing RasGEF, controls dendrite growth by linking Ras small GTPases and MAP2
    Jinhong Huang
    Laboratory for Molecular Neurogenesis, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    J Cell Biol 179:539-52. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that v-KIND mediates a signaling pathway that links Ras and MAP2 to control dendrite growth...
  12. ncbi RasGEF1A and RasGEF1B are guanine nucleotide exchange factors that discriminate between Rap GTP-binding proteins and mediate Rap2-specific nucleotide exchange
    Elif Yaman
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey
    FEBS J 276:4607-16. 2009
    ..Mutation of the corresponding Ser39 in Rap1 changed the specificity and allowed the nucleotide exchange of Rap1(S39F) to be stimulated by RasGEF1B...
  13. pmc The Dictyostelium genome encodes numerous RasGEFs with multiple biological roles
    Andrew Wilkins
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Genome Biol 6:R68. 2005
    ..They are particularly important for signaling in development and chemotaxis in many organisms, including Dictyostelium...
  14. pmc Regulation of RNA processing and transport by a nuclear guanine nucleotide release protein and members of the Ras superfamily
    T Kadowaki
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106
    EMBO J 12:2929-37. 1993
    ..Thus, MTR1 and its homologs appear to act as GNRPs for a family of conserved GTPases in controlling RNA metabolism and transport. Their role in governing checkpoint control appears to be restricted to higher eukaryotes...
  15. ncbi Human Sos1: a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras that binds to GRB2
    P Chardin
    Institut de Pharmacologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS, Valbonne, France
    Science 260:1338-43. 1993
    ..These results suggest that the coupling of receptor tyrosine kinases to Ras signaling is mediated by a molecular complex consisting of GRB2 and hSos1...
  16. ncbi A growing family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors is responsible for activation of Ras-family GTPases
    Lawrence A Quilliam
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular, Biology and Walther Oncology Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202, USA
    Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol 71:391-444. 2002
    ....
  17. ncbi Ras1 and a putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor perform crucial steps in signaling by the sevenless protein tyrosine kinase
    M A Simon
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley 94720
    Cell 67:701-16. 1991
    ..These results suggest that the stimulation of ras protein activity is a key element in the signaling by sevenless and Ellipse and that this stimulation may be achieved by activating the exchange of GTP for bound GDP by the ras protein...
  18. ncbi RasGRP4 regulates the expression of prostaglandin D2 in human and rat mast cell lines
    Lixin Li
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:4725-9. 2003
    ..In support of the conclusion that RasGRP4 controls PGD(2) expression in MCs, inhibition of RasGRP4 expression in the rat MC line RBL-2H3 using a siRNA approach resulted in low levels of PGD(2) synthase protein...
  19. ncbi Calcium activation of Ras mediated by neuronal exchange factor Ras-GRF
    C L Farnsworth
    Department of Biochemistry, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    Nature 376:524-7. 1995
    ..So far, full-length Ras-GRF has been detected only in brain neurons. Our findings implicate Ras-GRF in the regulation of neuronal functions that are influenced by Ca2+ signals...
  20. ncbi Mast cells in airway hyporesponsive C3H/HeJ mice express a unique isoform of the signaling protein Ras guanine nucleotide releasing protein 4 that is unresponsive to diacylglycerol and phorbol esters
    Lixin Li
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115
    J Immunol 171:390-7. 2003
    ..MCs play a central role in allergic inflammation. The discovery of a novel isoform of mRasGRP4 in hyporesponsive mice suggests that airway reactivity is influenced by RasGRP4-dependent signaling events in pulmonary MCs...
  21. ncbi Characterization of GFR, a novel guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rap1
    T Ichiba
    Department of Internal Medicine 3, Jikei University, School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    FEBS Lett 457:85-9. 1999
    ..Northern blot analysis suggested that GFR mRNA is strongly expressed in the brain. In transfected HeLa cells, GFR has been found to be localized in the nuclei...
  22. ncbi GRASP-1: a neuronal RasGEF associated with the AMPA receptor/GRIP complex
    B Ye
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Neuron 26:603-17. 2000
    ..These results suggest that GRASP-1 may regulate neuronal ras signaling and contribute to the regulation of AMPA receptor distribution by NMDA receptor activity...
  23. ncbi The Diacylglycerol-dependent translocation of ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein 4 inside a human mast cell line results in substantial phenotypic changes, including expression of interleukin 13 receptor alpha2
    Gregory P Katsoulotos
    Department of Medicine, University of New South Wales, St George Hospital, 2 South St Centre, New South Wales 2217, Australia
    J Biol Chem 283:1610-21. 2008
    ....
  24. ncbi The aimless RasGEF is required for processing of chemotactic signals through G-protein-coupled receptors in Dictyostelium
    R H Insall
    MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, UK
    Curr Biol 6:719-29. 1996
    ..Dictyostelium responds to chemoattractants through typical seven transmembrane domain receptors and heterotrimeric G proteins. There are at least five different Dictyostelium Ras genes, whose functions are not yet known...
  25. pmc RasGRF2, a guanosine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras GTPases, participates in T-cell signaling responses
    Sergio Ruiz
    Centro de Investigación del Cáncer and Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular del Cáncer, CSIC University of Salamanca, Campus Unamuno, E 37007 Salamanca, Spain
    Mol Cell Biol 27:8127-42. 2007
    ..These results identify RasGRF2 as an additional component of the signaling machinery involved in T-cell receptor- and NF-AT-mediated immune responses...
  26. pmc Identification of Rap1 as a target for the Crk SH3 domain-binding guanine nucleotide-releasing factor C3G
    T Gotoh
    Division of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan
    Mol Cell Biol 15:6746-53. 1995
    ..Furthermore, expression of C3G with a membrane localization signal in a v-Ki-ras transformant, DT, induced a reversion of the cells to the flat form, possibly through the activation of endogenous Rap1...
  27. ncbi GEFs: structural basis for their activation of small GTP-binding proteins
    J Cherfils
    Laboratoire d Enzymologie et Biochimie Structurales, CNRS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Trends Biochem Sci 24:306-11. 1999
    ..These structures, together with biochemical studies, have allowed a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of activation of Ras-like GTP-binding proteins and suggested how they might represent targets for therapeutic intervention...
  28. pmc A novel Ras-interacting protein required for chemotaxis and cyclic adenosine monophosphate signal relay in Dictyostelium
    S Lee
    Department of Biology, Center for Molecular Genetics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0634, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 10:2829-45. 1999
    ....
  29. ncbi Dictyostelium: an ideal organism for genetic dissection of Ras signalling networks
    J R Chubb
    School of Biosciences, Birmingham University, B15 2TT, Birmingham, UK
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1525:262-71. 2001
    ..This review highlights the recent advances in our understanding of Ras function in Dictyostelium, and considers the implications of these findings for our understanding of eukaryotic signal transduction...
  30. pmc Developmentally regulated role for Ras-GRFs in coupling NMDA glutamate receptors to Ras, Erk and CREB
    Xuejun Tian
    Department of Biochemistry, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
    EMBO J 23:1567-75. 2004
    ..Interestingly, in cortical neurons of neonatal animals NMDARs signal through Sos rather than Ras-GRF exchange factors, implying that Ras-GRFs endow NMDARs with functions unique to mature neurons...
  31. ncbi Characterization of the GbpD-activated Rap1 pathway regulating adhesion and cell polarity in Dictyostelium discoideum
    Arjan Kortholt
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, University of Groningen, Kerklaan 30, 9751 NN Haren, The Netherlands
    J Biol Chem 281:23367-76. 2006
    ..Phg2, a serine/threonine-specific kinase, directly interacts with Rap1 via its Ras association domain...
  32. ncbi Aberrant methylation of RASGRF2 and RASSF1A in human non-small cell lung cancer
    Hong Chen
    Division of Thoracic Diseases, Chiba Cancer Center, Nitona, Chiba 260 8717, PR China
    Oncol Rep 15:1281-5. 2006
    ..Frequent methylation and silencing of RASGRF2 in tumor cells may play an important role, different from that of RASSF1A, in the carcinogenesis of NSCLC...
  33. ncbi A novel Dictyostelium RasGEF is required for normal endocytosis, cell motility and multicellular development
    A Wilkins
    MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT, London, UK
    Curr Biol 10:1427-37. 2000
    ..It is also unclear, in Dictyostelium or in higher eukaryotes, whether Ras pathways are linear, with each Ras controlled by its own GEF, or networked, with multiple GEFs acting on multiple Ras proteins...
  34. ncbi Mechanism of the guanine nucleotide exchange reaction of Ras GTPase--evidence for a GTP/GDP displacement model
    Baolin Zhang
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Division of Therapeutic Proteins, Office of Biotechnology Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Biochemistry 44:2566-76. 2005
    ..These results strongly support a GEF reaction mechanism by which nucleotide exchange occurs on Ras through a direct GTP/GDP displacement model...
  35. pmc Ras-specific exchange factor GRF: oligomerization through its Dbl homology domain and calcium-dependent activation of Raf
    P H Anborgh
    Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 19:4611-22. 1999
    ....
  36. ncbi LTE1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a 1435 codon open reading frame that has sequence similarities to guanine nucleotide releasing factors
    T Keng
    Biology Department, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
    Yeast 10:953-8. 1994
    ..The carboxy-terminus of the LTE1 protein also shows similarities to other guanine nucleotide exchange factors of the S. cerevisiae CDC25 family...
  37. pmc Linking Ras to myosin function: RasGEF Q, a Dictyostelium exchange factor for RasB, affects myosin II functions
    Subhanjan Mondal
    Centre for Biochemistry, Institute of Biochemistry I, Medical Faculty and Centre for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, 50931 Cologne, Germany
    J Cell Biol 181:747-60. 2008
    ..Collectively, our results suggest that starvation signals through RasGEF Q to activate RasB, which then regulates processes requiring myosin II...
  38. ncbi GRFbeta, a novel regulator of calcium signaling, is expressed in pancreatic beta cells and brain
    Y Arava
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel 76100, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:24449-52. 1999
    ..The results suggest that GRF1 plays a role in mediating calcium-dependent signal transduction in beta cells and that GRFbeta represents a novel dominant negative modulator of Ras signaling...
  39. ncbi Ras regulation by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species
    Jongyun Heo
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina, 530 Mary Ellen Jones Building, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7260, USA
    Biochemistry 45:2200-10. 2006
    ..However, given the lack of redox specificity associated with the high redox potential of OH(*), it is unclear whether this reaction occurs under physiological conditions...
  40. pmc Activation of the Drosophila C3G leads to cell fate changes and overproliferation during development, mediated by the RAS-MAPK pathway and RAP1
    S Ishimaru
    Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    EMBO J 18:145-55. 1999
    ....
  41. ncbi p35/cyclin-dependent kinase 5 phosphorylation of ras guanine nucleotide releasing factor 2 (RasGRF2) mediates Rac-dependent Extracellular Signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activity, altering RasGRF2 and microtubule-associated protein 1b distribution in neurons
    Sashi Kesavapany
    Laboratory of Neurochemistry, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Neurosci 24:4421-31. 2004
    ....
  42. ncbi An open conformation of switch I revealed by Sar1-GDP crystal structure at low Mg2+
    Yijian Rao
    State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 155 Yang Qiao Xi Lu, Fuzhou 350002, People s Republic of China
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 348:908-15. 2006
    ..Furthermore, we propose a mechanism for COPII assembly and disassembly in which dimerization of Sar1 plays an important role...
  43. ncbi Glucosylation of Ras by Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin: consequences for effector loop conformations observed by NMR spectroscopy
    Matthias Geyer
    Max Planck Institut fur molekulare Physiologie, Abteilung Physikalische Biochemie, Otto Hahn Strasse 11, D 44227 Dortmund, Germany
    Biochemistry 42:11951-9. 2003
    ..Inhibition of the glucosylation reaction by 1,5-gluconolactone suggests a stereospecific reaction mechanism with a glucosyl oxonium ion transition state for the enzymatic activity of LT...
  44. pmc Insulin regulates the dynamic balance between Ras and Rap1 signaling by coordinating the assembly states of the Grb2-SOS and CrkII-C3G complexes
    S Okada
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    EMBO J 17:2554-65. 1998
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that insulin treatment results in the de-repression of Rap1 inhibitory function on the Raf1 kinase concomitant with Ras activation and stimulation of the downstream Raf1/MEK/ERK cascade...
  45. ncbi Identification of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for the Rap1 GTPase. Regulation of MR-GEF by M-Ras-GTP interaction
    J F Rebhun
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Walther Oncology Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    J Biol Chem 275:34901-8. 2000
    ..In addition, a constitutively active M-Ras(71L) mutant inhibited the ability of MR-GEF to promote Rap1A activation in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that M-Ras may inhibit Rap1 in order to elicit its biological effects...
  46. ncbi Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ras1p and chimaeric constructs of Ras proteins reveals the hypervariable region and farnesylation as critical elements in the adenylyl cyclase signaling pathway
    Jean Bernard Créchet
    Groupe RMN, I C S N, Ecole Polytechnique, F 91128 Palaiseau cedex, France
    Biochemistry 42:14903-12. 2003
    ..This strongly suggests that the hypervariable region of Ras proteins can interact directly with adenylyl cyclase...
  47. ncbi [RasGRP proteins--Ras-activating factors]
    Mateusz Szamałek
    Katedra Biochemii Farmaceutycznej, Uniwersytet Medyczny im K Marcinkowskiego, Poznan
    Postepy Biochem 53:112-20. 2007
    ..In this review, structure and function of RasGRP proteins, as well as their role in neoplastic transformation are described...
  48. ncbi Nucleotide exchange factor GEF-H1 mediates cross-talk between microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton
    Mira Krendel
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 4:294-301. 2002
    ..Furthermore, these effects are inhibited by dominant-negative versions of GEF-H1. Thus, GEF-H1 links changes in microtubule integrity to Rho-dependent regulation of the actin cytoskeleton...
  49. ncbi Integration of calcium and Ras signalling
    Peter J Cullen
    The Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrated Cell Signalling, Department of Biochemistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3:339-48. 2002
    ..Here, we focus on examining the link between calcium and Ras signalling and, in particular, we speculate as to how the complexity of calcium signalling could regulate Ras activity...
  50. pmc Distinct subclasses of small GTPases interact with guanine nucleotide exchange factors in a similar manner
    G J Day
    University of Southern California Norris Cancer Center and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 18:7444-54. 1998
    ..This finding suggests that GTPases of the Ras superfamily each may share common features of GEF-mediated guanine nucleotide exchange even though the GEFs for each of the Ras subfamilies appear evolutionarily unrelated...
  51. ncbi Structure of guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor human Mss4 and identification of its Rab-interacting surface
    H Yu
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Chemistry, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nature 376:788-91. 1995
    ..The Rab-binding surface of hMss4 has subsequently been delineated using chemical-shift perturbation experiments and site-directed mutagenesis. The active site of hMss4 involves the Zn(2+)-binding region and a neighbouring loop...
  52. ncbi Mapping of the Ras-GRF2 gene (GRF2) to mouse chromosome 13C3-D1 and human chromosome 5q13, near the Ras-GAP gene
    N P Fam
    Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Genomics 39:118-20. 1997
  53. ncbi Guanine-nucleotide exchange protein C3G activates JNK1 by a ras-independent mechanism. JNK1 activation inhibited by kinase negative forms of MLK3 and DLK mixed lineage kinases
    S Tanaka
    Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Biol Chem 273:1281-4. 1998
    ..In addition, MLK3-induced JNK1 activation was found to be suppressed by the kinase negative form of DLK, which bound to MLK3. These results suggest that C3G activates JNK1 through a pathway involving the MLK family of proteins...
  54. pmc The Ras-specific exchange factors mouse Sos1 (mSos1) and mSos2 are regulated differently: mSos2 contains ubiquitination signals absent in mSos1
    K H Nielsen
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    Mol Cell Biol 17:7132-8. 1997
    ..A second mSos2 degradation signal, mapped to the C terminus in the reticulocyte lysate, does not seem to function under the growth conditions of the NIH 3T3 cells...
  55. ncbi Properties of the catalytic domain of sdc25p, a yeast GDP/GTP exchange factor of Ras proteins. Complexation with wild-type Ras2p, [S24N]Ras2p and [R80D, N81D]Ras2p
    P Poullet
    Structure Diverse d Interventions no 61840 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire de Biochimie, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France
    Eur J Biochem 227:537-44. 1995
    ..These results strongly suggest that the residues R80 and N81 are situated in or closely associated with the Ras2p specific site binding Sdc25p...
  56. pmc Impaired plasma membrane targeting of Grb2-murine son of sevenless (mSOS) complex and differential activation of the Fyn-T cell receptor (TCR)-zeta-Cbl pathway mediate T cell hyporesponsiveness in autoimmune nonobese diabetic mice
    K Salojin
    Autoimmunity Diabetes Group, The John P Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada N6G 2V4
    J Exp Med 186:887-97. 1997
    ..These findings implicate mSOS as an important mediator of downregulation of Ras signaling in hyporesponsive NOD T cells...
  57. pmc Cloning and characterization of Ras-GRF2, a novel guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras
    N P Fam
    Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mol Cell Biol 17:1396-406. 1997
    ..2 kb were detected in several tissues. Thus, Ras-GRF2 proteins with different domain structures may be widely expressed and couple diverse extracellular signals to Ras activation...
  58. ncbi CD4 cross-linking (CD4XL) induces RAS activation and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion in CD4+ T cells
    S M Tamma
    Department of Pediatrics, North Shore University Hospital, New York University School of Medicine, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
    Blood 90:1588-93. 1997
    ..These studies indicate that interaction of HIV gp160 with CD4 molecules activates the ras pathway in T cells, which may result in the cells becoming unresponsive to subsequent stimulation...
  59. pmc The role of the PH domain in the signal-dependent membrane targeting of Sos
    R H Chen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 11794 8621, USA
    EMBO J 16:1351-9. 1997
    ....
  60. ncbi Linkage of G protein-coupled receptors to the MAPK signaling pathway through PI 3-kinase gamma
    M Lopez-Ilasaca
    Max Planck Research Unit Molecular Cell Biology, Medical Faculty, University of Jena, 07747 Jena, Germany
    Science 275:394-7. 1997
    ..Signaling from PI3Kgamma to MAPK appears to require a tyrosine kinase, Shc, Grb2, Sos, Ras, and Raf. These findings indicate that PI3Kgamma mediates Gbetagamma-dependent regulation of the MAPK signaling pathway...
  61. ncbi A murine CDC25/ras-GRF-related protein implicated in Ras regulation
    L Chen
    Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Dev Genet 14:339-46. 1993
    ..Both GRF2 and CDC25Mm/ras-GRF are expressed in murine embryonic stem cells, suggesting that different Ras activators may regulate ras-dependent proliferation and differentiation in early mouse development...
  62. ncbi Regulators and effectors of ras proteins
    G Bollag
    Department of Molecular Biology, Cetus Corporation, Emeryville, California 94608
    Annu Rev Cell Biol 7:601-32. 1991
  63. ncbi The exchange factor Ras-GRF2 activates Ras-dependent and Rac-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways
    W T Fan
    Banting and Best Department of Medical Research Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics University of Toronto Charles H Best Institute 112 College Street, Toronto, M5G 1L6, Canada
    Curr Biol 8:935-8. 1998
    ....
  64. ncbi Catalysis of guanine nucleotide exchange on the CDC42Hs protein by the dbl oncogene product
    M J Hart
    Department of Biochemistry, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853
    Nature 354:311-4. 1991
    ....
  65. ncbi Phosphorylation-dependent activation of the Ras-GRF/CDC25Mm exchange factor by muscarinic receptors and G-protein beta gamma subunits
    R R Mattingly
    Department of Pathology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington 05405, USA
    Nature 382:268-72. 1996
    ..These results demonstrate a G-protein-coupled mechanism for Ras activation, mediated by p140 Ras-GRF...
  66. ncbi A methylation imprint mark in the mouse imprinted gene Grf1/Cdc25Mm locus shares a common feature with the U2afbp-rs gene: an association with a short tandem repeat and a hypermethylated region
    H Shibata
    Genome Science Laboratory, RIKEN Tsukuba Life Science Center, Ibaraki, Japan
    Genomics 49:30-7. 1998
    ..These common features in methylation imprint regions may be a clue to identifying regions carrying primary information for the imprinting regulation...
  67. pmc The chemotactic response to PDGF-BB: evidence of a role for Ras
    V Kundra
    Department of Cell Biology, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Cell Biol 130:725-31. 1995
    ..These results suggest that Ras is an intermediate in PDGF-stimulated chemotaxis but may not be required for fibronectin-stimulated cell motility...
  68. ncbi Basis for signaling specificity difference between Sos and Ras-GRF guanine nucleotide exchange factors
    X Tian
    Department of Biochemistry, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:47248-56. 2001
    ..structurally conserved regions (amino acids (aa) 828-838 in Sos1 and 1057-1067 in Ras-GRF1) of Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors. In Sos1, this segment is in helix B, which is known to interact with the switch 2 region of Ha-..
  69. ncbi Gbetagamma subunits mediate Src-dependent phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. A scaffold for G protein-coupled receptor-mediated Ras activation
    L M Luttrell
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Departments of Medicine and Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:4637-44. 1997
    ..tyrosine protein kinases and require Ras activation via phosphotyrosine-dependent recruitment of Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors. Receptor tyrosine kinase stimulation mediates ligand-induced receptor autophosphorylation, which ..
  70. ncbi Neuronal nuclear organization is controlled by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 phosphorylation of Ras Guanine nucleotide releasing factor-1
    Sashi Kesavapany
    Cytoskeletal Protein Regulation Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neurosignals 15:157-73. 2006
    ..These data show that phosphorylation of RasGRF1 by Cdk5 tightly regulates its levels, which is essential for proper cellular organization...
  71. pmc A role for the noncatalytic N terminus in the function of Cdc25, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ras-guanine nucleotide exchange factor
    R A Chen
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    Genetics 154:1473-84. 2000
    ..Taken together these results suggest that the N terminus plays a crucial role in regulating Cdc25 and consequently Ras activity, which in S. cerevisiae is essential for cell cycle progression...
  72. pmc A Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor enriched highly in the basal ganglia
    H Kawasaki
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:13278-83. 1998
    ..The expression of CalDAG-GEFI and CalDAG-GEFII in hematopoietic organs suggests that such control may have broad significance in Ras/Rap regulation of normal and malignant states...
  73. ncbi Cloning and analysis of human cDNAs encoding a 140-kDa brain guanine nucleotide-exchange factor, Cdc25GEF, which regulates the function of Ras
    W Wei
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles 90033
    Gene 151:279-84. 1994
    ..Further, the Cdc25-fusion protein binds tightly to the nucleotide-free form of H-Ras in vitro, and this binding is reversed by the addition of GTP...
  74. ncbi A novel signaling intermediate, SHEP1, directly couples Eph receptors to R-Ras and Rap1A
    V C Dodelet
    Burnham Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:31941-6. 1999
    ..Thus, SHEP1 directly links activated, tyrosine-phosphorylated Eph receptors to small Ras superfamily GTPases...
  75. pmc Real-time NMR study of three small GTPases reveals that fluorescent 2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-tagged nucleotides alter hydrolysis and exchange kinetics
    Mohammad T Mazhab-Jafari
    Division of Signaling Biology, Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada
    J Biol Chem 285:5132-6. 2010
    ..These results indicate that the mant moiety has significant and unpredictable effects on GTPase reaction kinetics and underscore the importance of validating its use in each assay...
  76. ncbi Phospholipase Cgamma activates Ras on the Golgi apparatus by means of RasGRP1
    Trever G Bivona
    Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Nature 424:694-8. 2003
    ..Thus, activation of Ras on Golgi has important biological consequences and proceeds through a pathway distinct from the one that activates Ras on the plasma membrane...
  77. pmc PIP3-independent activation of TorC2 and PKB at the cell's leading edge mediates chemotaxis
    Yoichiro Kamimura
    Department of Cell Biology, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Curr Biol 18:1034-43. 2008
    ..However, chemotaxis can still occur in the absence of PIP(3), and the identities of the PIP(3)-independent pathways remain unknown...
  78. ncbi Induction of rac-guanine nucleotide exchange activity of Ras-GRF1/CDC25(Mm) following phosphorylation by the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src
    M Kiyono
    Faculty of Bioscience, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226 8501, Japan
    J Biol Chem 275:5441-6. 2000
    ..Taken together, tyrosine phosphorylation by Src is sufficient for the induction of Rac-GEF activity of Ras-GRF1, which may imply the involvement of Src downstream of Gbetagamma to regulate Ras-GRF1...
  79. ncbi The N-terminal region of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RasGEF Cdc25 is required for nutrient-dependent cell-size regulation
    Fiorella Belotti
    Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126 Milan, Italy
    Microbiology 152:1231-42. 2006
    ..Further work will aim to clarify the role of this region in Cdc25 activity and Ras/cAMP pathway regulation...
  80. pmc Two ras pathways in fission yeast are differentially regulated by two ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors
    Piyi Papadaki
    Biology Department, New York University, New York, New York 10003 6688, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 22:4598-606. 2002
    ..Reciprocally, Ste6 overexpression can block Scd1 activation. We propose that external signals can partly segregate two Ras1 pathways by modulating GEF expression and that GEFs can influence how Ras is coupled to specific effectors...
  81. pmc Tight association of GRB2 with receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha is mediated by the SH2 and C-terminal SH3 domains
    J den Hertog
    Hubrecht Laboratory, Netherlands, Institute for Developmental Biology, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    EMBO J 15:3016-27. 1996
    ....
  82. ncbi p130Cas regulates the activity of AND-34, a novel Ral, Rap1, and R-Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor
    T Gotoh
    Department of Biochemistry, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    J Biol Chem 275:30118-23. 2000
    ..This work identifies a new potential function for p130(Cas) and a new regulatory pathway involved in the control of Ral, Rap, and R-Ras GTPases that may participate in the progression of breast cancer cells to tamoxifen resistance...
  83. ncbi Identification of novel RasGRF1 interacting partners by large-scale proteomic analysis
    Paola Lavagni
    Department of Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    J Mol Neurosci 37:212-24. 2009
    ..These data indicate that RasGRF1 can interact with different protein categories and exhibits a potential RNA-binding property...
  84. pmc Diacylglycerol kinase zeta regulates Ras activation by a novel mechanism
    M K Topham
    The Huntsman Cancer Institute and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
    J Cell Biol 152:1135-43. 2001
    ..Thus, we have identified a novel way to regulate Ras activation: through DGK zeta, which controls local accumulation of DAG that would otherwise activate RasGRP...
  85. ncbi Cloning and characterization of mouse UBPy, a deubiquitinating enzyme that interacts with the ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor CDC25(Mm)/Ras-GRF1
    N Gnesutta
    Dipartimento di Fisiologia e Biochimica Generali, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 26, Milano, Italy
    J Biol Chem 276:39448-54. 2001
    ..Our results suggest that mUBPy may play a role in controlling degradation of CDC25(Mm), thus regulating the level of this Ras-guanine nucleotide exchange factor...
  86. pmc Ras-guanine nucleotide exchange factor sos2 is dispensable for mouse growth and development
    L M Esteban
    Centro de Investigacion del Cancer, IBMCC, CSIC USAL, University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
    Mol Cell Biol 20:6410-3. 2000
    ..Histopathological analysis showed no observable differences between mutant and wild-type mice. Our results show that unlike the case for sos1, sos2 gene function is dispensable for normal mouse development, growth, and fertility...
  87. ncbi Membrane-anchoring domains of Cdc25p, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ras exchange factor
    H Garreau
    Institut de Genetique et Microbiologie, CNRS URA D1354, Universite Paris XI, Orsay, France
    Biol Cell 86:93-102. 1996
    The CDC25 gene product from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the prototype of the family of ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors, is expressed as a 180-kDa polypeptide, tightly bound to a membrane fraction...
  88. pmc SDC25, a dispensable Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae differs from CDC25 by its regulation
    E Boy-Marcotte
    Institut de Genetique et Microbiologie, URA Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique D1354, Universite Paris XI, Orsay, France
    Mol Biol Cell 7:529-39. 1996
    ..It is transcribed at the end of growth when nutrients are depleted and in cells grown on nonfermentable carbon sources. In contrast, CDC25 accumulation is slightly reduced when glucose is replaced by a nonfermentable carbon source...
  89. ncbi Small GTPase Ras and Rho expression in rat osteoblasts during spaceflight
    Yasuhiro Kumei
    Biochemistry, Department of Hard Tissue Engineering, Graduate School of Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113 8549, Japan
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1095:292-9. 2007
    ..Microgravity signals may involve two pathways (G protein-coupled receptor-mediated pathway and tyrosine phosphorylation-mediated pathway) that activate Ras, Raf, and MAPK cascades in rat osteoblasts...
  90. pmc Ras-GRF1 signaling is required for normal beta-cell development and glucose homeostasis
    Jaime Font de Mora
    Centro de Investigacion del Cancer, IBMCC, Universidad de Salamanca CSIC, Spain
    EMBO J 22:3039-49. 2003
    ..Thus, our observations demonstrate a novel and specific role for Ras-GRF1 pathways in the development and maintenance of normal beta-cell number and function...
  91. pmc The Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor RasGRF1 promotes matrix metalloproteinase-3 production in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue
    Joana R F Abreu
    Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Arthritis Res Ther 11:R121. 2009
    ..Here, we examine the potential relationship between RasGRF1 expression and MMP production in RA, reactive arthritis, and inflammatory osteoarthritis synovial tissue and FLS...
  92. ncbi Feedback regulation of Ras2 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Ras2-GEF) activity of Cdc25p by Cdc25p phosphorylation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Dong Jian
    Department of Biochemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Nankai District, Tianjin, PR China
    FEBS Lett 584:4745-50. 2010
    ..These data suggest a negative feedback mechanism by which intracellular cAMP synthesis is inhibited by PKA through Cdc25p phosphorylation...
  93. ncbi PDZ7 of glutamate receptor interacting protein binds to its target via a novel hydrophobic surface area
    Wei Feng
    Department of Biochemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, People s Republic of China
    J Biol Chem 277:41140-6. 2002
    ..Our data uncover a novel PDZ domain-mediated protein interaction mode that may be responsible for multimerization of other PDZ domain-containing scaffold proteins...
  94. ncbi T cell anergy is reversed by active Ras and is regulated by diacylglycerol kinase-alpha
    Yuanyuan Zha
    Department of Pathology, Section of Hematology and Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Nat Immunol 7:1166-73. 2006
    ..Our data support a causal function for excess DGK activity and defective Ras signaling in T cell anergy...
  95. ncbi Heptahelical and other G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signaling
    Y Landry
    Laboratoire de Signalisation Cellulaire, CNRS UMR 7175 LC1, Faculte de Pharmacie, Université Louis Pasteur rasbourg 1, BP24, 67401 Illkirch Cedex, France
    Curr Med Chem 13:51-63. 2006
    ..Current signaling cascades leading to final cell responses are depicted...
  96. ncbi The budding yeast RasGEF Cdc25 reveals an unexpected nuclear localization
    Renata Tisi
    Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126, Milan, Italy
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1783:2363-74. 2008
    ..This localization is likely to be physiological, since the fusion proteins can be efficiently exported and then imported back into the nucleus...
  97. ncbi M-Ras/R-Ras3, a transforming ras protein regulated by Sos1, GRF1, and p120 Ras GTPase-activating protein, interacts with the putative Ras effector AF6
    L A Quilliam
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Walther Oncology Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:23850-7. 1999
    ..Together, these findings suggest that while M-Ras is regulated by similar upstream stimuli to Ha-Ras, novel targets may be responsible for its effects on cellular transformation and differentiation...
  98. ncbi Tnk1/Kos1 knockout mice develop spontaneous tumors
    Sarasija Hoare
    Department of Medicine, University of Florida Shands Cancer Center, Gainesville, Florida 32610 3633, USA
    Cancer Res 68:8723-32. 2008
    ..Thus, Tnk1/Kos1 is a tumor suppressor that functions to down-regulate Ras activity...
  99. ncbi Epac- and Rap- independent ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by Gs-coupled receptor stimulation in HEK293 cells
    Jens Henrik Norum
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Oslo, N 0316 Oslo, Norway
    FEBS Lett 581:15-20. 2007
    ..Different signalling pathways seem to be utilised by G(s)-coupled receptors in various isolates of HEK293 cells...
  100. ncbi A novel bifunctional phospholipase c that is regulated by Galpha 12 and stimulates the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway
    I Lopez
    Department of Pathology and Feinberg Cardiovascular Research Institute, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:2758-65. 2001
    ..Our findings demonstrate that PLCepsilon is a novel bifunctional enzyme that is regulated by the heterotrimeric G protein Galpha(12) and activates the small G protein Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway...
  101. pmc Grb2 is a negative modulator of the intrinsic Ras-GEF activity of hSos1
    Natasha Zarich
    Unidad de Biologia Celular, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
    Mol Biol Cell 17:3591-7. 2006
    ....

Research Grants7

  1. Mechanistic Studies of Ras-MAPK Signals: Specialzed Cues for the T cell Lineage?
    Jeroen Roose; Fiscal Year: 2011
    Thymocytes and peripheral T cells express two types of Ras Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factors (RasGEFs), SOS and RasGRP, which can activate Ras and Ras[unreadable] downstream MAP kinase (MAPK) pathways in response to T cell receptor (..
  2. Differential regulation of Ras nucleotide exchange factors
    JEFFREY SCOTT IWIG; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Ras cycles between active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound states, which is controlled by Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and guanine nucleotide activating proteins (GAPs) and insensitivity of Ras to these ..
  3. Compartment Specific Signaling of Ras
    MARK REID PHILIPS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  4. Role of cGMP signaling in Dictyostelium chemotaxis
    Janet Smith; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  5. NOVEL SECOND MESSENGER SIGNALING IN THE STRIATUM
    ANN GRAYBIEL; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Understanding these novel second messenger signaling molecules will therefore bring insights to understanding fundamentally important brain functions and will help in elucidating brain disorders. ..
  6. G protein signal integration by multifunctional proteins
    T Harden; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  7. Rheb GTPase as chemotherapeutic target for brain tumors
    LAWRENCE QUILLIAM; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..They will address the molecular basis of non-Ras action of FTIs and demonstrate the value of targeting Rheb in cancer therapy. ..