enkephalins

Summary

Summary: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Endogenous dynorphin in epileptogenesis and epilepsy: anticonvulsant net effect via kappa opioid receptors
    Stephan Loacker
    Department of Pharmacology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria
    Brain 130:1017-28. 2007
  2. pmc Opioid glycopeptide analgesics derived from endogenous enkephalins and endorphins
    Yingxue Li
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, BIO5, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Future Med Chem 4:205-26. 2012
  3. ncbi The expression of vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in neurochemically defined axonal populations in the rat spinal cord with emphasis on the dorsal horn
    A J Todd
    Spinal Cord Group, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 17:13-27. 2003
  4. ncbi Behavioral phenotype of pre-proenkephalin-deficient mice on diverse congenic backgrounds
    Andras Bilkei-Gorzo
    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Clinic of Psychiatry, Neurocenter, University of Bonn, Sigmund Freud Strasse 25, 53105 Bonn, Germany
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 176:343-52. 2004
  5. ncbi Loss of morphine-induced analgesia, reward effect and withdrawal symptoms in mice lacking the mu-opioid-receptor gene
    H W Matthes
    UPR 9050 CNRS, ESBS Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France
    Nature 383:819-23. 1996
  6. pmc Opioids intrinsically inhibit the genesis of mouse cerebellar granule neuron precursors in vitro: differential impact of mu and delta receptor activation on proliferation and neurite elongation
    K F Hauser
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 0298, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 12:1281-93. 2000
  7. doi Opioid receptor agonists reduce brain edema in stroke
    Li Yang
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 1300 S Coulter Drive, Amarillo, TX 79106, USA
    Brain Res 1383:307-16. 2011
  8. ncbi Physiological control of emotion-related behaviors by endogenous enkephalins involves essentially the delta opioid receptors
    M Mas Nieto
    Neuropsychopharmacologie des Addictions, CNRS UMR 7157, Universite Rene Descartes, Neuropsychopharmacologie des Addictions, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France
    Neuroscience 135:305-13. 2005
  9. ncbi Reversal of ongoing thermal hyperalgesia in mice by a recombinant herpesvirus that encodes human preproenkephalin
    David C Yeomans
    Department of Anesthesia, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Mol Ther 9:24-9. 2004
  10. ncbi ERK MAP kinase activation in superficial spinal cord neurons induces prodynorphin and NK-1 upregulation and contributes to persistent inflammatory pain hypersensitivity
    Ru Rong Ji
    Neural Plasticity Research Group, Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    J Neurosci 22:478-85. 2002

Detail Information

Publications262 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Endogenous dynorphin in epileptogenesis and epilepsy: anticonvulsant net effect via kappa opioid receptors
    Stephan Loacker
    Department of Pharmacology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria
    Brain 130:1017-28. 2007
    ....
  2. pmc Opioid glycopeptide analgesics derived from endogenous enkephalins and endorphins
    Yingxue Li
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, BIO5, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Future Med Chem 4:205-26. 2012
    ..Extremely potent and selective opiate agonists have been developed from endogenous peptides, some of which show great promise as drug candidates...
  3. ncbi The expression of vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in neurochemically defined axonal populations in the rat spinal cord with emphasis on the dorsal horn
    A J Todd
    Spinal Cord Group, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 17:13-27. 2003
    ..As all primary afferents are thought to be glutamatergic, this raises the possibility that unmyelinated afferents, most of which are nociceptors, express a different vesicular glutamate transporter...
  4. ncbi Behavioral phenotype of pre-proenkephalin-deficient mice on diverse congenic backgrounds
    Andras Bilkei-Gorzo
    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Clinic of Psychiatry, Neurocenter, University of Bonn, Sigmund Freud Strasse 25, 53105 Bonn, Germany
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 176:343-52. 2004
    ..The phenotype of genetically modified animals is thought to result from an interaction of gene manipulation with the genetic background and environmental factors...
  5. ncbi Loss of morphine-induced analgesia, reward effect and withdrawal symptoms in mice lacking the mu-opioid-receptor gene
    H W Matthes
    UPR 9050 CNRS, ESBS Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France
    Nature 383:819-23. 1996
    ..We conclude that the mu-opioid-receptor gene product is the molecular target of morphine in vivo and that it is a mandatory component of the opioid system for morphine action...
  6. pmc Opioids intrinsically inhibit the genesis of mouse cerebellar granule neuron precursors in vitro: differential impact of mu and delta receptor activation on proliferation and neurite elongation
    K F Hauser
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 0298, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 12:1281-93. 2000
    ..The data additionally suggest that perinatal exposure to opiate drugs of abuse directly interfere with cerebellar maturation by disrupting normal opioid signalling and inhibiting the proliferation of granule neuron precursors...
  7. doi Opioid receptor agonists reduce brain edema in stroke
    Li Yang
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 1300 S Coulter Drive, Amarillo, TX 79106, USA
    Brain Res 1383:307-16. 2011
    ..These data suggest that opioid receptor activation may provide neuroprotection during stroke and further investigations are needed in the development of novel opioid agonist as efficacious treatments for brain ischemia...
  8. ncbi Physiological control of emotion-related behaviors by endogenous enkephalins involves essentially the delta opioid receptors
    M Mas Nieto
    Neuropsychopharmacologie des Addictions, CNRS UMR 7157, Universite Rene Descartes, Neuropsychopharmacologie des Addictions, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France
    Neuroscience 135:305-13. 2005
    The endogenous pentapeptide enkephalins bind to the mu and delta opioid receptors, with a slightly higher affinity for the latter...
  9. ncbi Reversal of ongoing thermal hyperalgesia in mice by a recombinant herpesvirus that encodes human preproenkephalin
    David C Yeomans
    Department of Anesthesia, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Mol Ther 9:24-9. 2004
    ..These results suggest that herpesvirus vectors encoding analgesic peptides may be useful in attenuating centrally mediated, ongoing neuropathic pain and/or hyperalgesia...
  10. ncbi ERK MAP kinase activation in superficial spinal cord neurons induces prodynorphin and NK-1 upregulation and contributes to persistent inflammatory pain hypersensitivity
    Ru Rong Ji
    Neural Plasticity Research Group, Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    J Neurosci 22:478-85. 2002
    ..Activation of the ERK pathway in a subset of nociceptive spinal neurons contributes, therefore, to persistent pain hypersensitivity, possibly via transcriptional regulation of genes, such as prodynorphin and NK-1...
  11. ncbi A comparison between microwave irradiation and decapitation: basal levels of dynorphin and enkephalin and the effect of chronic morphine treatment on dynorphin peptides
    I Nylander
    Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Sweden
    Neuropeptides 31:357-65. 1997
    ....
  12. ncbi Enkephalins are transported by a novel eukaryotic peptide uptake system
    M Hauser
    Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 0845, USA
    J Biol Chem 275:3037-41. 2000
    ..The transporter is encoded by the gene OPT1. Yeast expressing OPT1 can utilize enkephalins to satisfy amino acid auxotrophic requirements for growth...
  13. ncbi Herpes vector-mediated expression of proenkephalin reduces bone cancer pain
    James R Goss
    Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Ann Neurol 52:662-5. 2002
    ..These results suggest that gene transfer with an enkephalin-expressing vector may be used to treat pain resulting from cancer in bone...
  14. ncbi Met-enkephalin is preferentially transported into the peripheral processes of primary afferent fibres in both control and HSV1-driven proenkephalin A overexpressing rats
    J Antunes bras
    INSERM U288, , Cellulaire et Fonctionnelle, , , 75013, Paris, France
    Neuroscience 103:1073-83. 2001
    ....
  15. ncbi Region selective up-regulation of micro-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors but not opioid receptor-like 1 receptors in the brains of enkephalin and dynorphin knockout mice
    S Clarke
    Pharmacology Group, School of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK
    Neuroscience 122:479-89. 2003
    ..Prodynorphin peptides appear to regulate mostly the kappa-receptor but they are also modulators of micro- and delta-receptors...
  16. pmc Proenkephalin is a nuclear protein responsive to growth arrest and differentiation signals
    A Bottger
    Department of Anatomy and Physiology, University of Dundee, United Kingdom
    J Cell Biol 130:1251-62. 1995
    ..From this we speculate that nuclear proenkephalin arises from a primary translation product that lacks a signal peptide sequence because of initiation at a different site...
  17. doi Early modulation by the dopamine D4 receptor of morphine-induced changes in the opioid peptide systems in the rat caudate putamen
    Belen Gago
    Department of Cell Biology, School of Science, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain
    J Neurosci Res 91:1533-40. 2013
    ..The current results present evidence of functional D4 -μ opioid receptor interactions, with consequences for the opioid peptide mRNA levels in the rat CPu, contributing to the integration of DA and opioid peptide signaling...
  18. ncbi Striatal opioid peptide gene expression differentially tracks short-term satiety but does not vary with negative energy balance in a manner opposite to hypothalamic NPY
    Matthew J Will
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin Madison Medical School, 6001 Research Park Blvd, Madison, WI 53719, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 292:R217-26. 2007
    ..This double dissociation between striatal and hypothalamic peptide systems suggests a specific role for striatal PPE in relatively short-term food motivational states, but not in long-term metabolic responses to diet restriction...
  19. ncbi Potentially functional polymorphism in the promoter region of prodynorphin gene may be associated with protection against cocaine dependence or abuse
    Andrew C H Chen
    Laboratory of the Biology of Addictive Diseases, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021 6399, USA
    Am J Med Genet 114:429-35. 2002
    ....
  20. ncbi Conformational studies on enkephalins using the MOLS technique
    K Vengadesan
    Department of Crystallography and Biophysics, University of Madras, Chennai 600 025, India
    Biopolymers 74:476-94. 2004
    ..The study also provides information on the distribution of the low energy conformations that we have classified on the basis of structural motifs, backbone hydrogen-bonding patterns, and root mean square deviations in atomic positions...
  21. ncbi Can lesions of GPe correct HD deficits?
    A Reiner
    Exp Neurol 186:1-5. 2004
  22. ncbi Temporal upregulation of prodynorphin mRNA in the primate striatum after cocaine self-administration
    P Fagergren
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Hospital, S 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur J Neurosci 17:2212-8. 2003
    ..In addition, the temporal nature of the changes in PDYN gene expression within the striatal compartments could reflect a change in drug responsivity that occurs during the transition to drug dependence...
  23. ncbi Opioid effects on mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascades
    H B Gutstein
    Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, Canada
    Anesthesiology 87:1118-26. 1997
    ....
  24. pmc A single dose of kainic acid elevates the levels of enkephalins and activator protein-1 transcription factors in the hippocampus for up to 1 year
    G Bing
    Neuropharmacology Section, Laboratory of Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:9422-7. 1997
    ..The long-term expression of the proenkephalin mRNA and its peptides in the kainate-treated rat hippocampus also suggests an important role in the recurrent seizures of temporal lobe epilepsy...
  25. doi Region-specific diversity of striosomes in the mouse striatum revealed by the differential immunoreactivities for mu-opioid receptor, substance P, and enkephalin
    K Tajima
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3 1 1, Higashi ku, 812 8582 Fukuoka, Japan
    Neuroscience 241:215-28. 2013
    ..The results further suggest the necessity of viewing the striosomes as non-uniform compartments in addition to the traditional dichotomous view, which focuses on discrimination between the striosomes and the matrix...
  26. ncbi Activation of mouse T-helper cells induces abundant preproenkephalin mRNA synthesis
    G Zurawski
    Science 232:772-5. 1986
    ..The production by activated T cells of a peptide neurotransmitter identifies a signal that can potentially permit T cells to modulate the nervous system...
  27. pmc Proenkephalin assists stress-activated apoptosis through transcriptional repression of NF-kappaB- and p53-regulated gene targets
    N McTavish
    Department of Surgery and Molecular Oncology, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK
    Cell Death Differ 14:1700-10. 2007
    ....
  28. doi Involvement of enkephalins in the inhibition of osteosarcoma-induced thermal hyperalgesia evoked by the blockade of peripheral P2X3 receptors
    Sara González-Rodríguez
    Laboratorio de Farmacologia, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto Universitario de Oncologia del Principado de Asturias, Universidad de Oviedo, C Julian Claveria 6, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
    Neurosci Lett 465:285-9. 2009
    ..antagonised by the coadministration of an anti-enkephalin antibody supporting the participation of endogenous enkephalins. Consistent with this result, the antihyperalgesic effect induced by A-317491 was dramatically enhanced by the ..
  29. pmc Maternal cannabis use alters ventral striatal dopamine D2 gene regulation in the offspring
    Jennifer A DiNieri
    Departments of Psychiatry, Neuroscience, Pharmacology and Systems Therapeutics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York 10029, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 70:763-9. 2011
    ..Prenatal cannabis exposure has been linked to addiction vulnerability, but the neurobiology underlying this risk is unknown...
  30. ncbi Isolation and structural organization of the human preproenkephalin gene
    M Noda
    Nature 297:431-4. 1982
  31. ncbi Alterations in central preproenkephalin mRNA expression after chronic free-choice ethanol consumption by fawn-hooded rats
    M S Cowen
    Abteilung Psychopharmacologie, , Mannheim, Germany
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 25:1126-33. 2001
    ..CONCLUSIONS: The data support the putative role of opioid peptides in the effects of ethanol and suggest that the nucleus accumbens and central nucleus of the amygdala are loci for the reinforcing effects of ethanol...
  32. ncbi Further characterization of preproenkephalin mRNA-containing cells in the rodent globus pallidus
    B R Hoover
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, 2215 Bio Sci II, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 4550, USA
    Neuroscience 111:111-25. 2002
    ..This projection provides a pallidal substrate for the dopaminergic regulation of striatal information processing...
  33. ncbi Prodynorphin storage and processing in axon terminals and dendrites
    Tatiana Yakovleva
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    FASEB J 20:2124-6. 2006
    ..Regulation of PDYN storage and processing at synapses by neuronal activity or extracellular stimuli may provide a local mechanism for regulation of synaptic transmission...
  34. ncbi Role of endogenous enkephalins in locomotion evidenced by acetorphan, an "enkephalinase" inhibitor
    A Michael-Titus
    Unité de Neuropsychopharmacologie Expérimentale, UA 1170 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, St Etienne du Rouvray, France
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 243:1062-6. 1987
    To investigate whether endogenous enkephalins modulate locomotion we studied the effect of the systemic administration of acetorphan, a parenterally active "enkephalinase" inhibitor...
  35. ncbi Use of preproenkephalin knockout mice and selective inhibitors of enkephalinases to investigate the role of enkephalins in various behaviours
    Florence Noble
    Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Neuropsychopharmacologie des addictions et Université Paris 7, Paris 75010, France
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 196:327-35. 2008
    The most simple and efficient method to study the physiological role of enkephalins is to increase the lifetime of these endogenous opioid peptides by inhibiting their inactivating enzymes...
  36. ncbi Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates the onset and severity of motor dysfunction associated with enkephalinergic neuronal degeneration in Huntington's disease
    Josep M Canals
    Departament de Biologia Cel lular i Anatomia Patològica, Facultat de Medicina, Institut d Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
    J Neurosci 24:7727-39. 2004
    ..Hence, administration of exogenous BDNF may delay or stop illness progression...
  37. pmc Kappa opioid receptor antagonism and prodynorphin gene disruption block stress-induced behavioral responses
    Jay P McLaughlin
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7280, USA
    J Neurosci 23:5674-83. 2003
    ..The findings suggest that chronic swim stress may activate the kappa opioid system to produce analgesia, immobility, and potentiation of the acute rewarding properties of cocaine in C57Bl/6 mice...
  38. ncbi Presymptomatic compensation in Parkinson's disease is not dopamine-mediated
    Erwan Bezard
    Basal Gang, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie, CNRS UMR 5543, Universite Victor Segalen, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France
    Trends Neurosci 26:215-21. 2003
    ....
  39. pmc Cathepsin L in secretory vesicles functions as a prohormone-processing enzyme for production of the enkephalin peptide neurotransmitter
    Sukkid Yasothornsrikul
    Buck Institute for Age Research, Novato, CA 94945, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:9590-5. 2003
    ..These findings indicate a previously uncharacterized biological role for secretory vesicle cathepsin L in the production of [Met]enkephalin, an endogenous peptide neurotransmitter...
  40. pmc Prodynorphin-derived peptides are critical modulators of anxiety and regulate neurochemistry and corticosterone
    Walter Wittmann
    Department of Pharmacology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:775-85. 2009
    ....
  41. ncbi A proposed hypothalamic-thalamic-striatal axis for the integration of energy balance, arousal, and food reward
    Ann E Kelley
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin Madison Medical School, Madison, Wisconsin 53719, USA
    J Comp Neurol 493:72-85. 2005
    ....
  42. ncbi Upregulation of striatal preproenkephalin gene expression occurs before the appearance of parkinsonian signs in 1-methyl-4-phenyl- 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine monkeys
    E Bezard
    Manchester Movement Disorder Laboratory, Division of Neuroscience, School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, 1 124 Stopford Building, Manchester, M13 9 PT, United Kingdom
    Neurobiol Dis 8:343-50. 2001
    ..Furthermore, when considered with recent electrophysiological and histochemical data, these findings question the functional significance of upregulated enkephalin transmission in the indirect striatopallidal pathway...
  43. ncbi L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in the rat is associated with striatal overexpression of prodynorphin- and glutamic acid decarboxylase mRNA
    M A Cenci
    Wallenberg Neuroscience Center, Institute of Physiology and Neuroscience, University of Lund, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
    Eur J Neurosci 10:2694-706. 1998
    ..Due to its treatment-dependent expression, and strong correlation with the associated dyskinetic symptoms, striatal PDyn mRNA, in particular, may play a role in the mechanisms of behavioural sensitization brought about by the drug...
  44. ncbi DREAM is a critical transcriptional repressor for pain modulation
    Hai Ying M Cheng
    Amgen Institute, 620 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C1, Canada
    Cell 108:31-43. 2002
    ..Thus, DREAM appears to be a critical transcriptional repressor in pain processing...
  45. pmc TrkB receptor controls striatal formation by regulating the number of newborn striatal neurons
    Maryna Baydyuk
    Department of Pharmacology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:1669-74. 2011
    ..These findings suggest that neurotrophins can control the size of neuronal populations in the brain by promoting the survival of newborn neurons before they migrate to their final destinations...
  46. ncbi Decrease in striatal enkephalin mRNA in mouse models of Huntington's disease
    L Menalled
    Department of Neurology and Mental Retardation Center, University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Exp Neurol 162:328-42. 2000
    ..The data indicate that decreased expression of enkephalin mRNA may be an early sign of neuronal dysfunction due to the Huntington's disease mutation...
  47. pmc Anxiety- and depressive-like responses and c-fos activity in preproenkephalin knockout mice: oversensitivity hypothesis of enkephalin deficit-induced posttraumatic stress disorder
    Jen Chuang Kung
    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
    J Biomed Sci 17:29. 2010
    The present study used the preproenkephalin knockout (ppENK) mice to test whether the endogenous enkephalins deficit could facilitate the anxiety- and depressive-like symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
  48. pmc The dysphoric component of stress is encoded by activation of the dynorphin kappa-opioid system
    Benjamin B Land
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7280, USA
    J Neurosci 28:407-14. 2008
    ..The convergence of stress-induced aversive inputs on the dynorphin system was unexpected, implicates dynorphin as a key mediator of dysphoria, and emphasizes kappa-receptor antagonists as promising therapeutics...
  49. doi D2R striatopallidal neurons inhibit both locomotor and drug reward processes
    Pierre F Durieux
    Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
    Nat Neurosci 12:393-5. 2009
    ..Thus D(2)R striatopallidal neurons limit both locomotion and, unexpectedly, drug reinforcement...
  50. doi The pro-nociceptive effects of remifentanil or surgical injury in mice are associated with a decrease in delta-opioid receptor mRNA levels: Prevention of the nociceptive response by on-site delivery of enkephalins
    David Cabañero
    Anesthesiology Research Unit, Instituto Municipal de Investigaciones Médicas Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Pain 141:88-96. 2009
    ..The study suggests that down-regulation of DOR contributes to remifentanil and surgery-induced nociception, and that postoperative pain is completely reversed by increasing enkephalin levels in the spinal cord and the periphery...
  51. ncbi Far-upstream elements are dispensable for tissue-specific proenkephalin expression using a Cre-mediated knock-in strategy
    Yunzheng Le
    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Metabolism, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Neurochem 84:689-97. 2003
    ..These results suggest that conservation of the far-upstream DNA elements serves more subtle roles, such as the developmental or cell-specific expression of the ENK gene...
  52. ncbi L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in the intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine model of parkinson's disease: relation to motor and cellular parameters of nigrostriatal function
    Christian Winkler
    Department of Physiological Sciences, Neurobiology Division, Wallenberg Neuroscience Center, Lund University, BMC A11, S 221 84, Lund, Sweden
    Neurobiol Dis 10:165-86. 2002
    ....
  53. pmc Aberrant methylation of preproenkephalin and p16 genes in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
    Noriyoshi Fukushima
    Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 2196, USA
    Am J Pathol 160:1573-81. 2002
    ....
  54. ncbi Cellular and behavioural effects of the adenosine A2a receptor antagonist KW-6002 in a rat model of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia
    M Lundblad
    Department of Physiological Sciences, Wallenberg Neuroscience Centre, Neurobiology Division, Lund, Sweden
    J Neurochem 84:1398-410. 2003
    ..Cotreatment with KW-6002 and L-DOPA potentiates the therapeutic effect but not the dyskinesiogenic potential of the latter drug...
  55. doi Induction of FosB/DeltaFosB in the brain stress system-related structures during morphine dependence and withdrawal
    Cristina Nunez
    Department of Pharmacology, University School of Medicine, Murcia, Spain
    J Neurochem 114:475-87. 2010
    ....
  56. ncbi DREAM is a Ca2+-regulated transcriptional repressor
    A M Carrión
    Instituto de Neurobiología S Ramón y Cajal, CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Nature 398:80-4. 1999
    ..In addition to the prodynorphin promoter, DREAM represses transcription from the early response gene c-fos. Thus, DREAM represents the first known Ca2+-binding protein to function as a DNA-binding transcriptional regulator...
  57. ncbi Opioid growth factor and organ development in rat and human embryos
    I S Zagon
    Department of Neuroscience and Anatomy, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey 17033, USA
    Brain Res 839:313-22. 1999
    ..Irregularities in the role of opioids as growth regulators in relationship to the more than 500,000 newborns suffering from birth defects each year in the US needs to be examined...
  58. ncbi Prodynorphin and kappa opioid receptor mRNA expression in the cingulate and prefrontal cortices of subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia or affective disorders
    D Peckys
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Brain Res Bull 55:619-24. 2001
    ..Overall, our data do not provide strong evidence for impaired prodynorphin or kappa opioid receptor mRNA levels in the dorsolateral prefrontal or cingulate cortices of schizophrenic, bipolar disorder, or major depressed subjects...
  59. pmc Enkephalins, dynorphins, and beta-endorphin in the rat dorsal horn: an immunofluorescence colocalization study
    Juan Carlos G Marvizon
    Center for the Neurobiology of Stress, Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Comp Neurol 517:51-68. 2009
    ..These results show that enkephalins and dynorphins are present in different populations of dorsal horn neurons...
  60. ncbi Increased striatal pre-proenkephalin B expression is associated with dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease
    Brian Henry
    Manchester Movement Disorder Laboratory, 1 124 Division of Neuroscience, School of Biological Sciences, Stopford Building, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PT, Manchester, UK
    Exp Neurol 183:458-68. 2003
    ..Increased PPE-B mRNA expression, with subsequent elevations in opioid peptide transmission within the direct striatal output pathways, may underlie treatment-related dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease...
  61. pmc Striatal alterations of secretogranin-1, somatostatin, prodynorphin, and cholecystokinin peptides in an experimental mouse model of Parkinson disease
    Anna Nilsson
    Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Medical Mass Spectrometry, Uppsala University, SE 75123 Uppsala, Sweden
    Mol Cell Proteomics 8:1094-104. 2009
    ..This study provides further evidence that neuropeptides take part in mediating the central nervous system failure associated with Parkinson disease...
  62. doi Control of hormonal stress reactivity by the endogenous opioid system
    Andras Bilkei-Gorzo
    Institute of Molecular Psychiatry, University of Bonn, Sigmund Freud Street 25, 53105 Bonn, Germany
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 33:425-36. 2008
    ..These results demonstrate an important role on the endogenous opioid system in the integration of behavioral and hormonal stress responses...
  63. doi A comparative study of morphine stimulation and biphalin inhibition of human glioblastoma T98G cell proliferation in vitro
    Marzena Lazarczyk
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Neuropathology, M Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, 5 Pawinskiego Str, 02 106 Warsaw, Poland
    Peptides 31:1606-12. 2010
    ..Morphine displayed the opposite effect and triggered stimulation of T98G cell proliferation. Our experiments have shown that biphalin might constitute an alternative solution for morphine application in anti-pain and anti-cancer therapy...
  64. ncbi Naloxone reduces levodopa-induced dyskinesias and apomorphine-induced rotations in primate models of parkinsonism
    R Klintenberg
    Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Biomedicum, Uppsala, Sweden
    J Neural Transm 109:1295-307. 2002
    ..Taken together the present results suggest a possible role for the endogenous opioid system in the pathogenesis of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in primates...
  65. ncbi Alterations in cortical and basal ganglia levels of opioid receptor binding in a rat model of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia
    P A Johansson
    Department of Physiological Sciences, Neurobiology Division, Wallenberg Neuroscience Centre, University of Lund, , Lund, S-223 62, Sweden
    Neurobiol Dis 8:220-39. 2001
    ....
  66. ncbi Chronic morphine treatment modulates the extracellular levels of endogenous enkephalins in rat brain structures involved in opiate dependence: a microdialysis study
    Magdalena Mas Nieto
    Département de Pharmacochimie Moléculaire et Structurale Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U266, Valbonne, France
    J Neurosci 22:1034-41. 2002
    ..However, controversial results have been reported regarding the levels of enkephalins or preproenkephalin in neurons of rodent brains after opiate administration...
  67. ncbi Contribution of endogenous enkephalins to the enhanced analgesic effects of supraspinal mu opioid receptor agonists after inflammatory injury
    R W Hurley
    Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care and The Committee on Neurobiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    J Neurosci 21:2536-45. 2001
    ....
  68. ncbi Increase of preproenkephalin mRNA levels in the putamen of Parkinson disease patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesias
    Frederic Calon
    Oncology and Molecular Endocrinology Research Center, Laval University Medical Center CHUL, Quebec, Canada
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 61:186-96. 2002
    ..These findings suggest that increase synthesis of preproenkephalin in the medium spiny output neurons of the striatopallidal pathway play a role in the development of dyskinesias following long-term LD therapy in Parkinson disease...
  69. ncbi The opioid peptide analogue biphalin induces less physical dependence than morphine
    M Yamazaki
    Intensive Care Unit, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University Hospital, Sugitani, Toyama, Japan
    Life Sci 69:1023-8. 2001
    ..These data support consideration of biphalin as a new analgesic with a novel pharmacological profile and minimum dependence liability...
  70. doi Neutrophil-mediated oxidation of enkephalins via myeloperoxidase-dependent addition of superoxide
    Peter Nagy
    Free Radical Research Group, Department of Pathology, University of Otago Christchurch, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
    Free Radic Biol Med 49:792-9. 2010
    ..The biochemical interactions of enkephalins with neutrophil-derived oxidants are not well understood...
  71. ncbi An allelic variation in the human prodynorphin gene promoter alters stimulus-induced expression
    A Zimprich
    Institute for Pharmacology and Toxicology, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany
    J Neurochem 74:472-7. 2000
    ..However, prodynorphin allelic distributions were not significantly different in heroin addicts and control subjects...
  72. ncbi Colocalization of CART peptide with prodynorphin and dopamine D1 receptors in the rat nucleus accumbens
    George W Hubert
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neuropeptides 40:409-15. 2006
    ....
  73. ncbi Alterations in striatal neuropeptide mRNA produced by repeated administration of L-DOPA, ropinirole or bromocriptine correlate with dyskinesia induction in MPTP-treated common marmosets
    B C Tel
    Neurodegenerative Disease Research Centre, Guy s, King s and St Thomas School of Biomedical Sciences, King s College, SE1 1UL, London, UK
    Neuroscience 115:1047-58. 2002
    ....
  74. ncbi Prodynorphin processing by proprotein convertase 2. Cleavage at single basic residues and enhanced processing in the presence of carboxypeptidase activity
    R Day
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1H 5N4, Canada
    J Biol Chem 273:829-36. 1998
    ..Our data suggest that carboxypeptidase activity enhances PC2 processing by the elimination of product inhibition caused by basic residue-extended peptides...
  75. ncbi Gene therapy for chronic pain
    Joseph C Glorioso
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Curr Opin Mol Ther 5:483-8. 2003
    ..A clinical trial is set to commence...
  76. ncbi Different regulation of human delta-opioid receptors by SNC-80 [(+)-4-[(alphaR)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide] and endogenous enkephalins
    I Lecoq
    Laboratoire de Biochimie A, Avenue Cote de Nacre, CHU de Caen, 14033 Caen Cedex, France
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 310:666-77. 2004
    ..These data strongly suggested a differential sorting of the internalized receptors caused by enkephalins and SNC-80 that was further confirmed by chloroquine as a lysosomal degradation blocker and monensin as a ..
  77. ncbi Enhanced preproenkephalin-B-derived opioid transmission in striatum and subthalamic nucleus converges upon globus pallidus internalis in L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-induced dyskinesia
    Incarnation Aubert
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS Unité Mixte de Recherche UMR 5541, Bordeaux Cedex, France
    Biol Psychiatry 61:836-44. 2007
    ....
  78. ncbi Intrathecal antinociceptive interaction between the NMDA antagonist ketamine and the opioids, morphine and biphalin
    Dariusz Kosson
    Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawinskiego Street 5, 02106 Warsaw, Poland
    Eur J Pain 12:611-6. 2008
    ..These results suggest that NMDA antagonists may be useful potentiators of biphalin analgesia. Thus, to obtain the same spinal antinociceptive effect, lower doses of biphalin or morphine are required when ketamine is co-administered...
  79. ncbi Nicotine-induced antinociception, rewarding effects, and physical dependence are decreased in mice lacking the preproenkephalin gene
    Fernando Berrendero
    Laboratori de Neurofarmacologia, Facultat de Ciencies de la Salut i de la Vida, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain
    J Neurosci 25:1103-12. 2005
    ..In the present study, the participation of endogenous enkephalins on nicotine responses has been investigated by using preproenkephalin knock-out mice...
  80. ncbi Candidate genes, pathways and mechanisms for bipolar (manic-depressive) and related disorders: an expanded convergent functional genomics approach
    C A Ogden
    Laboratory of Neurophenomics, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 9:1007-29. 2004
    ....
  81. pmc Treatment of inflamed pancreas with enkephalin encoding HSV-1 recombinant vector reduces inflammatory damage and behavioral sequelae
    Ying Lu
    Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA
    Mol Ther 15:1812-9. 2007
    ..Targeted transgene delivery and met-ENK expression successfully produced decreased inflammation in experimental pancreatitis...
  82. doi Neurochemical properties of enkephalinergic neurons in lumbar spinal dorsal horn revealed by preproenkephalin-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice
    Jing Huang
    Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, K K Leung Brain Research Centre, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi an, China
    J Neurochem 113:1555-64. 2010
    ..8 +/- 2.2% and 11.1 +/- 1.6%, respectively. Compared with previously findings obtained with ENK antibody labeling, this line of newly generated mice can be a reliable tool for the study of specific spinal ENKergic neuronal population...
  83. ncbi Therapeutic efficacy in experimental polyarthritis of viral-driven enkephalin overproduction in sensory neurons
    J Braz
    , , Cellulaire, et Fonctionnelle and Service de Rhumatologie, , 75013 Paris, France
    J Neurosci 21:7881-8. 2001
    ..These changes affect notably neurons that contain opioids, such as enkephalins deriving from preproenkephalin A (PA) precursor protein...
  84. ncbi Selective reward deficit in mice lacking beta-endorphin and enkephalin
    Michael D Hayward
    The Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    J Neurosci 22:8251-8. 2002
    ..Because the attenuation of operant responding was observed only during a nondeprived motivational state, the hedonics of feeding are likely altered rather than energy homeostasis...
  85. ncbi Recombinant herpes vector-mediated analgesia in a primate model of hyperalgesia
    David C Yeomans
    Department of Anesthesia and Stanford Pain and Analgesia Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5117, USA
    Mol Ther 13:589-97. 2006
    ..This approach may be a viable means of treating localized cutaneous burning pain and hyperalgesia...
  86. ncbi Genetic dissociation of opiate tolerance and physical dependence in delta-opioid receptor-1 and preproenkephalin knock-out mice
    Joshua F Nitsche
    Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    J Neurosci 22:10906-13. 2002
    ....
  87. ncbi Capillary liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry for the quantification of enkephalins in cerebrospinal fluid
    Bart A Sinnaeve
    Laboratorium voor Medische Biochemie en Klinische Analyse, Universiteit Gent, Gent, Belgium
    J Sep Sci 28:1779-84. 2005
    A capillary LC-MS/MS system was evaluated for the absolute quantification of enkephalins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). On column focusing on a C18 trapping column, in-line with the analytical column, was used for preconcentration...
  88. ncbi Endogenous enkephalins, not endorphins, modulate basal hedonic state in mice
    P D Skoubis
    Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 21:1379-84. 2005
    ..5, 5 and 10 mg/kg s.c.). These data suggest that enkephalins, but not endorphins, may mediate an endogenous opioid component of basal affective state and also indicate that ..
  89. ncbi A functional polymorphism in the prodynorphin gene promotor is associated with temporal lobe epilepsy
    Elisabeth Stogmann
    Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Ann Neurol 51:260-3. 2002
    ..Irrespective of the familial background, L-homozygotes display a higher risk for secondarily generalized seizures and status epilepticus...
  90. pmc Linear and accurate quantitation of proenkephalin-derived peptides by isotopic labeling with internal standards and mass spectrometry
    Steven J Bark
    Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 744, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Anal Biochem 389:18-26. 2009
    ..These results demonstrate that use of internal standards composed of a defined amount(s) of standard peptides (PE-derived tryptic peptides) is necessary for high-quality linear quantitation of peptides by isotopic labeling and MS/MS...
  91. ncbi Interaction of enkephalins with oxyradicals
    M Fontana
    Dipartimento di Scienze Biochimiche, , Piazzale Aldo Moro, I-00185, Rome, Italy
    Biochem Pharmacol 61:1253-7. 2001
    The interaction of enkephalins (leu-enkephalin and met-enkephalin) and other tyrosine amino-terminal peptides with reactive oxygen species has been investigated...
  92. ncbi Rat brain preproenkephalin mRNA. cDNA cloning, primary structure, and distribution in the central nervous system
    K Yoshikawa
    J Biol Chem 259:14301-8. 1984
    ..The pRPE2 probe is useful for the analysis of the dynamics of preproenkephalin mRNA in rat neurons...
  93. ncbi Alteration in the levels of thyrotropin releasing hormone, substance P and enkephalins in the spinal cord, brainstem, hypothalamus and midbrain of the Wobbler mouse at different stages of the motoneuron disease
    K K Yung
    Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, China
    Neuroscience 50:209-22. 1992
    ..In the hypothalamus, increasing values for substance P in control specimens and enkephalins in Wobbler specimens are significantly correlated with age...
  94. pmc Differential regulation of morphine antinociceptive effects by endogenous enkephalinergic system in the forebrain of mice
    Tsung Chieh Chen
    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 11529, Taiwan, ROC
    Mol Pain 4:41. 2008
    ..However the functional role of enkephalins in the supraspinal nociceptive processing and their underlying mechanism is not clear...
  95. ncbi Pain responses, anxiety and aggression in mice deficient in pre-proenkephalin
    M Konig
    Unit on Developmental Biology, Laboratory of Cell Biology, Section on Neuroanatomy, Laboratory of Neurophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 383:535-8. 1996
    b>Enkephalins are endogenous opioid peptides that are derived from a pre-proenkephalin precursor protein...
  96. ncbi Role of dynorphin and enkephalin in the regulation of striatal output pathways and behavior
    H Steiner
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee, College of Medicine, Memphis 38163, USA
    Exp Brain Res 123:60-76. 1998
    ..Behavioral consequences of increased opioid peptide function in striatal output pathways may include behavioral sensitization (dynorphin) and recovery of motor function (enkephalin)...
  97. pmc Antihyperalgesic effects of infection with a preproenkephalin-encoding herpes virus
    S P Wilson
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:3211-6. 1999
    ..Because hyperalgesic mechanisms may be important in establishing and maintaining neuropathic and other chronic pain states, this approach may be useful for treatment of chronic pain and hyperalgesia in humans...
  98. ncbi Molecular assessment of the potential combination therapy of cytokines with biphalin and AZT for Friend leukemia virus infection in vitro
    Jie Liu Tang
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Florida College of Medicine, 12901 N Bruce B Downs Blvd, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
    Pharmacol Rep 60:190-8. 2008
    ..In conclusion, biphalin applied primarily as a new medicine for chronic pain treatment in AIDS patients may play a significant beneficial role as a component of antiviral HIV multidrug therapies...
  99. doi Respiratory and cardiovascular effects of biphalin in anaesthetized rats
    Piotr Wojciechowski
    Laboratory of Respiratory Reflexes, Polish Academy of Sciences Medical Research Centre, 02 106 Warsaw, 5 Pawinskiego St, Poland
    Eur J Pharmacol 602:50-3. 2009
    ..g. the lung) are involved in respiratory and hypotensive effects of biphalin, whereas bradycardia may be explained by activation of brainstem regions mediating cardiovascular control...
  100. ncbi Intrinsic GABA neurons inhibit proenkephalin gene expression in slice cultures of rat neostriatum
    Franz Mörl
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Albert Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany
    Eur J Neurosci 15:1115-24. 2002
    ..All these glutamatergic afferents enhance the proenkephalin gene expression via NMDA receptors. Their efficacy is regulated by endogenous GABA...
  101. pmc Differential involvement of enkephalins in analgesic tolerance, locomotor sensitization, and conditioned place preference induced by morphine
    Paul Marquez
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766, USA
    Behav Neurosci 120:10-5. 2006
    In this study, the authors investigated the role of enkephalins in morphine-induced conditioned place preference, locomotor sensitization, and analgesic tolerance...

Research Grants66

  1. Discovery metabolite profiling of the prolyl peptidases
    Alan Saghatelian; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Furthermore, the application of DMP to peptidases will demonstrate the generality of this approach for the future characterization of medically relevant enzymes and signaling pathways. ..
  2. The Habenulo-Interpeduncular Pathway and Nicotine
    Christie D Fowler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. Mechanims of CNS Autonomic Regulation by EA
    John C Longhurst; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The current application will provide important new information on both efficacy and mechanism of action in acupuncture treatment of either elevated or low blood pressure. ..
  4. Molecular control of differential peptide transmitter exocytosis.
    COREY B SMITH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The data obtained will provide a molecular understanding of the key regulators of the acute sympatho-adrenal stress response as well as pathologies resulting from its improper regulation. ..
  5. Neuronal mRNA PET Imaging
    Eric Wickstrom; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In the future, beyond the scope of this proposal, nuclear medicine imaging of brain cell gene activity in humans might explain why some individuals become addicted more easily than others. ..
  6. Opioidergic System: Its Role(s) in Glaucoma
    Shahid Husain; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In mammals, endogenous opioidergic peptides, such as enkephalins, dynorphins, and endorphins, are physiological modulators of neuroendocrine, immune, and inflammatory ..
  7. Cathepsin L in the Biosynthesis of Enkephalins and beta-Endorphin Opioid Peptides
    Steven J Bark; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..vesicle Cathepsin L has recently been discovered as a new and significant protease pathway for production of enkephalins and beta-endorphin in vivo...
  8. Regulation of striatal cannabinoid CB1 receptors by DARPP32 and deltaFosB mediate
    Matthew F Lazenka; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The proposed studies will determine the effects of repeated cannabinoid administration on biochemical messengers that regulate activity in these brain regions. ..
  9. Varicella zoster virus-Induced Pain in a Rat Model of Post-Herpetic Neuralgia
    Paul R Kinchington; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The project may also identify new methods to alleviate PHN using gene therapy approaches. ..
  10. STRESS-OPIOID INTERACTION IN HIPPOCAMPUS
    Teresa A Milner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..During the last grant period we found that ovarian hormones also regulate enkephalins and the mu- and delta-opioid receptors (MORs and DORs, respectively) in a manner that could promote learning ..
  11. Targeted Plasma Peptidomics: Endogenous Mu-Opioid Receptor Peptides
    Brian Reed; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The potential of parallel immunoaffinity enrichment of [unreadable]-endorphin/enkephalins from plasma for increasing the sensitivity of targeted ms3 detection will be systematically determined...
  12. HYPOTHALAMIC PEPTIDES IN THE CONTROL OF ALCOHOL INTAKE
    Sarah F Leibowitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies of neural mechanisms in animals will provide useful information on how to predict and prevent overconsumption of alcohol and may help in designing drugs that can be used in the treatment of alcohol-use disorder. ..
  13. Pharmacological Actions of Antidepressants Treatments
    Eric J Nestler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  14. Ethanol and Peptidergic Systems in the Central Amygdala
    Scott D Moore; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  15. Mechanisms of nicotine and alcohol use: Focus on in utero exposure to dietary fat
    Sarah F Leibowitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  16. Neural Mechanisms of Diurnality: Role of the Intergeniculate Leaflet
    ANDREW JASON GALL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  17. Oxytocin Modulation of CRF Neurons in the BNST: Implications for Anxiety
    SARAH ELIZABETH DEWITT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Elucidating oxytocin's interactions with other neurotransmitter systems in the BNST could lead to a greater understanding of the etiology of and therapeutic strategies for anxiety disorders. ..
  18. Phenotypic and Functional Determination of Central Extended Amygdala Cell Groups
    HEIDI E DAY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This in turn will be helpful in the design of treatment strategies for anxiety and fear-related disorders. ..
  19. Amygdalar neuropeptides and anxiety
    Marlene A Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..abstract_text> ..
  20. EM-TRANSMITTER INTERACTIONS OF STRIATAL OPIOID NEURONS
    Virginia M Pickel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The results will have many important implications for understanding the cross-sensitization between opiates and cannabinoids and for devising new treatments for addictive diseases. ..
  21. Analgesic Mechanism of Action of Endogenous Opioid Peptides Enkephalins with a Fo
    Gregory Scherrer; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..e. neuropathic pain). The endogenous opioid system is composed of several peptide agonists (including enkephalins) and of the delta, kappa and mu opioid receptors (DOR, KOR and MOR, respectively)...
  22. Synaptic Transmission In Mammalian Cutaneous Touch Receptors
    Srdjan Maksimovic; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This allows me to test if selective excitation of Merkel cells with light evokes action potentials in SAI afferents. ..
  23. Analgesic Mechanism of Action of Endogenous Opioid Peptides Enkephalins with a Fo
    Gregory Scherrer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e neuropathic pain). The endogenous opioid system is composed of several peptide agonists (including enkephalins) and of the delta, kappa and mu opioid receptors (DOR, KOR and MOR, respectively)...
  24. OPIOID MODULATION OF THE COERULEO-CORTICAL PATHWAY
    Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed work will elucidate how dysregulation of the LC-NE system impacts stress and opiate sensitivity, decisions underlying substance abuse, and sex differences in opiate actions. ..
  25. Central Nervous System Delivery of Opioid Peptides
    JOHN HOEKMAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Impel NeuroPharma Inc. will optimize and develop opioid peptide drug formulations using a non-invasive intranasal aerosol device for direct delivery to the CNS with greatly reduced systemic distribution. ..
  26. Role of opioid receptor trafficking in tolerance and dependence
    Jennifer L Whistler; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..such as morphine and heroin have a high liability for inducing tolerance and addiction while endorphins and enkephalins, the native peptide ligands for opioid receptors, do not...
  27. Neural Substrates of Electroacupuncture in Cardiovascular Control
    STEPHANIE CHEE YEE TJEN-A-LOOI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Anatomical, physiological, electrophysiological, pharmacological and molecular approaches will be used in the proposed studies that are highly relevant to patients that have the potential to benefit from clinical acupuncture. ..
  28. OPIOID PEPTIDE SYNTHESIZING ENZYMES
    Iris Lindberg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We are also interested in describing the molecular forms of a new peptide precursor we have observed in brain tissue. ..
  29. PATHOLOGY IN POSTMORTEM SCHIZOPHRENIC BASAL GANGLIA
    ROSALINDA CUSIDO ROBERTS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  30. Striatal 5-HT6 receptors, reward and addiction
    John F Neumaier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The goal is to understand how serotonin participates in the adaptations associated with addiction so that we can design treatments to prevent or reverse these changes. ..
  31. NEUROGENIC AMPLIFICATION OF PANCREATITIS PAIN
    KARIN N WESTLUND-HIGH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Study of the transition to chronic pain is a mission of the NIH Blueprint and NINDS. ..
  32. Synthesis and Evaluation of Functionally Biased Opioid Analgesics
    Laura M Bohn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The information garnered from this proposal will prove useful in the future development of clinical pain relievers with limited side effects. ..
  33. SENSITIVE AND SELECTIVE DETECTION OF PEPTIDES
    Stephen G Weber; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..changed in order to support the neuroprotective functions of particular neuropeptides (galanin, dynorphins and enkephalins). However, the tools that can test this idea do not exist...
  34. Role of Striatopallidal Neurons in Drug-Induced Neural Plasticity and Behavior
    Susan Marie Ferguson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In so doing, this research may provide avenues for novel lines of therapeutic interventions in order to mitigate this serious public health issue. ..
  35. Endogenous Opioid System Involvement In Cocaine-Seeking Behavior
    Nigel T Maidment; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our previous work has emphasized the role of enkephalins, acting through mu opioid receptors in mediating the opioid component of basal "hedonic tone"...
  36. ROLE OF PEPTIDES IN OCULOMOTOR NEUROTRANSMISSION
    VINCENT CHIAPPINELLI; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..These include some defects in accommodation, internal ophthalmoplegia and tonic pupil. In addition, the condition of the pupil is an important diagnostic sign in numerous ocular syndromes and in traumatic injuries to the head...
  37. Translational Foundation of Adenosine Antagonist Use for Dyskinesias
    Michael A Schwarzschild; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  38. Role of endogenous opioid peptides in opioid addiction
    LEON TSENG; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Attempt will be made to seek if there are correlative relationships among brain sites sensitive to opioids for the production of place preference or place aversion and the releases of opioid peptides and dopatnine. ..
  39. BIOSYNTHESIS OF ENKEPHALIN OPIOID PEPTIDES
    Vivian Hook; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These findings will enhance our knowledge of the complexity of the endogenous opioid system. ..
  40. ANXIETY--GABA RECEPTOR AND OPIOID GENE TRANSFER
    MARLENE WILSON; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..It will thus help to elucidate the role(s) of specific, localized neurotransmitter functions in complex behaviors such as anxiety. ..
  41. Serpin Protease Inhibitors & Opioid Neuropeptides
    Vivian Hook; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Serpin regulation of opioid peptides that mediate analgesia and stress may lead to development of new therapeutic approaches in pain and neurologic disease. ..
  42. OPIOID PEPTIDES--RECEPTORS, BIOSYNTHESIS AND RELEASE
    HANS KOSTERLITZ; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The amount of released opioid varies between 18 to 30% of the tissue content...
  43. SPINAL RELEASE OF ENDORPHINS BY OPIOIDS
    LEON TSENG; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The tail-flick and hot-plate tests will be used to determine antinociceptive responsiveness of mice or/and rats in this research. These studies will provide valuable insight into the cellular mechanisms of mu opioid antinociception. ..
  44. NEUROPEPTIDE Y MODULATION OF ADRENOMEDULLARY SECRETION
    TERRY HEXUM; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The health related consequences of the proposed studies are far-reaching due to the varied roles suggested for neuropeptides in physiology and pathology, e.g., defective neuronal regulation leading to hypertension or mental disorders. ..
  45. MARIJUANA & DOPAMINE/ENKEPHALIN BRAIN REWARD SYSTEMS
    ELIOT GARDNER; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The health relatedness is clear, given that marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States, and given the evidence for health consequences of chronic marijuana abuse...
  46. AUTONOMIC FUNCTION IN RENOVASCULAR HYPERTENSION
    BARBARA BARRON; Fiscal Year: 2000
    DESCRIPTION: (Adapted from the application): Enkephalins inhibit release of autonomic transmitters, thus, decreasing responses to nerve stimulation. For instance, enkephalins reduce vagally-mediated bradycardia...
  47. Novel Glycosylated Delta Opioid Receptor Agonists for Chronic Inflammatory Pain
    KIMBERLEY GANNON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..BBI will generate novel, glycosylated peptides that overcome the challenges associated with developing peptide therapeutics and will provide an important contribution to pain management. ..
  48. DOPAMINE & ENKEPHALIN/TACHYKININ IN BASAL GANGLION
    SUBBIAH SIVAM; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ....
  49. ENKEPHALIN BIOSYNTHESIS IN ADRENAL MEDULLA
    Iris Lindberg; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..We have previously carried out studies on the biosynthesis of enkephalins in the adrenal medulla...
  50. NEUROCHEMISTRY OF GESTATION-PRODUCED ANALGESIA
    Alan R Gintzler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. OPIOID METABOLISM BY IMMUNE SYSTEM PEPTIDASES
    Dwain Thiele; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Opioid peptides (i.e., enkephalins and endorphins) affect a number of immune system functions in vitro (e.g...
  52. CONTROL OF CATECHOLAMINE RELEASE BY ENDOGENOUS OPIATES
    WALTER DIXON; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..It has been suggested that the enkephalins and endorphins may function as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in the central and peripheral nervous ..
  53. ENKEPHALIN BIOSYNTHESIS IN ADRENAL MEDULLA
    Iris Lindberg; Fiscal Year: 1992
    The production of enkephalins, like the biosynthesis of other hormones, involves a sequential series of enzymatic steps culminating in the liberation of the active opioid sequences...
  54. SYNTHETIC PEPTIDES PURITY DETERMINATION, STABILITY TEST
    KANTHI HETTIARACHCHI; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The purity and authenticity of these peptides are further needed to be determined and monitored. Therefore, through this contract NIDA intends to establish, monitor and maintain the purity of peptides for the NIDA supported research. ..
  55. SYNTHETIC PEPTIDES AS STRUCTURAL PROBES FOR PRECLINICAL
    GEORGE BRINE; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Through this contract NIDA plans to supply chemically pure, racemization-free peptides primarily, to NIDA grantees and at the same time maintain capability to rapidly synthesize, on demand, new compounds that are potentially, useful. ..
  56. LARGE SCALE SYNTHESIS OF THE OPIOID PEPTIDE DPDPE
    Richard Houghten; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Due to the high cost of the amino acid D-penicillamine (pen) and the disulfide bridge in the peptide, this synthesis will be an exacting test of the methods to be used during the proposed Phase I portion of this research...
  57. Drugs to Elevate Enkephalin as Novel Opiate Analgesics
    Terry Reisine; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..b>Enkephalins are produced by a series of proteolytic events that cleave the large protein precursor, proenkephalin, to the ..
  58. OPIATE PRECURSOR PROCESSING
    Vivian Hook; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Overall these studies will establish the relative importance of PTP, compared to PC 1/3 and PC2, in PE processing. ..
  59. BASAL GANGLIA--ANATOMICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION
    Anton Reiner; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..g. Huntington's and Parkinson's disease), which may in turn make it possible to devise more effective preventive and therapeutic measures for such disorders. ..
  60. Neuron Phenotype Changes During Lactation
    Gloria Hoffman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  61. PRENATAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE PITUITARY GLAND
    John Pintar; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  62. OPIOIDS AND POIATES: T CELL MOTILITY
    Wyrta Heagy; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..We will measure the effects of neurohormones, including naturally occurring enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins, of synthetic enkephalin analogs and of opiates on migration of human T lymphocytes...
  63. ENKEPHALINS AND LEARNING
    Joseph Martinez; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  64. PHARMACOLOGIC STUDIES OF CNS PAIN MOLULATORY SYSTEMS
    HERBERT PROUDFIT; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..It is hoped that safer and more effective pain controls methods could be developed that do not depend on opioid drugs with their attendant serious side effects and addiction liability. ..
  65. AFFERENTS AND ENDOGENOUS PEPTIDES IN THE AMYGDALA
    Martin Cassell; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ....
  66. The role of TrkB signaling in the survival and function of striatal neurons.
    Maryna Baydyuk; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....