pepstatins

Summary

Summary: N-acylated oligopeptides isolated from culture filtrates of Actinomycetes, which act specifically to inhibit acid proteases such as pepsin and renin.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Proteolytic cleavage of covalently linked cell wall proteins by Candida albicans Sap9 and Sap10
    Lydia Schild
    Department of Microbial Pathogenicity Mechanisms, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans Knoell Institute HKI, Beutenbergstrasse 11a, 07745 Jena, Germany
    Eukaryot Cell 10:98-109. 2011
  2. ncbi Lysosomal membrane permeabilization contributes to elemene emulsion-induced apoptosis in A549 cells
    Long Jie Li
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, 467 Zhong Shan Road, Dalian 116023, Liaoning, China
    Free Radic Res 45:1232-40. 2011
  3. ncbi The activation of P2X7 receptor induces cathepsin D-dependent production of a 20-kDa form of IL-1β under acidic extracellular pH in LPS-primed microglial cells
    Takato Takenouchi
    Transgenic Animal Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    J Neurochem 117:712-23. 2011
  4. pmc Stimulation of the D5 dopamine receptor acidifies the lysosomal pH of retinal pigmented epithelial cells and decreases accumulation of autofluorescent photoreceptor debris
    Sonia Guha
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA
    J Neurochem 122:823-33. 2012
  5. pmc Cathepsin D overexpressed by cancer cells can enhance apoptosis-dependent chemo-sensitivity independently of its catalytic activity
    Melanie Beaujouin
    Inserm Unit 540, Montpellier, France
    Adv Exp Med Biol 617:453-61. 2008
  6. ncbi pH controls both transcription and post-translational processing of the protease BcACP1 in the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea
    Stephane Rolland
    Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire de Génomique Fonctionnelle des Champignons Pathogènes des Plantes, UMR5240, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, Bayer CropScience, 14 20 rue Pierre Baizet, 69263 Lyon Cedex 09, France
    Microbiology 155:2097-105. 2009
  7. pmc Plasmodium food vacuole plasmepsins are activated by falcipains
    Mark E Drew
    Department of Medicine and Molecular Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:12870-6. 2008
  8. pmc Targeted delivery of antigen processing inhibitors to antigen presenting cells via mannose receptors
    Eun Ang Raiber
    Department of Chemistry, UCL, London, UK
    ACS Chem Biol 5:461-76. 2010
  9. ncbi Probing the cathepsin D using a BODIPY FL-pepstatin A: applications in fluorescence polarization and microscopy
    C S Chen
    Molecular Probes, Inc, Eugene, OR 97402, USA
    J Biochem Biophys Methods 42:137-51. 2000
  10. ncbi Mannose-pepstatin conjugates as targeted inhibitors of antigen processing
    Paul Free
    University College London, Department of Chemistry, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, UK
    Org Biomol Chem 4:1817-30. 2006

Research Grants

  1. PRESENILIN ENDOPROTEASE & GAMMA-SECRETASE ACTIVITY
    Weiming Xia; Fiscal Year: 2003
  2. METABOLISM OF SERUM AMYLOID A (SAA:HDL)
    Barbara Kluve Beckerman; Fiscal Year: 2007
  3. Host Polymorphisms and Uncomplicated Malaria
    Sunil Parikh; Fiscal Year: 2008

Detail Information

Publications169 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Proteolytic cleavage of covalently linked cell wall proteins by Candida albicans Sap9 and Sap10
    Lydia Schild
    Department of Microbial Pathogenicity Mechanisms, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans Knoell Institute HKI, Beutenbergstrasse 11a, 07745 Jena, Germany
    Eukaryot Cell 10:98-109. 2011
    ..albicans by human macrophages. We propose that Sap9 and Sap10 influence distinct cell wall functions by proteolytic cleavage of covalently linked cell wall proteins...
  2. ncbi Lysosomal membrane permeabilization contributes to elemene emulsion-induced apoptosis in A549 cells
    Long Jie Li
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, 467 Zhong Shan Road, Dalian 116023, Liaoning, China
    Free Radic Res 45:1232-40. 2011
    ..These results demonstrated that apoptosis induced by elemene emulsion in A549 cells is mediated in part through LMP and lysosomal protease cathepsin D...
  3. ncbi The activation of P2X7 receptor induces cathepsin D-dependent production of a 20-kDa form of IL-1β under acidic extracellular pH in LPS-primed microglial cells
    Takato Takenouchi
    Transgenic Animal Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    J Neurochem 117:712-23. 2011
    ....
  4. pmc Stimulation of the D5 dopamine receptor acidifies the lysosomal pH of retinal pigmented epithelial cells and decreases accumulation of autofluorescent photoreceptor debris
    Sonia Guha
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA
    J Neurochem 122:823-33. 2012
    ..The reduced accumulation of lipofuscin-like autofluorescence implies the D5 receptor stimulation may enable cells to better support adjacent neurons...
  5. pmc Cathepsin D overexpressed by cancer cells can enhance apoptosis-dependent chemo-sensitivity independently of its catalytic activity
    Melanie Beaujouin
    Inserm Unit 540, Montpellier, France
    Adv Exp Med Biol 617:453-61. 2008
    ..Overall, our results imply that cytosolic CD stimulates apoptotic pathways by interacting with a member of the apoptotic machinery rather than by cleaving specific substrate(s)...
  6. ncbi pH controls both transcription and post-translational processing of the protease BcACP1 in the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea
    Stephane Rolland
    Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire de Génomique Fonctionnelle des Champignons Pathogènes des Plantes, UMR5240, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, Bayer CropScience, 14 20 rue Pierre Baizet, 69263 Lyon Cedex 09, France
    Microbiology 155:2097-105. 2009
    ..Evidence is presented for an autocatalytic proteolysis of the enzyme that is triggered by acidic pH. Environmental pH therefore controls Bcacp1 production at both the transcriptional and post-translational level...
  7. pmc Plasmodium food vacuole plasmepsins are activated by falcipains
    Mark E Drew
    Department of Medicine and Molecular Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:12870-6. 2008
    ..These results establish a further level of redundancy between the protease families involved in Plasmodium hemoglobin degradation...
  8. pmc Targeted delivery of antigen processing inhibitors to antigen presenting cells via mannose receptors
    Eun Ang Raiber
    Department of Chemistry, UCL, London, UK
    ACS Chem Biol 5:461-76. 2010
    ..The strategy adopted for MPC6 synthesis may therefore represent a more general way to deliver chemical inhibitors to cells of the innate immune system, especially at sites of inflammation...
  9. ncbi Probing the cathepsin D using a BODIPY FL-pepstatin A: applications in fluorescence polarization and microscopy
    C S Chen
    Molecular Probes, Inc, Eugene, OR 97402, USA
    J Biochem Biophys Methods 42:137-51. 2000
    ..These properties, along with the good photostability of the BODIPY FL fluorophore, make this probe a novel tool for the study of the secretion and trafficking of cathepsin D...
  10. ncbi Mannose-pepstatin conjugates as targeted inhibitors of antigen processing
    Paul Free
    University College London, Department of Chemistry, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, UK
    Org Biomol Chem 4:1817-30. 2006
    ..However, a neomannosylated BSA-pepstatin conjugate incorporating a cleavable disulfide linkage between the pepstatin and the BSA showed the best uptake to dendritic cells and the best inhibition of antigen processing...
  11. ncbi Cathepsin D triggers Bax activation, resulting in selective apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) relocation in T lymphocytes entering the early commitment phase to apoptosis
    Nicolas Bidere
    Laboratoire de Greffes d Epithéliums et Régulation de l Activation Lymphocytaire, Unité INSERM 542, Hopital Paul Brousse, Villejuif, France
    J Biol Chem 278:31401-11. 2003
    ..This allowed us to define a novel sequence of events in which Cat D triggers Bax activation, Bax induces the selective release of mitochondrial AIF, and the latter is responsible for the early apoptotic phenotype...
  12. ncbi Characterization of plasmepsin V, a membrane-bound aspartic protease homolog in the endoplasmic reticulum of Plasmodium falciparum
    Michael Klemba
    Department of Medicine and Molecular Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Ave, Box 8230, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 143:183-91. 2005
    ..Together, these results strongly suggest that the role of PM V in P. falciparum is distinct from those of previously characterized plasmepsins...
  13. ncbi A novel cell penetrating aspartic protease inhibitor blocks processing and presentation of tetanus toxoid more efficiently than pepstatin A
    Nousheen Zaidi
    Medical and Natural Sciences Research Centre, University of Tubingen, Ob dem Himmelreich 7, 72074 Tubingen, Germany
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 364:243-9. 2007
    ..Moreover, inhibition of tetanus toxoid C-fragment processing by PepA-P clearly implicates the role of aspartic proteinases in antigen processing...
  14. pmc Inhibition of a secreted glutamic peptidase prevents growth of the fungus Talaromyces emersonii
    Anthony J O'Donoghue
    Department of Biochemistry, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway, Ireland
    J Biol Chem 283:29186-95. 2008
    ..emersonii in complex media is unaffected by the aspartyl peptidase inhibitor pepstatin but is inhibited by TA1 and PT1. This study provides insight into the functional role of the glutamic peptidase TGP1 for growth of T. emersonii...
  15. ncbi Cathepsin D mediates cytochrome c release and caspase activation in human fibroblast apoptosis induced by staurosporine
    A C Johansson
    Division of Pathology II, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, S 58185 Linkoping, Sweden
    Cell Death Differ 10:1253-9. 2003
    ..Analysis of the relative sequence of apoptotic events indicates that, in this cell type, cathepsin D acts upstream of cytochrome c release and caspase activation...
  16. pmc Candida albicans possesses Sap7 as a pepstatin A-insensitive secreted aspartic protease
    Wataru Aoki
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, Japan
    PLoS ONE 7:e32513. 2012
    ..Thus, it is important to elucidate their biochemical properties for better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that how Sap isozymes damage host tissues...
  17. ncbi Secreted aspartic proteases of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida lusitaniae. Inhibition with peptidomimetic inhibitors
    I Pichova
    Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic
    Eur J Biochem 268:2669-77. 2001
    ..The HIV-1 protease inhibitors ritonavir, saquinavir, indinavir, and nelfinavir were also tested for the inhibition of four Saps. Only ritonavir and saquinavir inhibited Sap2p, Sapt1p, Sapp1p, and Saplp in micromolar concentrations...
  18. ncbi Presentation of the Goodpasture autoantigen requires proteolytic unlocking steps that destroy prominent T cell epitopes
    Juan Zou
    MRC Centre for Inflammation Research Renal Autoimmunity, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    J Am Soc Nephrol 18:771-9. 2007
    ..These observations can explain why the mature T cell repertoire includes reactivity toward these self-peptides and suggests that a key factor in disease initiation is likely to be a shift in antigen processing...
  19. ncbi Involvement of lysosomal storage-induced p38 MAP kinase activation in the overproduction of nitric oxide by microglia in cathepsin D-deficient mice
    Ryo Yamasaki
    Laboratory of Oral Aging Science, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812 8582, Japan
    Mol Cell Neurosci 35:573-84. 2007
    ..The activated p38 MAP kinase cascade then promotes the expression of iNOS and CAT-2, thereby inducing the overproduction of NO...
  20. ncbi Linear non-competitive inhibition of solubilized human gamma-secretase by pepstatin A methylester, L685458, sulfonamides, and benzodiazepines
    Gaochao Tian
    Department of Lead Discovery, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, Delaware 19850, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:31499-505. 2002
    ..Models to rationalize how transition state analogs inhibit their targets by non-competitive inhibition are discussed...
  21. ncbi Pepstatin A induces extracellular acidification distinct from aspartic protease inhibition in microglial cell lines
    Mitsuko Okada
    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neurogenetics, LTA Medical Corporation, Fukuoka, Japan
    Glia 43:167-74. 2003
    ....
  22. ncbi Calculating proton uptake/release and binding free energy taking into account ionization and conformation changes induced by protein-inhibitor association: application to plasmepsin, cathepsin D and endothiapepsin-pepstatin complexes
    Emil Alexov
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Columbia University Department of Biochemistry, 630W 168 Street, NY 10032, USA
    Proteins 56:572-84. 2004
    ..The sequence and structural position of these groups aligns well within the three proteases, suggesting that these may have specific role...
  23. ncbi Novel inhibition of porcine pepsin by a substituted piperidine. Preference for one of the enzyme conformers
    Jovita Marcinkeviciene
    Department of Chemical Enzymology, Bristol Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Company, Wilmington, Delaware 19880 0400, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:28677-82. 2002
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that the enzyme can readily interconvert between two conformers, one capable of binding substrate and pepstatin A and the other capable of binding the substituted piperidine...
  24. ncbi Isolation, activity and immunological characterisation of a secreted aspartic protease, CtsD, from Aspergillus fumigatus
    Imelda Vickers
    National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Department of Biology, National University of Ireland Maynooth, Co Kildare, Ireland
    Protein Expr Purif 53:216-24. 2007
    ..Expression of ctsD was absent under nutrient-rich conditions. Expression of ctsD was also detected, in vivo, in the Galleria mellonella virulence model following A. fumigatus infection...
  25. ncbi Parasite killing in Plasmodium vivax malaria by nitric oxide: implication of aspartic protease inhibition
    Arun Sharma
    Malaria Research Centre, 22 Sham Nath Marg, Delhi 110 054, India
    J Biochem 136:329-34. 2004
    ..vivax infections for antimalarial chemotherapy and also biochemical adaptations of the malaria parasite for survival in the host erythrocytes with a better understanding of the protease substrate interactions...
  26. ncbi In vitro secreted aspartyl proteinase activity of Candida albicans isolated from oral diseases and healthy oral cavities
    T Kuriyama
    Department of Oral Surgery, Medicine and Pathology, Dental School, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff, UK
    Oral Microbiol Immunol 18:405-7. 2003
    ..05). SAP activity was inhibited in control samples containing the SAP inhibitor, pepstatin A. These results indicate that C. albicans strains associated with oral disease have inherently higher SAP activity...
  27. ncbi Crystal structure of aspartic proteinase from Irpex lacteus in complex with inhibitor pepstatin
    Zui Fujimoto
    Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8602, Japan
    J Mol Biol 341:1227-35. 2004
    ..The inhibitor complex structure also revealed the substrate binding mechanism of ILAP at the P(3) and P(4) site of the substrate, where the inserted loop built up the unique hydrophobic pocket at the P(4) site...
  28. ncbi Aspartyl protease inhibitor pepstatin binds to the presenilins of Alzheimer's disease
    G Evin
    Department of Pathology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
    Biochemistry 40:8359-68. 2001
    ..Binding of pepstatin-biotin to PS1 from lymphocytes of a heterozygous carrier of pathologic exon 9 deletion was markedly decreased as compared to control lymphocytes, suggesting that this PS1 mutation altered the pepstatin binding site...
  29. ncbi Preliminary analysis of the proteolytic enzymes in the excretory-secretory products of the adult stages of the dog hookworm Uncinaria stenocephala
    G Kotomski
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw Agricultural University, Grochowska 272, 03-849 Warsaw, Poland
    Parasite 8:67-70. 2001
    ..Quantitative analysis revealed maximum proteolytic activity of the polypeptides of 159 and 182 kDa at pH 7; 98 and 26 kDa at pH 8 while the 50 kDa and 39 kDa components showed the highest activity at pH 9...
  30. ncbi Novel aspartyl proteinase associated to fat body histolysis during Ceratitis capitata early metamorphosis
    Alejandro Rabossi
    Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquimicas, CONICET and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 57:51-67. 2004
    ..Our data support the notion that EMAP is a metamorphosis-specific lysosomal proteinase, mostly expressed during larval fat body histolysis...
  31. ncbi Cathepsin D-mediated proteolysis of apolipoprotein E: possible role in Alzheimer's disease
    W Zhou
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0515, USA
    Neuroscience 143:689-701. 2006
    ..These results suggest that aspartic proteases, catD in particular, may be involved in proteolysis of apoE and perhaps contribute to the generation of apoE fragments previously implicated in AD pathology...
  32. ncbi Hypoxia inhibits expression of prolactin and secretion of cathepsin-D by the GH4C1 pituitary adenoma cell line
    Gabriela Cosio
    Neurobiology Institute, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Campus UNAM Juriquilla, Queretaro, Qro, Mexico
    Lab Invest 83:1627-36. 2003
    ..These mechanisms may act in concert to stimulate angiogenesis in prolactinomas...
  33. ncbi A targeted protease substrate for a quantitative determination of protease activities in the endolysosomal pathway
    Rainer Fischer
    Eberhard Karls University Tubingen, Department of Molecular Biology, Interfaculty Institute for Cell Biology, Auf der Morgenstelle 15, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Chembiochem 7:1428-34. 2006
    ..Nona-arginine therefore constitutes a highly efficient low-molecular-weight moiety for targeting the endolysosomal compartment...
  34. pmc Purification and characterization of pepsins A1 and A2 from the Antarctic rock cod Trematomus bernacchii
    Sébastien Brier
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and The Barnett Institute for Chemical and Biological Analysis, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA
    FEBS J 274:6152-66. 2007
    ..Gene duplication of Antarctic rock cod pepsins is the likely mechanism for adaptation to the harsh temperature environment in which these enzymes must function...
  35. pmc Crystal structure of human pepsin and its complex with pepstatin
    M Fujinaga
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    Protein Sci 4:960-72. 1995
    ..At the S3 site, the smaller volume that is accessible in pepsin compared to the other enzymes is consistent with its preference for smaller residues at the P3 position...
  36. ncbi Crystal structures of Aspergillus oryzae aspartic proteinase and its complex with an inhibitor pepstatin at 1.9A resolution
    Shigehiro Kamitori
    Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2 24 16 Naka cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184 8588, Japan
    J Mol Biol 326:1503-11. 2003
    ..The X-ray structure of AOAP/pepstatin complex and preliminary modeling show two possible sites of recognition for the positively charged groups of Lys/Arg residues around the active site of AOAP...
  37. pmc Crystal structures of native and inhibited forms of human cathepsin D: implications for lysosomal targeting and drug design
    E T Baldwin
    Structural Biochemistry Program, Program Resources Inc DynCorp, National Cancer Institute Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, MD 21702
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:6796-800. 1993
    ....
  38. ncbi Effect of pepstatin A on the virulence factors of Candida albicans strains isolated from vaginal environment of patients in three different clinical conditions
    M E L Consolaro
    Division of Medical Mycology, Teaching and Research in Clinical Analysis Laboratory, State University of Maringa, Maringa, Parana, Brazil
    Mycopathologia 162:75-82. 2006
    ..1, 48.7 and 59.9%, respectively to isolates from asymptomatic, VVC and RVVC patients). This result suggests that the secreted aspartate proteinases (Saps) of this fungal pathogen may have auxiliary roles in cellular adhesion...
  39. ncbi Aspartic proteinases in the digestive tract of marine decapod crustaceans
    María de Los Angeles Navarrete del Toro
    Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste CIBNOR P O Box 128 La Paz, B C S 23000, Mexico
    J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol 305:645-54. 2006
    ..Activities were significantly higher in clawed lobster than in spiny lobster and three species of brachyurans. Therefore, it may be suggested that the expression of acid proteinases is favored in certain groups and reduced in others...
  40. ncbi Chymostatin can combine with pepstatin to eliminate extracellular protease activity in cultures of Aspergillus niger NRRL-3
    Aftab Ahamed
    Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
    J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 34:165-9. 2007
    ....
  41. ncbi Endosomal-lysosomal proteolysis mediates death signalling by TNFalpha, not by etoposide, in L929 fibrosarcoma cells: evidence for an active role of cathepsin D
    Marina Demoz
    Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Università A Avogadro, Novara, Italy
    Biol Chem 383:1237-48. 2002
    ..It follows that proteolysis by cathepsin D is likely to represent an early event in the death pathway triggered by TNFalpha and occurs within the endosomal-lysosomal compartment...
  42. ncbi Identification of soluble forms of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1
    T Murase
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Japan
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 20:715-20. 2000
    ..The data demonstrate that cell-surface LOX-1 can be cleaved at 2 different sites and transformed into soluble forms. Further studies may explore therapeutic and diagnostic applications of soluble LOX-1 in atherosclerotic diseases...
  43. ncbi Biosensor-based screening and characterization of HIV-1 inhibitor interactions with Sap 1, Sap 2, and Sap 3 from Candida albicans
    Dan Backman
    Department of Biochemistry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    J Biomol Screen 11:165-75. 2006
    ..The stepwise biosensor-based strategy was consequently efficient for identification and characterization of new lead compounds for 3 important drug targets...
  44. ncbi Folding, activity and targeting of mutated human cathepsin D that cannot be processed into the double-chain form
    Carlo Follo
    Laboratory of Molecular Pathology, Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Universita del Piemonte Orientale A Avogadro, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara, Italy
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 39:638-49. 2007
    ..The present work provides new insights on the aminoacid region involved in the terminal processing of human CD and on the function of the processing beta-hairpin loop...
  45. ncbi A heterogeneous enzymatic assay for quantification of Plasmepsin II activity and the evaluation of its inhibitors
    Emir Salas
    Centro de Estudio de Proteínas, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de La Habana, Calle 25 455 entre J e I, Vedado, CP 10400, Havana City, Cuba
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 34:833-40. 2004
    ..It was used Pepstatin as a model inhibitor of Plasmepsin II and the resulting dose-response relation agreed with the expected behavior for the Pepstatin-Plasmepsin II pair under the employed experimental conditions...
  46. ncbi NMR study of the inhibition of pepsin by glyoxal inhibitors: mechanism of tetrahedral intermediate stabilization by the aspartyl proteases
    Sonya Cosgrove
    UCD School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, Centre for Synthesis and Chemical Biology, Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Biochemistry 46:11205-15. 2007
    ..We conclude that the primary role of hydrogen bonding to catalytic tetrahedral intermediates in the aspartyl proteases is to correctly orientate the tetrahedral intermediate for catalysis...
  47. ncbi Kinetic and mechanistic analysis of the association and dissociation of inhibitors interacting with secreted aspartic acid proteases 1 and 2 from Candida albicans
    Dan Backman
    Department of Biochemistry, Uppsala University, BMC, Sweden
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1646:184-95. 2003
    ..Differences in the number and distribution of charged nonactive site residues in Sap1 and Sap2 evidently result in different electrostatic properties of the binding sites, primarily influencing the association step...
  48. pmc Inhibition of glioma cell lysosome exocytosis inhibits glioma invasion
    Yu Liu
    Department of Pathology, Department of Neurobiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China
    PLoS ONE 7:e45910. 2012
    ..Inhibition of cathepsin D inhibited glioma cell migration. The data suggest that the inhibition of lysosome exocytosis from glioma cells plays an important modulatory role in their migration and invasion...
  49. ncbi Inhibition of human napsin A
    Rebecca F Cronshaw
    School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, P O Box 911, Cardiff CF10 3US, Wales, UK
    Protein Pept Lett 10:35-42. 2003
    ..was weakly inhibited by the 17 kDa polypeptide from Ascaris lumbricoides and potently by isovaleryl and lactoyl-pepstatins. A series of synthetic inhibitors was also investigated which contained in the P(1)-P(1)' positions the ..
  50. pmc Tetracycline-inducible expression of individual secreted aspartic proteases in Candida albicans allows isoenzyme-specific inhibitor screening
    Peter Staib
    Institut für Molekulare Infektionsbiologie, Universitat Wurzburg, Rontgenring 11, D 97070 Wurzburg, Germany
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:146-56. 2008
    ..Therefore, the strain set can be used to test the activity of new protease inhibitors against individual C. albicans Sap isoenzymes by their ability to block the growth of the pathogen...
  51. ncbi Involvement of cathepsin E in exogenous antigen processing in primary cultured murine microglia
    Tsuyoshi Nishioku
    Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Dental Science, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812 8582, Japan
    J Biol Chem 277:4816-22. 2002
    ..In conclusion, CE is required for the generation of an antigenic epitope from OVA but not for the processing of Ii in microglia...
  52. ncbi Molecular model for the binary complex of uropepsin and pepstatin
    W F de Azevedo
    , IBILCE, UNESP, , SP 15054-000, Brazil
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 287:277-81. 2001
    ..A structural comparison between binary complexes of pepsin:pepstatin and uropepsin:pepstatin is discussed...
  53. ncbi Cathepsin E generates a sumoylated intracellular fragment of the cell adhesion molecule L1 to promote neuronal and Schwann cell migration as well as myelination
    David Lutz
    Zentrum für Molekulare Neurobiologie, Universitatsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    J Neurochem 128:713-24. 2014
    ....
  54. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus has an aspartic-type protease that can be inhibited by pepstatin A
    S Seelmeier
    Max von Pettenkofer Institute, University of Munich, Federal Republic of Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85:6612-6. 1988
    ..Furthermore, incubation of HIV-infected H9 cells with pepstatin A inhibited part of the intracellular processing of the HIV gag protein yet had no apparent toxicity on HIV-infected cells during 48 hr of incubation...
  55. ncbi Kinetic analysis of renin and its inhibitors by detecting double-labelled peptidic substrates with an immunoassay
    Hans H Gorris
    Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo and Biosensors, University of Regensburg, D 93040 Regensburg, Germany
    Analyst 138:2104-9. 2013
    ..This kinetic analysis is amenable to parallelization for large-scale inhibitor screening. Furthermore, it can be easily adapted to inhibitors of other medically important proteases...
  56. ncbi Pepstatin A, an aspartic proteinase inhibitor, suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation
    Hajime Yoshida
    Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Development and Reconstructive Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852 8588
    J Biochem 139:583-90. 2006
    ..These results suggest that pepstatin A suppresses the differentiation of osteoclasts through the blockade of ERK signaling and the inhibition of NFATc1 expression...
  57. ncbi Chlapsin, a chloroplastidial aspartic proteinase from the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    Carla Malaquias Almeida
    Biocant, Biotechnology Innovation Center, Molecular Biotechnology Unit, Parque Tecnológico de Cantanhede, Núcleo 4 Lote 3, 3060 197, Cantanhede, Portugal
    Planta 236:283-96. 2012
    ....
  58. pmc A cell culture system for the study of amyloid pathogenesis. Amyloid formation by peritoneal macrophages cultured with recombinant serum amyloid A
    B Kluve-Beckerman
    Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA
    Am J Pathol 155:123-33. 1999
    ..The macrophage culture model presented here offers a new approach to the study of AA amyloid pathogenesis...
  59. ncbi Proteolysis of Plasmodium falciparum surface antigen, Pfs230, during gametogenesis
    S R Brooks
    Department of Biology, Loyola University of Chicago, IL 60626, USA
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 106:77-82. 2000
    ..The data also suggest that Pfs230 undergoes proteolytic processing prior to emergence from the red blood cell...
  60. pmc Beneficial effects of cathepsin inhibition to prevent chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis
    I Alamir
    Institute for Biomedical Research and European Institute for Peptide Research, Rouen University, France
    Clin Exp Immunol 162:298-305. 2010
    ..In conclusion, a large broad inhibition of cathepsins could represent a new potential target to limit the severity of chemotherapy-induced mucositis as opposed to the inhibition of cathepsin D alone...
  61. ncbi Cysteine proteases in Langerhans cells limits presentation of cartilage derived type II collagen for autoreactive T cells
    Meirav Holmdahl
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Lund University, Sweden
    Int Immunol 16:717-26. 2004
    ....
  62. ncbi FAD mutations in presenilin-1 or amyloid precursor protein decrease the efficacy of a gamma-secretase inhibitor: evidence for direct involvement of PS1 in the gamma-secretase cleavage complex
    W Xia
    Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 7:673-81. 2000
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that PS1 participates physically in a complex with APP during the gamma-secretase cleavage event...
  63. ncbi Replacement of isobutyl by trifluoromethyl in pepstatin A selectively affects inhibition of aspartic proteinases
    Christoph Binkert
    Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd Gewerbestrasse 16, 4123 Allschwil, Switzerland
    Chembiochem 7:181-6. 2006
    ..In summary, Tfm can be used to replace an isobutyl group and can affect the selectivity profile of a compound. These findings have implications for the design of novel bioactive molecules and synthetic mimics of natural compounds...
  64. ncbi Protease inhibitors from several classes work synergistically against Callosobruchus maculatus
    Bahagiawati Amirhusin
    Indonesia Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development, Jalan Tentara Pelajar 3A, Bogor 16111, Indonesia
    J Insect Physiol 53:734-40. 2007
    ..Our results also suggest that transgenic resistance strategies that involve multigene products are likely to have enhanced efficacy and durability...
  65. ncbi A new pepsin assay to detect pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents among newly intubated patients
    Jacob W Ufberg
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Temple University Hospital, 3401 N Broad Street, 10th Floor Jones Hall, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
    Am J Emerg Med 22:612-4. 2004
    ..Pepstatin halted pepsin activity in all positive samples, ensuring that positive results were due to pepsin. A pepsin-specific assay is extremely reliable for detecting gastric contents in humans...
  66. ncbi The expression and function of cathepsin E in dendritic cells
    Benjamin M Chain
    Department of Immunology and Molecular Pathology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 174:1791-800. 2005
    ..The data therefore support the hypothesis that cathepsin E has an important nonredundant role in the class II MHC Ag processing pathway within dendritic cells...
  67. ncbi Review article: human pepsins - their multiplicity, function and role in reflux disease
    N B Roberts
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Metabolic Medicine, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 24:2-9. 2006
    ..The ability to reduce gastric secretion is therefore important in effective treatment. However, being able also to inhibit enzymic activity or protect substrates from damage using alginates offers considerable scope for future therapies...
  68. ncbi Selective cell death of oncogenic Akt-transduced brain cancer cells by etoposide through reactive oxygen species mediated damage
    Se Yeong Oh
    Breast Cancer Translational Research Laboratory, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, 5 Ka, Anam Dong, Seongbuk gu, Seoul 136 713, Republic of Korea
    Mol Cancer Ther 6:2178-87. 2007
    ..In the present study, we show that etoposide might possess a novel therapeutic activity for oncogenic Akt-transduced cancer cells to kill preferentially through ROS-mediated damage...
  69. ncbi [Description of an acidic peptidase, insensitive to classical inhibitors, in protein extracts of Trypanosoma cruzi, from a rural area of Venezuela, where Chagas disease is endemic]
    Edgar Armando Zambrano
    Laboratorio de Bioquímica de Parásitos, Servicio Autónomo Instituto de Biomedicina, Caracas, Venezuela
    Invest Clin 54:270-83. 2013
    ..Nevertheless, like porcine pepsin at pH 2.9, the peptidase was inhibited in the presence of 5mM DTT...
  70. ncbi SPR imaging biosensor for aspartyl cathepsins: sensor development and application for biological material
    Ewa Gorodkiewicz
    Department of Electrochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Al J Pilsudskiego11 4, 15 443 Bialystok, Poland
    Protein Pept Lett 17:1148-54. 2010
    ..In order to demonstrate the sensor's potential, Cat E was determined in human red blood cells, Cat D in human saliva, as well as total concentration of Cat D and Cat E in human nasal polyps...
  71. pmc Proteomic evaluation and validation of cathepsin D regulated proteins in macrophages exposed to Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Martin A Bewley
    Medical School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
    Mol Cell Proteomics 10:M111.008193. 2011
    ..These findings demonstrate that cathepsin D regulates multiple proteins controlling the mitochondrial pathway of macrophage apoptosis or competing death processes, facilitating intracellular bacterial killing...
  72. ncbi Possible involvement of EBV-mediated alpha-fodrin cleavage for organ-specific autoantigen in Sjogren's syndrome
    H Inoue
    Department of Pathology, Tokushima University School of Dentistry, Tokushima, Japan
    J Immunol 166:5801-9. 2001
    ..Thus, an increase in apoptotic protease activities induced by EBV reactivation may be involved in the progression of alpha-fodrin proteolysis in the development of SS...
  73. pmc Autophagic degradation of active caspase-8: a crosstalk mechanism between autophagy and apoptosis
    Wen Hou
    Department of Pathology, The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Autophagy 6:891-900. 2010
    ..The current findings are the first to provide evidence for regulation of caspase activity by autophagy and thus broaden the molecular basis for the observed polarization between autophagy and apoptosis...
  74. ncbi HIV-1 integrase-hydrolyzing antibodies from sera of HIV-infected patients
    Svetlana V Baranova
    Siberian Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Novosibirsk, Russia
    Biochimie 91:1081-6. 2009
    ..In addition, detection of IN-hydrolyzing activity can be useful for diagnostic purposes and for estimation of the immune status in AIDS patients...
  75. ncbi Dopamine induces apoptosis in APPswe-expressing Neuro2A cells following Pepstatin-sensitive proteolysis of APP in acid compartments
    Monica Cagnin
    Department of Health Sciences, Laboratory of Molecular Pathology and Nanobioimaging, Universita del Piemonte Orientale A Avogadro, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara, Italy
    Brain Res 1471:102-17. 2012
    ....
  76. ncbi Cathepsin E regulates the presentation of tetanus toxin C-fragment in PMA activated primary human B cells
    Timo Burster
    Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine I, University Medical Center Ulm, Robert Koch Str 8, Ulm, Germany
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 377:1299-303. 2008
    ..Thus we suggest that CatE is important in the processing of TTC in primary human B cells...
  77. ncbi Inhibition of XMRV and HIV-1 proteases by pepstatin A and acetyl-pepstatin
    Krisztina Matúz
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Hungary
    FEBS J 279:3276-86. 2012
    ..The structure is thus in good agreement with the very similar interaction energies calculated for the two types of binding...
  78. pmc Acetate-induced apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma cells involves lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin D release
    C Marques
    CBMA Centre of Molecular and Environmental Biology, Department of Biology, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, Braga, Portugal
    Cell Death Dis 4:e507. 2013
    ....
  79. ncbi Autolysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) meat: characterization and the effects of protein additives
    P Eakpetch
    Dept of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro Industry, Prince of Songkla Univ, Hat Yai, 90112, Thailand
    J Food Sci 73:S95-103. 2008
    ..WPC and BPP in the range of 2% to 3% exhibited the highest inhibition toward autolysis of shrimp mince...
  80. ncbi Natural killer-like cells in the sheep: functional characterization and regulation by pregnancy-associated proteins
    Saban Tekin
    Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611 0910, USA
    Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 227:803-11. 2002
    ..Stimulation of lysis by IFN-tau implies the existence of other inhibitory mechanisms during early pregnancy to prevent NK cell-mediated destruction of the conceptus...
  81. ncbi Endosomal proteases influence the repertoire of MAGE-A3 epitopes recognized in vivo by CD4+ T cells
    Jill Marturano
    Department of Oncology, Scientific Institute H San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
    Cancer Res 68:1555-62. 2008
    ....
  82. ncbi Ionization states of the catalytic residues in HIV-1 protease
    R Smith
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Queensland, Australia
    Nat Struct Biol 3:946-50. 1996
    ..These direct observations of the chemical properties of the catalytic apparatus of the enzyme provide concrete information on which to base the design of improved HIV-1 protease inhibitors...
  83. pmc HSP70 inhibition by 2-phenylethynesulfonamide induces lysosomal cathepsin D release and immunogenic cell death in primary effusion lymphoma
    M Granato
    Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, Istituto Pasteur Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy
    Cell Death Dis 4:e730. 2013
    ..In addition, PES was responsible for a block of the autophagic process in PEL cells. Finally, we found that PES-induced cell death has immunogenic potential being able to induce dendritic cell activation. ..
  84. pmc Regulation of cathepsin G reduces the activation of proinsulin-reactive T cells from type 1 diabetes patients
    Fang Zou
    Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Center for Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e22815. 2011
    ..Our data suggested the notion that CatG plays a critical role in proinsulin processing and is important in the activation process of diabetogenic T cells...
  85. pmc M-opsin protein degradation is inhibited by MG-132 in Rpe65⁻/⁻ retinal explant culture
    Kota Sato
    Department of Ophthalmology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori, Japan
    Mol Vis 18:1516-25. 2012
    ..We used an explant culture system to evaluate whether posttranslational downregulation of M-opsin protein in Rpe65(-/-) mice is caused by proteolytic degradation...
  86. pmc Structural and biochemical characterization of the inhibitor complexes of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus protease
    Mi Li
    Protein Structure Section, Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    FEBS J 278:4413-24. 2011
    ..Whereas TL-3 and amprenavir bound in a predictable manner, spanning the substrate-binding site of the enzyme, two molecules of pepstatin A bound simultaneously in an unprecedented manner, leaving the catalytic water molecule in place...
  87. pmc Isolation and characterization of recombinant Drosophila Copia aspartic proteinase
    Senarath B P Athauda
    Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Biochem J 399:535-42. 2006
    ..The B-chain of oxidized bovine insulin was hydrolysed at the Leu15-Tyr16 bond fairly selectively. Thus the recombinant Copia proteinase partially resembles HIV proteinase, but is significantly different from it in certain aspects...
  88. ncbi Pepstatin A alters host cell autophagic machinery and leads to a decrease in influenza A virus production
    Paola Matarrese
    Department of Drug Research and Medicine Evaluation, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
    J Cell Physiol 226:3368-77. 2011
    ....
  89. ncbi X-ray structures of Sap1 and Sap5: structural comparison of the secreted aspartic proteinases from Candida albicans
    Claudia Borelli
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Ludwig Maximilian University, 80337 Munich, Germany
    Proteins 72:1308-19. 2008
    ..Determination of the isoenzymes' structures can contribute to the development of new Sap-specific inhibitors for the treatment of superficial infections with a structure-based drug design program...
  90. ncbi The surfactant lipid transporter ABCA3 is N-terminally cleaved inside LAMP3-positive vesicles
    Stefanie Engelbrecht
    Pediatric Pneumology, Dr von Hauner Children s Hospital, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    FEBS Lett 584:4306-12. 2010
    ..Using N- and C-terminal protein tags and hindering ABCA3 processing we show that the 150 kDa protein represents the mature ABCA3 whose N-terminus is cleaved by a cysteine protease inside MVB/LB...
  91. ncbi TGF-beta signaling preserves RECK expression in activated pancreatic stellate cells
    Hongsik Lee
    Department of Internal Medicine, Ansan Korea University Hospital, Ansan, Gyeonggi Do, Korea
    J Cell Biochem 104:1065-74. 2008
    ....
  92. ncbi Decrease in age-adjusted cerebrospinal fluid beta-secretase activity in Alzheimer's subjects
    Guoxin Wu
    Alzheimer s Research, Merck Research Laboratory, West Point, PA, USA
    Clin Biochem 41:986-96. 2008
    ..To develop a novel cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) beta-secretase-1 activity assay and evaluate beta-secretase-1 (BACE-1) activity as a potential biomarker in human Alzheimer's disease...
  93. ncbi Production and characterization of recombinant cyprosin B in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (W303-1A) strain
    Pedro N Sampaio
    Unidade de Biologia Molecular e Biotecnologia de Plantas, Instituto de Ciência Aplicada e Tecnologia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749 016 Lisboa, Portugal
    J Biosci Bioeng 105:305-12. 2008
    ....
  94. ncbi Expression and characterization of the recombinant aspartic proteinase A1 from Arabidopsis thaliana
    Miguel A Mazorra-Manzano
    Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1
    Phytochemistry 69:2439-48. 2008
    ..0, K(m) of 44 microM, and k(cat) of 55 s(-1) using a synthetic substrate. The enzyme was inhibited by pepstatin A...
  95. ncbi The crystal structure of the secreted aspartic protease 1 from Candida parapsilosis in complex with pepstatin A
    Jiri Dostal
    Gilead Sciences and IOCB Research Centre, Prague, Czech Republic
    J Struct Biol 167:145-52. 2009
    ..Determination of structures of Sap isoenzymes from various species might contribute to the development of new Sap-specific inhibitors...
  96. ncbi Pathogenic importance of pepsin in ischemia/reperfusion-induced gastric injury
    Tohru Kotani
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Kyoto Pharmaceutical Universitym Misasagi, Yamashina, Kyoto 607 8414, Japan
    Life Sci 80:1984-92. 2007
    ....
  97. ncbi Involvement of cathepsin B in the processing and secretion of interleukin-1beta in chromogranin A-stimulated microglia
    Kayo Terada
    Department of Aging Science and Pharmacology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
    Glia 58:114-24. 2010
    ..Therefore, either pharmacological or genetic inhibition of CB may provide therapeutic intervention in inflammation-associated neurological diseases...
  98. ncbi Virulence of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis in reconstituted human tissue models
    Attila Gacser
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Fungal Genet Biol 44:1336-41. 2007
    ..Our data show that reconstituted human tissues are extremely useful for modeling host interactions with C. parapsilosis and for studying fungal virulence factors...
  99. ncbi Cleavage of E-cadherin: a mechanism for disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier by Candida albicans
    Charlotte F Frank
    Department of Microbiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Transl Res 149:211-22. 2007
    ..albicans: an intracellular cleavage event that generates a substrate for gamma-secretase and an extracellular cleavage event that is temporally associated with an increase in monolayer permeability...
  100. pmc Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins induce rapid release of mature IL-1beta from murine macrophages in a NLRP3 inflammasome and cathepsin B-dependent manner
    Jessica Chu
    Immunology Graduate Program, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 86:1227-38. 2009
    ....
  101. ncbi Purification and characterization of the yeast glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored, monobasic-specific aspartyl protease yapsin 2 (Mkc7p)
    H Komano
    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0606, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:24431-7. 1999
    ..0. However, V(max)/K(m) for a substrate mimicking the alpha-secretase site in human beta amyloid precursor protein was optimal near pH 6.0, consistent with cleavage of beta amyloid precursor protein by yapsin 2 when expressed in yeast...

Research Grants3

  1. PRESENILIN ENDOPROTEASE & GAMMA-SECRETASE ACTIVITY
    Weiming Xia; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. METABOLISM OF SERUM AMYLOID A (SAA:HDL)
    Barbara Kluve Beckerman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..By clarifying pathogenic mechanisms at the cellular level, these studies will help identify potential targets for drugs aimed at inhibiting amyloid formation or arresting its progression. ..
  3. Host Polymorphisms and Uncomplicated Malaria
    Sunil Parikh; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Parikh will be able to utilize modern molecular epidemiology techniques to investigate human genetic factors underlying susceptibility to malaria and he will be well equipped for a career in academic research. ..