angiotensin ii

Summary

Summary: The active form of angiotensin. An octapeptide found in blood, it is synthesized from ANGIOTENSIN I and quickly destroyed. Angiotensin II causes profound vasoconstriction with a resulting increase in blood pressure. It differs among species by the amino acid in position 5. The human form has ISOLEUCINE in this position. The clinically and experimentally used bovine form has VALINE in position 5. Medically useful antagonism is obtained with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Angiotensin II cell signaling: physiological and pathological effects in the cardiovascular system
    Puja K Mehta
    Division of Cardiology, 319 WMB, Emory University, 1639 Pierce Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 292:C82-97. 2007
  2. pmc Cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrosis
    T A Wynn
    Immunopathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Pathol 214:199-210. 2008
  3. pmc Distinct roles of Nox1 and Nox4 in basal and angiotensin II-stimulated superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production
    Sergey I Dikalov
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, 1639 Pierce Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 45:1340-51. 2008
  4. pmc Macrophage-stimulated cardiac fibroblast production of IL-6 is essential for TGF β/Smad activation and cardiac fibrosis induced by angiotensin II
    Feifei Ma
    Beijing An Zhen Hospital, Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute of Heart, Lung, and Blood Vessel Diseases, Beijing, China
    PLoS ONE 7:e35144. 2012
  5. ncbi Angiotensin II and EGF receptor cross-talk in chronic kidney diseases: a new therapeutic approach
    Alexandre Lautrette
    INSERM U426, Hopital Necker Enfants Malades, IFR 94, Universite Paris 5, 149 rue de Sevres, 75015 Paris, France
    Nat Med 11:867-74. 2005
  6. ncbi Transforming growth factor beta receptor endoglin is expressed in cardiac fibroblasts and modulates profibrogenic actions of angiotensin II
    Kui Chen
    Department of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, USA
    Circ Res 95:1167-73. 2004
  7. pmc Angiotensin II facilitates breast cancer cell migration and metastasis
    Sylvie Rodrigues-Ferreira
    INSERM, Institut Cochin, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 7:e35667. 2012
  8. pmc The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system: from physiology to the pathobiology of hypertension and kidney disease
    Hiroyuki Kobori
    Department of Medicine, Director of the Molecular Core in Hypertension and Renal Center of Excellence, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112 2699, USA
    Pharmacol Rev 59:251-87. 2007
  9. pmc MiR-30-regulated autophagy mediates angiotensin II-induced myocardial hypertrophy
    Wei Pan
    Cardiovascular Department, the Second Hospital Affiliated to Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China
    PLoS ONE 8:e53950. 2013
  10. ncbi The positive inotropic effect of angiotensin II: role of endothelin-1 and reactive oxygen species
    Horacio E Cingolani
    Centro de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina
    Hypertension 47:727-34. 2006

Detail Information

Publications409 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Angiotensin II cell signaling: physiological and pathological effects in the cardiovascular system
    Puja K Mehta
    Division of Cardiology, 319 WMB, Emory University, 1639 Pierce Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 292:C82-97. 2007
    ..Its primary effector hormone, angiotensin II (ANG II), not only mediates immediate physiological effects of vasoconstriction and blood pressure regulation, ..
  2. pmc Cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrosis
    T A Wynn
    Immunopathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Pathol 214:199-210. 2008
    ..This review explores our current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrogenesis...
  3. pmc Distinct roles of Nox1 and Nox4 in basal and angiotensin II-stimulated superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production
    Sergey I Dikalov
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, 1639 Pierce Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 45:1340-51. 2008
    ..We hypothesized that Nox1 and Nox4 play distinct roles in basal and angiotensin II (AngII)-stimulated production of O2*- and H2O2...
  4. pmc Macrophage-stimulated cardiac fibroblast production of IL-6 is essential for TGF β/Smad activation and cardiac fibrosis induced by angiotensin II
    Feifei Ma
    Beijing An Zhen Hospital, Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute of Heart, Lung, and Blood Vessel Diseases, Beijing, China
    PLoS ONE 7:e35144. 2012
    ..However, the mechanism of IL-6 in hypertensive cardiac fibrosis is still unclear. Angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion in mice increased IL-6 expression in the heart...
  5. ncbi Angiotensin II and EGF receptor cross-talk in chronic kidney diseases: a new therapeutic approach
    Alexandre Lautrette
    INSERM U426, Hopital Necker Enfants Malades, IFR 94, Universite Paris 5, 149 rue de Sevres, 75015 Paris, France
    Nat Med 11:867-74. 2005
    Mechanisms of progression of chronic renal diseases, a major healthcare burden, are poorly understood. Angiotensin II (AngII), the major renin-angiotensin system effector, is known to be involved in renal deterioration, but the molecular ..
  6. ncbi Transforming growth factor beta receptor endoglin is expressed in cardiac fibroblasts and modulates profibrogenic actions of angiotensin II
    Kui Chen
    Department of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, USA
    Circ Res 95:1167-73. 2004
    b>Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a powerful mediator of adverse cardiac remodeling and fibrosis. However, the mechanisms of Ang II-induced myocardial fibrosis remain to be clarified...
  7. pmc Angiotensin II facilitates breast cancer cell migration and metastasis
    Sylvie Rodrigues-Ferreira
    INSERM, Institut Cochin, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 7:e35667. 2012
    ..In this study, we investigated whether angiotensin II, a major vasoactive peptide both produced locally and released in the bloodstream, may trigger activating ..
  8. pmc The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system: from physiology to the pathobiology of hypertension and kidney disease
    Hiroyuki Kobori
    Department of Medicine, Director of the Molecular Core in Hypertension and Renal Center of Excellence, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112 2699, USA
    Pharmacol Rev 59:251-87. 2007
    ..In the kidney, all of the RAS components are present and intrarenal angiotensin II (Ang II) is formed by independent multiple mechanisms...
  9. pmc MiR-30-regulated autophagy mediates angiotensin II-induced myocardial hypertrophy
    Wei Pan
    Cardiovascular Department, the Second Hospital Affiliated to Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China
    PLoS ONE 8:e53950. 2013
    ..b>Angiotensin II-induced myocardial hypertrophy was found to be mediated by over-expression of the beclin-1 gene...
  10. ncbi The positive inotropic effect of angiotensin II: role of endothelin-1 and reactive oxygen species
    Horacio E Cingolani
    Centro de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina
    Hypertension 47:727-34. 2006
    Many effects believed to be because of angiotensin II (Ang II) are attributable to the action of endothelin (ET)-1, which is released/produced by Ang II...
  11. doi Serum-glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 regulates alternatively activated macrophage polarization contributing to angiotensin II-induced inflammation and cardiac fibrosis
    Min Yang
    Beijing Anzhen Hospital affiliated to the Capital Medical University, China
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 32:1675-86. 2012
    ..We aimed to determine the mechanism by which SGK1 regulates the cardiac inflammatory process, thus contributing to hypertensive cardiac fibrosis...
  12. pmc Angiotensin II blockade upregulates the expression of Klotho, the anti-ageing gene, in an experimental model of chronic cyclosporine nephropathy
    Hye Eun Yoon
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Incheon St Mary s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon, South Korea
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 26:800-13. 2011
    ..It is suggested that activation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) or oxidative stress suppresses Klotho in the kidney. This study evaluated the association between Klotho expression and RAS in cyclosporine (CsA)-induced renal injury...
  13. pmc Role of endothelial Nox2 NADPH oxidase in angiotensin II-induced hypertension and vasomotor dysfunction
    Colin E Murdoch
    Cardiovascular Division, King s College London British Heart Foundation Centre, London, UK
    Basic Res Cardiol 106:527-38. 2011
    NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in angiotensin II-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction...
  14. ncbi The vascular NAD(P)H oxidases as therapeutic targets in cardiovascular diseases
    Hua Cai
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 24:471-8. 2003
    ..ROS produced following angiotensin II-mediated stimulation of NAD(P)H oxidases signal through pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinases, ..
  15. ncbi Role of NAD(P)H oxidase- and mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species in cardioprotection of ischemic reperfusion injury by angiotensin II
    Shoji Kimura
    Department of Pharmacology, Kagawa University Medical School, Miki, Kagawa, Japan
    Hypertension 45:860-6. 2005
    ..Mitochondrial ROS have been shown to play a key role in this process. Angiotensin II (Ang II) exhibits pharmacological preconditioning; however, the involvement of NAD(P)H oxidase, known as an ..
  16. ncbi Expression of a functionally active gp91phox-containing neutrophil-type NAD(P)H oxidase in smooth muscle cells from human resistance arteries: regulation by angiotensin II
    Rhian M Touyz
    Multidisciplinary Research Group on Hypertension, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada
    Circ Res 90:1205-13. 2002
    ..We investigated whether VSMCs from human resistance arteries (HVSMCs) possess a functionally active, angiotensin II (Ang II)-regulated NAD(P)H oxidase that contains neutrophil oxidase subunits, including p22phox, gp91phox, ..
  17. pmc Angiotensin II-dependent persistent podocyte loss from destabilized glomeruli causes progression of end stage kidney disease
    Akihiro Fukuda
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 5676, USA
    Kidney Int 81:40-55. 2012
    ..b>Angiotensin II blockade (combined enalapril and losartan) restabilized the glomeruli, and prevented continuous podocyte loss ..
  18. ncbi An angiotensin II type 1 receptor mutant lacking epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation does not induce angiotensin II-mediated cardiac hypertrophy
    Peiyong Zhai
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark 07103, USA
    Circ Res 99:528-36. 2006
    We have shown previously that tyrosine 319 in a conserved YIPP motif in the C terminus of angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptors (AT(1)Rs) is essential for transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in vitro...
  19. pmc Loss of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 leads to the late development of angiotensin II-dependent glomerulosclerosis
    Gavin Y Oudit
    Rm 68, 150 College St, Heart and Stroke Richard Lewar Centre of Excellence, Fitzgerald Bldg, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3E2, Canada
    Am J Pathol 168:1808-20. 2006
    ..and functional changes in the glomeruli of male ACE2 mutant mice were prevented by treatment with the angiotensin II type-1 receptor antagonist irbesartan...
  20. doi Enhanced angiotensin II type 2 receptor mechanisms mediate decreases in arterial pressure attributable to chronic low-dose angiotensin II in female rats
    Amanda K Sampson
    Department of Physiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
    Hypertension 52:666-71. 2008
    ..We examined the hemodynamic responses, angiotensin II receptor subtypes, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene expression levels after graded doses of ..
  21. pmc Endothelial cell-specific deficiency of Ang II type 1a receptors attenuates Ang II-induced ascending aortic aneurysms in LDL receptor-/- mice
    Debra L Rateri
    Saha Cardiovascular Research Center, BBSRB, Room 243, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0509, USA
    Circ Res 108:574-81. 2011
    Human studies and mouse models have provided evidence for angiotensin II (Ang II)-based mechanisms as an underlying cause of aneurysms localized to the ascending aorta...
  22. pmc ACE2 overexpression in the paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension
    Srinivas Sriramula
    Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, 1909 Skip Bertman Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
    Cardiovasc Res 92:401-8. 2011
    b>Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been shown to have both central and peripheral effects in mediating hypertension, for which the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an important brain cardio-regulatory centre...
  23. pmc Evaluation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), its homologue ACE2 and neprilysin in angiotensin peptide metabolism
    Gillian I Rice
    Proteolysis Research Group, School of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Biochem J 383:45-51. 2004
    ..system), Ang I (angiotensin I) is cleaved by ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) to form Ang II (angiotensin II), which has effects on blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte homoeostasis...
  24. ncbi TGF-beta1 and angiotensin networking in cardiac remodeling
    Stephan Rosenkranz
    Klinik III fur Innere Medizin, Universitat zu Koln, Joseph Stelzmann Str 9, D 50924 Cologne, Germany
    Cardiovasc Res 63:423-32. 2004
    ..Recent studies indicate that angiotensin II (Ang II) and TGF-beta1 do not act independently from one another but rather act as part of a signalling ..
  25. pmc An adventitial IL-6/MCP1 amplification loop accelerates macrophage-mediated vascular inflammation leading to aortic dissection in mice
    Brian C Tieu
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:3637-51. 2009
    ....
  26. ncbi Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is an essential regulator of heart function
    Michael A Crackower
    Amgen Research Institute Ontario Cancer Institute and Department of Medical Biophysics and Immunology, University of Toronto, University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada
    Nature 417:822-8. 2002
    ..Targeted disruption of ACE2 in mice results in a severe cardiac contractility defect, increased angiotensin II levels, and upregulation of hypoxia-induced genes in the heart...
  27. doi Potential therapeutic targets for cardiac fibrosis: TGFbeta, angiotensin, endothelin, CCN2, and PDGF, partners in fibroblast activation
    Andrew Leask
    Dental Sciences Building, London ON N6A 5C1, Canada
    Circ Res 106:1675-80. 2010
    ..Proteins such as transforming growth factor (TGF)beta, endothelin-1, angiotensin II (Ang II), connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) appear to act ..
  28. ncbi Renin increases mesangial cell transforming growth factor-beta1 and matrix proteins through receptor-mediated, angiotensin II-independent mechanisms
    Y Huang
    Fibrosis Research Laboratory, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108, USA
    Kidney Int 69:105-13. 2006
    ..Renin-induced increases in TGF-beta1 in turn stimulate increases in PAI-1, FN and collagen I. Thus, renin may contribute to renal fibrotic disease, particularly when therapeutic Ang II blockade elevates plasma renin...
  29. ncbi Mechanism of endothelial cell NADPH oxidase activation by angiotensin II. Role of the p47phox subunit
    Jian Mei Li
    Department of Cardiology, Guy s, King s, and St Thomas s School of Medicine, King s College London, Bessemer Road, London SE5 9PJ, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 278:12094-100. 2003
    ..express a constitutively active phagocyte-type NADPH oxidase whose activity is augmented by agonists such as angiotensin II. We recently reported (Li, J.-M., and Shah, A. M. (2002) J. Biol. Chem...
  30. pmc Central and peripheral mechanisms of T-lymphocyte activation and vascular inflammation produced by angiotensin II-induced hypertension
    Paul J Marvar
    Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Circ Res 107:263-70. 2010
    We have previously found that T lymphocytes are essential for development of angiotensin II-induced hypertension; however, the mechanisms responsible for T-cell activation in hypertension remain undefined.
  31. ncbi Angiotensin II-induced neural differentiation via angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor-MMS2 cascade involving interaction between AT2 receptor-interacting protein and Src homology 2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1
    Jian Mei Li
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Division of Medical Biochemistry and Cardiovascular Biology, Ehime University School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Tohon, Ehime 791 0295, Japan
    Mol Endocrinol 21:499-511. 2007
    b>Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 (AT2) receptors are abundantly expressed not only in the fetal brain where they probably contribute to brain development, but also in pathological conditions to protect the brain against stroke; however, the ..
  32. pmc TGF-beta1 mediates the hypertrophic cardiomyocyte growth induced by angiotensin II
    Jo El J Schultz
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, and Microbiology, Cincinnati College of Medicine, 231 Albert Sabin Way, ML 0575, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA
    J Clin Invest 109:787-96. 2002
    b>Angiotensin II (Ang II), a potent hypertrophic stimulus, causes significant increases in TGFb1 gene expression. However, it is not known whether there is a causal relationship between increased levels of TGF-beta1 and cardiac hypertrophy...
  33. ncbi Molecular mechanisms of angiotensin II-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction: linking mitochondrial oxidative damage and vascular endothelial dysfunction
    Abdulrahman K Doughan
    Division of Cardiology and Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, 1639 Pierce Dr, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Circ Res 102:488-96. 2008
    ..Furthermore, mitochondrial dysfunction in response to Ang II modulates endothelial NO. and generation, which in turn has ramifications for development of endothelial dysfunction...
  34. pmc Statins inhibit angiotensin II/Smad pathway and related vascular fibrosis, by a TGF-β-independent process
    Raúl Rodrigues Díez
    Cellular Biology in Renal Diseases Laboratory, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    PLoS ONE 5:e14145. 2010
    ..b>Angiotensin II (AngII) activates the Smad pathway and contributes to vascular fibrosis, although the in vivo contribution of ..
  35. doi Endothelial microparticle formation by angiotensin II is mediated via Ang II receptor type I/NADPH oxidase/ Rho kinase pathways targeted to lipid rafts
    Dylan Burger
    Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 31:1898-907. 2011
    ..We investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Rho kinase, and lipid rafts in microparticle formation and examined their functional significance in endothelial cells (ECs)...
  36. ncbi Sodium-hydrogen exchanger, cardiac overload, and myocardial hypertrophy
    Horacio E Cingolani
    Centro de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calle 60 y 120, 1900 La Plata, Argentina
    Circulation 115:1090-100. 2007
  37. ncbi Inflammation and the metabolic syndrome: role of angiotensin II and oxidative stress
    Leon Ferder
    Department of Physiology, Ponce School of Medicine, Dr Ana Perez Marchand Street, PO Box 7004, Ponce, PR00732 7004, USA
    Curr Hypertens Rep 8:191-8. 2006
    ..In this review, we analyze the potential role of angiotensin II (Ang II) and reactive oxygen species in mediating inflammation in the metabolic syndrome...
  38. doi Intrarenal suppression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor binding molecule in angiotensin II-infused mice
    Hiromichi Wakui
    Dept of Medical Science and Cardiorenal Medicine, Yokohama City Univ Graduate School of Medicine, 3 9 Fukuura, Kanazawa Ku, Yokohama 236 0004, Japan
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 299:F991-F1003. 2010
    ..These results suggest that the plasma membrane AT1R level in the kidney is modulated by intrarenal ATRAP expression under physiological and pathophysiological conditions in vivo...
  39. ncbi Angiotensin II-induced MMP-2 release from endothelial cells is mediated by TNF-alpha
    Ivan A Arenas
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2S2
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 286:C779-84. 2004
    b>Angiotensin II (ANG II) has been etiologically linked to vascular disease; however, its role in the alterations of endothelial function that occur in vascular disorders is not completely understood...
  40. ncbi Nox1 overexpression potentiates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy in transgenic mice
    Anna Dikalova
    Division of Cardiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Circulation 112:2668-76. 2005
    ..Nox1 upregulation has been implicated in cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension and restenosis...
  41. pmc NADPH oxidase signal transduces angiotensin II in hepatic stellate cells and is critical in hepatic fibrosis
    Ramon Bataller
    Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 622 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:1383-94. 2003
    b>Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a pro-oxidant and fibrogenic cytokine. We investigated the role of NADPH oxidase in Ang II-induced effects in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a fibrogenic cell type...
  42. doi T regulatory lymphocytes prevent angiotensin II-induced hypertension and vascular injury
    Tlili Barhoumi
    Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Sir Mortimer B Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Hypertension 57:469-76. 2011
    ..Thus, Tregs suppress Ang II-mediated vascular injury in part through anti-inflammatory actions. Immune mechanisms modulate Ang II-induced blood pressure elevation, vascular oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction...
  43. pmc Targeting the degradation of angiotensin II with recombinant angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: prevention of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension
    Jan Wysocki
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Hypertension 55:90-8. 2010
    ..Increasing ACE2 activity may provide a new therapeutic target in states of Ang II overactivity by enhancing its degradation, an approach that differs from the current focus on blocking Ang II formation and action...
  44. doi Tissue renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems: Targets for pharmacological therapy
    Michael Bader
    Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin Buch, Germany
    Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 50:439-65. 2010
    ..Novel components with mostly opposite actions to the classical renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems have been described and need functional characterization to evaluate their suitability as novel drug targets...
  45. ncbi Prevention of angiotensin II-induced cardiac remodeling by angiotensin-(1-7)
    Justin L Grobe
    Department of Pharmacodynamics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 0487, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 292:H736-42. 2007
    ..angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) prevents cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy during chronic infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II)...
  46. ncbi Role of extracellular superoxide dismutase in hypertension
    Maria Carolina Gongora
    Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Hypertension 48:473-81. 2006
    We previously found that angiotensin II-induced hypertension increases vascular extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD), and proposed that this is a compensatory mechanism that blunts the hypertensive response and preserves endothelium-..
  47. pmc TGF-beta activity protects against inflammatory aortic aneurysm progression and complications in angiotensin II-infused mice
    Yu Wang
    INSERM U970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, Université Paris Descartes and Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France
    J Clin Invest 120:422-32. 2010
    ..These results clearly identify a critical role for TGF-beta in the taming of the innate immune response and the preservation of vessel integrity in C57BL/6 mice, which contrasts with its reported pathogenic role in Marfan syndrome...
  48. ncbi Enalapril attenuates downregulation of Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in the late phase of ventricular dysfunction in myocardial infarcted rat
    Maria Paz Ocaranza
    Departamento Enfermedades Cardiovasculares, Escuela de Medicina, P Universidad Catolica de Chile
    Hypertension 48:572-8. 2006
    ..These findings suggest that in this second arm of the renin-angiotensin system, ACE2 may act through Ang-(1-9), rather than Ang-(1-7), as a counterregulator of the first arm, where ACE catalyzes the formation of Ang II...
  49. pmc Angiotensin II-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction through RhoA/Rho kinase/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/arginase pathway
    Alia Shatanawi
    Dept of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 300:C1181-92. 2011
    ..Elevated angiotensin II (ANG II) is a key component of endothelial dysfunction in many cardiovascular diseases and has been linked to ..
  50. ncbi Nox1 is involved in angiotensin II-mediated hypertension: a study in Nox1-deficient mice
    Kuniharu Matsuno
    Department of Pharmacology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602 8566, Japan
    Circulation 112:2677-85. 2005
    Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) by angiotensin II (Ang II) is involved in the initiation and progression of cardiovascular diseases. NADPH oxidase is a major source of superoxide generated in vascular tissues...
  51. pmc Inhibition of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex and sympathetic activity by baroreceptor and vagal afferent inputs in chronic heart failure
    Xian bing Gan
    Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e25784. 2011
    Cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) contributes to sympathetic activation and angiotensin II (Ang II) in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) augments the CSAR in vagotomized (VT) and baroreceptor denervated (BD) rats with chronic heart ..
  52. pmc Interleukin 6 underlies angiotensin II-induced hypertension and chronic renal damage
    Weiru Zhang
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Houston Medical School, Houston, TX, USA
    Hypertension 59:136-44. 2012
    ..Functionally, we determined that angiotensin II is a causative factor responsible for IL-6 induction in the mouse kidney and that genetic deletion of IL-6 ..
  53. pmc Prolonged infusion of angiotensin II in apoE(-/-) mice promotes macrophage recruitment with continued expansion of abdominal aortic aneurysm
    Debra L Rateri
    Saha Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
    Am J Pathol 179:1542-8. 2011
    b>Angiotensin II (AngII) infusion initiates abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development due to medial disruption and results in luminal dilation and thrombus formation...
  54. pmc Small RNA sequencing reveals microRNAs that modulate angiotensin II effects in vascular smooth muscle cells
    Wen Jin
    Irell and Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, California 91010, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:15672-83. 2012
    b>Angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction plays a critical role in cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in this process is unclear...
  55. pmc Angiotensin II type 2 receptor signaling attenuates aortic aneurysm in mice through ERK antagonism
    Jennifer P Habashi
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Science 332:361-5. 2011
    b>Angiotensin II (AngII) mediates progression of aortic aneurysm, but the relative contribution of its type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors remains unknown...
  56. ncbi Up-regulation of glomerular COX-2 by angiotensin II: role of reactive oxygen species
    Edgar A Jaimes
    Nephrology Section, VA Medical Center, Miami, FL 33125, USA
    Kidney Int 68:2143-53. 2005
    Prostaglandins such as prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and prostaglandin I(2) (PGI(2)) counteract the angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced vasoconstriction in the glomerular microcirculation...
  57. ncbi Angiotensin II and NGF differentially influence microtubule proteins in PC12W cells: role of the AT2 receptor
    U Stroth
    Department of Pharmacology, Christian Albrechts University, Hospitalstrasse 4, D 24105 Kiel, Germany
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 53:187-95. 1998
    ..Whereas NGF (0.5, 10, and 50 ng/ml) up-regulated these proteins after 3 days of stimulation, angiotensin II (ANG II; 10(-7) M) induced a different pattern...
  58. pmc Thioredoxin 1 negatively regulates angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy through upregulation of miR-98/let-7
    Yanfei Yang
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, NJ 07103, USA
    Circ Res 108:305-13. 2011
    ..Thioredoxin (Trx)1 inhibits pathological cardiac hypertrophy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that downregulate posttranscriptional expression of target molecules...
  59. ncbi Angiotensin II and aldosterone regulate gene transcription via functional mineralocortocoid receptors in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells
    Iris Z Jaffe
    Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Department of Medicine, New England Medical Center Hospitals and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass 02111, USA
    Circ Res 96:643-50. 2005
    ..b>Angiotensin II also activates MR-mediated gene transcription in coronary artery VSMCs...
  60. ncbi Angiotensin II induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in PC12W cells via angiotensin type 2 receptor activation
    Yi Zhao
    Institute of Pharmacology, University Hospital of Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel, Christian Albrechts University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany
    J Neurochem 94:1395-401. 2005
    ..rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12W cells) expressing AT2 but not AT1 receptors, were stimulated with angiotensin II (Ang II, 100 nmol/L) +/- the PPARgamma antagonists GW9662 (3 micromol/L) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (..
  61. ncbi Inhibition of histone deacetylation blocks cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II infusion and aortic banding
    Hae Jin Kee
    Department of Pharmacology, Research Institute of Medical Sciences and Medical Research Center for Gene Regulation, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, South Korea
    Circulation 113:51-9. 2006
    ..We tested the effects of several HDAC inhibitors, including a class I HDAC-selective inhibitor, SK-7041, on cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) treatment or aortic banding (AB).
  62. ncbi Angiotensin II stimulation of NAD(P)H oxidase activity: upstream mediators
    Puvi N Seshiah
    Division of Cardiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Circ Res 91:406-13. 2002
    b>Angiotensin II (Ang II)-stimulated hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NAD(P)H oxidases...
  63. pmc Independent beta-arrestin 2 and G protein-mediated pathways for angiotensin II activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2
    Huijun Wei
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:10782-7. 2003
    Stimulation of a mutant angiotensin type 1A receptor (DRY/AAY) with angiotensin II (Ang II) or of a wild-type receptor with an Ang II analog ([sarcosine1,Ile4,Ile8]Ang II) fails to activate classical heterotrimeric G protein signaling but ..
  64. ncbi Molecular characterization of angiotensin II--induced hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes and hyperplasia of cardiac fibroblasts. Critical role of the AT1 receptor subtype
    J Sadoshima
    Molecular Medicine Division, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, Mass 02215
    Circ Res 73:413-23. 1993
    Increasing evidence suggests that angiotensin II (Ang II) may act as a growth factor for the heart...
  65. ncbi Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 plays a pivotal role in angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling
    Yasuhiro Izumiya
    Department of Pharmacology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medical Science, 1 4 3 Asahimachi, Abeno, Osaka 545 8585, Japan
    Circ Res 93:874-83. 2003
    Multiple lines of evidence establish that angiotensin II (Ang II) induces not only hypertension but also directly contributes to cardiac diseases...
  66. pmc IL-6 and serum amyloid A synergy mediates angiotensin II-induced muscle wasting
    Liping Zhang
    Nephrology Division, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Am Soc Nephrol 20:604-12. 2009
    Animal studies suggest that increased levels of circulating angiotensin II (AngII) could contribute to the loss of lean body mass in chronic kidney disease, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear...
  67. ncbi Effects of angiotensin II infusion on the expression and function of NAD(P)H oxidase and components of nitric oxide/cGMP signaling
    Hanke Mollnau
    Division of Cardiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Circ Res 90:E58-65. 2002
    b>Angiotensin II infusion causes endothelial dysfunction by increasing NAD(P)H oxidase-mediated vascular superoxide production...
  68. ncbi Aortic dissection precedes formation of aneurysms and atherosclerosis in angiotensin II-infused, apolipoprotein E-deficient mice
    Kiran Saraff
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gill Heart Institute, Lexington, KY, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23:1621-6. 2003
    We sought to define the temporal characteristics of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and to provide mechanistic insight into the development of this vascular pathology in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-)..
  69. pmc Human recombinant ACE2 reduces the progression of diabetic nephropathy
    Gavin Y Oudit
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Diabetes 59:529-38. 2010
    ..Inhibition of ACE2 function accelerates diabetic kidney injury, whereas renal ACE2 is downregulated in diabetic nephropathy. We examined the ability of human recombinant ACE2 (hrACE2) to slow the progression of diabetic kidney injury...
  70. ncbi Hypertension caused by angiotensin II infusion involves increased superoxide production in the central nervous system
    Matthew C Zimmerman
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The University of Iowa, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    Circ Res 95:210-6. 2004
    Hypertension caused by angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion is associated with oxidative stress in the peripheral vasculature and kidney...
  71. ncbi Critical role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 receptor CCR2 on monocytes in hypertension-induced vascular inflammation and remodeling
    Minako Ishibashi
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
    Circ Res 94:1203-10. 2004
    ..Hypertension was induced by infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II) into wild-type mice, CCR2-deficient (CCR2-/-) mice, and bone marrow-transferred mice with a leukocyte-..
  72. doi Reactive oxygen species, Nox and angiotensin II in angiogenesis: implications for retinopathy
    Jennifer L Wilkinson-Berka
    Department of Immunology, Central Clinical School, Monash University, 99 Commercial Road, Alfred Medical Research and Education Precinct AMREP, Alfred Centre, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia
    Clin Sci (Lond) 124:597-615. 2013
    ..The RAAS (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), and particularly AngII (angiotensin II), is a key stimulator of Nox...
  73. pmc Inhibition of TNF in the brain reverses alterations in RAS components and attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension
    Srinivas Sriramula
    Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e63847. 2013
    ....
  74. ncbi Angiotensin II induces endothelial xanthine oxidase activation: role for endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary disease
    Ulf Landmesser
    Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Abteilung Kardiologie und Angiologie, Carl Neuberg Str 130625 Hannover, Germany
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 27:943-8. 2007
    ..Mechanisms, however, leading to endothelial XO activation remain poorly defined. We tested the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on endothelial XO and its relevance for endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary disease.
  75. ncbi NADPH oxidase is involved in angiotensin II-induced apoptosis in H9C2 cardiac muscle cells: effects of apocynin
    Fuzhong Qin
    Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 40:236-46. 2006
    b>Angiotensin II stimulates NADPH oxidase activity in vascular cells...
  76. doi Activation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor-associated protein exerts an inhibitory effect on vascular hypertrophy and oxidative stress in angiotensin II-mediated hypertension
    Hiromichi Wakui
    Department of Medical Science and Cardiorenal Medicine, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3 9 Fukuura, Kanazawa Ku, Yokohama 236 0004, Japan
    Cardiovasc Res 100:511-9. 2013
    Activation of tissue angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R) plays an important role in the development of vascular remodelling...
  77. doi Acetylcholine prevents angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in H9c2 cells
    Jin Jun Liu
    Department of Pharmacology, Xi an Jiaotong University, College of Medicine, Xi an, People s Republic of China
    Apoptosis 16:94-103. 2011
    ..However, whether ACh can inhibit the action of angiotensin II (Ang II) and subsequently prevent CVD development remains unclear...
  78. pmc Nox4 NADPH oxidase mediates peroxynitrite-dependent uncoupling of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase and fibronectin expression in response to angiotensin II: role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species
    Doug Yoon Lee
    From the Departments of Medicine and
    J Biol Chem 288:28668-86. 2013
    Activation of glomerular mesangial cells (MCs) by angiotensin II (Ang II) leads to extracellular matrix accumulation...
  79. doi MiR-133a regulates collagen 1A1: potential role of miR-133a in myocardial fibrosis in angiotensin II-dependent hypertension
    Giovanna Castoldi
    Clinica Nefrologica, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Prevenzione, Az Osp San Gerardo, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Monza, Italy
    J Cell Physiol 227:850-6. 2012
    ..aim of this study was to evaluate whether miR-133a and miR-29b play a role in myocardial fibrosis caused by Angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertension...
  80. pmc Nitro-oleic acid inhibits angiotensin II-induced hypertension
    Jifeng Zhang
    Cardiovascular Center, College of Engineering, University of Michigan, USA
    Circ Res 107:540-8. 2010
    ..OA-NO(2) exerts cell signaling actions as a result of its strong electrophilic nature and mediates pleiotropic cell responses in the vasculature...
  81. doi Cardiac-specific activation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor-associated protein completely suppresses cardiac hypertrophy in chronic angiotensin II-infused mice
    Hiromichi Wakui
    Department of Medical Science and Cardiorenal Medicine, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3 9 Fukuura, Kanazawa Ku, Yokohama 236 0004, Japan
    Hypertension 55:1157-64. 2010
    We cloned a novel molecule interacting with angiotensin II type 1 receptor, which we named ATRAP (for angiotensin II type 1 receptor-associated protein)...
  82. ncbi gp91phox-containing NADPH oxidase mediates endothelial dysfunction in renovascular hypertension
    O Jung
    Institut für Kardiovaskuläre Physiologie, Klinikum der J W Goethe Universitat, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Circulation 109:1795-801. 2004
    ..We hypothesized that the endothelial gp91phox-containing NADPH oxidase is predominant in generating the O2- to scavenge endothelial NO and thus is responsible for the development of endothelial dysfunction...
  83. doi Ghrelin protects H9c2 cardiomyocytes from angiotensin II-induced apoptosis through the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway
    Chunyan Yang
    Department of Cardiology, China Japan Union Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, China
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 59:465-71. 2012
    ..Previous studies have reported that angiotensin II (Ang II) production increased in heart failure, which can induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis...
  84. pmc MyD88 deficiency attenuates angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm formation independent of signaling through Toll-like receptors 2 and 4
    A Phillip Owens
    Saha Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0509, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 31:2813-9. 2011
    ..was to determine whether myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and its related Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 contributed to the development of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and atherosclerosis.
  85. ncbi MicroRNA-155 regulates human angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression in fibroblasts
    Mickey M Martin
    Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:18277-84. 2006
    A large number of studies have demonstrated that the expression of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) is regulated predominantly by post-transcriptional mechanisms...
  86. pmc Angiotensin II induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in renal epithelial cells through reactive oxygen species/Src/caveolin-mediated activation of an epidermal growth factor receptor-extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway
    Jianchun Chen
    Departments of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 32:981-91. 2012
    ..Here we report that in the proximal tubule-like LLCPKcl4 cells expressing angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor, Ang II induced changes in cell morphology and expression of epithelial-to-..
  87. doi Smad3 mediates ANG II-induced hypertensive kidney disease in mice
    Zhen Liu
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR, China
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 302:F986-97. 2012
    ..study in a mouse model of hypertension induced in Smad3 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice by subcutaneous angiotensin II infusion and in vitro in mesangial cells lacking Smad3...
  88. pmc Regulation of central angiotensin type 1 receptors and sympathetic outflow in heart failure
    Irving H Zucker
    Dept of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, 985850 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5850, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 297:H1557-66. 2009
    ..Finally, exercise training reduces both central oxidative stress and AT(1)R expression in animals with CHF. These data strongly suggest that multiple central and peripheral influences dynamically alter AT(1)R expression in CHF...
  89. doi Interleukin-12p35 deletion promotes CD4 T-cell-dependent macrophage differentiation and enhances angiotensin II-Induced cardiac fibrosis
    Yulin Li
    Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, The Key Laboratory of Remodeling related Cardiovascular Diseases, Ministry of Education, Beijing Institute of Heart Lung and Blood Vessel Diseases, China
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 32:1662-74. 2012
    ..Interleukin-12 is essential for the differentiation of naïve T cells into interferon-γ-producing T cells, which regulate inflammatory responses. We investigated this process of regulating hypertension-induced cardiac fibrosis...
  90. ncbi Superoxide mediates the actions of angiotensin II in the central nervous system
    Matthew C Zimmerman
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The University of Iowa Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    Circ Res 91:1038-45. 2002
    b>Angiotensin II (Ang II) has profound effects in the central nervous system (CNS), including promotion of thirst, regulation of vasopressin secretion, and modulation of sympathetic outflow...
  91. doi Aldosterone and angiotensin II synergistically stimulate migration in vascular smooth muscle cells through c-Src-regulated redox-sensitive RhoA pathways
    A C Montezano
    Ottawa Health Research Institute, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, K1H 8M5, Ontario, Canada
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 28:1511-8. 2008
    Synergistic interactions between aldosterone (Aldo) and angiotensin II (Ang II) have been implicated in vascular inflammation, fibrosis, and remodeling. Molecular mechanisms underlying this are unclear...
  92. pmc Enhanced sensitivity of aged fibrotic hearts to angiotensin II- and hypokalemia-induced early afterdepolarization-mediated ventricular arrhythmias
    Aneesh Bapat
    Translational Arrhythmia Research Section, University of California Los Angeles Cardiovascular Research Laboratory, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 302:H2331-40. 2012
    ....
  93. pmc Role of Nox isoforms in angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in brain
    Sophocles Chrissobolis
    Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 113:184-91. 2012
    b>Angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes vascular disease through several mechanisms including by producing oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction...
  94. pmc TRPC3 and TRPC6 are essential for angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy
    Naoya Onohara
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi ku, Fukuoka
    EMBO J 25:5305-16. 2006
    ..These data suggest that DAG-induced Ca(2+) signaling pathway through TRPC3 and TRPC6 is essential for Ang II-induced NFAT activation and cardiac hypertrophy...
  95. ncbi Nox2, Ca2+, and protein kinase C play a role in angiotensin II-induced free radical production in nucleus tractus solitarius
    Gang Wang
    Division of Neurobiology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 411 East 69th St, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Hypertension 48:482-9. 2006
    ..b>Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a powerful signaling molecule in dmNTS neurons and exerts some of its biological effects by ..
  96. pmc Antagonism of AT2 receptors augments angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms and atherosclerosis
    A Daugherty
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gill Heart Institute, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, KY 40536 USA
    Br J Pharmacol 134:865-70. 2001
    1. We have recently demonstrated that chronic infusion of Angiotensin II into apoE-/- mice promotes the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms...
  97. pmc Systemic candesartan reduces brain angiotensin II via downregulation of brain renin-angiotensin system
    Nicolas Pelisch
    Department of Cardiorenal and Cerebrovascular Medicine, Kagawa University Medical School, Kagawa, Japan
    Hypertens Res 33:161-4. 2010
    ..We examined the effects of the angiotensin receptor blocker candesartan (10 mg kg(-1) per day, p.o.) on brain angiotensin II levels in angiotensin II-infused hypertensive rats...
  98. doi Prevention of angiotensin II-mediated renal oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2
    Jiuchang Zhong
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Hypertension 57:314-22. 2011
    ..ACE2 is an important negative regulator of Ang II-induced renal disease and enhancing ACE2 action may have therapeutic potential for patients with kidney disease...
  99. pmc ACE2-mediated reduction of oxidative stress in the central nervous system is associated with improvement of autonomic function
    Huijing Xia
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e22682. 2011
    ..Accordingly, ACE2 could represent a new target for the treatment of hypertension-associated dysautonomia and oxidative stress...
  100. pmc Downregulation of the antioxidant protein peroxiredoxin 2 contributes to angiotensin II-mediated podocyte apoptosis
    Hsiang Hao Hsu
    Department of Medicine D, Division of General Internal Medicine and Nephrology, University Hospital Munster, Munster, Germany
    Kidney Int 80:959-69. 2011
    ..system activation is crucial to the pathogenesis of podocyte injury, but the mechanisms by which angiotensin II modulates podocyte survival due to physiological or injurious stimuli remain unclear...
  101. doi Regulatory T cells ameliorate angiotensin II-induced cardiac damage
    Heda Kvakan
    Franz Volhard Clinic, HELIOS Clinic Berlin Buch, Berlin, Germany
    Circulation 119:2904-12. 2009
    ..b>Angiotensin II, a major mediator of hypertension and cardiac damage, has proinflammatory properties...

Research Grants73

  1. Angiotensin II and diabetic retinopathy
    ALFONSO SCICLI; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..However, there is little experimental evidence that Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a critical pathogenetic factor in the development of diabetic retinopathy...
  2. Discovery metabolite profiling of the prolyl peptidases
    Alan Saghatelian; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Furthermore, the application of DMP to peptidases will demonstrate the generality of this approach for the future characterization of medically relevant enzymes and signaling pathways. ..
  3. Cross-talk Between Coagulation, Inflammation, and Immunity
    Lawrence L Leung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the KI mice show enhanced hemopoietic stem cell mobilization and whether these animals are resistant to angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in an ApoE null background...
  4. Exercise training and blood pressure in hypertension: integrated mechanisms
    Noreen F Rossi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Surgical intervention and inhibition of angiotensin II carry substantial risk. Thus, it is important to seek alternative or adjunctive strategies...
  5. Angiotensin Adrenergic Interactions in the Kidney
    Roland C Blantz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Blockade of angiotensin II activity greatly prevents or ameliorates progressive loss of kidney function and glomerulosclerosis...
  6. Ang II and Aldosterone Effects on Insulin Resistance in Cardiovascular Tissue
    JAMES RUSSELL SOWERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..conjunction with excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), constitute one of the mechanisms whereby angiotensin II (Ang II) and aldosterone contribute to insulin resistance in cardiovascular tissue...
  7. Ang II and Overnutrition and Insulin resistance in Cardiovascular Tissue
    JAMES RUSSELL SOWERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..There is emerging evidence that over-nutrition and angiotensin II (ANG II) may promote INS resistance through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) ..
  8. Autonomic and Antihypertensive Actions of Neuronal CGRP/RAMP1 Receptors
    Mark W Chapleau; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..whether selective overexpression of RAMP1 in the nervous system improves autonomic regulation and attenuates angiotensin II (Ang-II) and phenylephrine-induced hypertension, and conversely if deletion of nervous system RAMP1 impairs ..
  9. The Kallikrein/Kinin-Mast Cell Interaction in Volume Overload
    CHIH CHANG KEVIN WEI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Currently, therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, which decreases angiotensin II and increases bradykinin (BK), is ineffective in a pathophysiologic LV VO (1)...
  10. A novel peroxidase in vascular endothelium and the development of atherosclerosis
    Guangjie Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Nox1 and perhaps other Noxes (but not the phagocyte NADPH-oxidase) are implicated in animal models of Angiotensin II-induced of atherosclerosis and hypertension...
  11. Conference on Autonomic Regulation of Cardiovascular Function in Health and Disea
    Martin Frank; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..for hypertension and heart failure, in large part, target the sympathetic nervous system and the renin- angiotensin II system (RAS). The effectiveness of these therapies is due to the intense activation of these systems...
  12. Expression of sFlt1 and its function in the glomerular endothelium
    Christie P Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We plan to study alternate processing of the primary transcripts of FLT1, focusing on hypoxia and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor activation, two pathways that increase sFlt1 expression...
  13. Interactions of the RAAS and a Western Diet on Insulin Metabolic Actions
    JAMES RUSSELL SOWERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our recent work indicates that S6K1 is activated by angiotensin II (Ang II) and aldosterone in CV tissue leading to diminished INS metabolic signaling and biological ..
  14. Roles of oxidation and inflammation in aortic stiffening
    David G Harrison; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We propose that RAG-1-/- and IL-17-/- mice will not develop arterial stiffening during angiotensin II infusion, but that adoptive transfer of T cells will promote arterial stiffening in these animals...
  15. Cholesterol and Lymphatic Transport of Molecules and Cells
    Melody A Swartz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..NO preserves vascular endothelial function in part by inhibiting angiotensin II. However, the relevance of these mechanisms to lymphatic vessel function, and ultimately lymphedema, has not ..
  16. Extracellular ubiquitin: role in myocyte apoptosis and myocardial remodeling
    Krishna Singh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in ?-AR-stimulated apoptosis using neutralizing antibodies against ubiquitin, and other apoptotic agents (angiotensin II, oxidative stress and Tumor necrosis factor-1), and test the hypothesis that secretion of ubiquitin occurs via ..
  17. Pharmacologic Interventions for Cardiovascular Disease in Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    Barbara J Morgan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed research will investigate, in humans and rats, whether inhibition of XO and angiotensin II can decrease negative chemoreflex, sympathetic and vascular effects of OSA...
  18. Complement Activation in Pregnancy and Hypertension
    Jean F Regal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies of preeclampsia have focused on mediators of hypertension including autoantibodies to angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1-AA) and anti-angiogenic factors such as soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 despite the ..
  19. The Postischemia Inflammatory Syndrome in the Aged Kidney
    KATHERINE JULIA KELLY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We now postulate that both systemic, particularly interleukins (interleukin)-1 and -6, and intrarenal (angiotensin II and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase) mediators regulate ICAM-1 and LOX-1 and therefore inflammation and ..
  20. Brain Delivery of Nanoformulated Superoxide Dismutase
    Erin G Rosenbaugh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Angiotensin II (AngII), the primary effectors peptide of the renin-angiotensin system, plays a critical role in ..
  21. ROLE OF MINERALOCORTICOIDS IN HYPERTENSION
    CELSO ENRIQUE GOMEZ-SANCHEZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..it is most highly expressed in the zona glomerulosa of the rat adrenal and is upregulated by incubation with angiotensin II. Overexpression of mir21 in H295R cells enhances aldosterone synthesis in response to angiotensin II, ..
  22. ANGIOTENSIN II SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
    Bradford C Berk; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The healing of tissues after surgery or trauma is critical for long-term survival. The proposed work will study novel mechanisms by which blood vessels grow in response to tissue injury. ..
  23. Mechanism of eNOS Uncoupling in the Renal Microvasculature
    YVES CLAUDE GORIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..intact, eNOS generates ROS and lesser amount of NO upon stimulation with high glucose concentration (HG) or angiotensin II (Ang II)...
  24. Markers of Renal Damage in Renovascular Hypertension
    Juan C Romero; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..It is also assumes that anti-hypertensives that suppress the production of angiotensin II or oxidative stress will be more effective in reversal of renal function to normal than non-specific ..
  25. Regulation of Cardiac Kv Channel Expression
    Edwin S Levitan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..which limits Ito channel expression in humans, is destabilized in cultured cardiac myocytes by stretch and Angiotensin II (AII), a hormone implicated in hypertension and congestive heart failure...
  26. Balance of Angiotensin II/Angiotensin (1-1): A Target in Ischemic Stroke
    Yanfang Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specific Aim 4 will investigate the role of ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas in counteracting ACE/Ang II/AT1 in the efficacy of EPCs transplantation for promoting repair after ischemic stroke. ..
  27. Homocysteine and Angiotensin II in Renovascular Remodeling
    Utpal Sen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Both angiotensin II (Ang II) and Hcy decrease blood flow;however, the role of Hcy in Ang II mediated decrease in blood flow and ..
  28. Endogenous Aldosterone and Glucose Homeostasis
    JAMES MATTHEW LUTHER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) reduce blood pressure and cardiovascular mortality...
  29. Modulation of Colonic Epithelial Permeability by Sex Hormones
    Muriel Larauche; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and on ion channels/secretion and on mast cells release of chymase and subsequent increase in angiotensin II leading to a reduction in ion secretion...
  30. Mouse Models of Non-Syndromic Cardiac Progeria
    Ali J Marian; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..trophic (myocyte), proliferative and reparative (fibroblasts) responses of cells isolated from the hearts to angiotensin II (AT) and transforming growth factor 2 (TGF2)...
  31. Neural Control of the Circulation: Sex and Hypertension
    Baojian Xue; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recent findings from our laboratory indicate that infusions of low doses of angiotensin II or of aldosterone into mice and rats produce markedly greater hypertension in males than in females...
  32. Role of the Renin-Angiotensin System in the Regulation of Biliary Proliferation
    SHANNON STROUD GLASER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..obtained novel data indicating that cholangiocytes express a local RAS and that chronic administration of angiotensin II (Ang II) increases the proliferation of normal rat cholangiocytes and enhances the proliferation of ..
  33. Mineralocorticoid Receptor-Mediated Vascular Insulin Resistance
    SHAWN BRADY BENDER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Much existing evidence implicates angiotensin II involvement in these adverse effects;however, accumulating evidence demonstrates pronounced effects of ..
  34. SIGNALING THROUGH RHO GTP/GDP EXCHANGE FACTORS
    Philip B Wedegaertner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pathways mediated by LARG include contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells in response to vasoconstrictors angiotensin II and endothelin, and genetic deletion of LARG prevents salt-induced hypertension in the mouse...
  35. Remodeling of the guinea pig intrinsic cardiac plexus with chronic heart disease
    ELIZABETH MARIE SOUTHERLAND; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..intrinsic cardiac neurons to autonomic neurotransmitters with and without potential neuromodulators, such as angiotensin II and NO in tissues from control, MI and PO animals to characterize stress-induced changes in neuronal responses...
  36. Role of the Renin-Angiotensin system in placental insufficiency
    Eugenia Mata-Greenwood; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of placental insufficiency present uteroplacental and maternal RAS dysregulation, characterized by higher Angiotensin II, Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and Angiotensin II receptor 1 (AGTR1) expression...
  37. Prolylcarboxypeptidase is a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease
    Alvin H Schmaier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PRCP degrades angiotensin II (AngII) and bradykinin 1-8...
  38. Tissue Factor &Clot Formation In Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
    ALBERT PHILLIP OWENS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will utilize the angiotensin II (AngII) LDLr-/- mouse model of AAA...
  39. The Organ Specific Role of Superoxide Dismutase in Sepsis
    Alix Ashare; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These pathways involve signaling via insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and angiotensin II (AngII). It is of note that IGF-1 levels are decreased in severe sepsis, while AngII is upregulated...
  40. Blood Pressure -- Determinants &Controllers
    Allen W Cowley; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of saltinduced hypertension an inflammatory process is initiated by infiltrating macrophages that produces angiotensin II (ANGII) that stimulates the production of ROS thereby increasing the severity of hypertension and renal injury...
  41. Angiotensin II uncoupling of eNOS in hypertension
    HUA LINDA CAI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Three hypotheses will be addressed: 1) Angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion of eNOS pre-uncoupled mice (hph-1) induces severe AAA;2) Ang II and uncoupled eNOS ..
  42. Early Life Stress &Chronic Control of Blood Pressure
    Analia Loria; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These data suggest increased sympathetic activation in MS rats. In contrast, the acute pressor response to angiotensin II (AngII) is comparable between MS and control rats whereas MS rats show exaggerated chronic AngII-induced ..
  43. Early Life Stress &Chronic Control of Blood Pressure
    Analia Loria; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These data suggest increased sympathetic activation in MS rats. In contrast, the acute pressor response to angiotensin II (AngII) is comparable between MS and control rats whereas MS rats show exaggerated chronic AngII-induced ..
  44. Renal Angiotensin II Receptor Function in Obesity
    Tahir Hussain; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The long-term goal of this proposal is to evaluate a physiological and therapeutic role for the renal angiotensin II (Ang II) AT2 receptors in improving renal/cardiovascular function and treating hypertension associated with ..
  45. Regulation of Adrenal Vascular Tone by Steroidogenic Cells
    WILLIAM BRYSON CAMPBELL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Angiotensin II (AII), a vasoconstrictor, stimulates aldosterone release from the zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells of the adrenal cortex...
  46. Local Vasoconstriction in Postural Tachycardia Syndrome
    Julian M Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  47. HIGH SALT DIET, ANGIOTENSIN II, AND MICROVESSEL DILATION
    Julian H Lombard; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Angiotensin II (ANG II) suppression in response to HS diet is a crucial factor contributing to impaired vascular relaxation, ..
  48. Novel functions of RGS3
    Nickolai O Dulin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..others have shown that through this mechanism, RGS3 regulates the signaling of Gq- and Gi-coupled receptors to angiotensin II, endothelin-1, carbachol, gonadotropin-releasing hormone and sphingosine-1 phosphate...
  49. The Kidney, Hypertension, Pregnancy and Inflammation
    Babbette LaMarca; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..have elevated circulating cytokines, neutrophils and lymphocytes producing an agonistic autoantibody to the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1-AA)...
  50. Risk factor-enhanced microvascular responses to ischemia-reperfusion.
    D Neil Granger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..from ischemia-reperfusion is increased in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (HCh and/or HTN) due to angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1r)-mediated release of cytokines from circulating immune cells...
  51. Mechanisms of Hormonal Regulation of the Sodium Chloride Cotransporter
    Robert S Hoover; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 3 will determine the underlying molecular mechanisms mediating hormonal regulation of NCC by Angiotensin II. The roles of each of these kinase pathways will be examined with a particular emphasis on WNKs...
  52. Roles for Phospholipase D2 in metabolism and cardiovascular homeostasis
    ROCHELLE NELSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PLD2 has been proposed by my sponsor's lab to regulate endocytosis and signaling efficiency of the Angiotensin II receptor, and a PLD2 polymorphism in humans correlates with decreases in blood pressure...
  53. Mechanism and functional role of AKAP79/150 in M current control
    Mark S Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..receptor types that are critical to pain and inflammation, including bradykinin, PAR-2, histamine, angiotensin II and purinergic receptors...
  54. Development of the orally delivered, non-absorbable ACE inhibitor enalaprilat for
    ELKE LIPKA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The ACE enzyme catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, which in turn triggers the NF:B cascade, ultimately resulting in apoptosis...
  55. Stress-induced hypertension and the role of the neuroimmune system
    PAUL MARVAR; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..region, is critical for the development of peripheral vascular inflammation and T cell activation during angiotensin II-induced hypertension...
  56. Mitogen-activated Protein Kinases and NF-kB Activation in Vascular Smooth Muscle
    Bingbing Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..through phosphorylation of I:B proteins;(ii) whether p38 mediates the effects of vasoconstrictors such as angiotensin II and thromboxane receptor agonists on the relative expression of NF-:B-dependent genes by acting on MAPK ..
  57. Human Aging, Exercise &FMD: Translational Physiology
    Douglas R Seals; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..eNOS, and phosphorylated eNOS protein expressions, and reductions in oxidant enzyme, endothelin-1, and angiotensin II receptor protein expressions) are among the key molecular mechanisms associated with the favorable effects of ..
  58. The role of T lymphocytes in mediating hypertension during pregnancy
    Kedra L Wallace; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..have elevated circulating cytokines, neutrophils and lymphocytes producing an agonistic autoantibody to the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1-AA)...
  59. Targeted nanoparticle gene therapy for lung cancer
    Masaaki Tamura; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using the NanoNucleic technology, high local expression of endogenous apoptosis inducer genes (TRAIL and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R)) was achieved in the lungs of mice...
  60. Exercise training improves erectile dysfunction in diabetes: role of central mech
    Kaushik P Patel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..via adenoviral-mediated gene transfer) restores the NMDA- induced erection in T1D rats, 5) plasma levels of angiotensin II (Ang II) are increased and Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptors in the PVN are up-regulated in T1D rats, 6) Ang II ..
  61. Roles of Phospholipase D in AT1 Receptor Endocytosis
    Guangwei Du; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) mediates diverse intracellular responses to angiotensin II (Ang II) in the regulation of blood pressure, hydromineral balance, cardiac hypertrophy and cell proliferation...
  62. Adiponectin Actions on the Monocyte to Reduce Atherosclerosis
    Rajendra K Tangirala; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and adiponectin-dependent PPAR3 ligand effects in models of accelerated atherosclerosis progression (angiotensin II-infused LDLR-/- and old-LDLR-/-) and regression (old-LDLR-/-), and the role of macrophage adiponectin ..
  63. Intrarenal Angiotensin II generation during Angiotensin II-induced hypertension
    ROMER ANDRES GONZALEZ-VILLALOBOS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  64. Renal Control of Blood Pressure in Early Diabetes
    Michael Brands; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The underlying hypothesis is that onset of hyperglycemia in early diabetes induces an angiotensin II-dependent, superoxide-mediated right-shift in the renal pressure-natriuresis relationship, and that nitric ..
  65. Regulation of NADPH Oxidase by Angiotensin II-Role in Myometrial Hypertrophy
    Xiaolan Cui; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..b>Angiotensin II is a well documented vascular smooth muscle growth factor...
  66. Brain serotonin and angiotensin II systems in migraine
    JOSE TERRON; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..As a key activator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the role of the brain angiotensin II (Ang II) system will be addressed...
  67. ROLE OF GLUCOSE IN hAT1 GENE EXPRESSION
    Thomas Thekkumkara; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..b>Angiotensin II, the active component of the renin angiotensin system, acts primarily through angiotensin type 1 (AT1) ..
  68. MODERATE ALCOHOL USE--CARDIOVASCULAR RISKS AND BENEFITS
    Thomas Giles; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..vascular production of the potent vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) and the vasoconstrictors superoxide (SO) and angiotensin II (AII) that may be causal to the dose-dependent hemodynamic sequelae produced by ETOH...
  69. REGULATION OF CARDIAC SECOND MESSENGERS BY ANGIOTENSIN
    Kenneth Baker; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..and congestive heart failure, inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme results in decreased levels of angiotensin II and provides beneficial clinical effects...
  70. ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION AND A LOW SALT DIET
    Thomas Hintze; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Recent evidence suggests that there is an increase in superoxide production due to activation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor and that the superoxide comes from the NADPH oxidase...
  71. Transgenic Targeting of Vascular G Protein Signaling
    Karsten Peppel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For example, a large portion of GRK phosphorylation of either angiotensin II or vasopressin receptor is GRK2 mediated and leads to arrestin recruitment and internalization...
  72. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockade and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obesity
    Kevin Davy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In addition to its vasoconstricting and sodium retaining actions, angiotensin II also has potent pro-inflammatory actions including macrophage infiltration and expression of proinflammatory ..
  73. NEURAL CONTROL OF FLUID HOMEOSTASIS IN HYPERTENSION
    Gregory Fink; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..e. brain and autonomic nervous system). The proposed studies will focus on two such factors--angiotensin II and endothelin...