antimicrobial cationic peptides

Summary

Summary: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The host defense of Drosophila melanogaster
    Bruno Lemaitre
    Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Annu Rev Immunol 25:697-743. 2007
  2. ncbi Antimicrobial peptides of multicellular organisms
    Michael Zasloff
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104 6059, USA
    Nature 415:389-95. 2002
  3. ncbi Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response
    Philip T Liu
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Science 311:1770-3. 2006
  4. ncbi Hepcidin regulates cellular iron efflux by binding to ferroportin and inducing its internalization
    Elizabeta Nemeth
    Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Science 306:2090-3. 2004
  5. ncbi Antimicrobial peptides: pore formers or metabolic inhibitors in bacteria?
    Kim A Brogden
    Department of Periodontics and Dows Institute for Dental Research, College of Dentistry, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:238-50. 2005
  6. ncbi Two to tango: regulation of Mammalian iron metabolism
    Matthias W Hentze
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell 142:24-38. 2010
  7. ncbi Designing antimicrobial peptides: form follows function
    Christopher D Fjell
    Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity Research, University of British Columbia, 2259 Lower Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 11:37-51. 2012
  8. ncbi Antimicrobial and host-defense peptides as new anti-infective therapeutic strategies
    Robert E W Hancock
    Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity Research, Room 232, 2259 Lower Mall Research Station, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6T 1Z4
    Nat Biotechnol 24:1551-7. 2006
  9. pmc Hepcidin and iron regulation, 10 years later
    Tomas Ganz
    Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Blood 117:4425-33. 2011
  10. ncbi A new mouse liver-specific gene, encoding a protein homologous to human antimicrobial peptide hepcidin, is overexpressed during iron overload
    C Pigeon
    INSERM U522, CHRU Pontchaillou, Rennes, France
    J Biol Chem 276:7811-9. 2001

Research Grants

  1. The role of hemojuvelin in the regulation of iron metabolism
    Tomas Ganz; Fiscal Year: 2007
  2. INNATE HOST DEFENSE IN THE HUMAN VAGINA
    Tomas Ganz; Fiscal Year: 2004
  3. Human Defensins in Phagocytes and Epithelia
    Tomas Ganz; Fiscal Year: 2004
  4. THE ROLE OF INFLAMMATION IN ANEMIA OF THE ELDERLY
    Tomas Ganz; Fiscal Year: 2010
  5. Structure and function of antimicrobial peptides
    Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy; Fiscal Year: 2008
  6. Role of Transferrin Receptor 2 in Iron Homeostasis
    Robert Fleming; Fiscal Year: 2007
  7. IRON TRANSPORT IN A MURINE MODEL OF HEMOCHROMATOSIS
    Robert Fleming; Fiscal Year: 2004
  8. Purchase of a 500 MHz Solid State NMR Spectrometer
    Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy; Fiscal Year: 2007
  9. 2007 Antimicrobial Peptides Gordon Conference
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2007
  10. PROTEOGLYCANS WOUND REPAIR AND INFLAMMATION
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2005

Detail Information

Publications298 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The host defense of Drosophila melanogaster
    Bruno Lemaitre
    Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Annu Rev Immunol 25:697-743. 2007
    ..Here we review our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying Drosophila defense reactions together with strategies evolved by pathogens to evade them...
  2. ncbi Antimicrobial peptides of multicellular organisms
    Michael Zasloff
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104 6059, USA
    Nature 415:389-95. 2002
    ..What sorts of molecules are they? How are they employed by animals in their defence? As our need for new antibiotics becomes more pressing, could we design anti-infective drugs based on the design principles these molecules teach us?..
  3. ncbi Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response
    Philip T Liu
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Science 311:1770-3. 2006
    ..These data support a link between TLRs and vitamin D-mediated innate immunity and suggest that differences in ability of human populations to produce vitamin D may contribute to susceptibility to microbial infection...
  4. ncbi Hepcidin regulates cellular iron efflux by binding to ferroportin and inducing its internalization
    Elizabeta Nemeth
    Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Science 306:2090-3. 2004
    ..The posttranslational regulation of ferroportin by hepcidin may thus complete a homeostatic loop: Iron regulates the secretion of hepcidin, which in turn controls the concentration of ferroportin on the cell surface...
  5. ncbi Antimicrobial peptides: pore formers or metabolic inhibitors in bacteria?
    Kim A Brogden
    Department of Periodontics and Dows Institute for Dental Research, College of Dentistry, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:238-50. 2005
    ..In this review the different models of antimicrobial-peptide-induced pore formation and cell killing are presented...
  6. ncbi Two to tango: regulation of Mammalian iron metabolism
    Matthias W Hentze
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell 142:24-38. 2010
    ..We also highlight some of the current questions in mammalian iron metabolism and discuss therapeutic opportunities arising from a better understanding of the underlying biological principles...
  7. ncbi Designing antimicrobial peptides: form follows function
    Christopher D Fjell
    Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity Research, University of British Columbia, 2259 Lower Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 11:37-51. 2012
    ....
  8. ncbi Antimicrobial and host-defense peptides as new anti-infective therapeutic strategies
    Robert E W Hancock
    Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity Research, Room 232, 2259 Lower Mall Research Station, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6T 1Z4
    Nat Biotechnol 24:1551-7. 2006
    ....
  9. pmc Hepcidin and iron regulation, 10 years later
    Tomas Ganz
    Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Blood 117:4425-33. 2011
    ..This response also restricts the iron supply to erythropoietic precursors and may cause or contribute to the anemia associated with infections and inflammatory disorders...
  10. ncbi A new mouse liver-specific gene, encoding a protein homologous to human antimicrobial peptide hepcidin, is overexpressed during iron overload
    C Pigeon
    INSERM U522, CHRU Pontchaillou, Rennes, France
    J Biol Chem 276:7811-9. 2001
    ..Taken together, our data strongly suggest that the product of the new liver-specific gene HEPC might play a specific role during iron overload and exhibit additional functions distinct from its antimicrobial activity...
  11. ncbi Cutting edge: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is a direct inducer of antimicrobial peptide gene expression
    Tian Tian Wang
    Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Immunol 173:2909-12. 2004
    ..1,25(OH)(2)D(3) thus directly regulates antimicrobial peptide gene expression, revealing the potential of its analogues in treatment of opportunistic infections...
  12. ncbi Antimicrobial peptides in insects; structure and function
    P Bulet
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Unité Propre de Recherche du CNRS 9022, Strasbourg, France
    Dev Comp Immunol 23:329-44. 1999
    ..This review presents the main results obtained during the last four years in the field of antimicrobial peptides from insects with a special focus on the proline-rich and cysteine-rich peptides...
  13. ncbi Antimicrobial peptides: the ancient arm of the human immune system
    Jochen Wiesner
    Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Institute of Phytopathology and Applied Zoology at the Interdisciplinary Research Center, Giessen, Germany
    Virulence 1:440-64. 2010
    ..Omiganan, representing an indolicidin derivative, has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of acne and catheter-related local infections and is currently considered to be the most promising AMP-based drug candidate...
  14. ncbi Innate immune homeostasis by the homeobox gene caudal and commensal-gut mutualism in Drosophila
    Ji Hwan Ryu
    Division of Molecular Life Science, Ewha Woman s University and National Creative Research Initiative Center for Symbiosystem, Seoul 120 750, South Korea
    Science 319:777-82. 2008
    ..These results reveal that a specific genetic deficiency within a host can profoundly influence the gut commensal microbial community and host physiology...
  15. pmc Peptide antimicrobial agents
    Håvard Jenssen
    Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity Research, University of British Columbia, Lower Mall Research Station, 232 2259 Lower Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Clin Microbiol Rev 19:491-511. 2006
    ..Knowledge regarding the relationship between peptide structure and function as well as their mechanism of action is being applied in the design of antimicrobial peptide variants as potential novel therapeutic agents...
  16. ncbi Mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide action and resistance
    Michael R Yeaman
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance, California, USA
    Pharmacol Rev 55:27-55. 2003
    ..From these perspectives, the intention of this review is to illustrate the contemporary structural and functional themes among mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide action and resistance...
  17. pmc Magainins, a class of antimicrobial peptides from Xenopus skin: isolation, characterization of two active forms, and partial cDNA sequence of a precursor
    M Zasloff
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84:5449-53. 1987
    ..The sequence of a partial cDNA of the precursor reveals that both peptides derive from a common larger protein. These peptides appear to represent a previously unrecognized class of vertebrate antimicrobial activities...
  18. pmc APD2: the updated antimicrobial peptide database and its application in peptide design
    Guangshun Wang
    Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 986805 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 6805, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 37:D933-7. 2009
    ..Using frequently occurring residues, we demonstrate database-aided peptide design in different ways. Among the three peptides designed, GLK-19 showed a higher activity against Escherichia coli than human LL-37...
  19. ncbi Hepcidin regulation by innate immune and infectious stimuli
    Andrew E Armitage
    Molecular Immunology Group, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Blood 118:4129-39. 2011
    ..Together, these results indicate that hepcidin induction represents a component of the innate immune response to acute infection, with the potential to affect disease pathogenesis...
  20. ncbi Endogenous antimicrobial peptides and skin infections in atopic dermatitis
    Peck Y Ong
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO 80206, USA
    N Engl J Med 347:1151-60. 2002
    ..We compared the levels of expression of LL-37 and human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2) in inflamed skin from patients with atopic dermatitis and from those with psoriasis...
  21. ncbi Hepcidin, a urinary antimicrobial peptide synthesized in the liver
    C H Park
    Departments of Medicine and Pathology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90059, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:7806-10. 2001
    ..Hepcidin may be a vertebrate counterpart of cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides produced in the fat body of insects...
  22. ncbi Mechanism of the binding, insertion and destabilization of phospholipid bilayer membranes by alpha-helical antimicrobial and cell non-selective membrane-lytic peptides
    Y Shai
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1462:55-70. 1999
    ....
  23. ncbi Bone morphogenetic protein signaling by hemojuvelin regulates hepcidin expression
    Jodie L Babitt
    Program in Membrane Biology and Nephrology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Genet 38:531-9. 2006
    ..Our data suggest a mechanism by which HFE2 mutations cause hemochromatosis: hemojuvelin dysfunction decreases BMP signaling, thereby lowering hepcidin expression...
  24. pmc LL-37, the neutrophil granule- and epithelial cell-derived cathelicidin, utilizes formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1) as a receptor to chemoattract human peripheral blood neutrophils, monocytes, and T cells
    - De Yang
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunoregulation, Division of Basic Sciences, Frederick, MD, USA
    J Exp Med 192:1069-74. 2000
    ..Our results suggest that, in addition to its microbicidal activity, LL-37 may contribute to innate and adaptive immunity by recruiting neutrophils, monocytes, and T cells to sites of microbial invasion by interacting with FPRL1...
  25. pmc Self-RNA-antimicrobial peptide complexes activate human dendritic cells through TLR7 and TLR8
    Dipyaman Ganguly
    Department of Immunology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, TX 77030, USA
    J Exp Med 206:1983-94. 2009
    ..Our results demonstrate that the cationic antimicrobial peptide LL37 converts self-RNA into a trigger of TLR7 and TLR8 in human DCs, and provide new insights into the mechanism that drives the auto-inflammatory responses in psoriasis...
  26. ncbi LL-37, the only human member of the cathelicidin family of antimicrobial peptides
    Ulrich H N Dürr
    Biophysics Research Division and Department of Chemistry, 930 N University Avenue, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1055, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1758:1408-25. 2006
    ..The multitude of immuno-functional roles is only outlined. We believe that this review will aid the future work on the biophysical, biochemical and immunological investigations of this highly intriguing molecule...
  27. ncbi Plasmacytoid dendritic cells sense self-DNA coupled with antimicrobial peptide
    Roberto Lande
    Department of Immunology, M D Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Nature 449:564-9. 2007
    ..Thus, our data uncover a fundamental role of an endogenous antimicrobial peptide in breaking innate tolerance to self-DNA and suggest that this pathway may drive autoimmunity in psoriasis...
  28. ncbi Paneth cells, antimicrobial peptides and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis
    Charles L Bevins
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 9:356-68. 2011
    ..We also highlight the implications of Paneth cell dysfunction in susceptibility to chronic inflammatory bowel disease...
  29. pmc APD: the Antimicrobial Peptide Database
    Zhe Wang
    Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 986805 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 6805, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 32:D590-2. 2004
    ..APD is a useful tool for studying the structure-function relationship of antimicrobial peptides. The database can be accessed via a web-based browser at the URL: http://aps.unmc.edu/AP/main.html...
  30. ncbi Cutting edge: vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the induction of cathelicidin
    Philip T Liu
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    J Immunol 179:2060-3. 2007
    ..These data demonstrate that cathelicidin is required for the 1,25D(3)-triggered antimicrobial activity against intracellular M. tuberculosis...
  31. ncbi Cationic host defense (antimicrobial) peptides
    Kelly L Brown
    Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Curr Opin Immunol 18:24-30. 2006
    ..In addition, the mechanisms of action are being unraveled, which support more effective implementation of derivatives of these endogenous peptides as therapeutic agents...
  32. ncbi Hepcidin, a putative mediator of anemia of inflammation, is a type II acute-phase protein
    Elizabeta Nemeth
    Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, and the West Los Angeles Veterans Administration Hospital, University of California, Los Angeles 90095, USA
    Blood 101:2461-3. 2003
    ..The linkage of hepcidin induction to inflammation in humans supports its proposed role as a key mediator of anemia of inflammation...
  33. ncbi Antibacterial peptides for therapeutic use: obstacles and realistic outlook
    Alexandra K Marr
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity Research, University of British Columbia, 232 2259 Lower Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 6:468-72. 2006
    ..Thus, there is hope that they will spawn a new generation of antimicrobials with a broad range of topical and systemic applications against infections...
  34. pmc Host-mediated regulation of superinfection in malaria
    Silvia Portugal
    Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
    Nat Med 17:732-7. 2011
    ..The interaction between these two Plasmodium stages and host iron metabolism has relevance for the global efforts to reduce malaria transmission and for evaluation of iron supplementation programs in malaria-endemic regions...
  35. ncbi Human beta-defensins
    M Pazgier
    Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Cell Mol Life Sci 63:1294-313. 2006
    ..In this review, we present some recent advances in the studies of human beta-defensins, with an emphasis on possible correlations between their structural and functional properties...
  36. ncbi Inactivation of the dlt operon in Staphylococcus aureus confers sensitivity to defensins, protegrins, and other antimicrobial peptides
    A Peschel
    Mikrobielle Genetik, Universitat Tubingen, Waldhäuser Strasse 70 8, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    J Biol Chem 274:8405-10. 1999
    ..We propose a role of the D-alanine-esterified teichoic acids which occur in many pathogenic bacteria in the protection against human and animal defense systems...
  37. pmc IL-6 mediates hypoferremia of inflammation by inducing the synthesis of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin
    Elizabeta Nemeth
    Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA
    J Clin Invest 113:1271-6. 2004
    ....
  38. ncbi Serum hepcidin: reference ranges and biochemical correlates in the general population
    Tessel E Galesloot
    Department of Epidemiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Blood 117:e218-25. 2011
    ..Our study provides age- and sex-specific reference ranges of serum hepcidin concentration and indicates ferritin as the primary correlate of serum hepcidin concentration...
  39. pmc The gene encoding the iron regulatory peptide hepcidin is regulated by anemia, hypoxia, and inflammation
    Gael Nicolas
    Département de génétique, Developpement et Pathologie Moleculaire, Institut Cochin, INSERM, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, et Université René Descartes, Faculté de Médecine Cochin Port Royal, Paris, France
    J Clin Invest 110:1037-44. 2002
    ....
  40. pmc Iron in innate immunity: starve the invaders
    Tomas Ganz
    David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1690, United States
    Curr Opin Immunol 21:63-7. 2009
    ..Specialized inflammation-regulated proteins chelate iron, trap siderophores, and transport iron or modulate its transport to alter its tissue distribution during infections...
  41. pmc Hormonally active vitamin D3 (1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) triggers autophagy in human macrophages that inhibits HIV-1 infection
    Grant R Campbell
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:18890-902. 2011
    ..Our findings support an important role for autophagy during HIV-1 infection and provide new insights into novel approaches to prevent and treat HIV-1 infection and related opportunistic infections...
  42. ncbi High levels of GDF15 in thalassemia suppress expression of the iron regulatory protein hepcidin
    Toshihiko Tanno
    Molecular Medicine Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Med 13:1096-101. 2007
    ..These results suggest that GDF15 overexpression arising from an expanded erythroid compartment contributes to iron overload in thalassemia syndromes by inhibiting hepcidin expression...
  43. ncbi Impact of LL-37 on anti-infective immunity
    Dawn M E Bowdish
    Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity Research, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    J Leukoc Biol 77:451-9. 2005
    ..A peptide with no antimicrobial activity was found to be protective in animal models of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella infection, implying that a host defense peptide can protect by exerting immunomodulatory properties...
  44. pmc Modulation of bone morphogenetic protein signaling in vivo regulates systemic iron balance
    Jodie L Babitt
    Program in Membrane Biology and Nephrology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Clin Invest 117:1933-9. 2007
    ..These data support a role for modulators of the BMP signaling pathway in treating diseases of iron overload and anemia of chronic disease...
  45. pmc CAMP: a useful resource for research on antimicrobial peptides
    Shaini Thomas
    Biomedical Informatics Center of Indian Council of Medical Research, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, Mumbai, India
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:D774-80. 2010
    ..CAMP will be a useful database for study of sequence-activity and -specificity relationships in AMPs. CAMP is freely available at http://www.bicnirrh.res.in/antimicrobial...
  46. ncbi Alarmins: chemotactic activators of immune responses
    Joost J Oppenheim
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunoregulation, Center for Cancer Research, Scientific Application and International Cooperation, Inc SAIC Frederick, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Curr Opin Immunol 17:359-65. 2005
    ..We propose to highlight these proteins' unique activities by grouping them under the novel term 'alarmins', in recognition of their role in mobilizing the immune system...
  47. pmc BMP6 is a key endogenous regulator of hepcidin expression and iron metabolism
    Billy Andriopoulos
    Program in Membrane Biology, Division of Nephrology, Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Nat Genet 41:482-7. 2009
    ..These data support a key role for BMP6 as a ligand for hemojuvelin and an endogenous regulator of hepcidin expression and iron metabolism in vivo...
  48. ncbi Human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene is a direct target of the vitamin D receptor and is strongly up-regulated in myeloid cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3
    Adrian F Gombart
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA
    FASEB J 19:1067-77. 2005
    ..Our findings reveal a novel activity of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and the VDR in regulation of primate innate immunity...
  49. ncbi The expanding scope of antimicrobial peptide structures and their modes of action
    Leonard T Nguyen
    Biochemistry Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2N 1N4
    Trends Biotechnol 29:464-72. 2011
    ..A better understanding of the structure-activity relationships of AMPs is required to facilitate the rational design of novel antimicrobial agents...
  50. ncbi Hepcidin in human iron disorders: diagnostic implications
    Joyce J C Kroot
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Laboratory of Genetic, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Chem 57:1650-69. 2011
    ..The measurement of hepcidin in biological fluids is therefore a promising tool in the diagnosis and management of medical conditions in which iron metabolism is affected...
  51. ncbi Immunochemical and mass-spectrometry-based serum hepcidin assays for iron metabolism disorders
    Joyce J C Kroot
    Laboratory of Genetic, Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Chem 56:1570-9. 2010
    ..Hepcidin is instrumental in the diagnosis and monitoring of iron metabolism disorders, but reliable methods for its quantification in serum are sparse, as is knowledge of their relative analytical strengths and clinical utility...
  52. ncbi Cathelicidin LL-37: a multitask antimicrobial peptide
    Robert Bucki
    Institute for Medicine and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, 1010 Vagelos Research Laboratories, 3340 Smith Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 58:15-25. 2010
    ..A better understanding of LL-37's biological properties is necessary for its possible therapeutic application for immunomodulatory purposes as well as in treating bacterial infection...
  53. pmc Neutrophil secretion products pave the way for inflammatory monocytes
    Oliver Soehnlein
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Blood 112:1461-71. 2008
    ..This cellular cross-talk functionally results in enhanced cytokine levels and increased bacterial clearance, thus boosting the early immune response...
  54. pmc The Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid beta-protein is an antimicrobial peptide
    Stephanie J Soscia
    Genetics and Aging Research Unit, Mass General Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease and Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e9505. 2010
    ....
  55. pmc Convergence of IL-1beta and VDR activation pathways in human TLR2/1-induced antimicrobial responses
    Philip T Liu
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e5810. 2009
    ..Therefore, these data identify a novel mechanism of host defense requiring the induction of IL-1beta in synergy with vitamin D activation, for the TLR-induced antimicrobial pathway against an intracellular pathogen...
  56. ncbi Innate antimicrobial peptide protects the skin from invasive bacterial infection
    V Nizet
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    Nature 414:454-7. 2001
    ..Here we show that cathelicidins are an important native component of innate host defence in mice and provide protection against necrotic skin infection caused by Group A Streptococcus (GAS)...
  57. pmc Experimental evolution of resistance to an antimicrobial peptide
    Gabriel G Perron
    Department of Biology, McGill University, 1205 Avenue Dr Penfield, Montreal, Que H3A 1B1, Canada
    Proc Biol Sci 273:251-6. 2006
    ....
  58. pmc Structural and DNA-binding studies on the bovine antimicrobial peptide, indolicidin: evidence for multiple conformations involved in binding to membranes and DNA
    Chun Hua Hsu
    Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica Taipei, Taiwan
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:4053-64. 2005
    ....
  59. pmc Beyond NMR spectra of antimicrobial peptides: dynamical images at atomic resolution and functional insights
    Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy
    Biophysics and Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1055, USA
    Solid State Nucl Magn Reson 35:201-7. 2009
    ....
  60. ncbi Cathelicidins, multifunctional peptides of the innate immunity
    Margherita Zanetti
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technology, University of Udine, I 33100 Udine, Italy
    J Leukoc Biol 75:39-48. 2004
    ..These multiple actions provide evidence for active participation of cathelicidin peptides in the regulation of the antimicrobial host defenses...
  61. ncbi Vitamin D3 induces autophagy in human monocytes/macrophages via cathelicidin
    Jae Min Yuk
    Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea
    Cell Host Microbe 6:231-43. 2009
    ..These results indicate that human cathelicidin, a protein that has direct antimicrobial activity, also serves as a mediator of vitamin D3-induced autophagy...
  62. pmc In vitro cross-resistance to daptomycin and host defense cationic antimicrobial peptides in clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates
    Nagendra N Mishra
    LA Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA, 1124 West Carson Street, Bldg RB2, Room 230, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:4012-8. 2011
    ..DAP(r) strains with or without mutations in the mprF locus demonstrated significant cross-resistance profiles to these unrelated CAPs...
  63. ncbi Cationic antimicrobial peptides in penaeid shrimp
    Anchalee Tassanakajon
    Center of Excellence for Molecular Biology and Genomics of Shrimp, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
    Mar Biotechnol (NY) 13:639-57. 2011
    ..The information available on antimicrobial activities indicates that these shrimp AMPs have potential therapeutic applications in the control of disease problems in aquaculture...
  64. pmc Real-time attack on single Escherichia coli cells by the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37
    Kem A Sochacki
    Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:E77-81. 2011
    ..The assay enables dissection of antimicrobial design criteria into two parts: translocation across the OM and the subsequent halting of growth...
  65. ncbi The human antimicrobial and chemotactic peptides LL-37 and alpha-defensins are expressed by specific lymphocyte and monocyte populations
    B Agerberth
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Microbiology and Tumorbiology Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Blood 96:3086-93. 2000
    ....
  66. pmc LL37 and cationic peptides enhance TLR3 signaling by viral double-stranded RNAs
    YVONNE LAI
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e26632. 2011
    ..It synergizes with TLR2/1, TLR3 and TLR5 agonists to increase IL8 and IL6 production. This work seeks to determine whether LL37 enhances viral dsRNA recognition by TLR3...
  67. ncbi Litopenaeus vannamei tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) responds to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection and activates antimicrobial peptide genes
    Pei Hui Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat Sen University, 135 Xingang Road West, Guangzhou 510275, People s Republic of China
    Dev Comp Immunol 35:105-14. 2011
    ..7- and 2.3-fold over the control at 3h in gills and hepatopancreas, respectively. These results indicated that LvTRAF6 may play a crucial role in antibacterial and antiviral responses via regulation of AMP gene expression...
  68. ncbi Multifunctional cationic host defence peptides and their clinical applications
    Amy T Y Yeung
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity Research, University of British Columbia, Room 232, 2259 Lower Mall Research Station, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Cell Mol Life Sci 68:2161-76. 2011
    ..Here we provide an overview of the antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities of cationic HDPs, and discuss their potential application as beneficial therapeutics in overcoming infectious diseases...
  69. ncbi Therapeutic potential of host defense peptides in antibiotic-resistant infections
    Nicole J Afacan
    Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Curr Pharm Des 18:807-19. 2012
    ..Challenges to their development as new therapeutics are also discussed...
  70. ncbi Hepcidin and disorders of iron metabolism
    Tomas Ganz
    Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Annu Rev Med 62:347-60. 2011
    ..The hepcidin-ferroportin axis is the principal regulator of extracellular iron homeostasis in health and disease, and is a promising target for the diagnosis and treatment of iron disorders and anemias...
  71. ncbi Increased internal and external bacterial load during Drosophila aging without life-span trade-off
    Chunli Ren
    Molecular and Computational Biology Program, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 2910, USA
    Cell Metab 6:144-52. 2007
    ....
  72. ncbi Bacterial resistance mechanisms against host defense peptides
    Tomaz Koprivnjak
    Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Chemistry Slovenia, Hajdrihova 19, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Cell Mol Life Sci 68:2243-54. 2011
    ..Together with bacterial regulatory network(s) that regulate expression and activity of these mechanisms, they represent attractive targets for development of novel antibacterials...
  73. ncbi Immunoassay for human serum hepcidin
    Tomas Ganz
    Intrinsic LifeSciences LLC, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Blood 112:4292-7. 2008
    ..The new serum hepcidin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay yields accurate and reproducible measurements that appropriately reflect physiologic, pathologic, and genetic influences, and is informative about the etiology of iron disorders...
  74. ncbi Association of HFE and TMPRSS6 genetic variants with iron and erythrocyte parameters is only in part dependent on serum hepcidin concentrations
    Michela Traglia
    Division of Genetics and Cell Biology, San Raffaele Research Institute, Milano, Italy
    J Med Genet 48:629-34. 2011
    ..Hepcidin is the main regulator of iron homeostasis: inappropriate production of hepcidin results in iron overload or iron deficiency and anaemia...
  75. pmc Bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 4, and 9 stimulate murine hepcidin 1 expression independently of Hfe, transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2), and IL-6
    Jaroslav Truksa
    Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:10289-93. 2006
    ..Moreover, all of the tested BMPs are more potent regulators of hepcidin than IL-6 and thus are the most potent known stimulators of hepcidin transcription...
  76. ncbi Role of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in protection from white spot syndrome virus infection
    Sirinit Tharntada
    Shrimp Molecular Biology and Genomics Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
    J Gen Virol 90:1491-8. 2009
    ..The in vivo role of ALFPm3 was examined by injection of P. monodon with WSSV pre-treated with rALFPm3 protein. The results clearly showed that rALFPm3 was able to reduce WSSV propagation and prolong the survival of shrimps...
  77. pmc Cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide differentially regulates T- and B-cell function
    Nicholas W Kin
    Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Eur J Immunol 41:3006-16. 2011
    ..Our results suggest that mCRAMP differentially regulates B- and T-cell function and implicate mCRAMP in the regulation of adaptive immune responses...
  78. pmc The peptide antibiotic LL-37/hCAP-18 is expressed in epithelia of the human lung where it has broad antimicrobial activity at the airway surface
    R Bals
    Institute for Human Gene Therapy, Departments of Medicine and Molecular and Cellular Engineering, University of Pennsylvania Health System and the Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:9541-6. 1998
    ..In summary, we show that LL-37/hCAP-18 is a peptide with broad antimicrobial activity that is secreted onto the airway surface from epithelial cells of the human lung...
  79. pmc The serine protease TMPRSS6 is required to sense iron deficiency
    Xin Du
    Department of Genetics, Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 320:1088-92. 2008
    ..TMPRSS6 is an essential component of a pathway that detects iron deficiency and blocks Hamp transcription, permitting enhanced dietary iron absorption...
  80. ncbi Cationic host defence peptides: multifaceted role in immune modulation and inflammation
    Ka Yee Choi
    Manitoba Centre for Proteomics and Systems Biology, Departments of Internal Medicine and Immunology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man, Canada
    J Innate Immun 4:361-70. 2012
    ..We also discuss emerging concepts of specific HDPs in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, including the potential use of cationic peptides as therapeutics for immune-mediated inflammatory disorders...
  81. pmc Control of the innate epithelial antimicrobial response is cell-type specific and dependent on relevant microenvironmental stimuli
    Jürgen Schauber
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego and VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USA
    Immunology 118:509-19. 2006
    ....
  82. ncbi IFN-gamma- and TNF-independent vitamin D-inducible human suppression of mycobacteria: the role of cathelicidin LL-37
    Adrian R Martineau
    Wellcome Trust Center for Research in Clinical Tropical Medicine, Division of Medicine, Wright Fleming Institute, Imperial College London, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 178:7190-8. 2007
    ..7%. These findings suggest that vitamin D contributes to protection against TB by "nonclassical" mechanisms that include the induction of antimicrobial peptides...
  83. ncbi The expression of the gene coding for the antibacterial peptide LL-37 is induced in human keratinocytes during inflammatory disorders
    M Frohm
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 272:15258-63. 1997
    ..We propose a protective role for LL-37, when the integrity of the skin barrier is damaged, participating in the first line of defense, and preventing local infection and systemic invasion of microbes...
  84. ncbi The relationship between peptide structure and antibacterial activity
    Jon Paul S Powers
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, 300 6174 University Boulevard, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3
    Peptides 24:1681-91. 2003
    ..In addition to peptide conformation, the role of membrane lipid composition, specifically non-bilayer lipids, on peptide activity will also be discussed...
  85. pmc Atlantic cod piscidin and its diversification through positive selection
    Jorge M O Fernandes
    Faculty of Biosciences and Aquaculture, Bodø University College, Bodø, Nordland, Norway
    PLoS ONE 5:e9501. 2010
    ..This diversification might be associated with adaptation to new habitats or rapidly evolving pathogens...
  86. pmc Selective antimicrobial action is provided by phenol-soluble modulins derived from Staphylococcus epidermidis, a normal resident of the skin
    Anna L Cogen
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, VA San Diego Health Care System, San Diego, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 130:192-200. 2010
    ..Thus, these data suggest that the production of PSMgamma and PSMdelta by S. epidermidis can benefit cutaneous immune defense by selectively inhibiting the survival of skin pathogens while maintaining the normal skin microbiome...
  87. ncbi Why and how are peptide-lipid interactions utilized for self-defense? Magainins and tachyplesins as archetypes
    K Matsuzaki
    Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Yoshida Shimoadachi Cho 46 29, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1462:1-10. 1999
    ....
  88. pmc The role of hepcidin in iron metabolism
    Elizabeta Nemeth
    David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Acta Haematol 122:78-86. 2009
    ..Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of this new knowledge are beginning to emerge. Dr. Ernest Beutler played a significant role in advancing our understanding of the function of hepcidin. This review is dedicated to his memory...
  89. ncbi The cathelicidin anti-microbial peptide LL-37 is involved in re-epithelialization of human skin wounds and is lacking in chronic ulcer epithelium
    Johan D Heilborn
    Department of Dermatology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Invest Dermatol 120:379-89. 2003
    ..Thus, we suggest that, in addition to being an anti-microbial peptide, LL-37 also plays a part in wound closure and that its reduction in chronic wounds impairs re-epithelialization and may contribute to their failure to heal...
  90. ncbi Cathelicidin family of antibacterial peptides CAP18 and CAP11 inhibit the expression of TNF-alpha by blocking the binding of LPS to CD14(+) cells
    I Nagaoka
    Department of Biochemistry, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    J Immunol 167:3329-38. 2001
    ....
  91. ncbi Potential of immunomodulatory host defense peptides as novel anti-infectives
    Donna M Easton
    Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Room 232, 2259 Lower Mall Research Station, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z4
    Trends Biotechnol 27:582-90. 2009
    ..IDRs show significant promise and current research is uncovering mechanistic information that will aid in the future development of IDRs for clinical use...
  92. ncbi New lytic peptides based on the D,L-amphipathic helix motif preferentially kill tumor cells compared to normal cells
    Niv Papo
    Department of Biological Chemistry, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 Israel
    Biochemistry 42:9346-54. 2003
    ..g., O-glycosylation of mucines). The simple composition of the diastereomeric peptides and their stability regarding enzymatic degradation by serum components make them excellent candidates for new chemotherapeutic drugs...
  93. pmc Snake cathelicidin from Bungarus fasciatus is a potent peptide antibiotics
    Yipeng Wang
    Biotoxin Units of Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China
    PLoS ONE 3:e3217. 2008
    ..Recently, several cathelicidins have also been found from chickens and fishes. No cathelicidins from other non-mammalian vertebrates have been reported...
  94. ncbi Evidence of high individual diversity on myticin C in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)
    M M Costa
    Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Vigo, Spain
    Dev Comp Immunol 33:162-70. 2009
    ....
  95. ncbi Identification of novel antibacterial peptides by chemoinformatics and machine learning
    Christopher D Fjell
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    J Med Chem 52:2006-15. 2009
    ....
  96. pmc Improved outcome in shigellosis associated with butyrate induction of an endogenous peptide antibiotic
    Rubhana Raqib
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh, Centre for Health and Population Research, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:9178-83. 2006
    ....
  97. ncbi The roles of cathelicidin LL-37 in immune defences and novel clinical applications
    Anastasia Nijnik
    Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, 2259 Lower Mall Research Station, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Curr Opin Hematol 16:41-7. 2009
    ..In this review we will cover the recent advances in the understanding of LL-37 biology: its activities, the mechanisms of its induction and roles in immune defence...
  98. pmc Respiratory epithelial cells convert inactive vitamin D to its active form: potential effects on host defense
    Sif Hansdottir
    Department of Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, and Veterans Administration Medical Center, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Immunol 181:7090-9. 2008
    ..These observations suggest a novel mechanism by which local conversion of inactive to active vitamin D alters immune function in the lung...
  99. pmc Anti-fungal innate immunity in C. elegans is enhanced by evolutionary diversification of antimicrobial peptides
    Nathalie Pujol
    Centre d immunologie de Marseille Luminy, Universite de la Mediterranee, Case 906, Marseille, France
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000105. 2008
    ..Our results suggest that selective pressure from pathogens influences intra-genomic diversification of AMPs and reveal an unexpected complexity in AMP regulation as part of the invertebrate innate immune response...
  100. ncbi Antimicrobial peptides in action
    Hari Leontiadou
    Department of Biophysical Chemistry, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Am Chem Soc 128:12156-61. 2006
    ..The remaining peptides lay close to the edge of the pore, maintaining a predominantly parallel orientation with respect to the membrane...
  101. ncbi The role of cathelicidins in the innate host defenses of mammals
    Margherita Zanetti
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technology, University of Udine, 1 33100 Udine, Italy
    Curr Issues Mol Biol 7:179-96. 2005
    ....

Research Grants65

  1. The role of hemojuvelin in the regulation of iron metabolism
    Tomas Ganz; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  2. INNATE HOST DEFENSE IN THE HUMAN VAGINA
    Tomas Ganz; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. Human Defensins in Phagocytes and Epithelia
    Tomas Ganz; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In the aggregate, these studies will expand our understanding of is ubiquitous and multifunctional family of human host defense peptides, this time also in their role as effectors of innate immunity in epithelia. ..
  4. THE ROLE OF INFLAMMATION IN ANEMIA OF THE ELDERLY
    Tomas Ganz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This study is designed to find how inflammation causes anemia in the elderly and how the disease processes are changed by available treatments. ..
  5. Structure and function of antimicrobial peptides
    Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These peptides have therapeutic potential as antibiotics and have particular importance for cystic fibrosis patients. ..
  6. Role of Transferrin Receptor 2 in Iron Homeostasis
    Robert Fleming; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This knowledge will increase our understanding of iron homeostasis, and may suggest new approaches to the management of diseases of iron overload and maldistribution. ..
  7. IRON TRANSPORT IN A MURINE MODEL OF HEMOCHROMATOSIS
    Robert Fleming; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We hope the findings suggest novel approaches to prevent iron loading in HH and other diseases with excess dietary iron absorption. ..
  8. Purchase of a 500 MHz Solid State NMR Spectrometer
    Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] All the major users of the instrument are supported by NIH R01 grants. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  9. 2007 Antimicrobial Peptides Gordon Conference
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The organizational philosophy is to encourage diverse[unreadable] participation, and maintain an eye towards gender issues, junior scientists, minorities, and individuals with[unreadable] physical limitations. ..
  10. PROTEOGLYCANS WOUND REPAIR AND INFLAMMATION
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The GAG ligand(s) responsible for activation will be sought and gene expression profiles investigated. Successful completion of these aims will reveal fundamental events in wound repair and may suggest new approaches to wound therapy. ..
  11. The CXCR4-SDF-1 Axis in Metastatic Rhabdomyosarcoma
    Mariusz Ratajczak; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This work will be of relevance for designing strategies to block the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis to treat CXCR4-positive cancers. ..
  12. Bacteria-host cell interactions in periodontal disease
    Gill Diamond; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The result from this study will allow us to develop novel strategies to prevent attachment and colonization of disease-causing bacteria. ..
  13. Host-Pathogen Interactions in the Mammalian Airway
    Gill Diamond; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This would include strategies to modulate the endogenous antimicrobial peptide expression to prevent serious bacterial infections. ..
  14. A Mouse Model of Gaucher Disease
    Ernest Beutler; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In particular, electron microscopy and light microscopy will be used to attempt to demonstrate the development of Gaucher cells in the chimeric mice. ..
  15. FORMATION AND SURVIVAL OF RED BLOOD CELLS
    Ernest Beutler; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Should these point mutations fail to alter gene transcription, a search will be made for other potential mutations in linkage disequilibrium with the known -5,-8 and -24 polymorphisms, by sequencing upstream through the promotor. ..
  16. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BASIS OF HIV BASED THROMBOCYTOPEN
    Mariusz Ratajczak; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In toto, the studies proposed in this grant will increase the knowledge about pathogenesis of AIDS associated thrombocytopenia and may lead to development of new strategies for its treatment of prevention. (End of Abstract) ..
  17. Proteomics of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage
    Alexander Cole; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  18. Retrocyclins: Circular Defensins Active Against HIV-1
    Alexander M Cole; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Availability of such agents, in the form of a cream or gel, would empower vulnerable sexual partners by providing them with an invisible, effective means of protection. ..
  19. Folding and design of beta sheets in membranes
    William C Wimley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This information will be used to create a public database of potential outer membrane proteins ..
  20. Nasal carriage of S. aureus: host-pathogen interactions
    Alexander M Cole; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  21. Iron Metabolism in Mosquitoes
    Joy Winzerling; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We also are interested in designing control strategies that modulate IRP1/IRE interaction or that interfere with ferritin synthesis or secretion. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  22. BioIron Research Conference 2007
    Jerry Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The overall goal of the BioIron 2007 World Congress is the international dissemination of important new research results to investigators working in the field of iron metabolism. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  23. DERMATOREMEDIATION OF IRON OVERLOAD
    Leonard M Milstone; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Since iron is increasingly suspected of having a role in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases of skin, this new information should assist in devising preventative and treatment measures for those types of diseases. ..
  24. Regulation of iron Homeostasis
    Nancy Andrews; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Together, these experiments should help to define the HFE/hepcidin regulatory axis, and inform future investigations of the pathogenesis of hemochromatosis. ..
  25. GANGLIOSIDE GENE MODULATION EFFECT ON CELL MOTILITY
    Amy Paller; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies will provide information about the role of gangliosides in caveolin-1 mediated signaling and may lead to novel therapies for patients with abnormal healing responses. ..
  26. Howard-CNMC Sickle Cell Disease Clinical Center
    Victor Gordeuk; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..A major feature of both sickle cell programs has always been continuity of care and participation in collaborative research. ..
  27. Pulmonary Hypertension and the Hypoxic Response in SCD
    Victor Gordeuk; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Aim 3. Using micro array analysis and high throughput genotyping, examine patterns of gene expression and candidate gene polymorphisms of the HIF-mediated hypoxic response in SCD and CP patients with and without PHTN. ..
  28. Structure-based mutational analysis of RNA polymerase
    KONSTANTIN V SEVERINOV; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposed work is significant from the public health standpoint since information necessary for development of new and/or improved drugs that target bacterial transcription will be obtained. ..
  29. Inhibiting the Inhibitor: Small Molecule Screening with Small Pox N1L
    Neal Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Finally compounds that inhibit vaccinia virus would theoretically prevent vaccine (vaccinia) side effects. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  30. A Luciferase Fusion Protein Library to Identify & Monitor Ubiquitylation Targets
    William Kaelin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Reisolation of HIF in aims 2 and 3 would constitute proof of concept with respect to the potential utility of this approach. ..
  31. S. sanguis Adhesion: Molecular Basis of Specificity
    MARK HERZBERG; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  32. MICROBICIDAL PROTEINS FROM PLATELETS
    Michael R Yeaman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In turn, these insights will accelerate development of novel strategies to prevent or treat serious infections, particularly those caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens. ..
  33. Regulation of Beta-Defensin Expression in Oral Epithelia
    WHASUN CHUNG; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These studies will lead to new insights on the role of innate immunity and new potential targets for therapeutic drug development for oral infections. ..
  34. Novel Context-Activated Protide Anti-Infectives
    Michael Yeaman; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These advances would represent major breakthroughs in the prevention and treatment of these common and increasingly difficult-to-treat infections. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  35. Erythroid Iron Transport
    Nancy Andrews; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We anticipate that information derived from these experiments will be relevant to disorders of erythropoiesis and iron balance. ..
  36. Automated Confocal Instrument for Core Imaging Facility
    Jerry Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. BIOIRON RESEARCH CONFERENCE 2005
    Jerry Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The overall goal of the Bioiron (2005) World Congress is the international dissemination of important new research results to investigators working in the field of iron metabolism. ..
  38. CORE FACILITY RESEARCH PEPTIDE SYNTHESIZER
    Michael Yeaman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Therefore, the proposed instrument will significantly enhance the efficiency and diversity of SPPS required for NIH-sponsored and hypothesis-driven research. ..
  39. Point Detection of Pathogens in Oral Samples via UPT
    Daniel Malamud; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We now present a plan to combine these separate analyses into a single system that can be used on-site to analyze up to 200 target analytes. ..
  40. VEGF regulation of surfactant proteins in preventing RSV
    DAVID MEYERHOLZ; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  41. Using Synthetic Lethality to Select Cancer Drug Targets
    William Kaelin; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Moreover, they may establish a new paradigm for the selection of anticancer drug targets based on inactivating mutations of TSG. ..
  42. SEVERE MALARIAL ANEMIA AND ALTERED IMMUNE FUNCTION
    Victor Gordeuk; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The nutritional status, underlying parasitic infections, and genotypes and numbers of infecting P. falciparum strains will also be characterized. ..
  43. DETERMINANTS IN PLATELET MICROBICIDAL PROTEINS
    Michael Yeaman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Thus, these studies will significantly advance our understanding of antimicrobial host defense, and may yield new modes for its amplification. ..
  44. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMOSENSATION IN C ELEGANS
    James Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..All of the pathways under study here correspond to important regulatory pathways in humans, and many of the genes are affected in various inherited disorders. ..
  45. SFT FUNCTION AND REGULATION IN HEMOCHROMATOSIS
    Marianne Wessling Resnick; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  46. NEURAL CONTROL OF A MOTOR PROGRAM
    James Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We will also continue genetic screens to identify additional potential targets. ..
  47. Oral Epithelial Cells: Innate Immune "Gatekeeper" of HIV
    MARK HERZBERG; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Innate immune factor-related genes may prove to be novel targets to prevent mucosal HIV. ..
  48. Real-Time Imaging of Hypoxia based on VHL Activity
    William Kaelin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  49. ETHANOL EFFECTS ON BONE FORMATION IN PREGNANCY
    Martin Ronis; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The role of CYP2E1 and free radicals in the skeletal toxicity of ethanol during these periods will also be studied. ..
  50. 2006 Cancer Model Mechanisms
    William Kaelin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  51. Regulation of Human Beta-Defensins in Epithelia
    WHASUN CHUNG; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Identifying specific routes pathogens take in stimulating beta-defensins may open the way for development of new therapeutic agents that stimulate the innate immune response. ..
  52. MECHANISMS OF CELL INJURY IN BURN COMPLICATED BY SEPSIS
    Deborah Carlson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The proposed work focuses on five specific aims to increase our understanding of the cellular events involved in burn and sepsis-related myocardial injury. ..
  53. How do Enzymes Generate and Control Free Radicals?
    E Marsh; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We will explore the substrate specificity of the enzyme to try and identify mechanism-based inhibitors of the protein and to evaluate the potential of the enzyme to detoxify various aromatic compounds. ..
  54. Iron transport and its regulation in C. elegans
    Marianne Wessling Resnick; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..elegans; 3) Use genetic selection to establish transport mutants useful for the elucidation of additional proteins involved in iron import and/or export and the factors that regulate these processes. ..
  55. Mn transport in the Belgrade rat
    Marianne Wessling Resnick; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The Belgrade rat provides the model system to address test our hypothesis. ..
  56. Fluorescence-based screen to probe hepcidin-ferroportin interactions
    Marianne Wessling Resnick; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The project has broader applicability in the development of HTS to assay ligand-receptor interactions as well as representing a major advance towards the discovery of small molecule probes of iron transport. ..
  57. Interdisciplinary Training in Genetics and Complex Disease(RMI)
    Marianne Wessling Resnick; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  58. Receptor Phosphatases and Process Outgrowth
    Eduardo Macagno; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  59. Vitamin D and Barrier Function
    Martin Hewison; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  60. Ferroportin and iron export from the macrophage
    Mitchell Knutson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  61. MODELS FOR TESTING CANDIDATE TOPICAL MICROBICIDES FOR CYTOTOXICITY AND ACTIVITY A
    Mary Lampe; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  62. Toll-Like Receptor-Complex in Intestinal Epith. Cells
    Maria Abreu; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The results of our studies have important implications for understanding host-microbial interactions and the inter-relationship between the innate and adaptive immune systems in the gut. ..