Summary: A nucleoside that is composed of adenine and d-ribose. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes
    Lars Wallentin
    Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala, Sweden
    N Engl J Med 361:1045-57. 2009
  2. pmc Redirection of silencing targets by adenosine-to-inosine editing of miRNAs
    Yukio Kawahara
    Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Science 315:1137-40. 2007
  3. pmc Adenosine generation catalyzed by CD39 and CD73 expressed on regulatory T cells mediates immune suppression
    Silvia Deaglio
    Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Transplantation Research Center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Exp Med 204:1257-65. 2007
  4. pmc Comprehensive analysis of mRNA methylation reveals enrichment in 3' UTRs and near stop codons
    Kate D Meyer
    Department of Pharmacology, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Cell 149:1635-46. 2012
  5. pmc Pharmacologic disruption of Polycomb-repressive complex 2-mediated gene repression selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells
    Jing Tan
    Molecular Pharmacology, Genome Institute of Singapore, 138672, Singapore
    Genes Dev 21:1050-63. 2007
  6. pmc N6-methyladenosine in nuclear RNA is a major substrate of the obesity-associated FTO
    Guifang Jia
    Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Nat Chem Biol 7:885-7. 2011
  7. pmc Agonist-bound adenosine A2A receptor structures reveal common features of GPCR activation
    Guillaume Lebon
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK
    Nature 474:521-5. 2011
  8. ncbi Topology of the human and mouse m6A RNA methylomes revealed by m6A-seq
    Dan Dominissini
    Cancer Research Center, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel
    Nature 485:201-6. 2012
  9. ncbi Astrocytic purinergic signaling coordinates synaptic networks
    Olivier Pascual
    Department of Neuroscience, Conte Center for Integration at the Tripartite Synapse, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Science 310:113-6. 2005
  10. ncbi Systematic identification of abundant A-to-I editing sites in the human transcriptome
    Erez Y Levanon
    Compugen Ltd, 72 Pinchas Rosen St, Tel Aviv 69512, Israel
    Nat Biotechnol 22:1001-5. 2004

Detail Information

Publications293 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes
    Lars Wallentin
    Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala, Sweden
    N Engl J Med 361:1045-57. 2009
    Ticagrelor is an oral, reversible, direct-acting inhibitor of the adenosine diphosphate receptor P2Y12 that has a more rapid onset and more pronounced platelet inhibition than clopidogrel.
  2. pmc Redirection of silencing targets by adenosine-to-inosine editing of miRNAs
    Yukio Kawahara
    Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Science 315:1137-40. 2007
    Primary transcripts of certain microRNA (miRNA) genes are subject to RNA editing that converts adenosine to inosine. However, the importance of miRNA editing remains largely undetermined...
  3. pmc Adenosine generation catalyzed by CD39 and CD73 expressed on regulatory T cells mediates immune suppression
    Silvia Deaglio
    Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Transplantation Research Center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Exp Med 204:1257-65. 2007
    ..These ectoenzymes generate pericellular adenosine from extracellular nucleotides...
  4. pmc Comprehensive analysis of mRNA methylation reveals enrichment in 3' UTRs and near stop codons
    Kate D Meyer
    Department of Pharmacology, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Cell 149:1635-46. 2012
    Methylation of the N(6) position of adenosine (m(6)A) is a posttranscriptional modification of RNA with poorly understood prevalence and physiological relevance...
  5. pmc Pharmacologic disruption of Polycomb-repressive complex 2-mediated gene repression selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells
    Jing Tan
    Molecular Pharmacology, Genome Institute of Singapore, 138672, Singapore
    Genes Dev 21:1050-63. 2007
    ..Our results demonstrate the unique feature of DZNep as a novel chromatin remodeling compound and suggest that pharmacologic reversal of PRC2-mediated gene repression by DZNep may constitute a novel approach for cancer therapy...
  6. pmc N6-methyladenosine in nuclear RNA is a major substrate of the obesity-associated FTO
    Guifang Jia
    Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Nat Chem Biol 7:885-7. 2011
    ..We further show the partial colocalization of FTO with nuclear speckles, which supports the notion that m(6)A in nuclear RNA is a major physiological substrate of FTO...
  7. pmc Agonist-bound adenosine A2A receptor structures reveal common features of GPCR activation
    Guillaume Lebon
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK
    Nature 474:521-5. 2011
    b>Adenosine receptors and β-adrenoceptors are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that activate intracellular G proteins on binding the agonists adenosine or noradrenaline, respectively...
  8. ncbi Topology of the human and mouse m6A RNA methylomes revealed by m6A-seq
    Dan Dominissini
    Cancer Research Center, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel
    Nature 485:201-6. 2012
    ..Our findings therefore suggest that RNA decoration by m(6)A has a fundamental role in regulation of gene expression...
  9. ncbi Astrocytic purinergic signaling coordinates synaptic networks
    Olivier Pascual
    Department of Neuroscience, Conte Center for Integration at the Tripartite Synapse, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Science 310:113-6. 2005
    ..By releasing adenosine triphosphate, which accumulates as adenosine, astrocytes tonically suppressed synaptic transmission, thereby ..
  10. ncbi Systematic identification of abundant A-to-I editing sites in the human transcriptome
    Erez Y Levanon
    Compugen Ltd, 72 Pinchas Rosen St, Tel Aviv 69512, Israel
    Nat Biotechnol 22:1001-5. 2004
    RNA editing by members of the ADAR (adenosine deaminases acting on RNA) family leads to site-specific conversion of adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) in precursor messenger RNAs...
  11. pmc Structure of an agonist-bound human A2A adenosine receptor
    Fei Xu
    Department of Molecular Biology, Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 332:322-7. 2011
    ..We report the crystal structure of the A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)AR) bound to an agonist UK-432097 at 2.7 angstrom resolution...
  12. pmc Large-scale mRNA sequencing determines global regulation of RNA editing during brain development
    Helene Wahlstedt
    Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, Stockholm University, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
    Genome Res 19:978-86. 2009
    RNA editing by adenosine deamination has been shown to generate multiple isoforms of several neural receptors, often with profound effects on receptor function...
  13. pmc Biosynthesis of threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t6A), a universal tRNA nucleoside
    Christopher Deutsch
    Department of Chemistry, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon 97207, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:13666-73. 2012
    ..been structurally characterized in tRNAs, only a few are universally conserved, among them threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t(6)A), found at position 37 in the anticodon loop of a subset of tRNA...
  14. pmc Protein kinase PKR and RNA adenosine deaminase ADAR1: new roles for old players as modulators of the interferon response
    Christian K Pfaller
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    Curr Opin Immunol 23:573-82. 2011
    ..Among the IFN-inducible gene products are the protein kinase regulated by RNA (PKR) and the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1)...
  15. pmc Adenosine signaling promotes regeneration of pancreatic β cells in vivo
    Olov Andersson
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology and Program in Genetics and Human Genetics, Diabetes Center, Institute for Regeneration Medicine and Liver Center, University of California, San Francisco, 1550 4th Street, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Cell Metab 15:885-94. 2012
    ..The compounds we identified converge on the adenosine signaling pathway and include exogenous agonists and compounds that inhibit degradation of endogenously produced ..
  16. pmc Widespread A-to-I RNA editing of Alu-containing mRNAs in the human transcriptome
    Alekos Athanasiadis
    Department of Biological Sciences, Lehigh University Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA
    PLoS Biol 2:e391. 2004
    RNA editing by adenosine deamination generates RNA and protein diversity through the posttranscriptional modification of single nucleotides in RNA sequences...
  17. pmc The RNA Modification Database, RNAMDB: 2011 update
    William A Cantara
    The RNA Institute, University at Albany, State University of New York, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:D195-201. 2011
    ..The expanded future role of The RNA Modification Database will be to serve as a primary information portal for researchers across the entire spectrum of RNA-related research...
  18. pmc Frequency and fate of microRNA editing in human brain
    Yukio Kawahara
    The Wistar Institute
    Nucleic Acids Res 36:5270-80. 2008
    Primary transcripts of certain microRNA (miRNA) genes (pri-miRNAs) are subject to RNA editing that converts adenosine to inosine (A-->I RNA editing)...
  19. ncbi Role of G-protein-coupled adenosine receptors in downregulation of inflammation and protection from tissue damage
    A Ohta
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allegy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Bethesa, MD 20892 1892, USA
    Nature 414:916-20. 2001
    ..Agonists for several Gs-protein-coupled receptors, including cell-surface adenosine purinergic receptors, can increase levels of immunosuppressive cyclic AMP in immune cells; however, it was ..
  20. ncbi Nucleotide- and nucleoside-converting ectoenzymes: Important modulators of purinergic signalling cascade
    Gennady G Yegutkin
    MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku and National Public Health Institute, Turku, Finland
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1783:673-94. 2008
    The involvement of extracellular nucleotides and adenosine in an array of cell-specific responses has long been known and appreciated, but the integrative view of purinergic signalling as a multistep coordinated cascade has emerged ..
  21. pmc DZNep is a global histone methylation inhibitor that reactivates developmental genes not silenced by DNA methylation
    Tina Branscombe Miranda
    Department of Urology, USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 8:1579-88. 2009
    ..Two other drugs, sinefungin and adenosine dialdehyde, have similar effects as DZNep on H3K27me3...
  22. ncbi Adenosine and sleep-wake regulation
    Radhika Basheer
    Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School and Boston VA Healthcare System, Brockton, MA 02301, USA
    Prog Neurobiol 73:379-96. 2004
    This review addresses three principal questions about adenosine and sleep-wake regulation: (1) Is adenosine an endogenous sleep factor? (2) Are there specific brain regions/neuroanatomical targets and receptor subtypes through which ..
  23. pmc Adenosine A1 receptors mediate local anti-nociceptive effects of acupuncture
    Nanna Goldman
    Center for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:883-8. 2010
    ..We found that adenosine, a neuromodulator with anti-nociceptive properties, was released during acupuncture in mice and that its anti-..
  24. pmc Adenosine promotes alternative macrophage activation via A2A and A2B receptors
    Balázs Csóka
    Department of Surgery, UMDNJ New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA
    FASEB J 26:376-86. 2012
    b>Adenosine has been implicated in suppressing the proinflammatory responses of classically activated macrophages induced by Th1 cytokines...
  25. pmc Crucial role for ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) in vascular leakage during hypoxia
    Linda F Thompson
    Immunobiology and Cancer Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, 825 NE 13th St, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    J Exp Med 200:1395-405. 2004
    Extracellular adenosine has been widely implicated in adaptive responses to hypoxia...
  26. pmc A-to-I RNA editing and human disease
    Stefan Maas
    Department of Biological Sciences, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015, USA
    RNA Biol 3:1-9. 2006
    ..Here we review the recent knowledge on where disturbances in A-to-I RNA editing have been correlated with human disease phenotypes...
  27. pmc Immune cell regulation by autocrine purinergic signalling
    Wolfgang G Junger
    Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 11:201-12. 2011
    ..This Review focuses on the roles of autocrine purinergic signalling in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses and discusses the potential of targeting purinergic receptors for treating immune-mediated disease...
  28. pmc Systematic identification of edited microRNAs in the human brain
    Shahar Alon
    Department of Neurobiology, George S Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    Genome Res 22:1533-40. 2012
    b>Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing modifies RNA transcripts from their genomic blueprint. A prerequisite for this process is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) structure...
  29. pmc The highly conserved KEOPS/EKC complex is essential for a universal tRNA modification, t6A
    Madhusudhan Srinivasan
    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA
    EMBO J 30:873-81. 2011
    ..We showed that the complex is required for a universal tRNA modification, threonyl carbamoyl adenosine (t6A), found in all tRNAs that pair with ANN codons in mRNA...
  30. pmc Altered adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing in human cancer
    Nurit Paz
    Cancer Research Center, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel
    Genome Res 17:1586-95. 2007
    b>Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing was recently shown to be abundant in the human transcriptome, affecting thousands of genes...
  31. ncbi [1,2,4]triazol-3-ylsulfanylmethyl)-3-phenyl-[1,2,4]oxadiazoles: antagonists of the Wnt pathway that inhibit tankyrases 1 and 2 via novel adenosine pocket binding
    Michael D Shultz
    Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Inc, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02319, United States
    J Med Chem 55:1127-36. 2012
    ..Furthermore, a cocrystal structure of compound 24 complexed to TNKS1 demonstrates an alternate binding mode for PARP family member proteins that does not involve interactions with the nicotinamide binding pocket...
  32. ncbi Immunity, inflammation and cancer: a leading role for adenosine
    Luca Antonioli
    1 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy 2 Department of Surgery and Center for Immunity and Inflammation, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey 07103, USA
    Nat Rev Cancer 13:842-57. 2013
    Cancer is a complex disease that is dictated by both cancer cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic processes. Adenosine is an ancient extracellular signalling molecule that can regulate almost all aspects of tissue function...
  33. pmc Neuronal adenosine release, and not astrocytic ATP release, mediates feedback inhibition of excitatory activity
    Ditte Lovatt
    Center for Translational Neuromedicine, Departments of Neurosurgery and Neurology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:6265-70. 2012
    b>Adenosine is a potent anticonvulsant acting on excitatory synapses through A1 receptors...
  34. pmc CD73 has distinct roles in nonhematopoietic and hematopoietic cells to promote tumor growth in mice
    Long Wang
    Cancer Therapy and Research Center, Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:2371-82. 2011
    ..These findings suggest that both tumor and host CD73 cooperatively protect tumors from incoming antitumor T cells and show the potential of targeting CD73 as a cancer immunotherapy strategy...
  35. ncbi Interaction of A2A adenosine and D2 dopamine receptors modulates corticostriatal glutamatergic transmission
    Alessandro Tozzi
    Clinica Neurologia, Universita di Perugia, Ospedale S Maria della Misericordia, 06156 Perugia, Italy
    Neuropharmacology 53:783-9. 2007
    b>Adenosine and dopamine (DA) strongly modulate the neuronal activity in the striatum by pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms...
  36. ncbi A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled multicenter trial of adenosine as an adjunct to reperfusion in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMISTAD-II)
    Allan M Ross
    Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 45:1775-80. 2005
    The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of intravenous adenosine on clinical outcomes and infarct size in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing reperfusion therapy.
  37. pmc Combined epigenetic therapy with the histone methyltransferase EZH2 inhibitor 3-deazaneplanocin A and the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat against human AML cells
    Warren Fiskus
    Medical College of Georgia Cancer Center, Augusta, GA30912, USA
    Blood 114:2733-43. 2009
    ..These findings indicate that the combination of DZNep and panobinostat is effective and relatively selective epigenetic therapy against AML cells...
  38. ncbi Production of piglets derived from in vitro-produced blastocysts fertilized and cultured in chemically defined media: effects of theophylline, adenosine, and cysteine during in vitro fertilization
    Koji Yoshioka
    National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 0856, Japan
    Biol Reprod 69:2092-9. 2003
    ..IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) of in vitro-matured porcine oocytes, we evaluated the effects of theophylline, adenosine, and cysteine in a chemically defined medium during IVF...
  39. pmc Editor meets silencer: crosstalk between RNA editing and RNA interference
    Kazuko Nishikura
    The Wistar Institute, Department of Gene Expression and Regulation, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 4268, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 7:919-31. 2006
    The most prevalent type of RNA editing is mediated by ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) enzymes, which convert adenosines to inosines (a process known as A-->I RNA editing) in double-stranded (ds)RNA substrates...
  40. pmc Generation and accumulation of immunosuppressive adenosine by human CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ regulatory T cells
    Magis Mandapathil
    Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 1863, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:7176-86. 2010
    ..Treg overexpress CD39 and CD73, ectonucleotidases sequentially converting ATP into AMP and adenosine, which then binds to A(2a) receptors on effector T cells, suppressing their functions...
  41. pmc 2'-O methylation of internal adenosine by flavivirus NS5 methyltransferase
    Hongping Dong
    Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases, Singapore
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002642. 2012
    ..DENV-4) specifically methylates polyA, but not polyG, polyC, or polyU, indicating that the methylation occurs at adenosine residue...
  42. ncbi Randomized double-blind assessment of the ONSET and OFFSET of the antiplatelet effects of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with stable coronary artery disease: the ONSET/OFFSET study
    Paul A Gurbel
    Sinai Center for Thrombosis Research, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, 2401 W Belvedere Ave, Baltimore, MD 21215, USA
    Circulation 120:2577-85. 2009
    ..This is the first study to compare the onset and offset of platelet inhibition (IPA) with ticagrelor using the PLATO (PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes) trial loading dose (180 mg) with a high loading dose (600 mg) of clopidogrel...
  43. ncbi TP53 genomic status regulates sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to the histone methylation inhibitor 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep)
    Lai Ling Cheng
    Cancer and Stem Cell Biology Program, Duke NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore
    Clin Cancer Res 18:4201-12. 2012
    ..We sought to determine molecular factors influencing DZNep response in gastric cancer...
  44. pmc Attenuated adenosine-to-inosine editing of microRNA-376a* promotes invasiveness of glioblastoma cells
    Yukti Choudhury
    Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, Singapore
    J Clin Invest 122:4059-76. 2012
    ..microRNAs (miRNAs) from the microRNA-376 (miR-376) cluster undergo programmed "seed" sequence modifications by adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing...
  45. pmc Reversible RNA adenosine methylation in biological regulation
    Guifang Jia
    Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Trends Genet 29:108-15. 2013
  46. pmc CD73+ regulatory T cells contribute to adenosine-mediated resolution of acute lung injury
    Heidi Ehrentraut
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    FASEB J 27:2207-19. 2013
    ..Previous studies have implicated extracellular adenosine signaling in tissue adaptation and wound healing...
  47. pmc Astrocytic modulation of sleep homeostasis and cognitive consequences of sleep loss
    Michael M Halassa
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Neuron 61:213-9. 2009
    ..Since one outcome of SNARE-dependent gliotransmission is the regulation of extracellular adenosine and because adenosine promotes sleep, we genetically inhibited the release of gliotransmitters and asked if ..
  48. ncbi Physiological control of immune response and inflammatory tissue damage by hypoxia-inducible factors and adenosine A2A receptors
    Michail V Sitkovsky
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Building 10, Room 11N256, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 22:657-82. 2004
    ..physiological mechanisms that downregulate activated immune cells has revealed a critical role for extracellular adenosine and for immunosuppressive A2A adenosine receptors in protecting tissue from inflammatory damage...
  49. ncbi T regulatory and primed uncommitted CD4 T cells express CD73, which suppresses effector CD4 T cells by converting 5'-adenosine monophosphate to adenosine
    James J Kobie
    David H Smith Center for Vaccine Biology and Immunology and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Immunol 177:6780-6. 2006
    ..CD73 on both Treg and Thpp cells converted extracellular 5'-AMP to adenosine. Adenosine suppressed proliferation and cytokine secretion of Th1 and Th2 effector cells, even when target cells ..
  50. ncbi RNA editing by mammalian ADARs
    Marion Hogg
    MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
    Adv Genet 73:87-120. 2011
    The main type of RNA editing in mammals is the conversion of adenosine to inosine which is translated as if it were guanosine...
  51. ncbi Rapid tolerance to focal cerebral ischemia in rats is induced by preconditioning with electroacupuncture: window of protection and the role of adenosine
    Qiang Wang
    Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi an, 710032 Shaanxi, China
    Neurosci Lett 381:158-62. 2005
    ..window of preconditioning with electroacupuncture (EA) against focal cerebral ischemia, and to explore whether adenosine is involved in the rapid tolerance phenomenon...
  52. pmc CD73-generated extracellular adenosine in chronic lymphocytic leukemia creates local conditions counteracting drug-induced cell death
    Sara Serra
    Human Genetics Foundation HuGeF, Turin, Italy
    Blood 118:6141-52. 2011
    Extracellular adenosine (ADO), generated from ATP or ADP through the concerted action of the ectoenzymes CD39 and CD73, elicits autocrine and paracrine effects mediated by type 1 purinergic receptors...
  53. pmc An adenosine nucleoside inhibitor of dengue virus
    Zheng Yin
    Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases, Singapore, 138670, Singapore
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:20435-9. 2009
    ..Here, we report a previously undescribed adenosine analog, NITD008, that potently inhibits DENV both in vitro and in vivo...
  54. pmc dsRNA expression in the mouse elicits RNAi in oocytes and low adenosine deamination in somatic cells
    Jana Nejepinska
    Institute of Molecular Genetics AS CR, Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague 4, Czech Republic
    Nucleic Acids Res 40:399-413. 2012
    ..sequence-specific RNA interference (RNAi), sequence-independent interferon (IFN) response and editing by adenosine deaminases...
  55. ncbi Endogenous RGS proteins and Galpha subtypes differentially control muscarinic and adenosine-mediated chronotropic effects
    Ying Fu
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Circ Res 98:659-66. 2006
    Cardiac automaticity is controlled by G protein-coupled receptors, such as adrenergic, muscarinic, and adenosine receptors...
  56. pmc Adenosine A(2A) receptor mediates microglial process retraction
    Anna G Orr
    Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Nat Neurosci 12:872-8. 2009
    ..This chemotactic reversal was driven by upregulation of the A(2A) adenosine receptor coincident with P2Y(12) downregulation...
  57. pmc Wakefulness affects synaptic and network activity by increasing extracellular astrocyte-derived adenosine
    L Ian Schmitt
    Department of Neuroscience, Tufts University Medical School, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    J Neurosci 32:4417-25. 2012
    ..Both of these responses are thought to require activation of adenosine A1 receptors (adorA1Rs) and release of transmitter molecules including ATP, which is rapidly converted to ..
  58. ncbi Adenosine: an endogenous regulator of innate immunity
    Gyorgy Hasko
    Department of Surgery, UMD New Jersey Medical School, 185 South Orange Avenue, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    Trends Immunol 25:33-9. 2004
    ..It is increasingly apparent that adenosine, a purine nucleoside that is elaborated at injured and inflamed sites, has a central role in the regulation of ..
  59. ncbi P2X7 receptor drives osteoclast fusion by increasing the extracellular adenosine concentration
    Patrizia Pellegatti
    Department of Experimental and Diagnostic Medicine, Section of General Pathology, Interdisciplinary Center for the Study of Inflammation, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
    FASEB J 25:1264-74. 2011
    ..Here we provide evidence of an absolute requirement for the P2X7 receptor, ATP release, and adenosine signaling in human osteoclast formation, as shown by the following findings: macrophage-colony stimulating ..
  60. pmc Yeast targets for mRNA methylation
    Zsuzsanna Bodi
    School of Biosciences, Plant Sciences Division, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Loughborough LE12 5RD, UK
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:5327-35. 2010
    ..We demonstrate that in S. cerevisiae, substantial levels of internal adenosine methylation are present in the GpA context in mRNA from sporulating cells, which is consistent with the ..
  61. pmc Temporal and mechanistic dissociation of ATP and adenosine release during ischaemia in the mammalian hippocampus
    Bruno G Frenguelli
    Neurosciences Institute, Division of Pathology and Neuroscience, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, UK
    J Neurochem 101:1400-13. 2007
    b>Adenosine is well known to be released during cerebral metabolic stress and is believed to be neuroprotective. ATP release under similar circumstances has been much less studied...
  62. pmc CD39/adenosine pathway is involved in AIDS progression
    Maria Nikolova
    INSERM, Unite U955, Creteil, France
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002110. 2011
    ..increase of Treg-associated expression of CD39/ENTPD1, an ectoenzyme which in concert with CD73 generates adenosine. We show in vitro that the CD39/adenosine axis is involved in Treg suppression in HIV infection...
  63. ncbi Adenosine 5'-triphosphate and adenosine as endogenous signaling molecules in immunity and inflammation
    M J L Bours
    Maastricht University, Department of Epidemiology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, P O Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Pharmacol Ther 112:358-404. 2006
    ..The naturally occurring nucleotide adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and its metabolite adenosine (Ado) probably constitute an intrinsic part of this extensive ..
  64. pmc A role for the universal Kae1/Qri7/YgjD (COG0533) family in tRNA modification
    Basma El Yacoubi
    Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
    EMBO J 30:882-93. 2011
    ..and structural analysis, we predicted this family was involved in the biosynthesis of N(6)-threonylcarbamoyl adenosine, a universal modification found at position 37 of tRNAs decoding ANN codons...
  65. pmc A2A receptor signaling promotes peripheral tolerance by inducing T-cell anergy and the generation of adaptive regulatory T cells
    Paul E Zarek
    Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
    Blood 111:251-9. 2008
    Tissue-derived adenosine, acting via the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R), is emerging as an important negative regulator of T-cell function...
  66. pmc Prostatic acid phosphatase is an ectonucleotidase and suppresses pain by generating adenosine
    Mark J Zylka
    Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology, UNC Neuroscience Center, University of North Carolina, CB 7545, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Neuron 60:111-22. 2008
    ..PAP suppresses pain by functioning as an ecto-5'-nucleotidase. Specifically, PAP dephosphorylates extracellular adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine and activates A1-adenosine receptors in dorsal spinal cord...
  67. pmc Evolutionarily conserved human targets of adenosine to inosine RNA editing
    Erez Y Levanon
    Compugen Ltd 72 Pinchas Rosen St, Tel Aviv 69512, Israel
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:1162-8. 2005
    ..The editing pattern observed suggests that some of the affected proteins might have altered physiological properties leaving the possibility that they can be related to the phenotypes of ADAR1 knockout mice...
  68. pmc Adenosine kinase deficiency is associated with developmental abnormalities and reduced transmethylation
    Barbara A Moffatt
    Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1
    Plant Physiol 128:812-21. 2002
    b>Adenosine (Ado) kinase (ADK; ATP:Ado 5' phosphotransferase, EC catalyzes the salvage synthesis of adenine monophosphate from Ado and ATP...
  69. ncbi Adenosine, an endogenous distress signal, modulates tissue damage and repair
    B B Fredholm
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Insitutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Cell Death Differ 14:1315-23. 2007
    b>Adenosine is formed inside cells or on their surface, mostly by breakdown of adenine nucleotides. The formation of adenosine increases in different conditions of stress and distress...
  70. ncbi Adenosine, energy metabolism and sleep homeostasis
    Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, PO Box 63, 00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Sleep Med Rev 15:123-35. 2011
    b>Adenosine is directly linked to the energy metabolism of cells. In the central nervous system (CNS) an increase in neuronal activity enhances energy consumption as well as extracellular adenosine concentrations...
  71. pmc The universal YrdC/Sua5 family is required for the formation of threonylcarbamoyladenosine in tRNA
    Basma El Yacoubi
    Department of Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 0700, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 37:2894-909. 2009
    ..This work lays the foundation for elucidating the function of a protein family found in every sequenced genome to date and understanding the role of t(6)A in vivo...
  72. ncbi Adenosine A2A receptors and brain injury: broad spectrum of neuroprotection, multifaceted actions and "fine tuning" modulation
    Jiang Fan Chen
    Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, C329, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Prog Neurobiol 83:310-31. 2007
    This review summarizes recent developments that have contributed to understand how adenosine receptors, particularly A2A receptors, modulate brain injury in various animal models of neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease (..
  73. ncbi The adenosine A3 receptor agonist, N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide, is protective in two murine models of colitis
    Jon Mabley
    Inotek Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Suite 419E, 100 Cummings Center, Beverly, MA 01915, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 466:323-9. 2003
    This study evaluated the effects of the adenosine A(3) receptor agonist, N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA), in two murine models of colitis, the dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis and the spontaneous ..
  74. pmc Adenosine augments IL-10 production by microglial cells through an A2B adenosine receptor-mediated process
    Balázs Koscsó
    Department of Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    J Immunol 188:445-53. 2012
    ..b>Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside and a ligand of four G protein-coupled adenosine receptors (ARs), which are ..
  75. ncbi Incremental prognostic significance of combined cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, adenosine stress perfusion, delayed enhancement, and left ventricular function over preimaging information for the prediction of adverse events
    Scott E Bingham
    Central Utah Clinic, UT 84604, USA
    Circulation 123:1509-18. 2011
    ..imaging (CMR) is capable of yielding extensive data in routine practice, the relative incremental prognostic value of adenosine stress perfusion, myocardial delayed enhancement (DE), and left ventricular volumes and function is unclear.
  76. pmc CD73 on tumor cells impairs antitumor T-cell responses: a novel mechanism of tumor-induced immune suppression
    Dachuan Jin
    Cancer Therapy and Research Center, Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA
    Cancer Res 70:2245-55. 2010
    ..Because the ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity of CD73 catalyzes AMP breakdown to immunosuppressive adenosine, we hypothesized that CD73-generated adenosine prevents tumor destruction by inhibiting antitumor immunity...
  77. pmc Adenosine and hypoxia-inducible factor signaling in intestinal injury and recovery
    Sean P Colgan
    Departments of Medicine and Anesthesiology and the Mucosal Inflammation Program, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA
    Annu Rev Physiol 74:153-75. 2012
    ..In this review, we outline some of the evidence that implicates hypoxia-mediated adenosine signaling as an important signature within both healthy and diseased mucosa...
  78. pmc Adenosine as an endogenous immunoregulator in cancer pathogenesis: where to go?
    V Kumar
    Division of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Cancer Research Institute, Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen s University, Kingston, ON, Canada
    Purinergic Signal 9:145-65. 2013
    Cancer is a chronic disease and its pathogenesis is well correlated with infection and inflammation. Adenosine is a purine nucleoside, which is produced under metabolic stress like hypoxic conditions...
  79. pmc Adenosine stimulates the migration of human endothelial progenitor cells. Role of CXCR4 and microRNA-150
    Magali Rolland-Turner
    Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research, Public Research Centre Health CRP Santé, Luxembourg, Luxembourg
    PLoS ONE 8:e54135. 2013
    ..Mobilization and migration of EPC are mainly controlled by stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) and its receptor CXCR4. We hypothesized that adenosine, a cardioprotective molecule, may improve the recruitment of EPC to the heart.
  80. ncbi Development and validation of a new adenosine-independent index of stenosis severity from coronary wave-intensity analysis: results of the ADVISE (ADenosine Vasodilator Independent Stenosis Evaluation) study
    Sayan Sen
    International Centre for Circulatory Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
    J Am Coll Cardiol 59:1392-402. 2012
    The purpose of this study was to develop an adenosine-independent, pressure-derived index of coronary stenosis severity.
  81. pmc Adenosine deamination in human transcripts generates novel microRNA binding sites
    Glen M Borchert
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 18:4801-7. 2009
    ..g. microRNAs), and adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing, generated by adenosine deaminases that act on double-stranded RNA (ADAR)...
  82. ncbi Response to ticagrelor in clopidogrel nonresponders and responders and effect of switching therapies: the RESPOND study
    Paul A Gurbel
    Sinai Center for Thrombosis Research, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Baltimore, MD 21215, USA
    Circulation 121:1188-99. 2010
    ..The antiplatelet effects of the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial dose of ticagrelor in patients nonresponsive to clopidogrel and after they switch agents are unknown...
  83. ncbi Role of A2a extracellular adenosine receptor-mediated signaling in adenosine-mediated inhibition of T-cell activation and expansion
    S Huang
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1892, USA
    Blood 90:1600-10. 1997
    Accumulation of adenosine and of deoxyadenosine in the absence of adenosine deaminase activity (ADA) activity results in lymphocyte depletion and in severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA SCID), which is currently explained by direct cell ..
  84. ncbi Cancer exosomes express CD39 and CD73, which suppress T cells through adenosine production
    Aled Clayton
    Department of Pharmacology, Radiology and Oncology, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Velindre Cancer Centre, Whitchurch, Cardiff CF14 2TL, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 187:676-83. 2011
    Extracellular adenosine is elevated in cancer tissue, and it negatively regulates local immune responses. Adenosine production from extracellular ATP has attracted attention as a mechanism of regulatory T cell-mediated immune regulation...
  85. ncbi Targeted disruption of cd73/ecto-5'-nucleotidase alters thromboregulation and augments vascular inflammatory response
    Patrycja Koszalka
    Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany
    Circ Res 95:814-21. 2004
    To investigate the role of adenosine formed extracellularly in vascular homeostasis, mice with a targeted deletion of the cd73/ecto-5'-nucleotidase were generated...
  86. ncbi Nucleus accumbens and effort-related functions: behavioral and neural markers of the interactions between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors
    A M Farrar
    Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 1020, USA
    Neuroscience 166:1056-67. 2010
    ..Moreover, there is evidence of an interaction between DA D(2) and adenosine A(2A) receptor function...
  87. pmc Alterations in the adenosine metabolism and CD39/CD73 adenosinergic machinery cause loss of Treg cell function and autoimmunity in ADA-deficient SCID
    Aisha V Sauer
    San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy HSR TIGET, Via Olgettina 58, Milan, Italy
    Blood 119:1428-39. 2012
    b>Adenosine acts as anti-inflammatory mediator on the immune system and has been described in regulatory T cell (Treg)-mediated suppression...
  88. pmc Much ado about adenosine: adenosine synthesis and function in regulatory T cell biology
    Peter B Ernst
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    J Immunol 185:1993-8. 2010
    Recent studies have reported that adenosine is a significant mediator of regulatory T cell (Treg) function...
  89. pmc A2A adenosine receptor protects tumors from antitumor T cells
    Akio Ohta
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:13132-7. 2006
    The A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) has been shown to be a critical and nonredundant negative regulator of immune cells in protecting normal tissues from inflammatory damage...
  90. ncbi CD73: a potent suppressor of antitumor immune responses
    Paul A Beavis
    Cancer Immunology Program, Trescowthick Laboratories, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, St Andrews Place, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002, Australia
    Trends Immunol 33:231-7. 2012
    Tumors use several strategies to evade immunosurveillance. One such mechanism is the generation of adenosine within the tumor microenvironment, which potently suppresses antitumor T cell responses...
  91. ncbi Sleep homeostasis: a role for adenosine in humans?
    Hans Peter Landolt
    Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Biochem Pharmacol 75:2070-9. 2008
    ..Specifically, a functional polymorphism in the adenosine metabolizing enzyme, adenosine deaminase, contributes to the high inter-individual variability in deep slow-wave ..
  92. ncbi Stress protocols and tracers
    Milena J Henzlova
    J Nucl Cardiol 13:e80-90. 2006
  93. ncbi Adenosine as an adjunct to thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: results of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial: the Acute Myocardial Infarction STudy of ADenosine (AMISTAD) trial
    K W Mahaffey
    Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina 27715, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 34:1711-20. 1999
    The Acute Myocardial Infarction STudy of ADenosine (AMISTAD) trial was designed to test the hypothesis that adenosine as an adjunct to thrombolysis would reduce myocardial infarct size.
  94. ncbi Adenosine affects expression of membrane molecules, cytokine and chemokine release, and the T-cell stimulatory capacity of human dendritic cells
    Elisabeth Panther
    Department of Experimental Dermatology and Pneumology, University of Freiburg, Germany
    Blood 101:3985-90. 2003
    Dendritic cells (DCs) express functional purinergic type 1 receptors, but the effects of adenosine in these antigen-presenting cells have been only marginally investigated...
  95. ncbi Adenosine analogs and electromagnetic fields inhibit prostaglandin E2 release in bovine synovial fibroblasts
    M de Mattei
    Department of Morphology and Embryology, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
    Osteoarthritis Cartilage 17:252-62. 2009
    To investigate the role of adenosine analogs and electromagnetic field (EMF) stimulation on prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) release and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in bovine synovial fibroblasts (SFs).
  96. pmc Adenosine and prostaglandin E2 cooperate in the suppression of immune responses mediated by adaptive regulatory T cells
    Magis Mandapathil
    University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:27571-80. 2010
    ..ATP hydrolysis was measured using a luciferase detection assay, and levels of adenosine or prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in cell supernatants were analyzed by mass spectrometry or ELISA, respectively...
  97. ncbi A2A adenosine receptor may allow expansion of T cells lacking effector functions in extracellular adenosine-rich microenvironments
    Akio Ohta
    New England Inflammation and Tissue Protection Institute, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, 113 Mugar Health Sciences Building, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 183:5487-93. 2009
    Immunosuppressive signaling via the A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) provokes a mechanism that protects inflamed tissues from excessive damage by immune cells...
  98. ncbi Extracellular adenosine triphosphate and adenosine in cancer
    J Stagg
    Cancer Immunology Program, Sir Donald and Lady Trescowthick Laboratories, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Oncogene 29:5346-58. 2010
    b>Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is actively released in the extracellular environment in response to tissue damage and cellular stress...
  99. pmc Elucidating the inosinome: global approaches to adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing
    Bjorn Erik Wulff
    The Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 12:81-5. 2011
    Catalysed by members of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) family of enzymes, adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing converts adenosines in RNA molecules to inosines, which are functionally equivalent to guanosines...
  100. ncbi Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing meets cancer
    Dan Dominissini
    Cancer Research Center, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel
    Carcinogenesis 32:1569-77. 2011
    ..We now realize that its diversity lies at the base of biological complexity. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing emerges a central generator of transcriptome diversity and regulation in higher ..
  101. pmc Astrocyte-derived adenosine and A1 receptor activity contribute to sleep loss-induced deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory in mice
    Cedrick Florian
    Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Neurosci 31:6956-62. 2011
    ..We have previously shown that astrocyte-derived adenosine is a candidate molecule involved in the cognitive deficits following a brief period of SD (Halassa et al., 2009)...

Research Grants70

  1. Role of Chromogranin A in Metabolic Syndrome
    Sushil K Mahata; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CST transiently stimulates gluconeogenesis by attenuating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and enhances glucose disposal and glycogen storage by preventing ..
  2. Med1 in Liver Metabolism, Regeneration and Cancer
    Janardan K Reddy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our preliminary data indicate that Med1 is phosphorylated by energy sensor, adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
  3. Role for Na,K-ATPase in Nucleoplasmic Calcium Homeostasis
    Craig Gatto; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (i.e. Na,K-ATPase) is responsible for controlling cellular fluid and electrolyte balance in higher eukaryotes...
  4. Regulation of microRNA-375 by cyclic-AMP in pancreatic beta-cells
    DAVID MATTHEW KELLER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) second messenger signaling cascade is a key regulator of diverse cellular process such as insulin secretion and energy homeostasis (Seino and Shibasaki, 2005)..
  5. Adenosine and the Basal Forebrain in the Control of Behavioral State
    Robert E Strecker; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The overarching neurobiological hypothesis is that the inhibitory neuromodulator adenosine (AD) mediates the sleepiness and cognitive impairments associated with CSR...
  6. Roles for microRNA-122 in hepatitis C virus RNA amplification
    Peter Sarnow; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 3 proposes to examine roles for the known isoforms of miR-122 that contain extra 3'terminal adenosine or guanosine residues, on HCV RNA abundance...
    Buddy Ullman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..gondii UPRT, HGXPRT, AK, NTPase, and the parasite's major adenosine transporter; (3) milligram quantities of each of the above soluble enzymes purified to homogeneity, and ..
  8. A2b Adenosine Receptor Regulation of Metabolic Disease and Inflammation
    Anna Eisenstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..One interesting signaling molecule that may play a role in this triad is adenosine, a metabolite that is elevated following cellular stress and inflammation...
  9. Regulation of LPS-mediated HMGB1 Release by Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1
    RAJESH K ANEJA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..leads to depletion of its substrate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), with consequent depletion of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), energy failure and cell death...
  10. Interaction between RNA interference and RNA editing pathways
    Kazuko Nishikura; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): One type of RNA editing involves the conversion of adenosine residues into inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) through the action of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR)...
  11. Novel SCID rat models for human cell transplantation studies
    Joseph C Ruiz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the use of a novel rat strain carrying a transposon-mediated knockout (KO) insertional mutation within the adenosine deaminase (Ada) locus in the inbred Fischer line...
  12. PET Imaging of Myocardial Oxidative Stress in T2DM
    KOORESH ISAAC SHOGHI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and esterification (using [11]C-palmitate) with PET;myocardial energetics as defined by the phosphocreatine and adenosine triphosphate concentrations and their ratio and creatine kinase flux using [31]P-MRS;and left ventricular ..
  13. Dietary Supplement Creatine for Adolescent Females with SSRI-Resistant Depression
    PERRY FRANKLIN RENSHAW; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These include beta-nucleoside triphosphate (!-NTP;largely adenosine triphosphate, or ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCr)...
  14. Local Calcium Signaling in Pulmonary Arteries
    JAMES SK SHAM; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This suggests unique interactions with membrane ion channels. RyRs are modulated by multiple mechanisms. Cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose (cADPR) is a major endogenous messenger for the RyR-gated Ca2+ release...
  15. Vascular and Skeletal Muscle Function in Gulf War Veterans Illness
    Scott Kinlay; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine 10-6M, the microvascular endothelium-independent dilator adenosine, and the large artery vasodilator nitroglycerin. The PI has a long track record in this type of research...
  16. Respiration in Sepsis
    Claude A Piantadosi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..biogenesis in sepsis is activated before energy crisis, while a rescue pathway is delayed involving the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and PGC-1[unreadable] co-activator...
  17. Astrocytic Ca2+ Signaling in the Ischemic Penumbra
    Maiken Nedergaard; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..ATP is, in the extracellular space, rapidly degraded to adenosine - anendogenous neuroprotective agent...
  18. Testing the efficacy of PGC-1alpha as a therapeutic target for Parkinson's diseas
    HANS BUELER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of enzymes detoxifying reactive oxygen species, protecting cells against death caused by chronic reductions in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and oxidative stress...
  19. Pharmacological strategies to improve breathing after cervical spinal cord injury
    FRANCIS GOLDER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our approach uses small, highly permeable molecules (adenosine A2a receptor agonists) that mimic the effects of brain- derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on phrenic motoneuron ..
  20. Fic-mediated Adenylylation
    CAROLYN ANN WORBY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The Fic domains of IbpA block signaling of these GTPases by using ATP to catalyze the covalent addition of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to a tyrosine (Tyr) residue in the GTPase switch I region...
  21. Dopamine D1 Receptor in mouse models of primary dystonia
    Laurie J Ozelius; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..G?olf is a G protein that couples striatal dopamine D1 (D1R) and adenosine A2a (A2AR) receptors to adenylyl cyclase V...
  22. A Novel Drug for Septicemia Targets A1 ARs
    Constance Neely Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This approach is based on the discovery that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/endotoxin binds to and activates A1 adenosine receptors on human pulmonary artery endothelial cells to produce acute lung injury (ALI)...
    Devendra K Agrawal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and -independent coronary vasodilatation will be measured by intracoronary administration of adenosine and acetylcholine...
  24. Energy Balance During Ketosis in Rat Brain
    JOSEPH CHARLES LAMANNA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..such as ATP, ADP and phosphocreatine and the accumulation of metabolic intermediates, such as lactate and adenosine. Degree of recovery of neurologic function following stroke (oxidative stress) is limited by the ability of the ..
  25. Impact of AMP-activated kinase on sex differences in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
    John P Konhilas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) may be a central regulator of this sex difference because of its ..
  26. Therapeutic Strategies for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy
    RAYMOND CHARLES KOEHLER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Striatonigral neurons are enriched with dopamine D1 receptors, and striatopallidal neurons are enriched with adenosine A2A receptors, both of which act via PKA and the phosphorylation regulatory protein DARPP-32...
  27. Cyclic AMP Signaling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence
    Matthew C Wolfgang; Fiscal Year: 2011 an animal model of acute infection depends on the ability of the bacteria to produce the second messenger adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)...
  28. Pathogenesis of Oxidative Stress in Chagas Disease
    Nisha Jain Garg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..LV function during the progression of Chagas disease, and (3) ROS induced DNA oxidative adducts and poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) activation signaled inflammatory cytokine response in infected ..
  29. Pulmonary Vascular-Right Ventricular Axis Research Program
    Wai Hong Wilson Tang; Fiscal Year: 2013 Threonine 495 (T495) and phosphorylation at Serine 1177 (S1177), the latter mediated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase pathways downstream of ?-Adrenergic Receptors (?AR) [Fig 1]...
  30. Purinergic Regulation of Bone Metabolism
    Bruce Neil Cronstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    The purine nucleoside adenosine regulates such physiologic functions as heart rate, vasodilation and inflammation and receptors for adenosine have been targeted for such diverse conditions as Parkinson's Disease and, indirectly, ..
  31. Development of inhibitors of AMP Deaminase Isoform 2 as a Mechanism for Treating
    RICHARD JOSEPH JOHNSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The goal of the project is to develop the first selective adenosine monophosphate deaminase- 2 (AMPD2) inhibitor, which we believe will offer an important new method of treatment ..
  32. Adjunctive Use of Apyrase to Fibrinolytic Therapy
    Ridong Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Adenosine is further generated by CD73 which prevents tissue damage during hypoxia and in the setting of cardiac ..
  33. Prevention and therapy of Staphylococcus aureus infections
    Olaf Schneewind; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We report that MRSA evasion from host protective immune responses is triggered by two surface molecules, adenosine synthase A (AdsA) and protein A (SpA)...
  34. Chemical approaches for studying the biology of CD38
    Hening Lin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The enzymatic activity can convert nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPR) and cyclic ADPR (cADPR), and NAD phosphate (NADP) to nicotinic acid adenine ..
  35. Control of Cardiogenesis by microRNA Editing
    Kazuko Nishikura; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..One type of RNA editing involves the conversion of adenosine residues into inosine in double-stranded RNA by the action of ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA)...
  36. Sympathetic Regulation of AMPK in the control of non-shivering thermogenesis
    Jacob D Mulligan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    While a role for adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) in regulating body energy balance via effects in non-adipose tissues has gained acceptance, little is known about the biological function of AMPK in white and ..
  37. Novel Antithrombotic Diadenosine Tetraphosphate Analogs
    IVAN B YANACHKOV; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the previous phases of this project we developed a series of new bis-adenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) analogs, which inhibit platelet aggregation by a unique new mechanism, targeting both ..
  38. The Role of Leptin in Liver Fibrogenesis
    Frank A Anania; Fiscal Year: 2012 culture and, this inhibitory activity requires the adiponectin R1 receptor but does not appear to depend on adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK)...
  39. Mechanism and Treatment of nerve agent-induced seizures
    Jaideep Kapur; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Experiments proposed in Aim 2 seek to test two classes of compounds, somatostatin and its analogs, and adenosine and its analogs, for their ability to diminish glutamate release during control resting conditions and following ..
  40. Mechanisms to restrain social cheating from quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aerugin
    AJAI DANDEKAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In my initial experiments, I showed that the emergence of LasR mutants can be prevented by the availability of adenosine, a "private good" and quorum-sensing controlled nutrient...
  41. Modeling distinct neonatal purine metabolism to inform vaccine development
    Ofer Levy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have shown that neonatal blood plasma has higher concentrations of adenosine (Ado), an endogenous purine metabolite that acts via Ado receptors to increase cytosolic cyclic Ado mono-..
  42. Effect of preimplantation embryo culture on adult glucose homeostasis
    Paolo Rinaudo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Txnip levels are regulated by cellular contents of glucose, glutamine, adenosine containing compounds;txnip appears therefore to link the cellular nutritional state with redox state and ..
  43. Ligand Interaction of Glucagon Receptor by Structural and Functional Analyses
    FAI YIU SIU; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The structures of two human class-A GPCRs: beta2-adrenergic and A2A adenosine, were solved in Dr. Ray Stevens'laboratory...
  44. Multiple Molecular Mechanisms for Adiponectin Therapy in Hepatic Fibrogenesis
    Frank A Anania; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..leads to pro-fibrogenic responses and required adiponectin receptor 1, but does not appear to depend entirely on adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK)...
  45. Inhibitors of the ENT4 Adenosine Transporter for Cardioprotection
    John K Buolamwini; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Approaches to augment the cardioprotective actions of the physiological nucleoside adenosine (Ado) continue to hold promise and remain to be exploited for novel cardioprotective therapies...
  46. Integration of sleep/wake network models across multiple temporal and spatial sca
    ANDREW JOHN PHILLIPS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..on sleep and performance are due to an interaction between the sleep/wake switch and long timescale dynamics of adenosine receptors...
  47. Expression control in Drosophila splicing assembly factor RNP-4F
    JACK VAUGHN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our preliminary studies show that the Drosophila Dadar adenosine deaminase which acts on double-stranded RNA substrates in all eukaryotes may play a role in 5'-UTR ..
  48. Spinal Cord-Mediated Acute Neurogenic Inflammation
    Qing Lin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Specific Aim 4 is to examine if sympathetic effects on neurogenic inflammation by release of norepinephrine and adenosine 5'-triphosphate are done by modulating the function of TRPNA, receptors via the PKC cascade...
  49. Hepatocyte Nitric Oxide Synthase Regulation by Glucagon and Insulin
    Brian G Harbrecht; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Excessive NO from iNOS produces cellular dysfunction and hepatic injury. Glucagon and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) regulate hepatic iNOS expression in vitro and in vivo, and by doing so, decrease NO-..
  50. CD-73 adenosine signaling in the central nervous system in disease and health
    Margaret S Bynoe; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked membrane protein that catalyzes the extracellular dephosphorylation of AMP to adenosine. During an immune response, ATP released from damaged cells is converted to adenosine, mainly through the ..
  51. Impact of AMP-activated kinase on sex differences in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
    John P Konhilas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) may be a central regulator of this sex difference because of its ..
  52. In vivo Studies of Creatine Kinase Kinetics by 31P Magnetization Transfer MRS
    Adil Bashir; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Heart uses chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to support systolic and diastolic function...
  53. Rapid ischemic tolerance: Synaptic re-organization and reduced excitotoxicity
    Robert Meller; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will test whether two pharmacological inducers of rapid tolerance (adenosine and diazoxide) have a protective phenotype similar to rapid ischemic tolerance...
  54. Study of Energy and Aging
    Steven Cummings; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Studies of mitochondrial function and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy production have been, to date, too small to understand the relative roles of the ..
  55. RNA editing in a transgenic mouse model of behavioral despair and anxiety.
    Minati Singh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..ADAR1 and ADAR2 catalyze the conversion of adenosine to inosine in mRNA and therefore have the ability to change amino acid codons that can produce numerous isoforms ..
  56. Intraocular pressure regulation via ATP-sensitive potassium channels
    Michael F Romero; Fiscal Year: 2013 a new R01 application to study the molecular events involved in intraocular pressure (IOP) regulation through adenosine-triphosphate-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. Elevated IOP is the only treatable risk-factor for glaucoma...
  57. Mechanisms of Cardiac Afferents and CNS Reflex Processing
    John C Longhurst; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..proposal further examines interactions between previously identified and new chemical mediators, including adenosine 5'- triphosphate (ATP) and opioids during myocardial ischemia, which act independently and interactively ..
  58. The Pharmacology of Dermal Fibrosis
    Bruce Neil Cronstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have recently demonstrated that the purine nucleoside adenosine, acting through the adenosine A2A receptor, plays a central role in the fibrosis that develops in experimental ..
  59. Insulin Clearance: Candidate and Positional Genetic Determinants
    MARK GOODARZI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Insulin clearance is a highly heritable trait. Preliminary data show that haplotypes in the genes for adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD1 and AMPD2) and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) 12 subunit are associated ..
    Jose R Lemos; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..OT. ATP is co-released with the HNS peptides. Purines, such as ATP and adenosine, interact with specific receptors on neurons, leading to a variety of effects...
  61. Adiponectin Actions on the Monocyte to Reduce Atherosclerosis
    Rajendra K Tangirala; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are expressed on the monocyte and are increased in insulin resistance, 3) adiponectin activates monocyte 5'adenosine mono phosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) suppressing inflammatory genes activated by tumor necrosis factor-1, and ..
  62. Molecular mechanisms of neural plasticity in drug addiction
    LAURA NICOLE SMITH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..cocaine exposure regulates spine density in the nucleus accumbens, the brain's reward center, via cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent inhibition of a transcription factor known as myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2)...
    Vickram Ramkumar; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The nucleoside adenosine, a metabolite of ATP, provides protection to tissues during myocardial and cerebral ischemia...
  64. Molecular Modulation of Catalytic Sites of Escherichia coli F1Fo ATP Synthase
    Zulfiqar Ahmad; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the fundamental means of cell energy production in animals, plants, and almost all microorganisms in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi)...
    Kathryn LaNoue; Fiscal Year: 1993
    The objective of this study is to understand the mechanisms of body weight regulation. Adenosine receptors or the GTP binding proteins, which act as transducers for these receptors, may be important in normal regulation of lipid storage ..
  66. Dopamine D2 and Adenosine A2A roles:Tremulous Movements
    John Salamone; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..neurotransmitters in the circuitry of the basal ganglia, including DA, acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA and adenosine. Within the last few years, increasing evidence has accumulated indicating that central adenosine neurons play ..
  67. Nitric Oxide and Compensatory Coronary Vasodilation
    David Stepp; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In this regard, several studies have suggested a link between nitric oxide (NO) and adenosine in moderating coronary blood flow...
    ROBERT BERNE; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..a clearer understanding of the local regulation of blood flow, with particular emphasis on the role played by adenosine, 2) determine the factors involved in the formation, release and metabolism of adenosine and, 3) determine the ..
    H Zielke; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..We propose that adenosine receptors located in the medulla and pons, two recognized centers of CNS respiratory control, are involved in ..
    John Shryock; Fiscal Year: 2003
    For many years it has been recognized that adenosine is a potent and efficacious inhibitor of lipolysis and adenylate and adenylate cyclase activity in white adipose tissue...