viral rna

Summary

Summary: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Rates of evolutionary change in viruses: patterns and determinants
    Siobain Duffy
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, Mueller Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 9:267-76. 2008
  2. ncbi Modulation of hepatitis C virus RNA abundance by a liver-specific MicroRNA
    Catherine L Jopling
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 309:1577-81. 2005
  3. pmc Production of infectious hepatitis C virus in tissue culture from a cloned viral genome
    Takaji Wakita
    Department of Microbiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, Tokyo 183 8526, Japan
    Nat Med 11:791-6. 2005
  4. ncbi Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection
    Michael W Fried
    University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599, USA
    N Engl J Med 347:975-82. 2002
  5. ncbi Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomised trial
    M P Manns
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical School of Hannover, Hannover, Germany
    Lancet 358:958-65. 2001
  6. ncbi Differential roles of MDA5 and RIG-I helicases in the recognition of RNA viruses
    Hiroki Kato
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan
    Nature 441:101-5. 2006
  7. ncbi Innate immune recognition of viral infection
    Taro Kawai
    Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Nat Immunol 7:131-7. 2006
  8. pmc Construction and characterization of infectious intragenotypic and intergenotypic hepatitis C virus chimeras
    Thomas Pietschmann
    Department of Molecular Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 345, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:7408-13. 2006
  9. ncbi Complete replication of hepatitis C virus in cell culture
    Brett D Lindenbach
    Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 309:623-6. 2005
  10. pmc Interferon modulation of cellular microRNAs as an antiviral mechanism
    Irene M Pedersen
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Nature 449:919-22. 2007

Research Grants

  1. Structure and Function of the Hepatitis C Virus Genome
    Peter Sarnow; Fiscal Year: 2013
  2. Control of alphavirous replacation in the nervous system
    Diane E Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2013
  3. Enterovirus RNA Translation and Replication
    David J Barton; Fiscal Year: 2013
  4. Roles of Host Kinases in Paramyxovirus RNA Synthesis
    Biao He; Fiscal Year: 2010
  5. Clinical Impact of Human Coronaviruses and Viral Diversity
    Geoffrey J Gorse; Fiscal Year: 2012
  6. Coronavirus RNA Replication
    DAVID ALVIN BRIAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
  7. Antisense Mediated Treatment of Hepatitis B Virus Infection
    STEFAN FRANK WIELAND; Fiscal Year: 2013
  8. Identification and characterization of inhibitors for hantavirus replication
    MOHAMMAD AYOUB MIR; Fiscal Year: 2013
  9. Retroviral Subversion of ERAD and Intrinsic Immunity
    JAQUELIN PAGE DUDLEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
  10. HCV Strain Variation and HCC
    Andrea D Branch; Fiscal Year: 2012

Detail Information

Publications357 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Rates of evolutionary change in viruses: patterns and determinants
    Siobain Duffy
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, Mueller Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 9:267-76. 2008
    ....
  2. ncbi Modulation of hepatitis C virus RNA abundance by a liver-specific MicroRNA
    Catherine L Jopling
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 309:1577-81. 2005
    ..Therefore, miR-122 is likely to facilitate replication of the viral RNA, suggesting that miR-122 may present a target for antiviral intervention.
  3. pmc Production of infectious hepatitis C virus in tissue culture from a cloned viral genome
    Takaji Wakita
    Department of Microbiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, Tokyo 183 8526, Japan
    Nat Med 11:791-6. 2005
    ..The cell culture-generated HCV is infectious for chimpanzee. This system provides a powerful tool for studying the viral life cycle and developing antiviral strategies...
  4. ncbi Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection
    Michael W Fried
    University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599, USA
    N Engl J Med 347:975-82. 2002
    ..We compared the efficacy and safety of peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin, interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin, and peginterferon alfa-2a alone in the initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C...
  5. ncbi Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomised trial
    M P Manns
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical School of Hannover, Hannover, Germany
    Lancet 358:958-65. 2001
    ..In this randomised trial, peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin was compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin...
  6. ncbi Differential roles of MDA5 and RIG-I helicases in the recognition of RNA viruses
    Hiroki Kato
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan
    Nature 441:101-5. 2006
    ..Together, our data show that RIG-I and MDA5 distinguish different RNA viruses and are critical for host antiviral responses...
  7. ncbi Innate immune recognition of viral infection
    Taro Kawai
    Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Nat Immunol 7:131-7. 2006
    ..These two classes of pattern-recognition receptor molecules are expressed in different intracellular compartments and induce type I interferon responses via distinct signaling pathways...
  8. pmc Construction and characterization of infectious intragenotypic and intergenotypic hepatitis C virus chimeras
    Thomas Pietschmann
    Department of Molecular Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 345, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:7408-13. 2006
    ..Finally, we describe an E1-specific antiserum capable of neutralizing infectivity of all HCV chimeras...
  9. ncbi Complete replication of hepatitis C virus in cell culture
    Brett D Lindenbach
    Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 309:623-6. 2005
    ..HCVcc replication was inhibited by interferon-alpha and by several HCV-specific antiviral compounds, suggesting that this in vitro system will aid in the search for improved antivirals...
  10. pmc Interferon modulation of cellular microRNAs as an antiviral mechanism
    Irene M Pedersen
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Nature 449:919-22. 2007
    ..Therefore, our findings strongly support the notion that mammalian organisms too, through the interferon system, use cellular miRNAs to combat viral infections...
  11. pmc The NLRP3 inflammasome mediates in vivo innate immunity to influenza A virus through recognition of viral RNA
    Irving C Allen
    Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Immunity 30:556-65. 2009
    ..Together, these data place the NLRP3 inflammasome as an essential component in host defense against influenza infection through the sensing of viral RNA.
  12. ncbi Fatal outcome of human influenza A (H5N1) is associated with high viral load and hypercytokinemia
    Menno D de Jong
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, 190 Ben Ham Tu, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
    Nat Med 12:1203-7. 2006
    ..Influenza H5N1 infection in humans is characterized by high pharyngeal virus loads and frequent detection of viral RNA in rectum and blood...
  13. ncbi 5'-Triphosphate RNA is the ligand for RIG-I
    Veit Hornung
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Science 314:994-7. 2006
    The structural basis for the distinction of viral RNA from abundant self RNA in the cytoplasm of virally infected cells is largely unknown...
  14. ncbi RIG-I-mediated antiviral responses to single-stranded RNA bearing 5'-phosphates
    Andreas Pichlmair
    Immunobiology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, London WC2A 3PX, UK
    Science 314:997-1001. 2006
    ....
  15. ncbi Hierarchical action and inhibition of plant Dicer-like proteins in antiviral defense
    Angelique Deleris
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire des Plantes, CNRS Unité Propre de Recherche UPR 2357, 12, rue du Général Zimmer, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Science 313:68-71. 2006
    ..These findings define a molecular framework for studying antiviral silencing and defense in plants...
  16. pmc Genetic and functional diversification of small RNA pathways in plants
    Zhixin Xie
    Center for Gene Research and Biotechnology and Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, USA
    PLoS Biol 2:E104. 2004
    ..We conclude that proliferation and diversification of DCL and RDR genes during evolution of plants contributed to specialization of small RNA-directed pathways for development, chromatin structure, and defense...
  17. pmc MicroRNAs expressed by herpes simplex virus 1 during latent infection regulate viral mRNAs
    Jennifer Lin Umbach
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 454:780-3. 2008
    ..Thus, HSV-1 expresses at least two primary miRNA precursors in latently infected neurons that may facilitate the establishment and maintenance of viral latency by post-transcriptionally regulating viral gene expression...
  18. ncbi Brief but efficient: acute HIV infection and the sexual transmission of HIV
    Christopher D Pilcher
    Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    J Infect Dis 189:1785-92. 2004
    ..We examined whether viral dynamics in the genital tract during the natural history of acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection could explain efficient heterosexual transmission of HIV...
  19. ncbi Long-term follow-up studies confirm the stability of the latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells
    Janet D Siliciano
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205 USA
    Nat Med 9:727-8. 2003
    ..Here we show that even in treated patients who have had no detectable viremia for as long as 7 years, the reservoir decays so slowly (t(1/2) = 44 months) that eradication is unlikely...
  20. pmc Dengue virus type 2 infections of Aedes aegypti are modulated by the mosquito's RNA interference pathway
    Irma Sanchez-Vargas
    Department of Microbiology, Arthropod Borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000299. 2009
    ..Our findings indicate a major role for RNAi as a determinant of DENV transmission by Ae. aegypti...
  21. ncbi Species-specific recognition of single-stranded RNA via toll-like receptor 7 and 8
    Florian Heil
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Trogerstr 9, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Science 303:1526-9. 2004
    ..These data suggest that ssRNA represents a physiological ligand for TLR7 and TLR8...
  22. ncbi A metagenomic survey of microbes in honey bee colony collapse disorder
    Diana L Cox-Foster
    Department of Entomology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Science 318:283-7. 2007
    ..One organism, Israeli acute paralysis virus of bees, was strongly correlated with CCD...
  23. pmc Antibody protects macaques against vaginal challenge with a pathogenic R5 simian/human immunodeficiency virus at serum levels giving complete neutralization in vitro
    P W Parren
    Departments of Immunology and Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Virol 75:8340-7. 2001
    ..The significance of such substerilizing neutralizing antibody titers in the context of a potent cellular immune response is an important area for further study...
  24. pmc Highly permissive cell lines for subgenomic and genomic hepatitis C virus RNA replication
    Keril J Blight
    Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Virol 76:13001-14. 2002
    ....
  25. ncbi The influenza virus nucleoprotein: a multifunctional RNA-binding protein pivotal to virus replication
    Agustín Portela
    División de Productos Biológicos y Biotecnología, Agencia Española del Medicamento, Majadahonda 28220, Madrid, Spain
    J Gen Virol 83:723-34. 2002
    ..to interact with a wide variety of viral and cellular macromolecules, including RNA, itself, two subunits of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the viral matrix protein...
  26. pmc Sensitive, seminested PCR amplification of VP1 sequences for direct identification of all enterovirus serotypes from original clinical specimens
    W Allan Nix
    Polio and Picornavirus Laboratory Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:2698-704. 2006
    ....
  27. pmc Determinants of viral clearance and persistence during acute hepatitis C virus infection
    R Thimme
    Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Exp Med 194:1395-406. 2001
    ....
  28. ncbi Nuclear mRNA export: insights from virology
    Bryan R Cullen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Trends Biochem Sci 28:419-24. 2003
    ..to identify the cellular targets of these viral proteins and RNA elements have led to the identification of Crm1 and Tap as essential human nuclear RNA-export factors and continue to provide insights into how mRNAs are selected for export..
  29. ncbi Host immune system gene targeting by a viral miRNA
    Noam Stern-Ginossar
    Lautenberg Center for General and Tumor Immunology, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel
    Science 317:376-81. 2007
    ..Our results reveal a miRNA-based immunoevasion mechanism that appears to be exploited by human cytomegalovirus...
  30. ncbi Evidence of HIV-1 adaptation to HLA-restricted immune responses at a population level
    Corey B Moore
    Centre for Clinical Immunology and Biomedical Statistics, Royal Perth Hospital and Murdoch University, Level 2 North Block, Royal Perth Hospital, Wellington Street, WA 6000, Australia
    Science 296:1439-43. 2002
    ..At a population level, the degree of HLA-associated selection in viral sequence was predictive of viral load. These results support a fundamental role for HLA-restricted immune responses in driving and shaping HIV-1 evolution in vivo...
  31. ncbi Requirement of DDX3 DEAD box RNA helicase for HIV-1 Rev-RRE export function
    Venkat S R K Yedavalli
    Molecular Virology Section, Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cell 119:381-92. 2004
    ..Plausibly, DDX3 is the human RNA helicase which functions in the CRM1 RNA export pathway analogously to the postulated role for Dbp5p in yeast mRNA export...
  32. pmc High-throughput SHAPE analysis reveals structures in HIV-1 genomic RNA strongly conserved across distinct biological states
    Kevin A Wilkinson
    Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 6:e96. 2008
    ..High-throughput SHAPE reveals a comprehensive view of HIV-1 RNA genome structure, and further application of this technology will make possible newly informative analysis of any RNA in a cellular transcriptome...
  33. pmc Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus expresses an array of viral microRNAs in latently infected cells
    Xuezhong Cai
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:5570-5. 2005
    ..We hypothesize that these viral miRNAs play a critical role in the establishment and/or maintenance of KSHV latent infection in vivo and, hence, in KSHV-induced oncogenesis...
  34. ncbi The HIV-1 Rev protein
    V W Pollard
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104 6148, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 52:491-532. 1998
    ..HIV-1 Rev therefore represents an excellent system with which to study aspects of transport across the nuclear envelope...
  35. ncbi A new arenavirus in a cluster of fatal transplant-associated diseases
    Gustavo Palacios
    Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    N Engl J Med 358:991-8. 2008
    ..Culture, polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) and serologic assays, and oligonucleotide microarray analysis for a wide range of infectious agents were not informative...
  36. ncbi Innate antiviral responses by means of TLR7-mediated recognition of single-stranded RNA
    Sandra S Diebold
    Immunobiology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, London WC2A 3PX, UK
    Science 303:1529-31. 2004
    ..These results identify ssRNA as a ligand for TLR7 and suggest that cells of the innate immune system sense endosomal ssRNA to detect infection by RNA viruses...
  37. ncbi Identification of virus-encoded microRNAs
    Sebastien Pfeffer
    Laboratory of RNA Molecular Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 186, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 304:734-6. 2004
    ..Given that miRNAs function in RNA silencing pathways either by targeting messenger RNAs for degradation or by repressing translation, we identified viral regulators of host and/or viral gene expression...
  38. pmc A viral microRNA functions as an orthologue of cellular miR-155
    Eva Gottwein
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 450:1096-9. 2007
    ..Moreover, the known aetiological role of miR-155 in B-cell transformation suggests that miR-K12-11 may contribute to the induction of KSHV-positive B-cell tumours in infected patients...
  39. pmc Endocytosis of HIV-1 activates plasmacytoid dendritic cells via Toll-like receptor-viral RNA interactions
    Anne Sophie Beignon
    New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:3265-75. 2005
    ..particularly RNA, stimulate pDCs through TLRs, as activation is reproduced with purified genomic RNA but not viral RNA packaging-deficient HIV-1 and blocked with different inhibitory TLR ligands...
  40. ncbi Detection of HERV-K(HML-2) viral RNA in plasma of HIV type 1-infected individuals
    Rafael Contreras-Galindo
    AIDS Research Program, Ponce School of Medicine, Ponce, Puerto Rico 00716
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 22:979-84. 2006
    ..HERV-K(HML-2) viral RNA sequences were found almost universally in HIV-1(+) plasma samples (95...
  41. pmc Preference of RIG-I for short viral RNA molecules in infected cells revealed by next-generation sequencing
    Alina Baum
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:16303-8. 2010
    ..use next-generation RNA sequencing to show that RIG-I preferentially associates with shorter, 5'ppp containing viral RNA molecules in infected cells...
  42. ncbi The extent of codon usage bias in human RNA viruses and its evolutionary origin
    Gareth M Jenkins
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Virus Res 92:1-7. 2003
    ..This suggests that translational selection may also have some influence in shaping codon usage bias...
  43. pmc Long-range RNA-RNA interactions circularize the dengue virus genome
    Diego E Alvarez
    Fundacion Instituto Leloir, Avenida Patricias Argentinas 435, Buenos Aires 1405, Argentina
    J Virol 79:6631-43. 2005
    Secondary and tertiary RNA structures present in viral RNA genomes play essential regulatory roles during translation, RNA replication, and assembly of new viral particles...
  44. ncbi Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by APOBEC3G
    Priscilla Turelli
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine and Frontiers in Genetics Research Program, University of Geneva, Switzerland
    Science 303:1829. 2004
  45. pmc Alphavirus-derived small RNAs modulate pathogenesis in disease vector mosquitoes
    Kevin M Myles
    Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:19938-43. 2008
    ..These results suggest that an exogenous siRNA pathway is essential to the survival of mosquitoes infected with alphaviruses and, thus, the maintenance of these viruses in nature...
  46. pmc Structure and function of HCV IRES domains
    Peter J Lukavsky
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, MRC, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK
    Virus Res 139:166-71. 2009
    ....
  47. ncbi HIV-1: fifteen proteins and an RNA
    A D Frankel
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0448, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 67:1-25. 1998
    ..The review highlights recent biochemical and structural studies that help clarify the mechanisms of viral assembly, infection, and replication...
  48. ncbi Characterization of the hepatitis C virus RNA replication complex associated with lipid rafts
    Hideki Aizaki
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 2011 Zonal Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Virology 324:450-61. 2004
    ..Detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) fractions containing NS proteins and viral RNA were capable of HCV RNA synthesis using the endogenous HCV RNA template...
  49. pmc Identification of the hepatitis C virus RNA replication complex in Huh-7 cells harboring subgenomic replicons
    Rainer Gosert
    Department of Medicine II, University of Freiburg, Germany
    J Virol 77:5487-92. 2003
    ..Metabolic labeling with 5-bromouridine 5'-triphosphate in the presence of actinomycin D revealed that the membranous web is the site of viral RNA synthesis and therefore represents the replication complex of HCV.
  50. pmc Recognition of single-stranded RNA viruses by Toll-like receptor 7
    Jennifer M Lund
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:5598-603. 2004
    ..These results demonstrate microbial ligand recognition by TLR7 and provide insights into the pathways used by the innate immune cells in the recognition of viral pathogens...
  51. pmc Three distinct suppressors of RNA silencing encoded by a 20-kb viral RNA genome
    Rui Lu
    Center for Plant Cell Biology, Institute for Integrative Genome Biology, and Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:15742-7. 2004
    ....
  52. ncbi STAT1-dependent innate immunity to a Norwalk-like virus
    Stephanie M Karst
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Science 299:1575-8. 2003
    ..The identification of host molecules essential for murine norovirus resistance may provide targets for prevention or control of an important human disease...
  53. ncbi Cutting Edge: Influenza A virus activates TLR3-dependent inflammatory and RIG-I-dependent antiviral responses in human lung epithelial cells
    Ronan Le Goffic
    Unité de Défense Innée et Inflammation, INSERM Unité 874, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris, France
    J Immunol 178:3368-72. 2007
    ..We demonstrate that the sensing of IAV by TLR3 primarily regulates a proinflammatory response, whereas RIG-I (but not MDA-5) mediates both a type I IFN-dependent antiviral signaling and a proinflammatory response...
  54. ncbi First snapshots of the HIV-1 RNA structure in infected cells and in virions
    Jean Christophe Paillart
    Unité Propre de Recherche 9002 du CNRS conventionnée à l Université Louis Pasteur, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    J Biol Chem 279:48397-403. 2004
    ..Taken together, our results provided the first analysis of the dynamic of RNA structure of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA genome during virus assembly ex vivo...
  55. ncbi Bluetongue virus detection by two real-time RT-qPCRs targeting two different genomic segments
    J F Toussaint
    Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Department of Virology, Groeselenberg 99, B 1180 Brussels, Belgium
    J Virol Methods 140:115-23. 2007
    ..An RT-qPCR amplifying a fragment of the beta-actin mRNA was also developed and validated as internal control for the bluetongue specific assays. The three assays described allow a reliable and rapid detection of BTV...
  56. pmc Class-sparing regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection
    Sharon A Riddler
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA
    N Engl J Med 358:2095-106. 2008
    ..The alternative regimen of lopinavir-ritonavir plus efavirenz may prevent toxic effects associated with NRTIs...
  57. pmc Mechanism of induction and suppression of antiviral immunity directed by virus-derived small RNAs in Drosophila
    Roghiyh Aliyari
    Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Institute for Integrative Genome Biology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 4:387-97. 2008
    ..Molecular identity of the viral RNA precursor of viRNAs remains a matter of debate...
  58. pmc Tandem array-based expression screens identify host mRNA targets of virus-encoded microRNAs
    Joseph M Ziegelbauer
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, GW Hooper Foundation, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Nat Genet 41:130-4. 2009
    ..Our results support that this type of expression profiling provides a potentially general approach to the identification of miRNA targets...
  59. ncbi A novel CDK9-associated C-type cyclin interacts directly with HIV-1 Tat and mediates its high-affinity, loop-specific binding to TAR RNA
    P Wei
    Regulatory Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037 1099, USA
    Cell 92:451-62. 1998
    ..Moreover, overexpression of human cyclin T rescues Tat activity in nonpermissive rodent cells. We propose that Tat directs cyclin T-CDK9 to RNAPII through cooperative binding to TAR RNA...
  60. ncbi Relationship between pre-existing viral reservoirs and the re-emergence of plasma viremia after discontinuation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy
    T W Chun
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Med 6:757-61. 2000
    ....
  61. pmc Hepatitis B virus replication
    Juergen Beck
    Department of Internal Medicine II Molecular Biology, University Hospital Freiburg, Hugstetter Street 55, D 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    World J Gastroenterol 13:48-64. 2007
    ..The ultimate, though most challenging goal, will be to visualize the hepadnaviral reverse transcriptase in the act of synthesizing DNA, which will also have strong implications for drug development...
  62. ncbi Identification of enterovirus 71 isolates from an outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) with fatal cases of encephalomyelitis in Malaysia
    S AbuBakar
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University Malaya Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Virus Res 61:1-9. 1999
    ..These findings suggest the presence of at least two potentially virulent EV71 co-circulating in Malaysia during the 1997 HFMD outbreak...
  63. pmc Phosphorylation of hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5A modulates its protein interactions and viral RNA replication
    Matthew J Evans
    Integrated Program in Cellular, Molecular, and Biophysical Studies, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:13038-43. 2004
    ..The recent development of HCV subgenomic RNA replicons has permitted the study of viral RNA replication in cell culture; however, the requirements for efficient replication of replicons in this system are ..
  64. pmc Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept study
    Ginger Lehrman
    University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 753901, USA
    Lancet 366:549-55. 2005
    ..Since the chromatin remodeling enzyme histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) maintains latency of integrated HIV, we tested the ability of the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid to deplete persistent, latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells...
  65. ncbi Molecular biology of flaviviruses
    Brett D Lindenbach
    Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Adv Virus Res 59:23-61. 2003
  66. pmc Establishment of B-cell lymphoma cell lines persistently infected with hepatitis C virus in vivo and in vitro: the apoptotic effects of virus infection
    Vicky M H Sung
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    J Virol 77:2134-46. 2003
    ..Single-stranded conformational polymorphism and sequence analysis of the viral RNA quasispecies indicated that the virus present in SB cells most likely originated from the patient's spleen and ..
  67. ncbi Early virologic response to treatment with peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C
    Gary L Davis
    Division of Hepatology, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75246, USA
    Hepatology 38:645-52. 2003
    ..Patients who fail to achieve EVR will not clear virus even if an additional 9 months of therapy is received. Therapy can be confidently discontinued in those cases...
  68. pmc Human infection with an avian H9N2 influenza A virus in Hong Kong in 2003
    K M Butt
    Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Faculty of Medicine Building, 21 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, People s Republic of China
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5760-7. 2005
    ..The continued presence of H9N2 influenza viruses in poultry markets in southern China increases the likelihood of avian-to-human interspecies transmission...
  69. ncbi Peginterferon alfa-2a in patients with chronic hepatitis C
    S Zeuzem
    Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitat, Frankfurt, Germany
    N Engl J Med 343:1666-72. 2000
    ..We compared the clinical effects of a regimen of peginterferon alfa-2a with those of a regimen of interferon alfa-2a in the initial treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C...
  70. ncbi Immunolocalization of the dengue virus nonstructural glycoprotein NS1 suggests a role in viral RNA replication
    J M MacKenzie
    Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Centre, Royal Children s Hospital, Brisbane, Australia
    Virology 220:232-40. 1996
    ..These findings provide further insights into the maturation pathway of NS1 and suggest a possible role for this protein in viral RNA replication.
  71. pmc The hepatitis C virus NS4B protein can trans-complement viral RNA replication and modulates production of infectious virus
    Daniel M Jones
    MRC Virology Unit, Church Street, Glasgow G11 5JR, United Kingdom
    J Virol 83:2163-77. 2009
    ..hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle have been aided by development of in vitro systems that enable replication of viral RNA and production of infectious virus...
  72. pmc RNA-based viral immunity initiated by the Dicer family of host immune receptors
    Roghiyh Aliyari
    Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Institute for Integrative Genome Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Immunol Rev 227:176-88. 2009
    ..In fungi, plants and invertebrates, the viral RNA trigger is processed into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to direct specific silencing of the homologous viral ..
  73. ncbi A site on the influenza A virus NS1 protein mediates both inhibition of PKR activation and temporal regulation of viral RNA synthesis
    Ji Young Min
    Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, room 2 122, 2500 Speedway, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Virology 363:236-43. 2007
    ..the 123/124 mutant virus is not attenuated because reduced viral protein synthesis is offset by enhanced viral RNA synthesis at very early times of infection...
  74. ncbi Epidemiologic and molecular trends of "Norwalk-like viruses" associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the United States
    Rebecca L Fankhauser
    Viral Gastroenteritis Section, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:1-7. 2002
    ..Strain diversity was great: one potential new sequence cluster was implicated in multiple outbreaks, and strains belonging to a tentative new genogroup were identified...
  75. ncbi Antiretroviral-drug resistance among patients recently infected with HIV
    Susan J Little
    Antiviral Research Center, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego 92103, USA
    N Engl J Med 347:385-94. 2002
    ..Among persons in North America who are newly infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the prevalence of transmitted resistance to antiretroviral drugs has been estimated at 1 to 11 percent...
  76. pmc Studies of reservoir hosts for Marburg virus
    Robert Swanepoel
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Sandringham, Republic of South Africa
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:1847-51. 2007
    ..6% of 2 species of insectivorous bat and 1 species of fruit bat. We found antibody to the virus in the serum of 9.7% of 1 of the insectivorous species and in 20.5% of the fruit bat species, but attempts to isolate virus were unsuccessful...
  77. pmc Deciphering human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission and early envelope diversification by single-genome amplification and sequencing
    Jesus F Salazar-Gonzalez
    Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 720 20th Street South, Kaul 816, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    J Virol 82:3952-70. 2008
    ....
  78. ncbi Isolation and characterization of Israeli acute paralysis virus, a dicistrovirus affecting honeybees in Israel: evidence for diversity due to intra- and inter-species recombination
    Eyal Maori
    The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    J Gen Virol 88:3428-38. 2007
    ..The dynamics of information exchange between virus and host and the possible resistance-engendering mechanisms are discussed...
  79. pmc New real-time reverse transcriptase-initiated PCR assay with single-copy sensitivity for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma
    Sarah Palmer
    HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland 21702 1201, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:4531-6. 2003
    ....
  80. ncbi Reduction of HIV-1 RNA levels with therapy to suppress herpes simplex virus
    Nicolas Nagot
    Centre Muraz, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
    N Engl J Med 356:790-9. 2007
    ..Epidemiologic data suggest that infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is associated with increased genital shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and HIV-1 transmissibility...
  81. pmc Small RNA deep sequencing reveals role for Arabidopsis thaliana RNA-dependent RNA polymerases in viral siRNA biogenesis
    Xiaopeng Qi
    Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e4971. 2009
    ..Our data raised the interesting possibility for viral siRNA-mediated virus-host interactions that may contribute to viral pathogenicity and host specificity...
  82. ncbi Control of viremia in simian immunodeficiency virus infection by CD8+ lymphocytes
    J E Schmitz
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Science 283:857-60. 1999
    ..These results confirm the importance of cell-mediated immunity in controlling HIV-1 infection and support the exploration of vaccination approaches for preventing infection that will elicit these immune responses...
  83. pmc Virologic and immunologic determinants of heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Africa
    S A Allen
    Department of Epidemiology and International Health, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 17:901-10. 2001
    ..FTM and MTF transmission rates were similar. These data suggest gender-specific differences in the biology of heterosexual transmission...
  84. pmc hnRNP A1 interacts with the 5' untranslated regions of enterovirus 71 and Sindbis virus RNA and is required for viral replication
    Jing Yi Lin
    Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, Chang Gung University, Tao Yuan, Taiwan
    J Virol 83:6106-14. 2009
    ..Our study provides the first direct evidence that the cytoplasmic relocalization of hnRNP A1 controls not only the IRES-dependent but also non-IRES-dependent translation initiations of RNA viruses...
  85. pmc Screening of active lyssavirus infection in wild bat populations by viral RNA detection on oropharyngeal swabs
    J E Echevarria
    Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 39:3678-83. 2001
    ....
  86. pmc European bat lyssavirus infection in Spanish bat populations
    Jordi Serra-Cobo
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:413-20. 2002
    ..At least one of this species (M. schreibersii) is migratory and thus could be partially responsible for the dissemination of EBL1 on both shores of the Mediterranean Sea...
  87. ncbi Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome
    Christian Drosten
    Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, National Reference Center for Tropical Infectious Diseases, Hamburg, Germany
    N Engl J Med 348:1967-76. 2003
    ..The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has recently been identified as a new clinical entity. SARS is thought to be caused by an unknown infectious agent...
  88. ncbi The prevalence and incidence of neurocognitive impairment in the HAART era
    Kevin R Robertson
    Department of Neurology, UNC, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    AIDS 21:1915-21. 2007
    ..The effects of HAART on neurological disease are less well understood. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and incidence of neurocognitive impairment in individuals who initiated HAART as part of an AIDS clinical trial...
  89. pmc La autoantigen is necessary for optimal function of the poliovirus and hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site in vivo and in vitro
    Mauro Costa-Mattioli
    Department of Biochemistry and McGill Cancer Center, McGill University, McIntyre Medical Building, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1Y6
    Mol Cell Biol 24:6861-70. 2004
    ..These results provide strong evidence for a function of the La autoantigen in IRES-dependent translation and define the step of translation which is stimulated by La...
  90. pmc Interference of hepatitis C virus RNA replication by short interfering RNAs
    Sharookh B Kapadia
    Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:2014-8. 2003
    ..These results suggest that RNAi may represent a new approach for the treatment of persistent HCV infection...
  91. pmc Emergence of resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in patients receiving fusion inhibitor (T-20) monotherapy
    Xiping Wei
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:1896-905. 2002
    ..These findings provide the first evidence for the rapid emergence of clinical resistance to a novel class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors and may be relevant to future treatment strategies involving these agents...
  92. ncbi Genetic diversity and evolution of hepatitis C virus--15 years on
    Peter Simmonds
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Summerhall, Edinburgh EH9 1QH, UK
    J Gen Virol 85:3173-88. 2004
    ..These contrasting aspects of conservatism and adaptability provide a fascinating paradigm in which to explore the complex selection pressures that underlie the evolution of HCV and other persistent viruses...
  93. pmc Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus encodes an ortholog of miR-155
    Rebecca L Skalsky
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, and Shands Cancer Center, 1376 Mowry Road, Gainesville, FL 32610 3633, USA
    J Virol 81:12836-45. 2007
    ..Together, these findings indicate that KSHV miR-K12-11 is an ortholog of miR-155...
  94. ncbi DNA deamination mediates innate immunity to retroviral infection
    Reuben S Harris
    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, CB2 2QH, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Cell 113:803-9. 2003
    ..These findings imply that targeted DNA deamination is a major strategy of innate immunity to retroviruses and likely also contributes to the sequence variation observed in many viruses (including HIV)...
  95. pmc Serotype-specific detection of dengue viruses in a fourplex real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay
    Barbara W Johnson
    Diagnostic and Reference Laboratory, Arbovirus Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Rd, Fort, Collins, CO 80521
    J Clin Microbiol 43:4977-83. 2005
    ..A real-time quantitative nucleic acid amplification assay has been developed to detect viral RNA of a single DEN virus serotype...
  96. ncbi A broadly reactive one-step real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid and sensitive detection of hepatitis E virus
    Narayanan Jothikumar
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Infectious Diseases, 4770 Buford Highway, Mailstop F 36, and Emory University, Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Virol Methods 131:65-71. 2006
    ..2PID50) spiked into a surface water concentrate were detected in the real-time RT-PCR assay. This is the first reporting of a broadly reactive TaqMan RT-PCR assay for the detection of HEV in clinical and environmental samples...
  97. pmc Quantitating the multiplicity of infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C reveals a non-poisson distribution of transmitted variants
    M R Abrahams
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Division of Medical Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory, Cape Town 7925, South Africa
    J Virol 83:3556-67. 2009
    ....
  98. ncbi New insights into internal ribosome entry site elements relevant for viral gene expression
    Encarnacion Martinez-Salas
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco 28049 Madrid, Spain
    J Gen Virol 89:611-26. 2008
    ..of high-order structural elements at the untranslated regions (UTR) of the genome that are essential for viral RNA replication...
  99. pmc P bodies, stress granules, and viral life cycles
    Carla J Beckham
    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 0206, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 3:206-12. 2008
    ..Thus, an important interplay among P bodies, stress granules, and viral life cycles is beginning to emerge...
  100. pmc Systematic, genome-wide identification of host genes affecting replication of a positive-strand RNA virus
    David B Kushner
    Institute for Molecular Virology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:15764-9. 2003
    ..To more globally and systematically identify such host factors, we used engineered BMV derivatives to assay viral RNA replication in each strain of an ordered, genome-wide set of yeast single-gene deletion mutants...
  101. pmc Detection of genome-scale ordered RNA structure (GORS) in genomes of positive-stranded RNA viruses: Implications for virus evolution and host persistence
    Peter Simmonds
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Summerhall, EH9 1QH
    RNA 10:1337-51. 2004
    ..These findings potentially reconcile the rapid evolution of RNA viruses over short periods with the documented examples of extreme conservatism evident from their intimate coevolution with their hosts...

Research Grants74

  1. Structure and Function of the Hepatitis C Virus Genome
    Peter Sarnow; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using an infectious HCV cell-based system, we will determine whether RIG-I targets the viral RNA in replicating or translating RNA molecules...
  2. Control of alphavirous replacation in the nervous system
    Diane E Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, preservation of these essential cells results in persistence of viral RNA in the central nervous system (CNS) and the need for long-term suppression of virus replication...
  3. Enterovirus RNA Translation and Replication
    David J Barton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mechanism of RNA replication that maintains the integrity of the poly(A) tail at the 3'end of viral RNA genomes, and 3) we discovered an RNA structure in PV and related group C enteroviruses that functions as a ..
  4. Roles of Host Kinases in Paramyxovirus RNA Synthesis
    Biao He; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The P proteins of paramyxoviruses are essential for viral RNA synthesis. The P protein has multiple phosphorylation sites and is likely phosphorylated by more than one host kinase...
  5. Clinical Impact of Human Coronaviruses and Viral Diversity
    Geoffrey J Gorse; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Nasal/oropharyngeal secretions will be tested for HCoV viral RNA by RT-PCR, and those positive will undergo sequence analysis of the Spike (S) gene that encodes the viral S ..
  6. Coronavirus RNA Replication
    DAVID ALVIN BRIAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Coronaviruses, with the largest known viral RNA genome, infect birds and mammals, including humans, and cause diseases ranging from subclinical to lethal...
  7. Antisense Mediated Treatment of Hepatitis B Virus Infection
    STEFAN FRANK WIELAND; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Antisense-mediated degradation of viral RNA represents such a novel class of antiviral therapy and this approach has been successfully pursued by our ..
  8. Identification and characterization of inhibitors for hantavirus replication
    MOHAMMAD AYOUB MIR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..sense genomic RNA segments: S, M and L that encode nucleocapsid protein (N), glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), respectively...
  9. Retroviral Subversion of ERAD and Intrinsic Immunity
    JAQUELIN PAGE DUDLEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Rem-SP then binds viral RNA to allow efficient nuclear export and expression...
  10. HCV Strain Variation and HCC
    Andrea D Branch; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The primary outcome will be the percentage of cases versus controls in which the majority of the variants in the viral RNA population (i.e., the quasispecies) has a codon 70 mutation...
  11. Host Genetic Epidemiology in HIV-1-Discordant African Couples and Other Cohorts
    Jianming Tang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Principal outcome measures include time to seroconversion in exposed HIV-1-negative partners and level of plasma viral RNA early in infection...
  12. The influenza A virus nucleoprotein: structure and function
    Yizhi Jane Tao; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..made in infected cells, and is essential for important viral processes such as viral genome trafficking, viral RNA replication, and virus assembly...
  13. Role of NOD2 in Inflammatory Arthritis and Innate Immunity
    MICHAEL PATRICK DAVEY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..injection of peptidoglycan from cell walls of Gram positive bacteria, b) zymosan and c) double stranded viral RNA and d) by systemic administration of live Group B streptococci...
  14. Naltrexone and AIDS progression
    GREGORY MICHAEL MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..05 or 0.3 mg/kg LDN daily (n = 8/dose). Longitudinal measures of viral RNA loads will be collected, and SIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to the entire SIV proteome will be ..
  15. A novel assay for inhibitors of influenza A virus polymerase complex assembly
    Feng Li; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..One such target for anti-influenza drug development is the assembly of the viral RNA polymerase complex...
  16. The role of the host Ca/Mn pump in emergence of novel viral RNA recombinants
    Peter Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Studies on viral RNA recombination are critical to understand the recombination process and the role of specific host genes, whose ..
  17. Point of care microfluidic diagnosis system for rapid and sensitive detection of
    Michel G Bergeron; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The VRTI-MCD will automatically (i) process nasopharyngeal swab samples, (ii) extract viral RNA/DNA in a sufficiently pure form, (iii) amplify and label nucleic acids, (iv) process labelled-amplicons, (v) ..
  18. Astrovirus structure and replication
    Yizhi Jane Tao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..recombinant proteins, we have unambiguously demonstrated the astrovirus VPg can be uridylated by the cognate viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) and have mapped the uridylation site to Tyr-30...
  19. Mechanism of CCC DNA Synthesis in Hepatitis B Virus
    Christoph Seeger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the relaxed circular (RC) viral DNA genome into covalently closed circular (CCC) DNA, the template for viral RNA transcription, is not yet known...
  20. Functions of 5'NCRs of picornavirus and cellular mRNAs
    Bert L Semler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition to its role in poliovirus translation, cellular protein PCBP2 is required for negative-strand viral RNA synthesis...
  21. Analyses of two RNA helicases that affect intercellular transport via plasmodesma
    Patricia C Zambryski; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..ISE1 exerts a positive or negative role in PD mediated intercellular transport by assaying protein (GFP), viral RNA, and gene silencing RNA movement when ISE1 is increased or decreased. C...
  22. Host-pathogen competition in IFN mediated antiviral defense
    Jae U Jung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) has emerged as a key cytosolic viral RNA receptor for sensing emerging viruses, including the influenza virus and hepatitis virus C (HCV)...
  23. Structural studies of PKR regulation by viral non-coding RNA
    GRAEME LESLIE CONN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a research program to obtain crystals of a double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR):non-coding viral RNA complex in order to produce the first high-resolution molecular snapshot of this important cellular kinase and ..
  24. Synergistic innate immune activation and cell killing by RIG-I ligands in HCV-HCC
    Lee Gehrke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To date, our work has focused primarily on understanding how RIG-I binds to viral RNA and how the signaling pathway is activated...
  25. Assembly dynamics and role of PI4P enriched replication organelles for enterovira
    Ann Cali; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The functional properties of the replication membranes that are required to support viral RNA replication for plus-strand viruses are unknown...
  26. Reconstitution of Poliovirus and HCV RNA Replication Complexes on Membranes
    JENNIFER BARBARA PTACEK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..However, the precise mechanisms of specific priming, strand separation, and RNA elongation during viral RNA synthesis remain to be elucidated...
  27. The functional role of DRH-1 in RNAi directed viral immunity
    Rui Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will then be incorporated into an RNA induced silencing complex (RISC) and serve as sequence guide for target viral RNA selection. Within the RISC, an Argonaut (AGO) protein cleaves the viral RNAs selected by viRNAs...
  28. HIV integrase/DNA complexes and concerted integration
    Duane P Grandgenett; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In HIV-1 infected cells, the viral RNA is reverse transcribed into a 10 kbp linear blunt-ended DNA followed by the formation of the cytoplasmic preintegration complex (PIC)...
  29. Understanding the early and late endosomal TLR9-mediated responses to viral DNA.
    Yong Jun Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are professional interferon (IFN)-producing cells of the immune system3-8 that are specialized in recognizing viral RNA and DNA via endosomal TLR7 and TLR9, respectively...
  30. Analysis of Coronavirus-Host Cell Interactions
    Shinji Makino; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Most of these proteins are involved in viral RNA synthesis, and some have other biological functions...
  31. Metabolic control of hepatitis B virus (HBV) biosynthesis: role of FXR and SHP
    VANESSA CURRAGH REESE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..objectives are to understand the in vivo mechanisms regulating HBV transcription and how alterations in viral RNA synthesis modulate HBV replication...
  32. Targeting_the_Source_of_Persistent_HIV_Viremia
    Sarah Palmer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The phylogenetic relatedness of the plasma-derived viral RNA sequences and intracellular viral DNA sequences will be determined...
  33. The roles of acidic autophagosomes in production of infectious poliovirus
    William T Jackson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..One class, a single-membraned vesicle which resembles a COPII secretory transport vesicle, associates with viral RNA replication proteins...
  34. Genetic dissection of the RNAi-mediated antiviral immunity in C. elegans
    Shou Wei Ding; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..elegans genome triggers production of virus-derived siRNAs, which guide viral RNA clearance by RNA silencing or RNA interference (RNAi)...
  35. Dengue diagnostics using a novel peroxidase chain reaction (PxCR)
    PETER PETER ZASSENHAUS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The Specific Aims are to: (1) Develop pan and serotype specific PxCR assays for dengue viral RNA using oligonucleotide probes...
  36. Development of the Gag/Lysyl tRNA synthetase interaction as a target for anti-HIV
    Lawrence Kleiman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..selectively packaged into the virion during viral assembly in the cell, and binds (anneals) to a region in the viral RNA genome termed the primer binding site (PBS). It is from this bound tRNALys3 that reverse transcription begins...
  37. Dengue Virus Genome Encapsidation and Its Interplay with Host Lipid Droplets
    Andrea Gamarnik; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, it is still unclear how and where the capsid protein recruits the viral RNA to produce the nucleocapsid particle...
  38. hnRNP A1 inhibition of HIV-1 replication
    Massimo Caputi; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Transcription and processing of the viral genome involves interactions between viral RNA sequences, viral proteins and host cell factors, which may constitute novel therapeutic targets...
  39. CD4 effector contraction in influenza
    Susan L Swain; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Flu antigen (Ag) presentation and as well to dramatic stimulation of the innate immune cells via recognition of viral RNA. We postulate that these innate events result in secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF and IL-6, ..
  40. ACUTE AIRWAY EFFECTS OF TLR7 AND TLR8 STIMULATION IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
    David B Jacoby; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, because these receptors respond to viral RNA, understanding the effects of stimulating TLR7 receptors in the airways, as well as the loss of these effects in ..
  41. REPLICATION OF INFLUENZA VIRUS
    Robert M Krug; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..An important goal is to elucidate the poorly understood rol of NS1A in viral RNA synthesis, an endeavor that was facilitated by the purification of macromolecular complexes containing the viral ..
  42. Electron microscopy studies of novel poliovirus genome-releasing intermediates
    Hazel C Levy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..They rely on the ability of capsid proteins to undergo as-yet-uncharacterized conformational changes for the viral RNA to breach the host-membrane barrier...
  43. Micro-RNA 122 and Chronic Hepatitis C
    Stanley M Lemon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..complexes;(ii) it may directly enhance the translational activity of HCV RNA;and (iii), it may promote new viral RNA synthesis by facilitating macroassembly of replicase complexes and/or de novo initiation of RNA synthesis...
  44. Does HIV Enter Doomed Cells
    Sujatha Iyengar; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..detected by dual fluorescent virion entry, BlaM-vpr activity, and quantitative RT-PCR of intracellular genomic viral RNA, in conjunction with proteolytic stripping of HIV from the cell surface...
  45. The Molecular Structure of the RNA Polymerase Portal of a Bacteriophage-Reovirus
    PAUL JEFFREY GOTTLIEB; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This molecular machine selects, packages, and replicates the viral RNA genome segments...
  46. Nuclear Export of Retroviral RNPs: Cytoplasmic fates determined in the nucleus
    REBECCA J KADDIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using a multidisciplinary approach, we demonstrated that RSV Gag selects its viral RNA genome in the nucleus, suggesting a novel paradigm for retroviral RNA packaging...
  47. Assays for Discovery of Translation Inhibitors
    Gerhard Wagner; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..g. oncogenes, and viral RNA utilizing the human translation machinery...
  48. The West Nile virus methyltransferase
    Hongmin Li; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Aims 2 and 3 are to determine crystal structures of favivirus MTase in complex with an N7 viral RNA substrate (Aim 2) and with a 2'-O viral RNA substrate (Aim 3)...
  49. Microchip to Detect Influenza Infection and Type in Nasopharyngeal Swabs
    Catherine M Klapperich; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We have developed a plastic lab-on-a-chip platform for sample preparation, amplification and detection of viral RNA in human samples using microfluidic channels...
  50. Regulation of PKR by Novel RNA Motifs
    Philip C Bevilacqua; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..3.) Determine roles for short viral RNA secondary structures and globular tertiary motifs in modulating PKR activation...
  51. Gene silencing as an antiviral defense in animal cells
    Shou Wei Ding; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..VSR) to examine the hypothesis that antiviral RNAi is induced in the mammalian cells during the early stages of viral RNA replication...
  52. Viral Protein Determinants of Coronavirus Replication Fidelity
    Everett Clinton Smith; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The current paradigm is that the evolution of RNA viruses is primarily a product of error-prone viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps), due to the absence of error recognition and repair (proofreading) activities ..
  53. Viral Mediated Type I Interferon Induction
    Genhong Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..also uncovered RIG-I like receptor (RLR) family members as intracellular nucleic acid sensors that can detect viral RNA sequences;however, the receptors responsible for recognizing intracellular viral DNA still remain to be ..
  54. Cell Biology of Enterovirus Infection in Polarized Epithelial Cells
    Jeffrey M Bergelson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..interaction with the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) initiates the uncoating process that releases viral RNA;activation of Fyn kinase triggers virus internalization in caveolar vesicles, and delivery to the endoplasmic ..
  55. RNA processing in non-segmented minus-strand RNA viruses
    Sean P J Whelan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..assays, combined with a powerful reverse genetic system allow mechanistic analysis of lethal mutations in the viral RNA synthesis machinery...
  56. Functional role of a host metabolic enzyme in viral replication
    Peter Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..replicase complex, namely GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) metabolic protein that binds to the viral RNA and essential for tombusvirus replication in yeast and in the native host plant...
  57. Molecular biology of viral capsids
    CHENG C KAO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..contributions to the cis- and trans-acting factors, the formation of the replicase complex, and the mechanism of viral RNA-dependent RNA synthesis...
  58. Advancing clemizole for hepatitis C: towards a pre-IND package
    Jeffrey S Glenn; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..consisting of an arginine-rich-like motif that mediates specific binding to the 3'-terminus of the negative viral RNA strand. NS4B-RNA binding is essential for genome replication...
  59. Poliovirus Cell Entry Pathways
    James M Hogle; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..2) What is the sequence of conformational changes that ultimately leads to cell entry and the release of the viral RNA? 3) What is the nature of the interaction of the virus with the cell membrane that leads to the internalization ..
  60. Human DBR1 defines a new pathway of intrinsic antiviral immunity in the CNS
    Shen Ying Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..activity of DBR1 and XRN1, indirectly via TLR3- or IFN-mediated immunity, or directly via the suppression of viral RNA recombination by DBR1 or XRN1, in in vitro assays...
  61. Mechanisms and Functions of Core-induced Lipid Droplet Accumulation in Hepatitis
    MELANIE MARIA OTT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..with a DGAT1 inhibitor, core cannot induce lipid droplets and cannot localize to lipid droplets to recruit viral RNA for encapsidation. As a consequence, HCV particle production is severely impaired...
  62. Novel diagnostics and therapeutics for caliciviruses
    MARY KOLB ESTES; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Diagnosis is challenging because universal primers to detect the viral RNA genome are not available, and no rapid, broadly-reactive enzyme immunoassay is approved in the US...
  63. Nonstructural roles of capsid proteins in virus replication
    TERYL FREY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..replicase proteins, a novel finding among plus-strand RNA viruses, suggesting a model for involvement of C in viral RNA synthesis by which the C recruits both the viral RNA and the replicase proteins, facilitating formation of the ..
  64. Host factors involved in viral RNA recombination
    Peter Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2006
    The host plays a role not only in replication of plus-stranded RNA viruses, but also in viral RNA recombination, although the role(s) of host factors in recombination is currently unknown...
  65. Characterization of Innate immune receptors
    Detlef Schuppan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..and relatively nonspecific immune response to common foreign antigens, such as bacterial polysaccharide or viral RNA. The variable contribution of innate immunity to gliadin could explain why only 2- 5% of those individuals that ..
  66. CONTROL OF CELL FUNCTION VIA SELECTIVE MRNA TRANSLATION
    Lee Gehrke; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The regulation of viral coat protein mRNA translation and the specificity and relative simplicity of viral RNA-coat protein interactions in this model system offer important advantages for study...
  67. Development of Novel Small Molecule Flavivirus Inhibitors
    ERIC W BARKLIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We have demonstrated that TYT-1 protects animals from the lethality of WNV infection, that the compound reduces viral RNA levels over a hundred-fold in infected cells, and that TYT-1 analogues inhibit replication of related ..
  68. Role of an essential RNA chaperone in virus replication
    Peter Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In spite of its significance, the mechanism of viral RNA replication is incompletely understood...
  69. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF POLIOVIRUS RNA REPLICATION
    James Bert Flanegan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Key findings from these experiments will be tested in infected cells and in cells transfected with viral RNA. The primary experimental approach will involve a biochemical analysis of the viral and cellular proteins, viral ..
  70. STRUCTURE OF VIRAL RNA IN RIBOSOMAL FRAMESHIFTING
    Alexander Rich; Fiscal Year: 2004
    The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of the structure and function of viral RNA folding motifs involved in ribosomal frameshifting...
  71. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF DENGUE VIRUS ANTIGENS NS3 AND NS5
    Radhakrishnan Padmanabhan; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..An in vitro template dependent viral RNA replicase assay and the dengue infectious clone for in vitro analysis will be used to achieve these objectives, ..
  72. EFFECTORS AND IINHIBITORS OF SARS VIRUS POLYMERASE
    Neerja Kaushik Basu; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..protein 9 (nsp9), a putative proteolytic product of replicase 1ab is proposed to encode the putative viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) or POL domain, the protein responsible for synthesizing the viral positive ..
  73. Nucleotide Pools and the Replication of Sindbis Virus
    Victor Stollar; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The intracellular rNTP's are the vital building blocks from which the SV RNA polymerase synthesizes the viral RNA. Yet, little is known concerning how the manipulation of the levels of theses substrates can affect the ..
  74. Role of Cellular P-bodies and Hantavirus Nucleocapsid Protein in Viral mRNA "cap
    MOHAMMAD AYOUB MIR; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..initiation involving cap snatching is based on orthomyxovirus, influenza, and posits that heterotrimeric viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) acquires 5'caps from cellular mRNAs through the endonuclease activity of ..