Genomes and Genes
Summary: A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.
Publications278 found, 100 shown here
- A periodic pattern of mRNA secondary structure created by the genetic codeSvetlana A Shabalina
National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 34:2428-37. 2006....
- Regulation of translation via mRNA structure in prokaryotes and eukaryotesMarilyn Kozak
Department of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
Gene 361:13-37. 2005..Examples are described. Some mistaken ideas about regulation of translation that have found their way into textbooks are pointed out and corrected...
- Statistical evidence for conserved, local secondary structure in the coding regions of eukaryotic mRNAs and pre-mRNAsIrmtraud M Meyer
European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK
Nucleic Acids Res 33:6338-48. 2005....
- A probabilistic method for identifying start codons in bacterial genomesB E Suzek
Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
Bioinformatics 17:1123-30. 2001..The new system, RBSfinder, is tested on a validated set of genes from Escherichia coli, for which it improves the accuracy of start site locations predicted by computational gene finding systems from the range 67-77% to 90% correct...
- GeneMarkS: a self-training method for prediction of gene starts in microbial genomes. Implications for finding sequence motifs in regulatory regionsJ Besemer
School of Biology and School of Mathematics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0230, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 29:2607-18. 2001..These motifs were shown to possess a significant variability, the functional and evolutionary connections of which are discussed...
- RNA secondary structure in the coding region of dengue virus type 2 directs translation start codon selection and is required for viral replicationKaren Clyde
Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, 140 Warren Hall, University of California, Berkeley, 94720 7360, USA
J Virol 80:2170-82. 2006..While numerous regulatory elements have been identified in the untranslated regions of RNA viral genomes, we show that the cHP is a coding-region RNA element that directs start codon selection and is required for viral replication...
- Comparison of computational methods for identifying translation initiation sites in EST dataAfshin Nadershahi
College of Biological Science, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
BMC Bioinformatics 5:14. 2004..We have compared five methods to predict translation initiation sites in EST data: first-ATG, ESTScan, Diogenes, Netstart, and ATGpr...
- Presence of ATG triplets in 5' untranslated regions of eukaryotic cDNAs correlates with a 'weak' context of the start codonI B Rogozin
National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20804, USA
Bioinformatics 17:890-900. 2001..To reveal potential connections between the presence of upstream AUGs and other features of 5' UTRs, such as their length and the start codon context, we undertook a systematic analysis of the available eukaryotic 5' UTR sequences...
- Translation initiation from a naturally occurring non-AUG codon in Saccharomyces cerevisiaeKuang Jung Chang
Department of Life Science, National Central University, 300 Jung da, Jung li, Taiwan 32054
J Biol Chem 279:13778-85. 2004..The results suggest that non-AUG initiation might be a mechanism existing throughout all kingdoms...
- Leaky scanning and reinitiation regulate BACE1 gene expressionWeihui Zhou
Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, 2255 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
Mol Cell Biol 26:3353-64. 2006..Such leaky scanning and reinitiation resulted in weak expression of BACE1 under normal conditions. Alterations of the leaky scanning and reinitiation in BACE1 gene expression could play an important role in AD pathogenesis...
- Pushing the limits of the scanning mechanism for initiation of translationMarilyn Kozak
Department of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 675 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
Gene 299:1-34. 2002..The accumulated evidence reveals how the scanning mechanism dictates the pattern of transcription--forcing production of monocistronic mRNAs--and the pattern of translation of eukaryotic cellular and viral genes...
- Regulatory elements in eIF1A control the fidelity of start codon selection by modulating tRNA(i)(Met) binding to the ribosomeAdesh K Saini
Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Development, Eunice K Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Genes Dev 24:97-110. 2010....
- Internal ribosome entry site biology and its use in expression vectorsE Martinez-Salas
Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid, Spain
Curr Opin Biotechnol 10:458-64. 1999..ribosome entry sites (IRESs) are cis-acting elements that recruit the small ribosomal subunits to an internal initiator codon in the mRNA with the help of cellular trans-acting factors...
- New isoforms of VEGF are translated from alternative initiation CUG codons located in its 5'UTRM Meiron
Technion, Department of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Haifa, 32000, Israel
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 282:1053-60. 2001..Most likely, these isoforms either possess new capabilities, which are different from the activity of the classical VEGF isoforms, or affect the efficiency and capacity of translational initiation from the canonical AUG codon...
- Divergent transcriptional and translational signals in ArchaeaElfar Torarinsson
Danish Archaea Centre, Institute of Molecular Biology, Copenhagen University, Sølvgade 83H, DK 1307 Copenhagen K, Denmark
Environ Microbiol 7:47-54. 2005..High levels of leaderless transcripts are found in the longer branched Archaea...
- Translational efficiency of a non-AUG initiation codon is significantly affected by its sequence context in yeastShun Jia Chen
Department of Life Science, National Central University, Jung li, Taiwan 32001
J Biol Chem 283:3173-80. 2008..these results suggest that sequence context is more important for translation initiation in yeast than previously appreciated...
- A cellular RNA-binding protein enhances internal ribosomal entry site-dependent translation through an interaction downstream of the hepatitis C virus polyprotein initiation codonJong Heon Kim
NRL, PBC, Division of Molecular and Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Hyoja Dong San 31, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790 784, South Korea
Mol Cell Biol 24:7878-90. 2004..These results suggest the existence of a novel mechanism of translational enhancement that acts through the interaction of an RNA-binding protein with a protein coding sequence...
- Evolution of translational initiation: new insights from the archaeaPaola Londei
Dipartimento di Biochimica Medica e Biologia Medica DIBIM, Universitá di Bari Piazzale Giulio Cesare, 70124 Bari, Italy
FEMS Microbiol Rev 29:185-200. 2005..A model of the initiation step of translation in the Last Universal Common Ancestor of extant cells is presented and discussed...
- GTP hydrolysis controls stringent selection of the AUG start codon during translation initiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiaeH K Huang
Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington 47405, USA
Genes Dev 11:2396-413. 1997....
- A second isoform of the ferredoxin:NADP oxidoreductase generated by an in-frame initiation of translationJean Claude Thomas
Departement de Biologie, Ecole Normale Superieure, F 75230 Paris, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:18368-73. 2006..Our results strongly suggest that FNR(L) is an NADP(+) reductase, whereas FNR(S) is an NADPH oxidase...
- Translation initiation complex formation in the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricusDavid Hasenöhrl
Max F Perutz Laboratories, Department of Microbiology, Immunobiology and Genetics, University of Vienna, 1030 Vienna, Austria
RNA 15:2288-98. 2009..Thus, despite the resemblance of eIF2 and a/eIF2, recruitment of initiator tRNA to the ribosome is mechanistically different in Pro- and Eukaryotes...
- On biased distribution of introns in various eukaryotesA Sakurai
Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, 5322 Endo, Fujisawa City, Kanagawa, Japan
Gene 300:89-95. 2002....
- Complementarity of the 16S rRNA penultimate stem with sequences downstream of the AUG destabilizes the plastid mRNAsH Kuroda
Waksman Institute, Rutgers-The State University of New Jersey, 190 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8020, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 29:970-5. 2001..However, replacing the T7g10 DB region with the plastid DS sequence reduced NPTII and mRNA levels to 0.16 and 28%, respectively. Reduced NPTII accumulation is in part due to accelerated mRNA turnover...
- Unfolding of mRNA secondary structure by the bacterial translation initiation complexSean M Studer
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
Mol Cell 22:105-15. 2006..We show that unfolding of structured mRNAs requires a SD sequence, the start codon, fMet-tRNA(fMet), and the GTP bound form of initiation factor 2 bound to the 30S subunit...
- Constitutive display of cryptic translation products by MHC class I moleculesSusan R Schwab
Division of Immunology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
Science 301:1367-71. 2003..Furthermore, translation of this cryptic peptide occurs by a previously unknown mechanism that decodes the CUG initiation codon as leucine rather than the canonical methionine...
- Efficient translation initiation directed by the 900-nucleotide-long and GC-rich 5' untranslated region of the human retrotransposon LINE-1 mRNA is strictly cap dependent rather than internal ribosome entry site mediatedSergey E Dmitriev
A N Belozersky Institute of Physico Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, Bldg A, Moscow 119992, Russia
Mol Cell Biol 27:4685-97. 2007..Our data also demonstrate that the ORF2 translation initiation is not directed by internal initiation, either. It is very inefficient and presumably based on a reinitiation event...
- New vascular endothelial growth factor isoform generated by internal ribosome entry site-driven CUG translation initiationI Huez
Institut National de la Santé et la Recherche Médicale Unité 397, Endocrinologie et Communication Cellulaire, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Rangueil, 31403 Toulouse Cedex 04, France
Mol Endocrinol 15:2197-210. 2001..In contrast, the large isoform and its NH2 fragment present an intracellular localization. These data unravel a further level of complexity in the regulation of VEGF expression...
- Untranslated regions of mRNAsFlavio Mignone
Dipartimento di Fisiologia e Biochimica Generali, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria, 26, 20133 Milano, Italy
Genome Biol 3:REVIEWS0004. 2002....
- Constraints on reinitiation of translation in mammalsM Kozak
Department of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 675 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 29:5226-32. 2001..These experiments carried out with synthetic transcripts help to define the circumstances under which reinitiation may be expected to occur in the growing number of natural mRNAs that deviate from the simple first AUG rule...
- Translational efficiency of redundant ACG initiator codons is enhanced by a favorable sequence context and remedial initiationShun Jia Chen
Department of Life Science, National Central University, Jung li 320, Taiwan
J Biol Chem 284:818-27. 2009..5-fold). Thus, the sequence context plays a much more important role than remedial initiation in modulating the efficiency of translational initiation from redundant non-AUG codons...
- The role of the AUU initiation codon in the negative feedback regulation of the gene for translation initiation factor IF3 in Escherichia coliC Sacerdot
UPR9073, Institut de Biologie Physico Chimique, Paris, France
Mol Microbiol 21:331-46. 1996..On the basis of our in vivo results we propose, as suspected from earlier in vitro results, that IF3 regulates the expression of its own gene by using its ability to differentiate between 'normal' and 'abnormal' initiation codons...
- A precursor form of vascular endothelial growth factor arises by initiation from an upstream in-frame CUG codonM K Tee
Center for Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0556, USA
Biochem J 359:219-26. 2001..Alternate CUG(499) and AUG(1039) initiation and processing of the inactive precursor and its products might be important in regulating angiogenesis...
- Emerging links between initiation of translation and human diseasesMarilyn Kozak
Department of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 675 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
Mamm Genome 13:401-10. 2002..Because the discovery of mutations that perturb translation usually begins with cDNA analysis, some misunderstandings vis-a-vis the interpretation of cDNA sequences are discussed...
- Pi release from eIF2, not GTP hydrolysis, is the step controlled by start-site selection during eukaryotic translation initiationMikkel A Algire
Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
Mol Cell 20:251-62. 2005..Release of P(i), which makes GTP hydrolysis irreversible, appears to be controlled by the AUG-dependent dissociation of eIF1 from the preinitiation complex...
- Catalytic RNase P RNA from Synechocystis sp. cleaves the hepatitis C virus RNA near the AUG start codonRosario Sabariegos
Servicio de Medicina Interna Hospital Vall d Hebron, Area de Investigación Básica, Barcelona 08035, Spain
FEBS Lett 577:517-22. 2004..This provides additional support for the presence of an RNA structure similar to tRNA near the AUG start codon and suggests that Synechocystis P RNA may be an active agent for HCV antigenomic interventions...
- Detection of tRNA-like structure through RNase P cleavage of viral internal ribosome entry site RNAs near the AUG start tripletAlita J Lyons
Department of Biochemistry, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
J Biol Chem 278:26844-50. 2003..Such tRNA-like features could be recognized by pre-existing ribosomal tRNA-binding sites as part of the IRES initiation cycle...
- The eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G HEAT domain promotes translation re-initiation in yeast both dependent on and independent of eIF4A mRNA helicaseRyosuke Watanabe
Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Program, Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA
J Biol Chem 285:21922-33. 2010..Based on the RNA-binding activities identified within the unstructured segments flanking the eIF4G2 HEAT domain, we discuss the role of the HEAT domain in scanning beyond loading eIF4A onto the pre-initiation complex...
- The highly reduced and fragmented mitochondrial genome of the early-branching dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina shares characteristics with both apicomplexan and dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomesClaudio H Slamovits
Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
J Mol Biol 372:356-68. 2007..Overall, the combination of characteristics found in the Oxyrrhis genome allows us to plot the sequence of many events that led to the extreme organisation of apicomplexan and dinoflalgellate mitochondrial genomes...
- Ribosome stalling and peptidyl-tRNA drop-off during translational delay at AGA codonsLuis Rogelio Cruz-Vera
Departamento de Genetica y Biologia Molecular, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado Postal 14 740, 07000 Mexico D F
Nucleic Acids Res 32:4462-8. 2004..These and previous results support the hypothesis that the primary mechanism of inhibition of protein synthesis by AGA triplets in pth+ cells involves sequestration of tRNAs as peptidyl-tRNA on the stalled ribosome...
- Translation of the chloroplast psbC mRNA is controlled by interactions between its 5' leader and the nuclear loci TBC1 and TBC3 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtiiW Zerges
Department of Molecular Biology, University of Geneva, Switzerland
Mol Cell Biol 17:3440-8. 1997..These data demonstrate that sequences located in the middle of the psbC 5' UTR, TBC1, and TBC3 functionally interact to control the translation of the psbC mRNA...
- Ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) isoforms in lens epithelial cells: origin of translation, E2 specificity and cellular localization determined with novel site-specific antibodiesF Shang
Laboratory for Nutrition and Vision Research, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA
Exp Eye Res 73:827-36. 2001..This observation suggests that E1A and E1B ubiquitinate different proteins and serve different functions in intact cells...
- Analysis of the complete mitochondrial DNA from Anopheles funestus: an improved dipteran mitochondrial genome annotation and a temporal dimension of mosquito evolutionJaroslaw Krzywinski
Center for Tropical Disease Research and Training, Department of Biology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA
Mol Phylogenet Evol 39:417-23. 2006..Although existing evidence does not unequivocally favor one of the alternatives, fossil-based predictions of the age of the family Culicidae are in better agreement with dates inferred from protein-coding genes...
- Identification of an essential region for internal initiation of translation in the aphthovirus internal ribosome entry site and implications for viral evolutionE Martinez-Salas
Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain
J Virol 70:992-8. 1996..The results indicate a critical participation of the base of domain 3 in the activity of the aphthovirus IRES, with a strong effect of secondary or higher-order structures and minor effects of primary structure...
- A stable upstream stem-loop structure enhances selection of the first 5'-ORF-AUG as a main start codon for translation initiation of human ACAT1 mRNALi Yang
State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, The Chinese Academy of Sciences
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 36:259-68. 2004..This work showed that a stable upstream stem-loop structure could modulate the start codon selection during translation initiation of mRNAs that contain adjacent multi-5'-ORF-AUGs...
- The three dominant female-sterile mutations of the Drosophila ovo gene are point mutations that create new translation-initiator AUG codonsM Mevel-Ninio
Centre de Génétique Moléculaire du CNRS, Gif sur Yvette, France
Development 122:4131-8. 1996..We propose that premature expression of long Ovo protein isoforms occurs in ovoD mutants and interferes with wild-type Ovo function in controlling female germline differentiation...
- The roles of individual eukaryotic translation initiation factors in ribosomal scanning and initiation codon selectionTatyana V Pestova
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11203 2098, USA
Genes Dev 16:2906-22. 2002....
- The AUG start codon of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae NFS1 gene can be substituted for by UUG without increased initiation of translation at downstream codonsJ H Nett
Department of Biochemistry, Dartmouth Medical School, 7200 Vail, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
Eur J Biochem 268:5209-14. 2001..This is apparently the first example of a yeast protein where mutagenesis of AUG1 does not lead to alternate use of a downstream AUG...
- Evolutionary conservation suggests a regulatory function of AUG triplets in 5'-UTRs of eukaryotic genesAlexander Churbanov
Department of Computer Science, College of Information Science and Technology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE 68182, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 33:5512-20. 2005....
- YACOP: Enhanced gene prediction obtained by a combination of existing methodsMaike Tech
Göttingen Genomics Laboratory, Institut für Mikrobiologie and Genetik, Grisebachstrasse 8, D 37077 Gottingen, Germany
In Silico Biol 3:441-51. 2003..8% and up to 32.3% of the positions given in the annotations differed from the locus predicted by any of the programs tested. YACOP can be downloaded from http://www.g2l.bio.uni-goettingen.de...
- Specific functional interactions of nucleotides at key -3 and +4 positions flanking the initiation codon with components of the mammalian 48S translation initiation complexAndrey V Pisarev
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11203, USA
Genes Dev 20:624-36. 2006....
- The complete nucleotide sequence and gene organization of the mitochondrial genome of the oriental mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae)Iksoo Kim
Department of Agricultural Biology, The National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon 441 100, Republic of Korea
Gene 353:155-68. 2005..However, the relationships of ancient insect orders were unstable, indicating the limited use of mitogenome information at deeper phylogenetic depth...
- uORFs with unusual translational start codons autoregulate expression of eukaryotic ornithine decarboxylase homologsIvaylo P Ivanov
Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:10079-84. 2008..This repression is part of an autoregulatory circuit, and one of its sensors is the AUU codon, which suggests that translation initiation codon identity is likely used for regulation in eukaryotes...
- Ribosome stalling regulates IRES-mediated translation in eukaryotes, a parallel to prokaryotic attenuationJames Fernandez
Departments of Nutrition, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
Mol Cell 17:405-16. 2005..This control is reminiscent of translation attenuation in prokaryotic operons, where inhibition of translation elongation can regulate both mRNA translation and gene transcription by altering mRNA structure...
- Analysis of oligonucleotide AUG start codon context in eukariotic mRNAsG Pesole
Dipartimento di Fisiologia e Biochimica Generali, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 26, 20133, Milan, Italy
Gene 261:85-91. 2000..area.ba.cnr.it:8000/BioWWW/ATG.html) to determine the relative abundance of a user submitted oligonucleotide context in a given species or taxon...
- Functional Shine-Dalgarno-like sequences for translational initiation of chloroplast mRNAsTetsuro Hirose
Center for Gene Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464 8602 Japan
Plant Cell Physiol 45:114-7. 2004..Competition assays confirmed that a functional SD-like sequence interacts with the 3' terminus of chloroplast 16S rRNA...
- AUG codons at the beginning of protein coding sequences are frequent in eukaryotic mRNAs with a suboptimal start codon contextAlex V Kochetov
Institute of Cytology and Genetics Lavrentieva 10, Novosibirsk 630090 Russia
Bioinformatics 21:837-40. 2005..It is likely that at least some mRNAs with suboptimal start codon context contain the other signals providing additional information for efficient AUG recognition...
- Oligo kernels for datamining on biological sequences: a case study on prokaryotic translation initiation sitesPeter Meinicke
Abteilung Bioinformatik, Institut fur Mikrobiologie und Genetik, Georg August Universitat Gottingen, Goldschmidtstr, 1, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
BMC Bioinformatics 5:169. 2004..Conventional kernels utilized so far do not provide an easy interpretation of the learnt representations in terms of positional and compositional variability of the underlying biological signals...
- Regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta isoform synthesis by alternative translational initiation at multiple AUG start sitesW Xiong
Department of Human Biological Chemistry and Genetics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0643, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 29:3087-98. 2001..We propose that formation of C/EBPbeta isoforms is accomplished by a leaky ribosomal scanning mechanism that facilitates ATI of multiple internal AUGs...
- The joining of ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes requires eIF5BT V Pestova
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, 11203, USA
Nature 403:332-5. 2000..It is a homologue of the prokaryotic initiation factor IF2 (re and, like it, mediates joining of subunits and has a ribosome-dependent GTPase activity that is essential for its function...
- mRNA sequence features that contribute to translational regulation in ArabidopsisRiki Kawaguchi
Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, Center for Plant Cell Biology, University of California Riverside, CA 92521, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 33:955-65. 2005..Notably, the mRNA features that contribute to translational regulation could not fully explain the variation in ribosome loading, indicating that additional factors contribute to translational regulation in Arabidopsis...
- Leaderless mRNAs in bacteria: surprises in ribosomal recruitment and translational controlIsabella Moll
Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Vienna Biocenter, 1030 Vienna, Austria
Mol Microbiol 43:239-46. 2002..In fact, the faithful translation of leaderless mRNAs in heterologous systems shows that the ability to translate leaderless mRNAs is an evolutionarily conserved function of the translational apparatus...
- Comparative analysis of orthologous eukaryotic mRNAs: potential hidden functional signalsSvetlana A Shabalina
National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 32:1774-82. 2004....
- Diversity of translation start sites may define increased complexity of the human short ORFeomeMasaaki Oyama
Medical Proteomics Laboratory, University of Tokyo, Japan
Mol Cell Proteomics 6:1000-6. 2007....
- Position of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF1 on the 40S ribosomal subunit determined by directed hydroxyl radical probingIvan B Lomakin
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center Brooklyn, New York 11203, USA
Genes Dev 17:2786-97. 2003....
- Ortho-proteogenomics: multiple proteomes investigation through orthology and a new MS-based protocolSebastien Gallien
Laboratoire de Spectrometrie de Masse Bio Organique, IPHC DSA, ULP, CNRS, UMR7178, 67 087 Strasbourg, France
Genome Res 19:128-35. 2009....
- Alternatively spliced isoforms of the human elk-1 mRNA within the 5' UTR: implications for ELK-1 expressionTanguy Araud
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, University of Geneva Medical School CMU, 1 rue Michel Servet, CH 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
Nucleic Acids Res 35:4649-63. 2007....
- Opposing roles of Elk-1 and its brain-specific isoform, short Elk-1, in nerve growth factor-induced PC12 differentiationP Vanhoutte
Laboratoire de Neurochimie Anatomie, Institut des Neurosciences, CNRS UMR 7624, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris, France
J Biol Chem 276:5189-96. 2001..This is blocked by mutating a normally cryptic nuclear export signal in Elk-1. These data provide new insights into molecular events underlying neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells mediated by the NGF-ERK signaling cascade...
- [Adequate system for investigation of translation initiation of the human retrotransposon L1 mRNA in vitro]S E Dmitriev
Mol Biol (Mosk) 40:25-30. 2006..These and other experiments allowed us to clearly demonstrate that the new combined cell-free system is much more adequate to study mechanisms of translation initiation than a regular RRL...
- Multiple elements required for translation of plastid atpB mRNA lacking the Shine-Dalgarno sequenceTetsuro Hirose
Center for Gene Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464 8602, Japan
Nucleic Acids Res 32:3503-10. 2004..We hypothesize for translational initiation of the atpB mRNA that the ribosome enters an upstream region, slides to the start codon and forms an initiation complex with p50 and other components...
- Dissociation of eIF1 from the 40S ribosomal subunit is a key step in start codon selection in vivoYuen Nei Cheung
Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Development, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Genes Dev 21:1217-30. 2007....
- The role of alternative translation start sites in the generation of human protein diversityAlex V Kochetov
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
Mol Genet Genomics 273:491-6. 2005..These results suggest that additional AUGs may frequently be exploited for the synthesis of proteins that possess novel functional properties...
- Post-termination ribosome interactions with the 5'UTR modulate yeast mRNA stabilityC Vilela
Post transcriptional Control Group, Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology UMIST, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, UK
EMBO J 18:3139-52. 1999..Our data explain the destabilizing properties of YAP2-type uORFs and also support a more general model for the mode of action of other known uORFs, such as those in the GCN4 mRNA...
- Expression of the Escherichia coli pcnB gene is translationally limited using an inefficient start codon: a second chromosomal example of translation initiated at AUUNigel Binns
Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, The King s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, UK
Mol Microbiol 44:1287-98. 2002..We show that InfC discrimination reduces PcnB production fivefold. This is the first instance of this mechanism being used to limit severely the production of a potentially toxic product...
- mRNA 5' region sequence incompleteness: a potential source of systematic errors in translation initiation codon assignment in human mRNAsRaffaella Casadei
Center for Research into Molecular Genetics Fondazione CARISBO, Institute of Histology and General Embryology, University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro, 8 40126 Bologna, Italy
Gene 321:185-93. 2003..Proportionally to the HC 21 data, about 550 known human genes might thus be affected by this 5' end mRNA artifact...
- GS-Finder: a program to find bacterial gene start sites with a self-training methodHong Yu Ou
Department of Physics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36:535-44. 2004..02 increases from 63 to 91% for 832 E. coli reliable CDSs. An open source computer program to implement the method, GS-Finder, is freely available for academic purposes from http://tubic.tju.edu.cn/GS-Finder/...
- Identification of an essential pseudoknot in the putative downstream internal ribosome entry site in giardiavirus transcriptSrinivas Garlapati
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0446, USA
RNA 8:601-11. 2002..The finding is particularly interesting because it could reflect a unique feature of translation initiation in Giardia, which is known to have exceedingly short (1-6 nt) 5' untranslated regions in its mRNAs...
- Prediction whether a human cDNA sequence contains initiation codon by combining statistical information and similarity with protein sequencesT Nishikawa
Helix Research Institute, Chiba, Japan
Bioinformatics 16:960-7. 2000..In this work, we present a new prediction algorithm based on both statistical and similarity information, which provides better performance in sensitivity and specificity...
- Translation of vph mRNA in Streptomyces lividans and Escherichia coli after removal of the 5' untranslated leaderC J Wu
Department of Microbiology, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 45056, USA
Mol Microbiol 22:339-55. 1996..coli and S. lividans...
- The positive relationship between codon usage bias and translation initiation AUG context in Saccharomyces cerevisiaeH Miyasaka
Kansai Electric Power Co, Environmental Research Center, Hyogo, Japan
Yeast 15:633-7. 1999..A new index (AUGCAI = AUG Context Adaptation Index) for the measure of optimal AUG context was devised, and the importance of each position of AUG context was also examined...
- Anatomy of Escherichia coli ribosome binding sitesR K Shultzaberger
University of Maryland, College Park, 20742, USA
J Mol Biol 313:215-28. 2001..Such models should be useful for refining gene-start predictions of any sequenced bacterial genome...
- An unusual pattern of protein expression and localization of yeast alanyl-tRNA synthetase isoformsHsiao Yun Huang
Department of Life Science, National Central University, 300 Jung da Road, Jung li, Taiwan 32001
Mol Microbiol 60:189-98. 2006..Thus, the sequence upstream of the first in-frame AUG initiator not only carries an unusual initiation site, but also contributes to a novel pattern of protein expression and localization...
- A codon window in mRNA downstream of the initiation codon where NGG codons give strongly reduced gene expression in Escherichia coliErnesto I Gonzalez de Valdivia
Department of Microbiology, Stockholm University, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
Nucleic Acids Res 32:5198-205. 2004..The low expression is suggested to originate at the translational level, although it is not the result of mRNA secondary structure or a lowered intracellular mRNA pool...
- Hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site RNA contains a tertiary structural element in a functional domain of stem-loop IIA J Lyons
Program in Biochemistry and Structural Biology, Weill Graduate School of Medical Sciences of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 29:2535-41. 2001..Because features of local tertiary structure like the one we report here are often associated with protein binding, we propose that the HCV stem-loop II element is directly involved in IRES action...
- Deletion of the LMNA initiator codon leading to a neurogenic variant of autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophyMaggie C Walter
Friedrich Baur Institute, Gene Center and Department of Neurology, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Munich, Germany
Neuromuscul Disord 15:40-4. 2005..the LMNA gene -3del15, resulting in the loss of 15 nucleotides from -3 to +12, including the translation ATG initiator codon. The mutation segregates in a previously described family with a clinical phenotype that shared features of ..
- Translation of the minor capsid protein of a calicivirus is initiated by a novel termination-dependent reinitiation mechanismGregor Meyers
Department of Immunology, Federal Research Centre for Virus Diseases of Animals, D 72001 Tübingen, Germany
J Biol Chem 278:34051-60. 2003....
- Sequence architecture downstream of the initiator codon enhances gene expression and protein stability in plantsS V Sawant
National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow-226001, India
Plant Physiol 126:1630-6. 2001Nucleotide positions conserved on the 3' side of the initiator codon ATG and the corresponding N-terminal amino acid residues in a number of highly abundant plant proteins were identified by computational analysis of a dataset of highly ..
- Redundancy of non-AUG initiators. A clever mechanism to enhance the efficiency of translation in yeastKuang Jung Chang
Department of Life Science, National Central University, Jung li, 32001 Taiwan
J Biol Chem 281:7775-83. 2006..Cumulatively, the results suggest that this feature of redundancy of non-AUG initiators in a single mRNA per se may represent a novel paradigm for improving the efficiency of a poor or otherwise nonproductive initiation event...
- Influences on translation initiation and early elongation by the messenger RNA region flanking the initiation codon at the 3' sideC Magnus Stenström
Department of Microbiology, Stockholm University, Sweden
Gene 288:1-8. 2002..Thus, the messenger RNA base sequence, and not the encoded amino acid sequence, in the early coding region is the determinant for the apparent efficiency of translation initiation and/or early elongation...
- A single internal ribosome entry site containing a G quartet RNA structure drives fibroblast growth factor 2 gene expression at four alternative translation initiation codonsSophie Bonnal
INSERM U589, Institut Louis Bugnard, Centre Hôpitalier Universitaire Rangueil, 31403 Toulouse Cedex 04, France
J Biol Chem 278:39330-6. 2003....
- Generation of protein isoform diversity by alternative initiation of translation at non-AUG codonsChristian Touriol
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U589, Hormones, Facteurs de Croissance et Physiopathologie Vasculaire, Institut Fédératif de Recherche Louis Bugnard, C H U Rangueil, 31403 Toulouse Cedex 04, France
Biol Cell 95:169-78. 2003..Consequently, the regulation of alternative initiation of translation might have a crucial role for the biological function of the gene product...
- Human mitochondrial C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase: gene structure, tissue distribution of the mRNA, and immunolocalization in Chinese hamster ovary callsPriya Prasannan
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 0165, USA
J Biol Chem 278:43178-87. 2003..Yeast cells expressing the full-length human cDNA exhibited elevated 10-formyl-THF synthetase activity, confirming its identification as the human mitochondrial C1-THF synthase...
- Identification of a novel internal ribosome entry site in giardiavirus that extends to both sides of the initiation codonSrinivas Garlapati
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 2280, USA
J Biol Chem 279:3389-97. 2004..This is, to our knowledge, the first reported identification of a viral IRES with an estimated size of 517 nts that extends to both sides of the initiation site...
- A cross-kingdom internal ribosome entry site reveals a simplified mode of internal ribosome entryIlya M Terenin
Belozersky Institute of Physico Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, Russian Federation
Mol Cell Biol 25:7879-88. 2005..We suggest that the single-stranded nature of the RhPV IRES accounts for its strong but less selective potential to bind key mRNA recruiting components of the translation initiation apparatus from diverse origins...
- Control of the vascular endothelial growth factor internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity and translation initiation by alternatively spliced coding sequencesStephanie Bornes
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale INSERM U589, Hormones, Facteurs de Croissance et Physiopathologie Vasculaire, Institut Fédératif de Recherche Louis Bugnard, C H U Rangueil, 31403 Toulouse Cedex 04, France
J Biol Chem 279:18717-26. 2004..This is the first report describing the influence of alternatively spliced coding sequences on codon selection by modulating IRES activity...
- Correlations between Shine-Dalgarno sequences and gene features such as predicted expression levels and operon structuresJiong Ma
Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 2125, USA
J Bacteriol 184:5733-45. 2002..In light of these results, we discuss the role of the SD sequence in translation initiation and its relationship with predicted gene expression levels and with operon structure in both bacterial and archaeal genomes...
- Codon and base biases after the initiation codon of the open reading frames in the Escherichia coli genome and their influence on the translation efficiencyT Sato
Institute for Biomolecular Science, Gakushuin University, Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588, Japan
J Biochem 129:851-60. 2001..These results demonstrate that the statistically most frequent sequences for the second codon enhance translation efficiency, and this effect seems to be independent of base pairing between mRNA and 16S rRNA...
- Translation factor control of ribosome conformation during start codon selectionKatsura Asano
Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology Program, Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA
Genes Dev 21:1280-7. 2007
- Clinical significance of pre-S mutations in patients with genotype C hepatitis B virus infectionM S Choi
Department of Medicine and Digestive Disease Research Center, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
J Viral Hepat 14:161-8. 2007..These findings suggest that pre-S mutations, especially pre-S2 deletions and pre-S2 start codon mutations, are common in patients with genotype C HBV infection and are associated with advanced liver disease and active viral replication...
- A sequence downstream of the initiation codon is essential for cold shock induction of cspB of Escherichia coliJ P Etchegaray
Department of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
J Bacteriol 181:5852-4. 1999..We propose that the DB sequence functions as a translational enhancer for the biosynthesis of CspB to bypass the inhibitory effect in translation caused by cold shock...
- Experimental determination of translational starts using peptide mass mapping and tandem mass spectrometry within the proteome of Mycobacterium tuberculosisStuart C G Rison
The Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU, UK
Microbiology 153:521-8. 2007..This method can be performed with little or no additional experimental work during proteomics investigations...
- Neural network prediction of translation initiation sites in eukaryotes: perspectives for EST and genome analysisA G Pedersen
Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
Proc Int Conf Intell Syst Mol Biol 5:226-33. 1997..A number of conflicts between neural network predictions and database annotations are analysed in detail, leading to identification of possible database errors...
- Regulation of ER stress-induced cell deathRandal J Kaufman; Fiscal Year: 2013..The proposed studies on protein synthesis will provide vital information that should encourage the development of novel therapeutics to treat diabetes. ..
- IRES-mediated translation initiation on viral mRNAsCHRISTOPHER ULRICH TRISTRAM HELLEN; Fiscal Year: 2013..We are investigating how IRESs work, which may give insights that, will eventually be used in the development of antiviral drugs. ..
- Regulation of an Iron Import Facilitator by Transcriptional InterferenceCAMILLE REYES NERY; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Diet by Gene Interactions Affecting Calcium and Bone MetabolismJames C Fleet; Fiscal Year: 2010..However, the relationship between dietary calcium intake and a person's genetic background isn't clear. Our research will examine this relationship in detail using animal models. ..
- Identification and Function of nuDMP1 in Odontoblast DifferentiationYongbo Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- Assays for Discovery of Translation InhibitorsGerhard Wagner; Fiscal Year: 2009..The proposed study will allow us to obtain leads for anti-cancer and anti-viral drug design. ..
- KINETIC DISSECTION OF EUKARYOTIC TRANSLATION INITIATIONRachel Green; Fiscal Year: 2013..Our studies will increase our understanding of how translation normally works, which in turn will increase our understanding of how it can break down and result in diseases. ..
- NMR STUDIES OF RETROVIRAL NUCLEIC ACID BINDING PROTEINSMICHAEL FINLEY SUMMERS; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- Ribosomal scanning and initiation codon selectionTatyana V Pestova; Fiscal Year: 2013..These studies will determine the molecular basis for key events in translation initiation, and its regulation by trans-acting factors, which is a prerequisite for the development of rational therapies to treat such diseases. ) ..
- Translational Control by NutrientsMaria Hatzoglou; Fiscal Year: 2010..The proposed studies aim to identify these proteins and characterize how they activate the IRES. This is the first report on the regulation of the activity of the IRES by nutrients. ..
- Functions of Mammalian thioredoxin reductasesVADIM GLADYSHEV; Fiscal Year: 2009..iii) What are the determinants for preferential supply of thioredoxin reductases with selenium? We will examine elements in thioredoxin reductase genes responsible for this effect. ..
- Chemotherapy targeting human thymidylate synthase messenger RNATHOMAS C HERMANN; Fiscal Year: 2013..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This research is aimed at the discovery of novel anti-cancer therapeutics which will greatly increase the efficacy of existing drugs for the treatment of resistant breast and colorectal cancer. ..
- The structural dynamics of translation initiationRuben L Gonzalez; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- Mechanism of Induction of erm Genes By Ketolide AntibioticsNora Vazquez Laslop; Fiscal Year: 2010..The goal of this project is to unravel this mechanism. Deciphering the way antibiotics turn on the expression of resistance genes at the molecular level will eventually lead to the design of new non-inducer antibiotics. ..
- Myotonic Dystrophy: Molecular Pathophysiology and CNS EffectsLaura P W Ranum; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- HCV IRES Control of Human Translational InitiationJennifer A Doudna; Fiscal Year: 2011..X-ray crystal structures of this critical IRES domain bound to eIF3 will result in the first high-resolution structures of the HCV IRES IIIabc domain in a complex with any part of eIF3. ..
- STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF TRANSFER RIBONUCLEIC ACIDSUTTAM RAJBHANDARY; Fiscal Year: 2009..Eubacteria use one mechanism to specifically read AUA whereas eukaryotes use another. How the archaeal isoleucine tRNA accomplishes this is unknown. ..
- Mechanisms of assembly and remodeling of human translation initiation complexesASSEN G MARINTCHEV; Fiscal Year: 2013..This work will identify key steps in the translation initiation process that are promising targets in manipulating the rates of protein synthesis for therapeutic purposes. ..
- Eukaryotic Translational Initiation and its RegulationJoseph D Puglisi; Fiscal Year: 2010..The results of this proposal will provide a biophysical context to understanding eukaryotic translation, its regulation, and role in human disease. ..
- MECHANISMS OF EUKARYOTIC TRANSLATION INITIATIONGerhard Wagner; Fiscal Year: 2013..We also will study the complex of the scaffold protein eIF4G with the RNA helicase eIF4A and the interaction of factors eIF5, eIF1 and eIF1A, which support start codon recognition by interacting with eIF2. ..
- Modulators of the fidelity of start codon recognition in eukaryotesJon R Lorsch; Fiscal Year: 2012....
- TRANSCRIPTIONAL CONTROL IN ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICAUpinder Singh; Fiscal Year: 2001..histolytica. The research will be conducted under the supervision of Dr. Petri and a mentoring committee. ..
- Dynamics of translationJoseph D Puglisi; Fiscal Year: 2013..The results of this project should reveal a dynamic view of translation and continue to provide insights into the mechanism of action of antibiotics. ..
- GROWTH REGULATION OF POLYAMINE SYNTHESISDavid Morris; Fiscal Year: 2001..These studies will not only define the mechanism of regulation of a key step in polyamine biosynthesis, but will also extend our fundamental knowledge of the role uORFs in translational control generally. ..
- Hepatitis B virus e antigen expressionShuping Tong; Fiscal Year: 2004..This study promises to verify and identify novel mechanisms regulating HBeAg expression, which has a major impact on the outcome of HBV infection. ..
- Empirical analysis of natural selection on codon usage in eukaryotesRICHARD KLIMAN; Fiscal Year: 2007..Additionally, two organisms of special concern to human health will be studied: the opportunistic pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans and human papillomaviruses. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- TRANSLATIONAL INITIATION IN EUKARYOTIC MRNA MOLECULESPeter Sarnow; Fiscal Year: 2005..It is predicted that this unusual translation initiation pathway may operate when cells encounter a variety of stress situations, such as viral infection, heat shock, nutritional deprivation and hypoxia. ..
- DISSECTION OF THE LIFE CYCLE OF HUMAN HEPATITIS B VIRUSChiaho Shih; Fiscal Year: 1991..3. Domain definition of the pol ORF: Three predicted functional domains of pol include terminal protein, reverse transcriptase and RNase H. About a dozen different domain mutants will be characterized by various functional assays...
- Mechanisms of translation initiation on cellular IRES of eukaryotic cellsWilliam Merrick; Fiscal Year: 2007..The translational components that bind to the critical functional sites of the IRESs will be determined by footprinting. ..
- GENETIC ANALYSIS OF TRANSLATION INITIATION IN YEASTMichael Hampsey; Fiscal Year: 1993..The research program described herein is designed to address this problem by specifically characterizing the factors involved in selection of the translation initiation codon...
- Structural Role of IF1 in Translation InitiationJOSEPH PUGLISI; Fiscal Year: 2004....
- PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN LEISHMANIAKojo Mensa Wilmot; Fiscal Year: 2005..These studies are likely to lead to discovery of novel regulators of mRNA metabolism, thereby furthering our understanding of post-transcriptional gene regulation in Leishmania. ..
- INITIATION OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS TRANSLATIONCHRISTOPHER HELLEN; Fiscal Year: 2001..abstract_text> ..
- Structure and Mechanism of Internal Ribosome Entry SitesJENNIFER DOUDNA; Fiscal Year: 2005..Results from this work will yield a detailed mechanistic understanding of one of the fundamental processes in gene expression, and may lead to methods for inhibition of IRES activity. ..
- INTERACTIONS OF PROTEINS WITH MRNA AND HNRNAJay Greenberg; Fiscal Year: 1991..They will also be useful tools for isolating mRNP proteins, especially if no functional assay is available...
- A cell-based screen for small molecule binders of mutant huntingtin messenger RNARobert Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2006..The ultimate goal of this project is to identify compounds that bind specifically to the mutant HD messenger RNA so as to inhibit its translation into mutant HD protein. ..
- TRANSLATIONAL CONTROL OF THE PHAGE LAMBDA LATE GENESRoger Hendrix; Fiscal Year: 1990..coli...
- TRANSLATIONAL CONTROL OF THE PHAGE LAMBDA LATE GENESSherwood Casjens; Fiscal Year: 1990..coli...
- RB4 Intravesical Gene Therapy: Mechanisms of Cell DeathWilliam Benedict; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Mechanism of MHC class I Cryptic Peptide TranslationSHELLEY STARCK; Fiscal Year: 2009..A mechanistic understanding of this process will enable regulation of antigen presentation during immune surveillance and could promote the development of tumor vaccines. ..
- A Rapid Induction System for Gene ExpressionXianqiang Li; Fiscal Year: 2002..A series of vectors based on the proposed technology and reagents to facilitates their use will be marketed. ..
- BIFUNCTIONAL MRNA--LEADER LENGTH AND CODON CONTEXTLESLIE SLUSHER; Fiscal Year: 1993..The leader lengths and initiation codon contexts of these mutants will be altered such that if the model is correct, scanning ribosomes will translate the monofunctional messages as if they are bifunctional. ..
- METAL REGULATION IN HOST COLONIZATION BY B BURGDORFERITimothy Hoover; Fiscal Year: 2001..burgdorferi by examining the effects of O2-, peroxide, and metal starvation on the expression of Nox and (3) identify additional genes regulated by PerR. ..
- TRANSLATIONAL CONTROL MEDIATED BY MRNA STRUCTUREMarilyn Kozak; Fiscal Year: 2002..The reason why 40S ribosome/factor complexes protect "extra" sequences, which are accessible to RNase in 80S initiation complexes, will be studied. ..
- Orthogonal Strategies for Specific Knockout ProductionCY STEIN; Fiscal Year: 2005..Finally, in Specific Aim 4, we will evaluate the molecular consequences of the down regulation of bcl-2 and bcl-xL by employing the 12,000 gene-containing Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray technology. ..
- Mechanism of ribosomal subunit joining in eukaryotesTatyana Pestova; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- Mechanism of Action of G3139CY STEIN; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- MOLECULAR STUDIES OF GENE TARGETED OLIGONUCLEOTIDESCY STEIN; Fiscal Year: 2002..Finally, in Specific Aim 3, we will amplify the delivery of alt-OMPs and chi-OMPs to cells by condensing them with a novel delivery agent, tetra (N-methylpyridyl) porphine. ..
- FORMATION AND SURVIVAL OF RED BLOOD CELLSErnest Beutler; Fiscal Year: 2001..Should these point mutations fail to alter gene transcription, a search will be made for other potential mutations in linkage disequilibrium with the known -5,-8 and -24 polymorphisms, by sequencing upstream through the promotor. ..
- COCAINE INDUCED BEHAVIORAL SENSITIZATION AND SEIZURESMarc Abel; Fiscal Year: 2001..It is anticipated that these studies will provide important new information regarding mechanisms of sensitization and seizure initiation in cocaine abuse, which may suggest new approaches in intervention in cocaine toxicity. ..
- Novel Integrative Genetic Elements of MycoplasmasMichael Calcutt; Fiscal Year: 2003....
- REGULATION AND FUNCTION OF THE ALPHA SUBUNIT OF ENACChristie Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2003..The long-term objectives are to understand the regulation and function of ENaC in transepithelial Na+ transport. ..
- RIBOZYMES AND RNA GENE THERAPIES FOR LIVER DISEASESAndrea Branch; Fiscal Year: 2003..Northern analysis of RNAs extracted from serum samples of patients will establish the size distribution of HCV RNAs containing the terminal sequence. These studies will lead to new treatments for liver diseases. ..
- Identification of Transcriptional Regulatory Networks in Entamoeba HistolyticaUpinder Singh; Fiscal Year: 2008..We are interested in understanding the molecular mechanisms that the parasite uses to cause disease. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Functions of Double-stranded RNA Binding ProteinsMichael Mathews; Fiscal Year: 2008..3. Protein complexes formed by NF90 isoforms and the changes brought about by viral infection, interferon treatment, and cell cycle block. 4. The functions of NF90 isoforms during infection with adenovirus and HIV. ..
- Role of p170 in lung tumorigenesisJian Ting Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2007..This work will certainly add to our understanding of the functional mechanism of translation initiation of protein synthesis. ..
- HCV Alternate Reading Frame Protein in HIV/HCV Co-infectAndrea Branch; Fiscal Year: 2007..The yeast two-hybrid system will identify human proteins that bind ARFPs. These studies will identify new targets for therapeutics and vaccine development. ..
- Regulation and Mechanism of M. xanthus Social GlidingZhaomin Yang; Fiscal Year: 2009..Finally, Y2H and genetic screens will be carried out to identify new genes important for fibril regulation and biogenesis, especially downstream of Dif proteins. ..
- COORDINATED REGULATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMESMichael Kelner; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- A Mouse Model of Gaucher DiseaseErnest Beutler; Fiscal Year: 2005..In particular, electron microscopy and light microscopy will be used to attempt to demonstrate the development of Gaucher cells in the chimeric mice. ..
- Regulatory elements controlling elastin transcriptionRichard Pierce; Fiscal Year: 2005..These approaches will reveal key mechanisms controlling elastin synthesis and identify targets for strategies to modulate elastin synthesis in the lungs of premature infants and in pulmonary emphysema. ..
- Regulation of eukaryotic translation initiationLEOS VALASEK; Fiscal Year: 2009..abstract_text> ..