initiator codon

Summary

Summary: A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.

Top Publications

  1. pmc A periodic pattern of mRNA secondary structure created by the genetic code
    Svetlana A Shabalina
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:2428-37. 2006
  2. ncbi Regulation of translation via mRNA structure in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    Marilyn Kozak
    Department of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Gene 361:13-37. 2005
  3. pmc Statistical evidence for conserved, local secondary structure in the coding regions of eukaryotic mRNAs and pre-mRNAs
    Irmtraud M Meyer
    European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:6338-48. 2005
  4. ncbi A probabilistic method for identifying start codons in bacterial genomes
    B E Suzek
    Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Bioinformatics 17:1123-30. 2001
  5. pmc GeneMarkS: a self-training method for prediction of gene starts in microbial genomes. Implications for finding sequence motifs in regulatory regions
    J Besemer
    School of Biology and School of Mathematics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0230, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 29:2607-18. 2001
  6. pmc RNA secondary structure in the coding region of dengue virus type 2 directs translation start codon selection and is required for viral replication
    Karen Clyde
    Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, 140 Warren Hall, University of California, Berkeley, 94720 7360, USA
    J Virol 80:2170-82. 2006
  7. pmc Comparison of computational methods for identifying translation initiation sites in EST data
    Afshin Nadershahi
    College of Biological Science, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    BMC Bioinformatics 5:14. 2004
  8. ncbi Presence of ATG triplets in 5' untranslated regions of eukaryotic cDNAs correlates with a 'weak' context of the start codon
    I B Rogozin
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20804, USA
    Bioinformatics 17:890-900. 2001
  9. ncbi Translation initiation from a naturally occurring non-AUG codon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Kuang Jung Chang
    Department of Life Science, National Central University, 300 Jung da, Jung li, Taiwan 32054
    J Biol Chem 279:13778-85. 2004
  10. pmc Leaky scanning and reinitiation regulate BACE1 gene expression
    Weihui Zhou
    Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, 2255 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
    Mol Cell Biol 26:3353-64. 2006

Research Grants

  1. Regulation of ER stress-induced cell death
    Randal J Kaufman; Fiscal Year: 2013
  2. IRES-mediated translation initiation on viral mRNAs
    CHRISTOPHER ULRICH TRISTRAM HELLEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
  3. Regulation of an Iron Import Facilitator by Transcriptional Interference
    CAMILLE REYES NERY; Fiscal Year: 2010
  4. Diet by Gene Interactions Affecting Calcium and Bone Metabolism
    James C Fleet; Fiscal Year: 2010
  5. Identification and Function of nuDMP1 in Odontoblast Differentiation
    Yongbo Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
  6. Assays for Discovery of Translation Inhibitors
    Gerhard Wagner; Fiscal Year: 2009
  7. KINETIC DISSECTION OF EUKARYOTIC TRANSLATION INITIATION
    Rachel Green; Fiscal Year: 2013
  8. NMR STUDIES OF RETROVIRAL NUCLEIC ACID BINDING PROTEINS
    MICHAEL FINLEY SUMMERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
  9. Ribosomal scanning and initiation codon selection
    Tatyana V Pestova; Fiscal Year: 2013
  10. Translational Control by Nutrients
    Maria Hatzoglou; Fiscal Year: 2010

Detail Information

Publications278 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc A periodic pattern of mRNA secondary structure created by the genetic code
    Svetlana A Shabalina
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:2428-37. 2006
    ....
  2. ncbi Regulation of translation via mRNA structure in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    Marilyn Kozak
    Department of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Gene 361:13-37. 2005
    ..Examples are described. Some mistaken ideas about regulation of translation that have found their way into textbooks are pointed out and corrected...
  3. pmc Statistical evidence for conserved, local secondary structure in the coding regions of eukaryotic mRNAs and pre-mRNAs
    Irmtraud M Meyer
    European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:6338-48. 2005
    ....
  4. ncbi A probabilistic method for identifying start codons in bacterial genomes
    B E Suzek
    Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Bioinformatics 17:1123-30. 2001
    ..The new system, RBSfinder, is tested on a validated set of genes from Escherichia coli, for which it improves the accuracy of start site locations predicted by computational gene finding systems from the range 67-77% to 90% correct...
  5. pmc GeneMarkS: a self-training method for prediction of gene starts in microbial genomes. Implications for finding sequence motifs in regulatory regions
    J Besemer
    School of Biology and School of Mathematics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0230, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 29:2607-18. 2001
    ..These motifs were shown to possess a significant variability, the functional and evolutionary connections of which are discussed...
  6. pmc RNA secondary structure in the coding region of dengue virus type 2 directs translation start codon selection and is required for viral replication
    Karen Clyde
    Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, 140 Warren Hall, University of California, Berkeley, 94720 7360, USA
    J Virol 80:2170-82. 2006
    ..While numerous regulatory elements have been identified in the untranslated regions of RNA viral genomes, we show that the cHP is a coding-region RNA element that directs start codon selection and is required for viral replication...
  7. pmc Comparison of computational methods for identifying translation initiation sites in EST data
    Afshin Nadershahi
    College of Biological Science, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    BMC Bioinformatics 5:14. 2004
    ..We have compared five methods to predict translation initiation sites in EST data: first-ATG, ESTScan, Diogenes, Netstart, and ATGpr...
  8. ncbi Presence of ATG triplets in 5' untranslated regions of eukaryotic cDNAs correlates with a 'weak' context of the start codon
    I B Rogozin
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20804, USA
    Bioinformatics 17:890-900. 2001
    ..To reveal potential connections between the presence of upstream AUGs and other features of 5' UTRs, such as their length and the start codon context, we undertook a systematic analysis of the available eukaryotic 5' UTR sequences...
  9. ncbi Translation initiation from a naturally occurring non-AUG codon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Kuang Jung Chang
    Department of Life Science, National Central University, 300 Jung da, Jung li, Taiwan 32054
    J Biol Chem 279:13778-85. 2004
    ..The results suggest that non-AUG initiation might be a mechanism existing throughout all kingdoms...
  10. pmc Leaky scanning and reinitiation regulate BACE1 gene expression
    Weihui Zhou
    Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, 2255 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
    Mol Cell Biol 26:3353-64. 2006
    ..Such leaky scanning and reinitiation resulted in weak expression of BACE1 under normal conditions. Alterations of the leaky scanning and reinitiation in BACE1 gene expression could play an important role in AD pathogenesis...
  11. ncbi Pushing the limits of the scanning mechanism for initiation of translation
    Marilyn Kozak
    Department of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 675 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Gene 299:1-34. 2002
    ..The accumulated evidence reveals how the scanning mechanism dictates the pattern of transcription--forcing production of monocistronic mRNAs--and the pattern of translation of eukaryotic cellular and viral genes...
  12. pmc Regulatory elements in eIF1A control the fidelity of start codon selection by modulating tRNA(i)(Met) binding to the ribosome
    Adesh K Saini
    Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Development, Eunice K Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Genes Dev 24:97-110. 2010
    ....
  13. ncbi Internal ribosome entry site biology and its use in expression vectors
    E Martinez-Salas
    Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid, Spain
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 10:458-64. 1999
    ..ribosome entry sites (IRESs) are cis-acting elements that recruit the small ribosomal subunits to an internal initiator codon in the mRNA with the help of cellular trans-acting factors...
  14. ncbi New isoforms of VEGF are translated from alternative initiation CUG codons located in its 5'UTR
    M Meiron
    Technion, Department of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Haifa, 32000, Israel
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 282:1053-60. 2001
    ..Most likely, these isoforms either possess new capabilities, which are different from the activity of the classical VEGF isoforms, or affect the efficiency and capacity of translational initiation from the canonical AUG codon...
  15. ncbi Divergent transcriptional and translational signals in Archaea
    Elfar Torarinsson
    Danish Archaea Centre, Institute of Molecular Biology, Copenhagen University, Sølvgade 83H, DK 1307 Copenhagen K, Denmark
    Environ Microbiol 7:47-54. 2005
    ..High levels of leaderless transcripts are found in the longer branched Archaea...
  16. ncbi Translational efficiency of a non-AUG initiation codon is significantly affected by its sequence context in yeast
    Shun Jia Chen
    Department of Life Science, National Central University, Jung li, Taiwan 32001
    J Biol Chem 283:3173-80. 2008
    ..these results suggest that sequence context is more important for translation initiation in yeast than previously appreciated...
  17. pmc A cellular RNA-binding protein enhances internal ribosomal entry site-dependent translation through an interaction downstream of the hepatitis C virus polyprotein initiation codon
    Jong Heon Kim
    NRL, PBC, Division of Molecular and Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Hyoja Dong San 31, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790 784, South Korea
    Mol Cell Biol 24:7878-90. 2004
    ..These results suggest the existence of a novel mechanism of translational enhancement that acts through the interaction of an RNA-binding protein with a protein coding sequence...
  18. ncbi Evolution of translational initiation: new insights from the archaea
    Paola Londei
    Dipartimento di Biochimica Medica e Biologia Medica DIBIM, Universitá di Bari Piazzale Giulio Cesare, 70124 Bari, Italy
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 29:185-200. 2005
    ..A model of the initiation step of translation in the Last Universal Common Ancestor of extant cells is presented and discussed...
  19. pmc GTP hydrolysis controls stringent selection of the AUG start codon during translation initiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    H K Huang
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington 47405, USA
    Genes Dev 11:2396-413. 1997
    ....
  20. pmc A second isoform of the ferredoxin:NADP oxidoreductase generated by an in-frame initiation of translation
    Jean Claude Thomas
    Departement de Biologie, Ecole Normale Superieure, F 75230 Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:18368-73. 2006
    ..Our results strongly suggest that FNR(L) is an NADP(+) reductase, whereas FNR(S) is an NADPH oxidase...
  21. pmc Translation initiation complex formation in the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus
    David Hasenöhrl
    Max F Perutz Laboratories, Department of Microbiology, Immunobiology and Genetics, University of Vienna, 1030 Vienna, Austria
    RNA 15:2288-98. 2009
    ..Thus, despite the resemblance of eIF2 and a/eIF2, recruitment of initiator tRNA to the ribosome is mechanistically different in Pro- and Eukaryotes...
  22. ncbi On biased distribution of introns in various eukaryotes
    A Sakurai
    Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, 5322 Endo, Fujisawa City, Kanagawa, Japan
    Gene 300:89-95. 2002
    ....
  23. pmc Complementarity of the 16S rRNA penultimate stem with sequences downstream of the AUG destabilizes the plastid mRNAs
    H Kuroda
    Waksman Institute, Rutgers-The State University of New Jersey, 190 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8020, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 29:970-5. 2001
    ..However, replacing the T7g10 DB region with the plastid DS sequence reduced NPTII and mRNA levels to 0.16 and 28%, respectively. Reduced NPTII accumulation is in part due to accelerated mRNA turnover...
  24. ncbi Unfolding of mRNA secondary structure by the bacterial translation initiation complex
    Sean M Studer
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Mol Cell 22:105-15. 2006
    ..We show that unfolding of structured mRNAs requires a SD sequence, the start codon, fMet-tRNA(fMet), and the GTP bound form of initiation factor 2 bound to the 30S subunit...
  25. ncbi Constitutive display of cryptic translation products by MHC class I molecules
    Susan R Schwab
    Division of Immunology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Science 301:1367-71. 2003
    ..Furthermore, translation of this cryptic peptide occurs by a previously unknown mechanism that decodes the CUG initiation codon as leucine rather than the canonical methionine...
  26. pmc Efficient translation initiation directed by the 900-nucleotide-long and GC-rich 5' untranslated region of the human retrotransposon LINE-1 mRNA is strictly cap dependent rather than internal ribosome entry site mediated
    Sergey E Dmitriev
    A N Belozersky Institute of Physico Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, Bldg A, Moscow 119992, Russia
    Mol Cell Biol 27:4685-97. 2007
    ..Our data also demonstrate that the ORF2 translation initiation is not directed by internal initiation, either. It is very inefficient and presumably based on a reinitiation event...
  27. ncbi New vascular endothelial growth factor isoform generated by internal ribosome entry site-driven CUG translation initiation
    I Huez
    Institut National de la Santé et la Recherche Médicale Unité 397, Endocrinologie et Communication Cellulaire, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Rangueil, 31403 Toulouse Cedex 04, France
    Mol Endocrinol 15:2197-210. 2001
    ..In contrast, the large isoform and its NH2 fragment present an intracellular localization. These data unravel a further level of complexity in the regulation of VEGF expression...
  28. pmc Untranslated regions of mRNAs
    Flavio Mignone
    Dipartimento di Fisiologia e Biochimica Generali, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria, 26, 20133 Milano, Italy
    Genome Biol 3:REVIEWS0004. 2002
    ....
  29. pmc Constraints on reinitiation of translation in mammals
    M Kozak
    Department of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 675 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 29:5226-32. 2001
    ..These experiments carried out with synthetic transcripts help to define the circumstances under which reinitiation may be expected to occur in the growing number of natural mRNAs that deviate from the simple first AUG rule...
  30. ncbi Translational efficiency of redundant ACG initiator codons is enhanced by a favorable sequence context and remedial initiation
    Shun Jia Chen
    Department of Life Science, National Central University, Jung li 320, Taiwan
    J Biol Chem 284:818-27. 2009
    ..5-fold). Thus, the sequence context plays a much more important role than remedial initiation in modulating the efficiency of translational initiation from redundant non-AUG codons...
  31. ncbi The role of the AUU initiation codon in the negative feedback regulation of the gene for translation initiation factor IF3 in Escherichia coli
    C Sacerdot
    UPR9073, Institut de Biologie Physico Chimique, Paris, France
    Mol Microbiol 21:331-46. 1996
    ..On the basis of our in vivo results we propose, as suspected from earlier in vitro results, that IF3 regulates the expression of its own gene by using its ability to differentiate between 'normal' and 'abnormal' initiation codons...
  32. pmc A precursor form of vascular endothelial growth factor arises by initiation from an upstream in-frame CUG codon
    M K Tee
    Center for Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0556, USA
    Biochem J 359:219-26. 2001
    ..Alternate CUG(499) and AUG(1039) initiation and processing of the inactive precursor and its products might be important in regulating angiogenesis...
  33. ncbi Emerging links between initiation of translation and human diseases
    Marilyn Kozak
    Department of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 675 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Mamm Genome 13:401-10. 2002
    ..Because the discovery of mutations that perturb translation usually begins with cDNA analysis, some misunderstandings vis-a-vis the interpretation of cDNA sequences are discussed...
  34. ncbi Pi release from eIF2, not GTP hydrolysis, is the step controlled by start-site selection during eukaryotic translation initiation
    Mikkel A Algire
    Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Mol Cell 20:251-62. 2005
    ..Release of P(i), which makes GTP hydrolysis irreversible, appears to be controlled by the AUG-dependent dissociation of eIF1 from the preinitiation complex...
  35. ncbi Catalytic RNase P RNA from Synechocystis sp. cleaves the hepatitis C virus RNA near the AUG start codon
    Rosario Sabariegos
    Servicio de Medicina Interna Hospital Vall d Hebron, Area de Investigación Básica, Barcelona 08035, Spain
    FEBS Lett 577:517-22. 2004
    ..This provides additional support for the presence of an RNA structure similar to tRNA near the AUG start codon and suggests that Synechocystis P RNA may be an active agent for HCV antigenomic interventions...
  36. ncbi Detection of tRNA-like structure through RNase P cleavage of viral internal ribosome entry site RNAs near the AUG start triplet
    Alita J Lyons
    Department of Biochemistry, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:26844-50. 2003
    ..Such tRNA-like features could be recognized by pre-existing ribosomal tRNA-binding sites as part of the IRES initiation cycle...
  37. pmc The eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G HEAT domain promotes translation re-initiation in yeast both dependent on and independent of eIF4A mRNA helicase
    Ryosuke Watanabe
    Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Program, Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:21922-33. 2010
    ..Based on the RNA-binding activities identified within the unstructured segments flanking the eIF4G2 HEAT domain, we discuss the role of the HEAT domain in scanning beyond loading eIF4A onto the pre-initiation complex...
  38. ncbi The highly reduced and fragmented mitochondrial genome of the early-branching dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina shares characteristics with both apicomplexan and dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes
    Claudio H Slamovits
    Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    J Mol Biol 372:356-68. 2007
    ..Overall, the combination of characteristics found in the Oxyrrhis genome allows us to plot the sequence of many events that led to the extreme organisation of apicomplexan and dinoflalgellate mitochondrial genomes...
  39. pmc Ribosome stalling and peptidyl-tRNA drop-off during translational delay at AGA codons
    Luis Rogelio Cruz-Vera
    Departamento de Genetica y Biologia Molecular, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado Postal 14 740, 07000 Mexico D F
    Nucleic Acids Res 32:4462-8. 2004
    ..These and previous results support the hypothesis that the primary mechanism of inhibition of protein synthesis by AGA triplets in pth+ cells involves sequestration of tRNAs as peptidyl-tRNA on the stalled ribosome...
  40. pmc Translation of the chloroplast psbC mRNA is controlled by interactions between its 5' leader and the nuclear loci TBC1 and TBC3 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    W Zerges
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Geneva, Switzerland
    Mol Cell Biol 17:3440-8. 1997
    ..These data demonstrate that sequences located in the middle of the psbC 5' UTR, TBC1, and TBC3 functionally interact to control the translation of the psbC mRNA...
  41. ncbi Ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) isoforms in lens epithelial cells: origin of translation, E2 specificity and cellular localization determined with novel site-specific antibodies
    F Shang
    Laboratory for Nutrition and Vision Research, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Exp Eye Res 73:827-36. 2001
    ..This observation suggests that E1A and E1B ubiquitinate different proteins and serve different functions in intact cells...
  42. ncbi Analysis of the complete mitochondrial DNA from Anopheles funestus: an improved dipteran mitochondrial genome annotation and a temporal dimension of mosquito evolution
    Jaroslaw Krzywinski
    Center for Tropical Disease Research and Training, Department of Biology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 39:417-23. 2006
    ..Although existing evidence does not unequivocally favor one of the alternatives, fossil-based predictions of the age of the family Culicidae are in better agreement with dates inferred from protein-coding genes...
  43. pmc Identification of an essential region for internal initiation of translation in the aphthovirus internal ribosome entry site and implications for viral evolution
    E Martinez-Salas
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain
    J Virol 70:992-8. 1996
    ..The results indicate a critical participation of the base of domain 3 in the activity of the aphthovirus IRES, with a strong effect of secondary or higher-order structures and minor effects of primary structure...
  44. ncbi A stable upstream stem-loop structure enhances selection of the first 5'-ORF-AUG as a main start codon for translation initiation of human ACAT1 mRNA
    Li Yang
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, The Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 36:259-68. 2004
    ..This work showed that a stable upstream stem-loop structure could modulate the start codon selection during translation initiation of mRNAs that contain adjacent multi-5'-ORF-AUGs...
  45. ncbi The three dominant female-sterile mutations of the Drosophila ovo gene are point mutations that create new translation-initiator AUG codons
    M Mevel-Ninio
    Centre de Génétique Moléculaire du CNRS, Gif sur Yvette, France
    Development 122:4131-8. 1996
    ..We propose that premature expression of long Ovo protein isoforms occurs in ovoD mutants and interferes with wild-type Ovo function in controlling female germline differentiation...
  46. pmc The roles of individual eukaryotic translation initiation factors in ribosomal scanning and initiation codon selection
    Tatyana V Pestova
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11203 2098, USA
    Genes Dev 16:2906-22. 2002
    ....
  47. ncbi The AUG start codon of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae NFS1 gene can be substituted for by UUG without increased initiation of translation at downstream codons
    J H Nett
    Department of Biochemistry, Dartmouth Medical School, 7200 Vail, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
    Eur J Biochem 268:5209-14. 2001
    ..This is apparently the first example of a yeast protein where mutagenesis of AUG1 does not lead to alternate use of a downstream AUG...
  48. pmc Evolutionary conservation suggests a regulatory function of AUG triplets in 5'-UTRs of eukaryotic genes
    Alexander Churbanov
    Department of Computer Science, College of Information Science and Technology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE 68182, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:5512-20. 2005
    ....
  49. ncbi YACOP: Enhanced gene prediction obtained by a combination of existing methods
    Maike Tech
    Göttingen Genomics Laboratory, Institut für Mikrobiologie and Genetik, Grisebachstrasse 8, D 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    In Silico Biol 3:441-51. 2003
    ..8% and up to 32.3% of the positions given in the annotations differed from the locus predicted by any of the programs tested. YACOP can be downloaded from http://www.g2l.bio.uni-goettingen.de...
  50. pmc Specific functional interactions of nucleotides at key -3 and +4 positions flanking the initiation codon with components of the mammalian 48S translation initiation complex
    Andrey V Pisarev
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11203, USA
    Genes Dev 20:624-36. 2006
    ....
  51. ncbi The complete nucleotide sequence and gene organization of the mitochondrial genome of the oriental mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae)
    Iksoo Kim
    Department of Agricultural Biology, The National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon 441 100, Republic of Korea
    Gene 353:155-68. 2005
    ..However, the relationships of ancient insect orders were unstable, indicating the limited use of mitogenome information at deeper phylogenetic depth...
  52. pmc uORFs with unusual translational start codons autoregulate expression of eukaryotic ornithine decarboxylase homologs
    Ivaylo P Ivanov
    Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:10079-84. 2008
    ..This repression is part of an autoregulatory circuit, and one of its sensors is the AUU codon, which suggests that translation initiation codon identity is likely used for regulation in eukaryotes...
  53. ncbi Ribosome stalling regulates IRES-mediated translation in eukaryotes, a parallel to prokaryotic attenuation
    James Fernandez
    Departments of Nutrition, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Mol Cell 17:405-16. 2005
    ..This control is reminiscent of translation attenuation in prokaryotic operons, where inhibition of translation elongation can regulate both mRNA translation and gene transcription by altering mRNA structure...
  54. ncbi Analysis of oligonucleotide AUG start codon context in eukariotic mRNAs
    G Pesole
    Dipartimento di Fisiologia e Biochimica Generali, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 26, 20133, Milan, Italy
    Gene 261:85-91. 2000
    ..area.ba.cnr.it:8000/BioWWW/ATG.html) to determine the relative abundance of a user submitted oligonucleotide context in a given species or taxon...
  55. ncbi Functional Shine-Dalgarno-like sequences for translational initiation of chloroplast mRNAs
    Tetsuro Hirose
    Center for Gene Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464 8602 Japan
    Plant Cell Physiol 45:114-7. 2004
    ..Competition assays confirmed that a functional SD-like sequence interacts with the 3' terminus of chloroplast 16S rRNA...
  56. ncbi AUG codons at the beginning of protein coding sequences are frequent in eukaryotic mRNAs with a suboptimal start codon context
    Alex V Kochetov
    Institute of Cytology and Genetics Lavrentieva 10, Novosibirsk 630090 Russia
    Bioinformatics 21:837-40. 2005
    ..It is likely that at least some mRNAs with suboptimal start codon context contain the other signals providing additional information for efficient AUG recognition...
  57. pmc Oligo kernels for datamining on biological sequences: a case study on prokaryotic translation initiation sites
    Peter Meinicke
    Abteilung Bioinformatik, Institut fur Mikrobiologie und Genetik, Georg August Universitat Gottingen, Goldschmidtstr, 1, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    BMC Bioinformatics 5:169. 2004
    ..Conventional kernels utilized so far do not provide an easy interpretation of the learnt representations in terms of positional and compositional variability of the underlying biological signals...
  58. pmc Regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta isoform synthesis by alternative translational initiation at multiple AUG start sites
    W Xiong
    Department of Human Biological Chemistry and Genetics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0643, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 29:3087-98. 2001
    ..We propose that formation of C/EBPbeta isoforms is accomplished by a leaky ribosomal scanning mechanism that facilitates ATI of multiple internal AUGs...
  59. ncbi The joining of ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes requires eIF5B
    T V Pestova
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, 11203, USA
    Nature 403:332-5. 2000
    ..It is a homologue of the prokaryotic initiation factor IF2 (re and, like it, mediates joining of subunits and has a ribosome-dependent GTPase activity that is essential for its function...
  60. pmc mRNA sequence features that contribute to translational regulation in Arabidopsis
    Riki Kawaguchi
    Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, Center for Plant Cell Biology, University of California Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:955-65. 2005
    ..Notably, the mRNA features that contribute to translational regulation could not fully explain the variation in ribosome loading, indicating that additional factors contribute to translational regulation in Arabidopsis...
  61. ncbi Leaderless mRNAs in bacteria: surprises in ribosomal recruitment and translational control
    Isabella Moll
    Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Vienna Biocenter, 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Mol Microbiol 43:239-46. 2002
    ..In fact, the faithful translation of leaderless mRNAs in heterologous systems shows that the ability to translate leaderless mRNAs is an evolutionarily conserved function of the translational apparatus...
  62. pmc Comparative analysis of orthologous eukaryotic mRNAs: potential hidden functional signals
    Svetlana A Shabalina
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 32:1774-82. 2004
    ....
  63. ncbi Diversity of translation start sites may define increased complexity of the human short ORFeome
    Masaaki Oyama
    Medical Proteomics Laboratory, University of Tokyo, Japan
    Mol Cell Proteomics 6:1000-6. 2007
    ....
  64. pmc Position of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF1 on the 40S ribosomal subunit determined by directed hydroxyl radical probing
    Ivan B Lomakin
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center Brooklyn, New York 11203, USA
    Genes Dev 17:2786-97. 2003
    ....
  65. pmc Ortho-proteogenomics: multiple proteomes investigation through orthology and a new MS-based protocol
    Sebastien Gallien
    Laboratoire de Spectrometrie de Masse Bio Organique, IPHC DSA, ULP, CNRS, UMR7178, 67 087 Strasbourg, France
    Genome Res 19:128-35. 2009
    ....
  66. pmc Alternatively spliced isoforms of the human elk-1 mRNA within the 5' UTR: implications for ELK-1 expression
    Tanguy Araud
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, University of Geneva Medical School CMU, 1 rue Michel Servet, CH 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
    Nucleic Acids Res 35:4649-63. 2007
    ....
  67. ncbi Opposing roles of Elk-1 and its brain-specific isoform, short Elk-1, in nerve growth factor-induced PC12 differentiation
    P Vanhoutte
    Laboratoire de Neurochimie Anatomie, Institut des Neurosciences, CNRS UMR 7624, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris, France
    J Biol Chem 276:5189-96. 2001
    ..This is blocked by mutating a normally cryptic nuclear export signal in Elk-1. These data provide new insights into molecular events underlying neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells mediated by the NGF-ERK signaling cascade...
  68. ncbi [Adequate system for investigation of translation initiation of the human retrotransposon L1 mRNA in vitro]
    S E Dmitriev
    Mol Biol (Mosk) 40:25-30. 2006
    ..These and other experiments allowed us to clearly demonstrate that the new combined cell-free system is much more adequate to study mechanisms of translation initiation than a regular RRL...
  69. pmc Multiple elements required for translation of plastid atpB mRNA lacking the Shine-Dalgarno sequence
    Tetsuro Hirose
    Center for Gene Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464 8602, Japan
    Nucleic Acids Res 32:3503-10. 2004
    ..We hypothesize for translational initiation of the atpB mRNA that the ribosome enters an upstream region, slides to the start codon and forms an initiation complex with p50 and other components...
  70. pmc Dissociation of eIF1 from the 40S ribosomal subunit is a key step in start codon selection in vivo
    Yuen Nei Cheung
    Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Development, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Genes Dev 21:1217-30. 2007
    ....
  71. ncbi The role of alternative translation start sites in the generation of human protein diversity
    Alex V Kochetov
    Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
    Mol Genet Genomics 273:491-6. 2005
    ..These results suggest that additional AUGs may frequently be exploited for the synthesis of proteins that possess novel functional properties...
  72. pmc Post-termination ribosome interactions with the 5'UTR modulate yeast mRNA stability
    C Vilela
    Post transcriptional Control Group, Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology UMIST, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, UK
    EMBO J 18:3139-52. 1999
    ..Our data explain the destabilizing properties of YAP2-type uORFs and also support a more general model for the mode of action of other known uORFs, such as those in the GCN4 mRNA...
  73. ncbi Expression of the Escherichia coli pcnB gene is translationally limited using an inefficient start codon: a second chromosomal example of translation initiated at AUU
    Nigel Binns
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, The King s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, UK
    Mol Microbiol 44:1287-98. 2002
    ..We show that InfC discrimination reduces PcnB production fivefold. This is the first instance of this mechanism being used to limit severely the production of a potentially toxic product...
  74. ncbi mRNA 5' region sequence incompleteness: a potential source of systematic errors in translation initiation codon assignment in human mRNAs
    Raffaella Casadei
    Center for Research into Molecular Genetics Fondazione CARISBO, Institute of Histology and General Embryology, University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro, 8 40126 Bologna, Italy
    Gene 321:185-93. 2003
    ..Proportionally to the HC 21 data, about 550 known human genes might thus be affected by this 5' end mRNA artifact...
  75. ncbi GS-Finder: a program to find bacterial gene start sites with a self-training method
    Hong Yu Ou
    Department of Physics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36:535-44. 2004
    ..02 increases from 63 to 91% for 832 E. coli reliable CDSs. An open source computer program to implement the method, GS-Finder, is freely available for academic purposes from http://tubic.tju.edu.cn/GS-Finder/...
  76. pmc Identification of an essential pseudoknot in the putative downstream internal ribosome entry site in giardiavirus transcript
    Srinivas Garlapati
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0446, USA
    RNA 8:601-11. 2002
    ..The finding is particularly interesting because it could reflect a unique feature of translation initiation in Giardia, which is known to have exceedingly short (1-6 nt) 5' untranslated regions in its mRNAs...
  77. ncbi Prediction whether a human cDNA sequence contains initiation codon by combining statistical information and similarity with protein sequences
    T Nishikawa
    Helix Research Institute, Chiba, Japan
    Bioinformatics 16:960-7. 2000
    ..In this work, we present a new prediction algorithm based on both statistical and similarity information, which provides better performance in sensitivity and specificity...
  78. ncbi Translation of vph mRNA in Streptomyces lividans and Escherichia coli after removal of the 5' untranslated leader
    C J Wu
    Department of Microbiology, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 45056, USA
    Mol Microbiol 22:339-55. 1996
    ..coli and S. lividans...
  79. ncbi The positive relationship between codon usage bias and translation initiation AUG context in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    H Miyasaka
    Kansai Electric Power Co, Environmental Research Center, Hyogo, Japan
    Yeast 15:633-7. 1999
    ..A new index (AUGCAI = AUG Context Adaptation Index) for the measure of optimal AUG context was devised, and the importance of each position of AUG context was also examined...
  80. ncbi Anatomy of Escherichia coli ribosome binding sites
    R K Shultzaberger
    University of Maryland, College Park, 20742, USA
    J Mol Biol 313:215-28. 2001
    ..Such models should be useful for refining gene-start predictions of any sequenced bacterial genome...
  81. ncbi An unusual pattern of protein expression and localization of yeast alanyl-tRNA synthetase isoforms
    Hsiao Yun Huang
    Department of Life Science, National Central University, 300 Jung da Road, Jung li, Taiwan 32001
    Mol Microbiol 60:189-98. 2006
    ..Thus, the sequence upstream of the first in-frame AUG initiator not only carries an unusual initiation site, but also contributes to a novel pattern of protein expression and localization...
  82. pmc A codon window in mRNA downstream of the initiation codon where NGG codons give strongly reduced gene expression in Escherichia coli
    Ernesto I Gonzalez de Valdivia
    Department of Microbiology, Stockholm University, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    Nucleic Acids Res 32:5198-205. 2004
    ..The low expression is suggested to originate at the translational level, although it is not the result of mRNA secondary structure or a lowered intracellular mRNA pool...
  83. pmc Hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site RNA contains a tertiary structural element in a functional domain of stem-loop II
    A J Lyons
    Program in Biochemistry and Structural Biology, Weill Graduate School of Medical Sciences of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 29:2535-41. 2001
    ..Because features of local tertiary structure like the one we report here are often associated with protein binding, we propose that the HCV stem-loop II element is directly involved in IRES action...
  84. ncbi Deletion of the LMNA initiator codon leading to a neurogenic variant of autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy
    Maggie C Walter
    Friedrich Baur Institute, Gene Center and Department of Neurology, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Munich, Germany
    Neuromuscul Disord 15:40-4. 2005
    ..the LMNA gene -3del15, resulting in the loss of 15 nucleotides from -3 to +12, including the translation ATG initiator codon. The mutation segregates in a previously described family with a clinical phenotype that shared features of ..
  85. ncbi Translation of the minor capsid protein of a calicivirus is initiated by a novel termination-dependent reinitiation mechanism
    Gregor Meyers
    Department of Immunology, Federal Research Centre for Virus Diseases of Animals, D 72001 Tübingen, Germany
    J Biol Chem 278:34051-60. 2003
    ....
  86. pmc Sequence architecture downstream of the initiator codon enhances gene expression and protein stability in plants
    S V Sawant
    National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow-226001, India
    Plant Physiol 126:1630-6. 2001
    Nucleotide positions conserved on the 3' side of the initiator codon ATG and the corresponding N-terminal amino acid residues in a number of highly abundant plant proteins were identified by computational analysis of a dataset of highly ..
  87. ncbi Redundancy of non-AUG initiators. A clever mechanism to enhance the efficiency of translation in yeast
    Kuang Jung Chang
    Department of Life Science, National Central University, Jung li, 32001 Taiwan
    J Biol Chem 281:7775-83. 2006
    ..Cumulatively, the results suggest that this feature of redundancy of non-AUG initiators in a single mRNA per se may represent a novel paradigm for improving the efficiency of a poor or otherwise nonproductive initiation event...
  88. ncbi Influences on translation initiation and early elongation by the messenger RNA region flanking the initiation codon at the 3' side
    C Magnus Stenström
    Department of Microbiology, Stockholm University, Sweden
    Gene 288:1-8. 2002
    ..Thus, the messenger RNA base sequence, and not the encoded amino acid sequence, in the early coding region is the determinant for the apparent efficiency of translation initiation and/or early elongation...
  89. pmc A single internal ribosome entry site containing a G quartet RNA structure drives fibroblast growth factor 2 gene expression at four alternative translation initiation codons
    Sophie Bonnal
    INSERM U589, Institut Louis Bugnard, Centre Hôpitalier Universitaire Rangueil, 31403 Toulouse Cedex 04, France
    J Biol Chem 278:39330-6. 2003
    ....
  90. ncbi Generation of protein isoform diversity by alternative initiation of translation at non-AUG codons
    Christian Touriol
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U589, Hormones, Facteurs de Croissance et Physiopathologie Vasculaire, Institut Fédératif de Recherche Louis Bugnard, C H U Rangueil, 31403 Toulouse Cedex 04, France
    Biol Cell 95:169-78. 2003
    ..Consequently, the regulation of alternative initiation of translation might have a crucial role for the biological function of the gene product...
  91. pmc Human mitochondrial C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase: gene structure, tissue distribution of the mRNA, and immunolocalization in Chinese hamster ovary calls
    Priya Prasannan
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 0165, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:43178-87. 2003
    ..Yeast cells expressing the full-length human cDNA exhibited elevated 10-formyl-THF synthetase activity, confirming its identification as the human mitochondrial C1-THF synthase...
  92. ncbi Identification of a novel internal ribosome entry site in giardiavirus that extends to both sides of the initiation codon
    Srinivas Garlapati
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 2280, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:3389-97. 2004
    ..This is, to our knowledge, the first reported identification of a viral IRES with an estimated size of 517 nts that extends to both sides of the initiation site...
  93. pmc A cross-kingdom internal ribosome entry site reveals a simplified mode of internal ribosome entry
    Ilya M Terenin
    Belozersky Institute of Physico Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, Russian Federation
    Mol Cell Biol 25:7879-88. 2005
    ..We suggest that the single-stranded nature of the RhPV IRES accounts for its strong but less selective potential to bind key mRNA recruiting components of the translation initiation apparatus from diverse origins...
  94. ncbi Control of the vascular endothelial growth factor internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity and translation initiation by alternatively spliced coding sequences
    Stephanie Bornes
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale INSERM U589, Hormones, Facteurs de Croissance et Physiopathologie Vasculaire, Institut Fédératif de Recherche Louis Bugnard, C H U Rangueil, 31403 Toulouse Cedex 04, France
    J Biol Chem 279:18717-26. 2004
    ..This is the first report describing the influence of alternatively spliced coding sequences on codon selection by modulating IRES activity...
  95. pmc Correlations between Shine-Dalgarno sequences and gene features such as predicted expression levels and operon structures
    Jiong Ma
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 2125, USA
    J Bacteriol 184:5733-45. 2002
    ..In light of these results, we discuss the role of the SD sequence in translation initiation and its relationship with predicted gene expression levels and with operon structure in both bacterial and archaeal genomes...
  96. ncbi Codon and base biases after the initiation codon of the open reading frames in the Escherichia coli genome and their influence on the translation efficiency
    T Sato
    Institute for Biomolecular Science, Gakushuin University, Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588, Japan
    J Biochem 129:851-60. 2001
    ..These results demonstrate that the statistically most frequent sequences for the second codon enhance translation efficiency, and this effect seems to be independent of base pairing between mRNA and 16S rRNA...
  97. ncbi Translation factor control of ribosome conformation during start codon selection
    Katsura Asano
    Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology Program, Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA
    Genes Dev 21:1280-7. 2007
  98. ncbi Clinical significance of pre-S mutations in patients with genotype C hepatitis B virus infection
    M S Choi
    Department of Medicine and Digestive Disease Research Center, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
    J Viral Hepat 14:161-8. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that pre-S mutations, especially pre-S2 deletions and pre-S2 start codon mutations, are common in patients with genotype C HBV infection and are associated with advanced liver disease and active viral replication...
  99. pmc A sequence downstream of the initiation codon is essential for cold shock induction of cspB of Escherichia coli
    J P Etchegaray
    Department of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    J Bacteriol 181:5852-4. 1999
    ..We propose that the DB sequence functions as a translational enhancer for the biosynthesis of CspB to bypass the inhibitory effect in translation caused by cold shock...
  100. pmc Experimental determination of translational starts using peptide mass mapping and tandem mass spectrometry within the proteome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Stuart C G Rison
    The Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU, UK
    Microbiology 153:521-8. 2007
    ..This method can be performed with little or no additional experimental work during proteomics investigations...
  101. ncbi Neural network prediction of translation initiation sites in eukaryotes: perspectives for EST and genome analysis
    A G Pedersen
    Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
    Proc Int Conf Intell Syst Mol Biol 5:226-33. 1997
    ..A number of conflicts between neural network predictions and database annotations are analysed in detail, leading to identification of possible database errors...

Research Grants63

  1. Regulation of ER stress-induced cell death
    Randal J Kaufman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed studies on protein synthesis will provide vital information that should encourage the development of novel therapeutics to treat diabetes. ..
  2. IRES-mediated translation initiation on viral mRNAs
    CHRISTOPHER ULRICH TRISTRAM HELLEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We are investigating how IRESs work, which may give insights that, will eventually be used in the development of antiviral drugs. ..
  3. Regulation of an Iron Import Facilitator by Transcriptional Interference
    CAMILLE REYES NERY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  4. Diet by Gene Interactions Affecting Calcium and Bone Metabolism
    James C Fleet; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..However, the relationship between dietary calcium intake and a person's genetic background isn't clear. Our research will examine this relationship in detail using animal models. ..
  5. Identification and Function of nuDMP1 in Odontoblast Differentiation
    Yongbo Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  6. Assays for Discovery of Translation Inhibitors
    Gerhard Wagner; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The proposed study will allow us to obtain leads for anti-cancer and anti-viral drug design. ..
  7. KINETIC DISSECTION OF EUKARYOTIC TRANSLATION INITIATION
    Rachel Green; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our studies will increase our understanding of how translation normally works, which in turn will increase our understanding of how it can break down and result in diseases. ..
  8. NMR STUDIES OF RETROVIRAL NUCLEIC ACID BINDING PROTEINS
    MICHAEL FINLEY SUMMERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  9. Ribosomal scanning and initiation codon selection
    Tatyana V Pestova; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies will determine the molecular basis for key events in translation initiation, and its regulation by trans-acting factors, which is a prerequisite for the development of rational therapies to treat such diseases. ) ..
  10. Translational Control by Nutrients
    Maria Hatzoglou; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposed studies aim to identify these proteins and characterize how they activate the IRES. This is the first report on the regulation of the activity of the IRES by nutrients. ..
  11. Functions of Mammalian thioredoxin reductases
    VADIM GLADYSHEV; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..iii) What are the determinants for preferential supply of thioredoxin reductases with selenium? We will examine elements in thioredoxin reductase genes responsible for this effect. ..
  12. Chemotherapy targeting human thymidylate synthase messenger RNA
    THOMAS C HERMANN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This research is aimed at the discovery of novel anti-cancer therapeutics which will greatly increase the efficacy of existing drugs for the treatment of resistant breast and colorectal cancer. ..
  13. The structural dynamics of translation initiation
    Ruben L Gonzalez; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  14. Mechanism of Induction of erm Genes By Ketolide Antibiotics
    Nora Vazquez Laslop; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The goal of this project is to unravel this mechanism. Deciphering the way antibiotics turn on the expression of resistance genes at the molecular level will eventually lead to the design of new non-inducer antibiotics. ..
  15. Myotonic Dystrophy: Molecular Pathophysiology and CNS Effects
    Laura P W Ranum; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  16. HCV IRES Control of Human Translational Initiation
    Jennifer A Doudna; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..X-ray crystal structures of this critical IRES domain bound to eIF3 will result in the first high-resolution structures of the HCV IRES IIIabc domain in a complex with any part of eIF3. ..
  17. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF TRANSFER RIBONUCLEIC ACIDS
    UTTAM RAJBHANDARY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Eubacteria use one mechanism to specifically read AUA whereas eukaryotes use another. How the archaeal isoleucine tRNA accomplishes this is unknown. ..
  18. Mechanisms of assembly and remodeling of human translation initiation complexes
    ASSEN G MARINTCHEV; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This work will identify key steps in the translation initiation process that are promising targets in manipulating the rates of protein synthesis for therapeutic purposes. ..
  19. Eukaryotic Translational Initiation and its Regulation
    Joseph D Puglisi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The results of this proposal will provide a biophysical context to understanding eukaryotic translation, its regulation, and role in human disease. ..
  20. MECHANISMS OF EUKARYOTIC TRANSLATION INITIATION
    Gerhard Wagner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We also will study the complex of the scaffold protein eIF4G with the RNA helicase eIF4A and the interaction of factors eIF5, eIF1 and eIF1A, which support start codon recognition by interacting with eIF2. ..
  21. Modulators of the fidelity of start codon recognition in eukaryotes
    Jon R Lorsch; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  22. TRANSCRIPTIONAL CONTROL IN ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA
    Upinder Singh; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..histolytica. The research will be conducted under the supervision of Dr. Petri and a mentoring committee. ..
  23. Dynamics of translation
    Joseph D Puglisi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The results of this project should reveal a dynamic view of translation and continue to provide insights into the mechanism of action of antibiotics. ..
  24. GROWTH REGULATION OF POLYAMINE SYNTHESIS
    David Morris; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These studies will not only define the mechanism of regulation of a key step in polyamine biosynthesis, but will also extend our fundamental knowledge of the role uORFs in translational control generally. ..
  25. Hepatitis B virus e antigen expression
    Shuping Tong; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This study promises to verify and identify novel mechanisms regulating HBeAg expression, which has a major impact on the outcome of HBV infection. ..
  26. Empirical analysis of natural selection on codon usage in eukaryotes
    RICHARD KLIMAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Additionally, two organisms of special concern to human health will be studied: the opportunistic pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans and human papillomaviruses. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  27. TRANSLATIONAL INITIATION IN EUKARYOTIC MRNA MOLECULES
    Peter Sarnow; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..It is predicted that this unusual translation initiation pathway may operate when cells encounter a variety of stress situations, such as viral infection, heat shock, nutritional deprivation and hypoxia. ..
  28. DISSECTION OF THE LIFE CYCLE OF HUMAN HEPATITIS B VIRUS
    Chiaho Shih; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..3. Domain definition of the pol ORF: Three predicted functional domains of pol include terminal protein, reverse transcriptase and RNase H. About a dozen different domain mutants will be characterized by various functional assays...
  29. Mechanisms of translation initiation on cellular IRES of eukaryotic cells
    William Merrick; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The translational components that bind to the critical functional sites of the IRESs will be determined by footprinting. ..
  30. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF TRANSLATION INITIATION IN YEAST
    Michael Hampsey; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The research program described herein is designed to address this problem by specifically characterizing the factors involved in selection of the translation initiation codon...
  31. Structural Role of IF1 in Translation Initiation
    JOSEPH PUGLISI; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  32. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN LEISHMANIA
    Kojo Mensa Wilmot; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These studies are likely to lead to discovery of novel regulators of mRNA metabolism, thereby furthering our understanding of post-transcriptional gene regulation in Leishmania. ..
  33. INITIATION OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS TRANSLATION
    CHRISTOPHER HELLEN; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  34. Structure and Mechanism of Internal Ribosome Entry Sites
    JENNIFER DOUDNA; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Results from this work will yield a detailed mechanistic understanding of one of the fundamental processes in gene expression, and may lead to methods for inhibition of IRES activity. ..
  35. INTERACTIONS OF PROTEINS WITH MRNA AND HNRNA
    Jay Greenberg; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..They will also be useful tools for isolating mRNP proteins, especially if no functional assay is available...
  36. A cell-based screen for small molecule binders of mutant huntingtin messenger RNA
    Robert Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The ultimate goal of this project is to identify compounds that bind specifically to the mutant HD messenger RNA so as to inhibit its translation into mutant HD protein. ..
  37. TRANSLATIONAL CONTROL OF THE PHAGE LAMBDA LATE GENES
    Roger Hendrix; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..coli...
  38. TRANSLATIONAL CONTROL OF THE PHAGE LAMBDA LATE GENES
    Sherwood Casjens; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..coli...
  39. RB4 Intravesical Gene Therapy: Mechanisms of Cell Death
    William Benedict; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  40. Mechanism of MHC class I Cryptic Peptide Translation
    SHELLEY STARCK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A mechanistic understanding of this process will enable regulation of antigen presentation during immune surveillance and could promote the development of tumor vaccines. ..
  41. A Rapid Induction System for Gene Expression
    Xianqiang Li; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..A series of vectors based on the proposed technology and reagents to facilitates their use will be marketed. ..
  42. BIFUNCTIONAL MRNA--LEADER LENGTH AND CODON CONTEXT
    LESLIE SLUSHER; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The leader lengths and initiation codon contexts of these mutants will be altered such that if the model is correct, scanning ribosomes will translate the monofunctional messages as if they are bifunctional. ..
  43. METAL REGULATION IN HOST COLONIZATION BY B BURGDORFERI
    Timothy Hoover; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..burgdorferi by examining the effects of O2-, peroxide, and metal starvation on the expression of Nox and (3) identify additional genes regulated by PerR. ..
  44. TRANSLATIONAL CONTROL MEDIATED BY MRNA STRUCTURE
    Marilyn Kozak; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The reason why 40S ribosome/factor complexes protect "extra" sequences, which are accessible to RNase in 80S initiation complexes, will be studied. ..
  45. Orthogonal Strategies for Specific Knockout Production
    CY STEIN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Finally, in Specific Aim 4, we will evaluate the molecular consequences of the down regulation of bcl-2 and bcl-xL by employing the 12,000 gene-containing Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray technology. ..
  46. Mechanism of ribosomal subunit joining in eukaryotes
    Tatyana Pestova; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  47. Mechanism of Action of G3139
    CY STEIN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  48. MOLECULAR STUDIES OF GENE TARGETED OLIGONUCLEOTIDES
    CY STEIN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Finally, in Specific Aim 3, we will amplify the delivery of alt-OMPs and chi-OMPs to cells by condensing them with a novel delivery agent, tetra (N-methylpyridyl) porphine. ..
  49. FORMATION AND SURVIVAL OF RED BLOOD CELLS
    Ernest Beutler; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Should these point mutations fail to alter gene transcription, a search will be made for other potential mutations in linkage disequilibrium with the known -5,-8 and -24 polymorphisms, by sequencing upstream through the promotor. ..
  50. COCAINE INDUCED BEHAVIORAL SENSITIZATION AND SEIZURES
    Marc Abel; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..It is anticipated that these studies will provide important new information regarding mechanisms of sensitization and seizure initiation in cocaine abuse, which may suggest new approaches in intervention in cocaine toxicity. ..
  51. Novel Integrative Genetic Elements of Mycoplasmas
    Michael Calcutt; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  52. REGULATION AND FUNCTION OF THE ALPHA SUBUNIT OF ENAC
    Christie Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The long-term objectives are to understand the regulation and function of ENaC in transepithelial Na+ transport. ..
  53. RIBOZYMES AND RNA GENE THERAPIES FOR LIVER DISEASES
    Andrea Branch; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Northern analysis of RNAs extracted from serum samples of patients will establish the size distribution of HCV RNAs containing the terminal sequence. These studies will lead to new treatments for liver diseases. ..
  54. Identification of Transcriptional Regulatory Networks in Entamoeba Histolytica
    Upinder Singh; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We are interested in understanding the molecular mechanisms that the parasite uses to cause disease. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  55. Functions of Double-stranded RNA Binding Proteins
    Michael Mathews; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..3. Protein complexes formed by NF90 isoforms and the changes brought about by viral infection, interferon treatment, and cell cycle block. 4. The functions of NF90 isoforms during infection with adenovirus and HIV. ..
  56. Role of p170 in lung tumorigenesis
    Jian Ting Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This work will certainly add to our understanding of the functional mechanism of translation initiation of protein synthesis. ..
  57. HCV Alternate Reading Frame Protein in HIV/HCV Co-infect
    Andrea Branch; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The yeast two-hybrid system will identify human proteins that bind ARFPs. These studies will identify new targets for therapeutics and vaccine development. ..
  58. Regulation and Mechanism of M. xanthus Social Gliding
    Zhaomin Yang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Finally, Y2H and genetic screens will be carried out to identify new genes important for fibril regulation and biogenesis, especially downstream of Dif proteins. ..
  59. COORDINATED REGULATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES
    Michael Kelner; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  60. A Mouse Model of Gaucher Disease
    Ernest Beutler; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In particular, electron microscopy and light microscopy will be used to attempt to demonstrate the development of Gaucher cells in the chimeric mice. ..
  61. Regulatory elements controlling elastin transcription
    Richard Pierce; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These approaches will reveal key mechanisms controlling elastin synthesis and identify targets for strategies to modulate elastin synthesis in the lungs of premature infants and in pulmonary emphysema. ..
  62. Regulation of eukaryotic translation initiation
    LEOS VALASEK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..