thyroxine

Summary

Summary: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Levothyroxine treatment in euthyroid pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease: effects on obstetrical complications
    Roberto Negro
    Department of Endocrinology, Azienda Ospedaliera LE 1, P O V Fazzi, Piazza F Muratore, 73100 Lecce, Italy
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:2587-91. 2006
  2. ncbi Serum TSH, T(4), and thyroid antibodies in the United States population (1988 to 1994): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)
    Joseph G Hollowell
    Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Emergency and Environmental Services, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:489-99. 2002
  3. ncbi The clinical significance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction
    Bernadette Biondi
    Department of Clinical and Molecular Endocrinology and Oncology, University of Naples Federico II, Via S Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
    Endocr Rev 29:76-131. 2008
  4. ncbi Thyroid hormones in growth and development of fish
    D M Power
    Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8000 117 Faro, Portugal
    Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 130:447-59. 2001
  5. pmc Cellular and molecular basis of deiodinase-regulated thyroid hormone signaling
    Balazs Gereben
    Laboratory of Endocrine Neurobiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
    Endocr Rev 29:898-938. 2008
  6. ncbi Factors influencing variation in basal metabolic rate include fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and circulating thyroxine but not sex, circulating leptin, or triiodothyronine
    Alexandra M Johnstone
    Aberdeen Centre for Energy Regulation and Obesity, Division of Energy Balance and Obesity, Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 82:941-8. 2005
  7. ncbi The crystal structure of the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate-transthyretin complex reveals a novel binding site distinct from the thyroxine binding site
    Masanori Miyata
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Global COE Cell Fate Regulation Research and Education Unit, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 5 1 Oe honmachi, Kumamoto 862 0973, Japan
    Biochemistry 49:6104-14. 2010
  8. ncbi A randomized controlled trial of the effect of thyroxine replacement on cognitive function in community-living elderly subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism: the Birmingham Elderly Thyroid study
    J Parle
    School of Health and Population Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B152TT, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:3623-32. 2010
  9. pmc Structural basis of albumin-thyroxine interactions and familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia
    Isabelle Petitpas
    Biophysics Section, Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:6440-5. 2003
  10. ncbi Bisphenol-A, an environmental contaminant that acts as a thyroid hormone receptor antagonist in vitro, increases serum thyroxine, and alters RC3/neurogranin expression in the developing rat brain
    R Thomas Zoeller
    Biology Department, Morrill Science Center, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA
    Endocrinology 146:607-12. 2005

Detail Information

Publications333 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Levothyroxine treatment in euthyroid pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease: effects on obstetrical complications
    Roberto Negro
    Department of Endocrinology, Azienda Ospedaliera LE 1, P O V Fazzi, Piazza F Muratore, 73100 Lecce, Italy
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:2587-91. 2006
    ..Euthyroid women with autoimmune thyroid disease show impairment of thyroid function during gestation and seem to suffer from a higher rate of obstetrical complications...
  2. ncbi Serum TSH, T(4), and thyroid antibodies in the United States population (1988 to 1994): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)
    Joseph G Hollowell
    Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Emergency and Environmental Services, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:489-99. 2002
    ..A large proportion of the U.S. population unknowingly have laboratory evidence of thyroid disease, which supports the usefulness of screening for early detection...
  3. ncbi The clinical significance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction
    Bernadette Biondi
    Department of Clinical and Molecular Endocrinology and Oncology, University of Naples Federico II, Via S Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
    Endocr Rev 29:76-131. 2008
    ..Lastly, we address the issue of the need to treat slight thyroid hormone deficiency or excess in relation to the patient's age...
  4. ncbi Thyroid hormones in growth and development of fish
    D M Power
    Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8000 117 Faro, Portugal
    Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 130:447-59. 2001
    The thyroid hormones (THs), thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) are products of the thyroid gland in all vertebrates...
  5. pmc Cellular and molecular basis of deiodinase-regulated thyroid hormone signaling
    Balazs Gereben
    Laboratory of Endocrine Neurobiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
    Endocr Rev 29:898-938. 2008
    ....
  6. ncbi Factors influencing variation in basal metabolic rate include fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and circulating thyroxine but not sex, circulating leptin, or triiodothyronine
    Alexandra M Johnstone
    Aberdeen Centre for Energy Regulation and Obesity, Division of Energy Balance and Obesity, Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 82:941-8. 2005
    ..All studies agree that variation in fat-free mass (FFM) plays a major role, but effects of fat mass (FM), age, sex, and the hormones leptin, triiodothyrionine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) remain uncertain.
  7. ncbi The crystal structure of the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate-transthyretin complex reveals a novel binding site distinct from the thyroxine binding site
    Masanori Miyata
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Global COE Cell Fate Regulation Research and Education Unit, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 5 1 Oe honmachi, Kumamoto 862 0973, Japan
    Biochemistry 49:6104-14. 2010
    ..disease caused by a point mutation of the human plasma protein, transthyretin (TTR), which binds and transports thyroxine (T(4))...
  8. ncbi A randomized controlled trial of the effect of thyroxine replacement on cognitive function in community-living elderly subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism: the Birmingham Elderly Thyroid study
    J Parle
    School of Health and Population Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B152TT, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:3623-32. 2010
    ..Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and cognitive dysfunction are both common in the elderly and have been linked. It is important to determine whether T4 replacement therapy in SCH confers cognitive benefit...
  9. pmc Structural basis of albumin-thyroxine interactions and familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia
    Isabelle Petitpas
    Biophysics Section, Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:6440-5. 2003
    Human serum albumin (HSA) is the major protein component of blood plasma and serves as a transporter for thyroxine and other hydrophobic compounds such as fatty acids and bilirubin...
  10. ncbi Bisphenol-A, an environmental contaminant that acts as a thyroid hormone receptor antagonist in vitro, increases serum thyroxine, and alters RC3/neurogranin expression in the developing rat brain
    R Thomas Zoeller
    Biology Department, Morrill Science Center, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA
    Endocrinology 146:607-12. 2005
    ....
  11. ncbi Psychological well-being in patients on 'adequate' doses of l-thyroxine: results of a large, controlled community-based questionnaire study
    P Saravanan
    Weston General Hospital, Weston Super Mare, Bristol, UK
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 57:577-85. 2002
    Over 1% of the UK population is receiving thyroid hormone replacement with l-thyroxine (T4). However, many patients complain of persistent lethargy and related symptoms on T4 even with normal TSH levels...
  12. ncbi Integrin alphaVbeta3 contains a cell surface receptor site for thyroid hormone that is linked to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and induction of angiogenesis
    Joel J Bergh
    Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Endocrinology 146:2864-71. 2005
    ..These findings suggest that T(4) binds to alpha(V)beta(3) near the RGD recognition site and show that hormone-binding to alpha(V)beta(3) has physiological consequences...
  13. pmc Inverse association between serum free thyroxine levels and hepatic steatosis: results from the Study of Health in Pomerania
    Till Ittermann
    Institute for Community Medicine, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Walther Rathenau Strasse 48, Greifswald, Germany
    Thyroid 22:568-74. 2012
    ..Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between thyroid function tests and sonographic as well as enzymatic criteria of liver status in a large population-based study, the Study of Health in Germany (SHIP)...
  14. ncbi Thyroxine levels during pregnancy in healthy women and early child neurodevelopment
    Jordi Julvez
    Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Barcelona, Spain
    Epidemiology 24:150-7. 2013
    ..The fetus depends on maternal thyroid hormones during pregnancy for normal brain development. Little is known about the effects of subclinical hypothyroidism and mild hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy on neurodevelopment of the child...
  15. pmc Phosphodiesterase 8B gene variants are associated with serum TSH levels and thyroid function
    Lisette Arnaud-Lopez
    Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 82:1270-80. 2008
    ..This would affect production of T4 and T3 and feedback to alter TSH release by the pituitary. PDE8B may thus provide a candidate target for the treatment of thyroid dysfunction...
  16. ncbi Maternal hypothyroxinaemia during early pregnancy and subsequent child development: a 3-year follow-up study
    Victor J Pop
    Department of Clinical Health Psychology, University of Tilburg, The Netherlands
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 59:282-8. 2003
    ..15-2.0 mIU/l) on infant development, together with any subsequent changes in fT4 during gestation...
  17. ncbi Thyroid hormone is a MAPK-dependent growth factor for thyroid cancer cells and is anti-apoptotic
    Hung Yun Lin
    Research Service, Stratton VA Medical Center, United States
    Steroids 72:180-7. 2007
    Thyroid hormone (l-thyroxine, T(4), or 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine, T(3)) treatment of human papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cell lines resulted in enhanced cell proliferation, measured by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)...
  18. ncbi Narrow individual variations in serum T(4) and T(3) in normal subjects: a clue to the understanding of subclinical thyroid disease
    Stig Andersen
    Department of Endocrinology, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark DK 9000
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:1068-72. 2002
    ..For the same degree of thyroid function abnormality, the diagnosis depends to a considerable extent on the position of the patient's normal set point for T(4) and T(3) within the laboratory reference range...
  19. ncbi Lipid profile in subclinical hypothyroidism: is L-thyroxine substitution beneficial?
    Z Efstathiadou
    Division of Endocrinology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, University Hospital of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece
    Eur J Endocrinol 145:705-10. 2001
    ..The present study aimed to assess the association of SH with lipid abnormalities and to quantify the effect of L-thyroxine therapy on serum lipid profiles.
  20. ncbi Supraphysiological doses of L-thyroxine in the maintenance treatment of prophylaxis-resistant affective disorders
    Michael Bauer
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charite, Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Neuropsychopharmacology 27:620-8. 2002
    This prospective open-label study examined the efficacy of adjunctive supraphysiological doses of L-thyroxine (T(4)) in the maintenance treatment of prophylaxis-resistant affective disorder...
  21. pmc Neonatal thyroxine, maternal thyroid function, and child cognition
    Emily Oken
    Department of Ambulatory Care and Prevention, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:497-503. 2009
    ..Thyroid hormone is essential for normal brain development. Limited data are available regarding whether thyroid function in neonates influences later cognitive development...
  22. pmc Congenital hypothyroidism
    Maynika V Rastogi
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Endocrinology, Oregon Health and Science University, 707 SW Gaines Street, Portland, OR, USA
    Orphanet J Rare Dis 5:17. 2010
    ..Studies show that a lower neurocognitive outcome may occur in those infants started at a later age (> 30 days of age), on lower l-thyroxine doses than currently recommended, and in those infants with more severe hypothyroidism.
  23. pmc Molecular aspects of thyroid hormone actions
    Sheue yann Cheng
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Endocr Rev 31:139-70. 2010
    ..The actin-related effects in neurons include fostering neurite outgrowth. A truncated TRalpha1 isoform that resides in the extranuclear compartment mediates the action of thyroid hormone on the cytoskeleton...
  24. ncbi L-Thyroxine vs. 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine and cell proliferation: activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase
    Hung Yun Lin
    Ordway Research Institute, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 296:C980-91. 2009
    3,5,3'-Triiodo-l-thyronine (T(3)), but not l-thyroxine (T(4)), activated Src kinase and, downstream, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) by means of an alpha(v)beta(3) integrin receptor on human glioblastoma U-87 MG cells...
  25. pmc Life without thyroxine to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine conversion: studies in mice devoid of the 5'-deiodinases
    Valerie Anne Galton
    Department of Physiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA
    Endocrinology 150:2957-63. 2009
    ....
  26. ncbi Iodine status and thyroid function of pregnant, lactating women and infants (0-1 yr) residing in areas with an effective Universal Salt Iodization program
    Yanling Wang
    College of Earth and Environment Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou Gansu, China
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 18:34-40. 2009
    ..To assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of pregnant women, lactating women and infants residing in areas where the Universal Salt Iodization program is in place...
  27. ncbi Evaluation of new measures of the impact of hypothyroidism on quality of life and symptoms: the ThyDQoL and ThySRQ
    Carolyn McMillan
    Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, UK
    Value Health 11:285-94. 2008
    ....
  28. pmc Improvement of left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction with eight weeks L-thyroxine treatment in rats
    Yue Feng Chen
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, NYIT College of Osteopathic Medicine, New York Institute of Technology, Old Westbury, NY 11568, USA
    J Transl Med 11:40. 2013
    ..Thyroid hormones (THs) have been shown to improve LV function and remodeling in animals post-MI and in the human setting. However, changes in underlying cellular remodeling resulting from TH treatment are not clear...
  29. ncbi Children with congenital hypothyroidism: long-term intellectual outcome after early high-dose treatment
    Anastasia Dimitropoulos
    Child Development Center, University Children s Hospital Zurich, Zurich 8032, Switzerland
    Pediatr Res 65:242-8. 2009
    ..6 IQ scores, p < 0.05). Lower initial thyroxine (T4) levels correlated with poorer IQ (r = 0.27, p = 0.04)...
  30. ncbi Lower neonatal screening thyroxine concentrations in down syndrome newborns
    A S P van Trotsenburg
    Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children s Hospital AMC, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:1512-5. 2003
    ..The question remains whether this contributes to the brain maldevelopment...
  31. pmc Serum resistin and high sensitive CRP levels in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism before and after L-thyroxine therapy
    Duygu Yazgan Aksoy
    Etlik Ihtisas Research and Training Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Etlik, Ankara, Turkey
    Med Sci Monit 19:210-5. 2013
    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined by increased thyrotropin (TSH) and normal free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels...
  32. ncbi Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism complicating pregnancy
    M Abalovich
    Division Endocrinologia, Hospital C Durand, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Thyroid 12:63-8. 2002
    ..Fifty-one pregnancies (34%) were conceived under hypothyroidism: 16 overt (X +/- standard deviation [SD], thyroxine [T4]: 2.44 +/- 0.7 microg/dL; thyrotropin [TSH]: 33.4 +/- 8.82 mIU/L), and 35 subclinical hypothyroidism (T4: 6...
  33. ncbi Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the use of the thyroxine/thyroxine-binding globulin ratio to detect congenital hypothyroidism of thyroidal and central origin in a neonatal screening program
    Caren I Lanting
    Department of Social Pediatrics and Child and Youth Health Care, Netherlands Organization of Applied Scientific Research Prevention and Health, PO Box 2215, 2301 CE Leiden, Netherlands
    Pediatrics 116:168-73. 2005
    ..Since the introduction of screening for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in 1974, the optimal laboratory strategy has been the subject of debate...
  34. pmc Thyroid hormone receptor α and regulation of type 3 deiodinase
    Olga Barca-Mayo
    Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 25:575-83. 2011
    ..We conclude that the absence of TRα results in decreased clearance of TH by D3 and contributes to the TH hypersensitivity...
  35. pmc Thyroxine is a potential endogenous antagonist of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) activity
    Yousef Al-Abed
    Centers for Biomedical Science, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:8224-7. 2011
    ..Here, we describe a previously unrecognized interaction between the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T(4)) and the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), together with its clinical ..
  36. ncbi Iodothyronine deiodinases and the control of plasma and tissue thyroid hormone levels in hyperthyroid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
    S Van der Geyten
    Laboratory of Comparative Endocrinology, Zoological Institute, K U Leuven, Naamsestraat 61, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Endocrinol 184:467-79. 2005
    ..We therefore set out to investigate the effects of tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine) (T4) or tri-iodothyronine (T3) supplementation (48 p.p.m...
  37. pmc Type 2 deiodinase at the crossroads of thyroid hormone action
    Rafael Arrojo e Drigo
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, United States
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 43:1432-41. 2011
    ..Whereas the type II deiodinase (D2) initiates thyroid hormone signaling by activating the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4) to the biologically active T3 molecule, the type III deiodinase (D3) terminates thyroid hormone action by ..
  38. pmc Longitudinal study of thyroid function in Down's syndrome in the first two decades
    P A Gibson
    Department of Paediatrics, Royal Lancaster Infirmary, Lancaster, UK
    Arch Dis Child 90:574-8. 2005
    ..4 years). At the second test two were hypothyroid and two with isolated raised thyroid stimulating hormone (IR-TSH) were receiving thyroxine.
  39. ncbi Effect of thyroxine replacement on creatinine, insulin-like growth factor 1, acid-labile subunit, and vascular endothelial growth factor
    Christoph Schmid
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Hospital of Zurich, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    Clin Chem 50:228-31. 2004
  40. ncbi L-Thyroxine activates Akt signaling in the heart
    James A Kuzman
    School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Cardiovascular Research Institute South Dakota Health Research Foundation, 1100 East 21st Street, Sioux Falls, SD 57105, USA
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 39:251-8. 2005
    ..In this study, we treated Sprague Dawley rats with L-thyroxine (T4) or propylthiouracil (PTU) to determine whether there was modulation of signal transduction pathways in the ..
  41. ncbi Thyroxine in goiter, Helicobacter pylori infection, and chronic gastritis
    Marco Centanni
    Endocrinology Unit, Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, University La Sapienza, Polo Pontino, Latina, Italy
    N Engl J Med 354:1787-95. 2006
    Malabsorption of thyroxine has been described in patients treated with drugs that modify an acidic environment...
  42. ncbi Complex relationship between free thyroxine and TSH in the regulation of thyroid function
    Rudolf Hoermann
    Departments of General Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Klinikum Luedenscheid, Paulmannshöher Strasse 14, Luedenscheid, Germany
    Eur J Endocrinol 162:1123-9. 2010
    The present study re-evaluates the inverse log TSH-free thyroxine (fT(4)) relationship, which has generally been assumed to characterize the thyroid pituitary hypothalamic feedback regulation in thyroid function.
  43. pmc Levothyroxine dose and risk of fractures in older adults: nested case-control study
    Marci R Turner
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada
    BMJ 342:d2238. 2011
    ..To quantify the effect of levothyroxine dose on risk of fractures in older adults...
  44. ncbi A large-scale association analysis of 68 thyroid hormone pathway genes with serum TSH and FT4 levels
    Marco Medici
    Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Eur J Endocrinol 164:781-8. 2011
    ..We therefore studied the effects of genetic variation in 68 TH pathway genes on serum TSH and free thyroxine (FT(4)) levels.
  45. ncbi Neuropsychological function and symptoms in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism and the effect of thyroxine treatment
    Rolf Jorde
    Institute of Clinical Medicine R J, K W, University of Tromsø, 9037 Tromsø, Norway
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:145-53. 2006
    ..5-10.0 mIU/liter and normal serum free T4 and free T3 levels, and to study the effect of T4 supplementation...
  46. ncbi Serum lipid levels in relation to serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and the effect of thyroxine treatment on serum lipid levels in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism: the Tromsø Study
    A Iqbal
    Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway
    J Intern Med 260:53-61. 2006
    ..To evaluate the relation between serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and lipids...
  47. ncbi TSH-controlled L-thyroxine therapy reduces cholesterol levels and clinical symptoms in subclinical hypothyroidism: a double blind, placebo-controlled trial (Basel Thyroid Study)
    C Meier
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Central Laboratories, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, CH 4031 Basel, Switzerland
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:4860-6. 2001
    This study evaluated the effect of physiological, TSH-guided, L-thyroxine treatment on serum lipids and clinical symptoms in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Sixty-six women with proven subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH, 11...
  48. ncbi The potential repercussions of maternal, fetal, and neonatal hypothyroxinemia on the progeny
    D Glinoer
    University Hospital Saint Pierre, Department of Internal Medicine Thyroid Investigation Clinic, Brussels, Belgium
    Thyroid 10:871-87. 2000
    ..ontogenesis (congenital hypothyroidism), the participation of maternal thyroid hormones to the fetal circulating thyroxine environment is normal and, therefore, risk of brain damage results exclusively from the insufficient hormone ..
  49. ncbi Triiodothyronine levels in athyreotic individuals during levothyroxine therapy
    Jacqueline Jonklaas
    Division of Endocrinology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
    JAMA 299:769-77. 2008
    ..However, trials evaluating therapy with combined LT4 and T3 have failed to demonstrate any consistent advantage of combination therapy...
  50. ncbi Prevalence of hematological abnormalities in patients with Sheehan's syndrome: response to replacement of glucocorticoids and thyroxine
    Bashir Ahmad Laway
    Department of Endocrinology, Sher i Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences Soura, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
    Pituitary 14:39-43. 2011
    ..The response of these abnormalities to replacement of thyroxine and glucocorticoids is not clear...
  51. ncbi Thyroid hormone early adjustment in pregnancy (the THERAPY) trial
    Leila Yassa
    Thyroid Unit, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Room PBB B4, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:3234-41. 2010
    ..Thyroid hormone requirement increases 20-40% during gestation. Women with treated hypothyroidism must increase their l-T(4) in pregnancy to prevent maternal hypothyroidism, although how this should be accomplished is unclear...
  52. ncbi Acting via a cell surface receptor, thyroid hormone is a growth factor for glioma cells
    Faith B Davis
    Ordway Research Institute, Inc, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Cancer Res 66:7270-5. 2006
    Recent evidence suggests that the thyroid hormone L-thyroxine (T4) stimulates growth of cancer cells via a plasma membrane receptor on integrin alphaVbeta3...
  53. ncbi Thyroid function is associated with components of the metabolic syndrome in euthyroid subjects
    Annemieke Roos
    Department of Endocrinology, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, P O Box 30001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:491-6. 2007
    ..Thyroid disease and the metabolic syndrome are both associated with cardiovascular disease...
  54. ncbi Proangiogenic action of thyroid hormone is fibroblast growth factor-dependent and is initiated at the cell surface
    Faith B Davis
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Albany, NY, USA
    Circ Res 94:1500-6. 2004
    ..Generation of new blood vessels from existing vessels was increased 3-fold by either l-thyroxine (T4; 10(-7) mol/L) or 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine (10(-9) mol/L)...
  55. ncbi Iodine supplementation improves cognition in mildly iodine-deficient children
    Rosie C Gordon
    Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Am J Clin Nutr 90:1264-71. 2009
    ..The effects of severe iodine deficiency during critical periods of brain development are well documented. There is little known about the consequences of milder forms of iodine deficiency on neurodevelopment...
  56. ncbi Comparative evaluation of therapy with L-thyroxine versus no treatment in children with idiopathic and mild subclinical hypothyroidism
    Malgorzata Wasniewska
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
    Horm Res Paediatr 77:376-81. 2012
    The question of whether children with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) should be treated or not is controversial due to the lack of studies on outcomes of SH children treated with L-thyroxine (L-T(4)) versus those receiving no therapy.
  57. ncbi Thyroid hormone and recovery of cardiac function in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a strong association?
    Ioannis Lymvaios
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias Avenue, 11527 Goudi, Athens, Greece
    Eur J Endocrinol 165:107-14. 2011
    ..Previous experimental studies have provided evidence of potential implication of TH signaling in post-ischemic recovery of cardiac function...
  58. ncbi Perinatal outcome of children born to mothers with thyroid dysfunction or antibodies: a prospective population-based cohort study
    Tuija Männistö
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:772-9. 2009
    ..There are only a few large prospective studies involving evaluation of the effect of maternal thyroid dysfunction on offspring and observations are inconsistent...
  59. ncbi Hypothyroidism
    Caroline G P Roberts
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Lancet 363:793-803. 2004
    ..specific nor sensitive, the diagnosis is confirmed or excluded by measurements of serum thyrotropin and free thyroxine. Thyroxine replacement therapy is highly effective and safe, but suboptimal dosing is common in clinical ..
  60. ncbi Hyperthyrotropinemia in obese children is reversible after weight loss and is not related to lipids
    Thomas Reinehr
    Vestische Kinder und Jugendklinik, University of Witten Herdecke, Dr F Steiner Strasse 5, 45711 Datteln, Germany
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:3088-91. 2006
    ..There is some controversy whether T(4) treatment is indicated in obese humans with hyperthyrotropinemia...
  61. ncbi Longitudinal growth, sexual maturation and final height in patients with congenital hypothyroidism detected by neonatal screening
    M Salerno
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
    Eur J Endocrinol 145:377-83. 2001
    ..To evaluate longitudinal growth, pubertal development and final height in patients with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) detected by a neonatal screening programme, and to identify factors potentially affecting growth outcome...
  62. ncbi The role of thyroid autoimmunity in fertility and pregnancy
    Kris Poppe
    Thyroid Clinic, University Hospital, UZ Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
    Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 4:394-405. 2008
    ..In women of reproductive age, hypothyroidism can be reversed by thyroxine therapy to improve fertility and avoid the need for use of assisted reproduction technologies...
  63. pmc A common variation in deiodinase 1 gene DIO1 is associated with the relative levels of free thyroxine and triiodothyronine
    Vijay Panicker
    Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neurosciences and Endocrinology, University of Bristol, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Whitson Street, Bristol BS1 3NY, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:3075-81. 2008
    ..We aimed to thoroughly examine the role of common variation across the three deiodinase genes in relation to thyroid hormones...
  64. ncbi Longitudinal study of thyroid function in children with mild hyperthyrotropinemia at neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism
    Daniela Leonardi
    Endocrinologia Università di Catania, Ospedale Garibaldi Nesima, Via Palermo 636, Catania, Italy
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:2679-85. 2008
    ..0 +/- 0.7 yr of age). In these children a high prevalence (50%) of subclinical hypothyroidism in early childhood (2.8 +/- 0.5 yr) had already been described...
  65. pmc Mice deficient for the type II transmembrane serine protease, TMPRSS1/hepsin, exhibit profound hearing loss
    Michel Guipponi
    Molecular Medicine Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Victoria, Australia
    Am J Pathol 171:608-16. 2007
    ..cochlear defects have been reported in animal models of hypothyroidism, and found significantly reduced free thyroxine levels. These data show that TMPRSS1 is required for normal auditory function...
  66. ncbi Association between thyroid dysfunction and total cholesterol level in an older biracial population: the health, aging and body composition study
    Alka M Kanaya
    Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 1701 Divisadero St, Suite 554, San Francisco, CA 94143 1732, USA
    Arch Intern Med 162:773-9. 2002
    ..Thyroid dysfunction increases with age. Less is known about the prevalence of thyroid disease in older black adults and whether an association between thyroid function and serum cholesterol level exists, as in older white adults...
  67. ncbi Timing and magnitude of increases in levothyroxine requirements during pregnancy in women with hypothyroidism
    Erik K Alexander
    Thyroid Section, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    N Engl J Med 351:241-9. 2004
    ..In this prospective study we attempted to identify precisely the timing and amount of levothyroxine adjustment required during pregnancy...
  68. ncbi Circulating thyroid hormone concentrations and placental thyroid hormone receptor expression in normal human pregnancy and pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)
    M D Kilby
    Department of Fetal Medicine, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:2964-71. 1998
    ....
  69. pmc Impact of smoking and thiocyanate on perchlorate and thyroid hormone associations in the 2001-2002 national health and nutrition examination survey
    Craig Steinmaus
    Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland, California 94612, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 115:1333-8. 2007
    ..Decreases in thyroid hormone seen with perchlorate exposure could be even greater in people with concomitant exposure to agents such as thiocyanate that may affect the thyroid by mechanisms similar to those of perchlorate...
  70. ncbi Resveratrol is pro-apoptotic and thyroid hormone is anti-apoptotic in glioma cells: both actions are integrin and ERK mediated
    Hung Yun Lin
    Signal Transduction Laboratory, Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Carcinogenesis 29:62-9. 2008
    ..A thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine, T(4)) membrane receptor also exists on alphaVbeta3...
  71. ncbi Long-term thyroxine administration protects the heart in a pattern similar to ischemic preconditioning
    Constantinos I Pantos
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Athens, Goudi, Athens, Greece
    Thyroid 12:325-9. 2002
    We have previously shown that long-term thyroxine administration can protect the heart against ischemia...
  72. ncbi The beneficial effect of L-thyroxine on cardiovascular risk factors, endothelial function, and quality of life in subclinical hypothyroidism: randomized, crossover trial
    Salman Razvi
    Department of Endocrinology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Gateshead, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:1715-23. 2007
    ..It is uncertain whether treatment of SCH with L-thyroxine improves cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and quality of life.
  73. ncbi The effect of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and their treatment on parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant status
    Husamettin Erdamar
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tunceli Government Hospital, Tunceli, Turkey
    Clin Chem Lab Med 46:1004-10. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and their treatments on the metabolic state of oxidative stress, and antioxidant status markers...
  74. ncbi Levothyroxine treatment in thyroid peroxidase antibody-positive women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies: a prospective study
    Roberto Negro
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Physiopathology of Human Reproduction, Casa di Cura Salus, Brindisi
    Hum Reprod 20:1529-33. 2005
    ..Our objective was to investigate if levothyroxine (LT4) exerts any effect on pregnancy and/or delivery rates in thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb)-positive (+) women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies...
  75. ncbi Subclinical hypothyroidism and pregnancy outcomes
    Brian M Casey
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390 9032, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 105:239-45. 2005
    ..We undertook this prospective thyroid screening study to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in women with elevated thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) and normal free thyroxine levels.
  76. ncbi Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism in the Netherlands: cognitive and motor outcome at 10 years of age
    Marlies J E Kempers
    Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children s Hospital Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, P O Box 22700, 1100 DE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:919-24. 2007
    ....
  77. ncbi The effect of thyroxine administration on lipid peroxidation in different tissues of rats with hypothyroidism
    R Mogulkoc
    Department of Physiology, Meram Medical School, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey
    Acta Physiol Hung 92:39-46. 2005
    ..animals were divided into 3 groups (Group 1, control; Group 2, hypothyroidism; Group 3, hypothyroidism + thyroxine administration)...
  78. ncbi Alleviation of enhanced oxidative stress and oxygen consumption of L-thyroxine induced hyperthyroid rat liver mitochondria by vitamin E and curcumin
    U Subudhi
    Department of Biotechnology, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa, India
    Chem Biol Interact 173:105-14. 2008
    ..Adult male rats were rendered hyperthyroid by administration of 0.0012% l-thyroxine in their drinking water, while vitamin E (200 mg/kg body weight) and curcumin (30 mg/kg body weight) were ..
  79. ncbi Resistin levels in hyperthyroid patients before and after restoration of thyroid function: relationship with body weight and body composition
    Gerasimos E Krassas
    Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Panagia General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece
    Eur J Endocrinol 153:217-21. 2005
    ..To date, very few studies have reported on resistin concentrations in hyperthyroid patients, and they present controversial results...
  80. ncbi Low replacement doses of thyroxine during food restriction restores type 1 deiodinase activity in rats and promotes body protein loss
    Renata Lopes Araujo
    Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina do Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21949 900, Brazil
    J Endocrinol 198:119-25. 2008
    ..b>Thyroxine (T(4)) and 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) administration during caloric restriction produce deleterious side ..
  81. pmc Deubiquitination of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase by von Hippel-Lindau protein-interacting deubiquitinating enzymes regulates thyroid hormone activation
    Cyntia Curcio-Morelli
    Division of Endocrinology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Institutes of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:189-96. 2003
    ..2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) is an integral membrane ER-resident selenoenzyme that activates the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4) and supplies most of the 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) that is essential for brain development...
  82. ncbi L-thyroxine-treated patients with nodular goiter have lower serum TSH and lower frequency of papillary thyroid cancer: results of a cross-sectional study on 27 914 patients
    E Fiore
    Department of Endocrinology, University of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56100 Pisa, Italy
    Endocr Relat Cancer 17:231-9. 2010
    ..Our aim was to investigate the effect of L-thyroxine (LT(4)) on the frequency of PTC diagnosed by cytology in a large series of patients with nodular goiter ..
  83. ncbi Audit of initial management of congenital hypothyroidism in the United Kingdom--comparison of UK practice with European and UK guidelines
    Jeremy H Jones
    Department of Child Health, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow, UK
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 22:1017-25. 2009
    ..Prompt and adequate management of newly diagnosed congenital hypothyroidism (CH) has been shown to optimise intellectual outcome...
  84. ncbi Effect of glutathione (GSH) depletion on the serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and T3/T4 ratio in allyl alcohol-treated male rats and possible protection with zinc
    S A Moustafa
    Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
    Int J Toxicol 20:15-20. 2001
    ..Possible covalent binding of AIAI metabolites to some cellular proteins may explain the persistence of reduced liver protein levels in zinc-protected rats...
  85. pmc Allosteric modulation of hormone release from thyroxine and corticosteroid-binding globulins
    Xiaoqiang Qi
    Department of Biochemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
    J Biol Chem 286:16163-73. 2011
    The release of hormones from thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is regulated by movement of the reactive center loop in and out of the β-sheet A of the molecule...
  86. ncbi Impairment of regulatory capacity of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells mediated by dendritic cell polarization and hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease
    Chaoming Mao
    Shanghai Institute of Immunology, Institutes of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China
    J Immunol 186:4734-43. 2011
    ..Collectively, uGD-derived DCs through pDC polarization and elevated thyroid hormones act in concert to impair the regulatory capacity of Treg cells, facilitating the production of TSHR autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of GD...
  87. ncbi Iodine intake is still inadequate among pregnant women eight years after mandatory iodination of salt in Turkey
    A Kut
    Department of Family Medicine, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
    J Endocrinol Invest 33:461-4. 2010
    ..However, iodine status among pregnant women is a still debated issue in our country...
  88. ncbi Corticosterone and thyroxine in cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii)
    Kathleen E Hunt
    New England Aquarium, 1 Central Wharf, Boston, Massachusetts 02110, USA
    J Zoo Wildl Med 43:479-93. 2012
    ..tested the hypothesis that cold-stunned sea turtles might exhibit high corticosterone ("stress hormone") or low thyroxine (which is often affected by temperature), or both, and that monitoring of both hormones may be useful for ..
  89. ncbi Polychlorinated biphenyl-mediated decrease in serum thyroxine level in rodents
    Yoshihisa Kato
    Tokushima Bunri University, Sanuki, Kagawa, Japan
    Drug Metab Dispos 38:697-704. 2010
    ..KC500), a commercial polychlorinated biphenyl mixture, on the levels of serum thyroid hormones such as total thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine were examined in male mice, hamsters, rats, and guinea pigs...
  90. ncbi Increased serum interleukin-17 in Graves' ophthalmopathy
    Sung Eun Kim
    Department of Ophthalmology, Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Koyang, 412 270, Korea
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 250:1521-6. 2012
    ..The aim of this study is to investigate the involvement of IL-17 in the pathogenesis and disease activity of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO)...
  91. ncbi Role of type 3 deiodinase in cancer
    Monica Dentice
    University of Naples Federico II, Department of Molecular and Clinical Endocrinology and Oncology, Via S Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
    Expert Opin Ther Targets 13:1363-73. 2009
    ..In this review, we focus on D3 and its potential as a novel tumoral marker and new molecular target in cancer treatment...
  92. ncbi Thyroid function within the upper normal range is associated with reduced bone mineral density and an increased risk of nonvertebral fractures in healthy euthyroid postmenopausal women
    Elaine Murphy
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, 7th Floor Commonwealth Building, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:3173-81. 2010
    ..The relationship between thyroid function and bone mineral density (BMD) is controversial. Existing studies are conflicting and confounded by differences in study design, small patient numbers, and sparse prospective data...
  93. ncbi Hypothyroidism: etiology, diagnosis, and management
    Jaime P Almandoz
    Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Med Clin North Am 96:203-21. 2012
    ..Subclinical hypothyroidism is present when there is elevated TSH but a normal free thyroxine level. Treatment involves oral administration of exogenous synthetic thyroid hormone...
  94. ncbi Curcumin differentially regulates the expression of superoxide dismutase in cerebral cortex and cerebellum of L-thyroxine (T₄)-induced hyperthyroid rat brain
    Srikanta Jena
    Department of Biotechnology, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004, India
    Neurol Sci 34:505-10. 2013
    ..was aimed to elucidate the effect of curcumin on lipid peroxidation (LPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in L-thyroxine (T4)-induced oxidative stress in cerebral cortex and cerebellum of rat brain...
  95. pmc Crystallographic study of novel transthyretin ligands exhibiting negative-cooperativity between two thyroxine binding sites
    Divya Tomar
    Structural Biology Unit, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India
    PLoS ONE 7:e43522. 2012
    Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric serum and cerebrospinal fluid protein that transports thyroxine (T4) and retinol by binding to retinol binding protein...
  96. pmc IL-6 promotes nonthyroidal illness syndrome by blocking thyroxine activation while promoting thyroid hormone inactivation in human cells
    Simone Magagnin Wajner
    Thyroid Section, Endocrine Division, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
    J Clin Invest 121:1834-45. 2011
    ..iodine removal from thyroid hormones; type I and II deiodinase (D1 and D2, respectively) convert the prohormone thyroxine T₄ to active T₃, whereas the type III enzyme (D3) inactivates T₄ and T₃...
  97. pmc Timing of levothyroxine administration affects serum thyrotropin concentration
    Thien Giang Bach-Huynh
    Division of Endocrinology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:3905-12. 2009
    ..Patients treated with levothyroxine typically ingest it in a fasting state to prevent food impairing its absorption. The serum thyrotropin concentration is the therapeutic index of levothyroxine action...
  98. ncbi Rapamycin prevents thyroid hormone-induced cardiac hypertrophy
    James A Kuzman
    stanford Research University of South Dakota, Sanford School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute, 1100 East 21st Street, Suite 700, Sioux Falls, South Dakota 57105, USA
    Endocrinology 148:3477-84. 2007
    ..Our results suggest that TH-induced hypertrophy is mediated by AKT/mTOR/S6 kinase signaling, which is important in the regulation of protein synthesis, a hallmark of cardiac hypertrophy...
  99. ncbi Neonatal thyroxine treatment: changes in the number of corticotropin-releasing-factor (CRF) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) containing neurons and density of tyrosine hydroxylase positive fibers (TH) in the amygdala correlate with anxiety-related behavior of wis
    D M Yilmazer-Hanke
    Institute of Anatomy, Otto von Guericke Universitat Magdeburg, Institut fur Anatomie, Leipziger Strasse 44, D 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
    Neuroscience 124:283-97. 2004
    ..c. injections of 7.5 microg L-thyroxine in 0.5 ml 0.9% NaCl solution from postnatal day p1 to p12)...
  100. ncbi Hashimoto's thyroiditis is associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma: role of TSH and of treatment with L-thyroxine
    E Fiore
    Department of Endocrinology, Department of Surgery, University of Pisa, Italy
    Endocr Relat Cancer 18:429-37. 2011
    ..of PTC, TSH levels and thyroid autoantibodies (TAb) in 13 738 patients (9824 untreated and 3914 under l-thyroxine, l-T(4)). Patients with nodular-HT (n=1593) had high titer of TAb and/or hypothyroidism...
  101. ncbi Atypical expression of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase in thyrotrophs explains the thyroxine-mediated pituitary thyrotropin feedback mechanism
    Marcelo A Christoffolete
    Thyroid Section, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Endocrinology 147:1735-43. 2006
    ..These results resolve the apparent paradox between the homeostatic regulation of D2 and its role in mediating the critical mechanism by which T(4) triggers the TSH-negative feedback...

Research Grants63

  1. Thyroid Hormone Action
    THOMAS STERLING SCANLAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..recently discovered a novel class of endogenous compounds called thyronamines that are chemical derivatives of thyroxine (T4) and may be decarboxylated and deiodinated metabolites of T4...
  2. Chemical Biology Studies of 3-Iodothyronamine and Related Thyroid Hormone Metabol
    THOMAS STERLING SCANLAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..recently discovered a novel class of endogenous compounds called thyronamines that are chemical derivatives of thyroxine (T4)...
  3. Flame Retardant and Adverse Perinatal Outcome (FRAPO)
    Morgan R Peltier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..been widely investigated as endocrine disruptors of the thyroid system due to their structural similarity with thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3)...
  4. Site-directed Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer using Novel Angiogenesis Inhibitor
    Shaker A Mousa; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in this area have demonstrated that the thyroid hormones such as 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and L-Thyroxine (T4) can stimulate cancer cell proliferation and thus act as growth factors...
  5. Graves'Disease Therapy Risks to Mother and Fetus
    Scott A Rivkees; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..defects, whereas we do not observe malformations in embryos of dams treated with MMI or high doses of levo-thyroxine (LT4)...
  6. Developmental Origins of Phenotypic Characteristics that Predict Longevity
    Andrzej Bartke; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..3. To determine the effects of early treatment with a combination of GH, prolactin and thyroxine as compared to treatment with GH alone on adipokine levels, insulin and glucose tolerance and other ..
  7. PROTRH GENE TRANSCRIPTION AND BIOSYNTHESIS BY LEPTIN
    EDUARDO NILLNI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The function of the thyroid gland is to produce the thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which regulate transcription of numerous important genes through binding to a family of nuclear receptors ..
  8. Effect of Polybrominated Diphenal Ether Flame Retardant Exposure on Osteogenesis
    Deena J Small; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition, we will test the ability of thyroxine and genetic constructs expressing constitutively active thyroid hormone receptors to "rescue" PBDE-mediated ..
  9. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Obesity in Adolescents with Down Syndrome
    Sheela Natesh Magge; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2) To determine the effect of thyroxine replacement on body mass index, fat mass, cardiometabolic risk factors, and quality of life (QOL) in pre-..
  10. PERCHLORATE AND THYROID HORMONES IN PREGNANCY AND INFANTS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
    Craig M Steinmaus; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..samples to measure urine concentrations of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodide, and serum concentrations of thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free-thyroxine, and thyroid antibodies in 2,300 pregnant women...
  11. NOVEL APPROACHES FOR REGULATION OF IGF-1 LEVELS THROUGHOUT THE LIFESPAN
    William Edmund Sonntag; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..using a cross-sectional design, b) paracrine IGF-1 gene and protein expression, c) circulating hormone levels (thyroxine, leptin, insulin and glucose) as well as whole body insulin action, glucose production and rates of glucose ..
  12. Metabolic and Energetic Consequences of Fatherhood
    Wendy Saltzman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..it will characterize 1) circulating levels of the metabolic hormones leptin, adiponectin, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine;2) blood triglyceride, cholesterol, and glucose levels;3) the propensity to ingest high-fat and high-sucrose ..
  13. Dietary Factors in Colon Cancer Prevention
    FRANK ALBERT SIMMEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aims will be on lipogenic enzyme genes as downstream pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic targets of insulin and thyroxine, in obese states...
  14. MIF-Thyroxine Interactions in the Pathogenesis of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
    Edmund J Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..between a proinflammatory cytokine [Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF)] and a thyroid hormone [Thyroxine (T4)] in PAH...
  15. Is thyroxine more than a prohormone?
    Valerie Anne Galton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Thyroxine (T4), the principal circulating thyroid hormone (TH), is widely believed to be a prohormone that must be converted by the 5'-deiodinases (D1 and D2) to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3)..
  16. Reductive Dehalogenation in Mammals by Iodotyrosine Deiodinase
    Steven E Rokita; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Mammals provide a fascinating exception to this general observation. The essential hormone, thyroxine (3-[4-[4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenoxy]-3,5-diiodophenyl]alanine), is reductively deiodinated in a variety of ..
  17. Selenodeidinase Processing by the Proteasome System
    Antonio C Bianco; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..D2) is a pivotal regulatory selenoenzyme catalyzing the first step in thyroid hormone action, the conversion of thyroxine (T4) to the active hormone, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3)...
  18. Thyroid Hormone Action
    Thomas Scanlan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..recently discovered a novel class of endogenous compounds called thyronamines that are chemical derivatives of thyroxine (T4)...
  19. GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TO GRAVES'-LIKE HYPERTHYROIDISM IN MICE
    Sandra M McLachlan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..typed inbred mice to establish the genetic basis for the development of TSHR antibodies and elevated serum thyroxine with the goal of providing insight into subsetting Graves'patients for future human genome wide array ..
  20. Transgenerational Epigenetic Programming of the Thyroid Axis
    Arturo Hernandez; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..HPT) axis are homeostatic and feedback mechanisms that maintain circulating and tissue levels of thyroxine (T4) and 3,3[unreadable],5-triiodothyronine (T3) within strict limits...
  21. TSH and Bone
    Mone Zaidi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..allow us to consider skeletal protection by TSH in post-menopausal women whose TSH levels are suppressed by thyroxine therapy for non-cancer causes...
  22. Thyroid regulation of cardiomyocyte maturation
    KENT L R THORNBURG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It appears that cortisol stimulates the conversion of the less potent thyroxine (T4) to the more potent T3 near term, causing T3 levels to rise-putting the brakes on cardiomyocyte ..
  23. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in the elderly
    Anne R Cappola; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Subclinical thyroid dysfunction, defined as an abnormal thyroid stimulating hormone level with a normal free thyroxine level, is common in older individuals...
  24. White matter injury in germinal matrix hemorrhage
    Praveen Ballabh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..More importantly, thyroxine treatment or BMP inhibition restored the density of myelinating (O1+) OL and myelination in IVH pups (..
  25. Prenatal Organochlorine Exposure and Male Reproduction
    PAM R FACTOR LITVAK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Stored, frozen prenatal sera will be assayed for organochlorine compounds, and for free thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies...
  26. Perinatal Depression &Anxiety: Relationships with Late Pregnancy Thyroid Status
    CORT ANDREW PEDERSEN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We found robustly significant correlations between low, euthyroid range total and free thyroxine (TT4, FT4) concentrations during late pregnancy and higher perinatal depression self-ratings...
  27. Hyopthyroidism Treatment in Aging and Thyroid Cancer
    Offie P Soldin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Hypothyroidism is defined by an elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration with low serum thyroxine (T4) and tri- iodothyronine (T3) concentrations...
  28. Subclinical Hypothyroidism: Mood, Cognition and the effect of L-thyroxine treatme
    Robert A Stern; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..is a biochemical diagnosis characterized by elevated thyrotropin (TSH) levels with normal circulating thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels...
  29. Neurocognitive and Metabolic Effects of Mild Hypothyroidism
    Mary H Samuels; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of target organ function expected when thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels are normalized using L-thyroxine (L-T4)...
  30. Prenatal Organochlorine Metabolites, Thyroid Function and Development
    PAM R FACTOR LITVAK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..organochlorine exposure and exposure to measures of maternal thyroid function (thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies)...
  31. CHROMATOGRAPHIC AUTOMATION OF IMMUNOASSAYS
    David S Hage; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..affinity extraction and chromatographic immunoassays, as recently demonstrated for compounds such as warfarin, thyroxine, phenytoin and carbamazepine...
  32. Planning a Multi-center Trial of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Older Adults
    Douglas C Bauer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..old with persistent subclinical hypothyroidism recruited by population-based screening and randomized to either thyroxine replacement to normalize TSH, or matching placebo...
  33. Prenatal alcohol: Hormone-regulated genes and behavior
    Eva E Redei; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The suppressed maternal thyroid function seems to cause these behavioral abnormalities, since prenatal thyroxine (T4) administration reversed the behavioral deficits in the fetal alcohol exposed (FAE) offspring...
  34. MULTIDIMENSIONAL HORMONAL ASSESSMENT OF PTSD
    Sheila Wang; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..comparison design with six dependent measures: total T3, free T3, total T4, free T4, thyrotropin (TSH), and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)...
  35. Bisphenol-A and Thyroid Hormone Signaling During the life Cycle
    ROBERT THOMAS ZOELLER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..data indicate that BPA inhibits TH negative feedback, driven by the beta TR, causing an increase in serum thyroxine. However, the TH-response gene RC3/Neurogranin, driven by the alpha TR in the developing brain, becomes ..
  36. NICHD Cooperative Multicenter Neonatal Research Network - Utah Center
    Roger G Faix; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..used to answer important questions in low birth weight infants, we propose a study testing the hypothesis that thyroxine treatment of VLBW infants >7 days old with transient hypothyroxinemia will result in improved survival ..
  37. Neuropsychological & Thyroid Effects of Perfluorinated Compounds in Older Adults
    Edward Fitzgerald; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In addition, we hypothesize deficits in thyroxine (T4)...
  38. BIOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITY OF THE CHOROID PLEXUS
    Joseph Herbert; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..demonstrated the specific and abundant synthesis of transthyretin (TTR, prealbumin), a transport protein for thyroxine and retinol, within the CP epithelium...
  39. Eunice Kennedy Shriver NICHD Maternal Fetal Medicine Units Network (U10)
    Brian M Casey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this last 5 year cycle, our center led the implementation of the randomized trial of thyroxine therapy for subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia diagnosed during pregnancy (TSH) study which ..
  40. CARDIAC MUSCLE CELL DEVELOPMENT AND NUCLEAR PROTEINS
    JASWANT BHORJEE; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..in vivo development stage-specific distribution of the metabolically modified and the unmodified HMG proteins in thyroxine T3 treated and untreated cardiac muscle cells by the high resolution two-dimensional NEPHGE/SDS polyacrylamide ..
  41. ROLE OF THYROGLOBULIN IN THYROXINE BIOSYNTHESIS
    ALLEN RAWITCH; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..key approaches in this proposal are: 1) The isolation and characterization of a series of naturally occurring thyroxine containing polypeptides derived from thyroglobulin upon reduction and alkylation of disulfide bonds and 2) The ..
  42. CATECHOLAMINE MODULATION OF THYROID HORMONE METABOLISM
    Harvey Katzeff; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..effects of exercise and caloric balance on thyroid hormone metabolism will be clarified by measurements of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) production and conversion of T4 to T3 in vivo...
  43. BIO-ORGANIC CHEMISTRY OF OXIDATIVE PHENOLIC COUPLING
    CHARLES SIH; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..50 years, the intermediates and the molecular mechanism of the coupling of the two iodotyrosyl residues to form thyroxine are not known...
  44. DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL INTESTINAL EPITHELIUM
    Kwo Yih Yeh; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Using this model, the effects of hormones, including growth hormone, corticosterone, thyroxine and epidermal growth factor, alone or in various combinations on epithelial cell proliferation, migration and ..
  45. MECHANISMS OF TCDD TOXICITY
    Diane Russell; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..of 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to rats resulted in a significantly decreased serum thyroxine (T4), serum and pancreatic insulin levels, and hypoglycemia...
  46. MYOSIN ISOFORMS--FIBER TYPES AND THYROID REGULATION
    GARY RADICE; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..In addition, the entire set of embryonic and larval muscles changes at metamorphosis, under the control of thyroxine. Therefore, amphibians also provide a premier example for studying thyroid control of muscle development and ..
  47. IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA AND COMPENSATORY SNS ACTIVITY
    John Beard; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Exchange transfusion acutely improves body temperature maintenance, (TSH) response, thyroxine (T4) response and triiodothyronine (T3) response of iron deficient animals to a cold stress...
  48. EFFECT OF COLOSTRUM ON GUT MATURATION AND HOST DEFENSE
    W Walker; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..These studies should help define mucosal barrier defects in newborns and help explain the pathogenesis of neonatal diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis, toxigenic diarrhea and food allergy...
  49. Basic mechanisms of antidepressant augmentation
    Michael Newman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Several agents including the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) have been used to reduce the lag period of ADs and augment their effects in refractory patients...
  50. THYROXINE BINDING PROTEIN AND HORMONE UTILIZATION
    KENNETH STERLING; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ....
  51. D2 TANTYCYTES IN THE REGULATION OF HPT AXIS
    RONALD LECHAN; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Since D2 converts thyroxine (T4) to the more biologically active thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine (T3), we propose that D2 tanycytes ..
  52. Is thyroid hormone a key regulator of fetal cardiomyocyte proliferation?
    Kent Thornburg; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In late gestation, cortisol stimulates the conversion of the less potent thyroxine (T4) to the more potent T3;thereafter, T3 levels begin to increase...
  53. MECHANISMS OF THYROID HORMONE ACTION IN DEVELOPMENT
    VALERIE GALTON; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The principle secretory product of the thyroid gland is thyroxine (T4), which is converted in peripheral tissues to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), the physiologically active ..
  54. REGULATION OF RENAL THYROID HORMONE UPTAKE & METABOLISM
    Duncan Ferguson; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..of this proposal is to study the mechanisms which regulate the peripheral tissue uptake and metabolism of thyroxine (T4), the main secretory product of the thyroid gland, and 3,5,3'- triiodothyronine, (T3), the most potent ..
  55. HYPOTHYROXINEMIA OF PREMATURITY AND NEURODEVELOPMENT
    MARY REUSS; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..this historical cohort study, neurologic disorder and development at age 2 years will be related to quantitative thyroxine levels obtained at newborn screening...
  56. PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE OF THYROXINE-BINDING PROTEINS
    PHILIP LARSEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The studies proposed here will shed light on the function of this deiodinase and will have major implications for our understanding of factors controlling thyroid hormone levels in healthy and sick individuals. ..
  57. THYROID GLAND PHYSIOLOGY IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
    INDER CHOPRA; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..man and the rat contain a thyroid hormone binding inhibitor (THBI), an inhibitor of extrathyroidal conversion of thyroxine (T4) to more active 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) (IEC), and an inhibitors of phagocytosis (PI) of Escherichia ..
  58. Thyroid Hormone (thyroxine) Function in Adult Human RPE
    RITA GETZ; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Thyroid hormones; thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), function in many body tissues to influence growth and metabolism, but little is known about thyroid hormone function in human retinal pigment epithelium (HRPE)...
  59. SELENODEIODINASE PROCESSING BY THE PROTEASOME SYSTEM
    Antonio Bianco; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..novel molecular aspects of the selective proteolysis of the type 2 deiodinase (D2), the major enzyme activating thyroxine. It is proposed that as an extension of the parent grant these studies will identify D2 structures which are ..
  60. Incorporating Thyronamines into Thyroid Hormone Metabolism
    WARREN WOOD; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..involving thyronamines, the hypotheses behind this research proposal are a) that thyronamines are metabolites of thyroxine and b) that biologically active thyroacetic acids are formed from the corresponding thyronamines...
  61. Steroid As Cytoprotectants against Oxidative Toxicity
    Qin Chen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  62. GENE EXPRESSION IN FAMILIAL AND SENILE CARDIAC AMYLOID
    Joel Buxbaum; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..FAP's) and Senile Systemic (cardiac) Amyloidosis have been shown to be caused by the deposition of thyroxine-binding prealbumin (transthyretin)-related molecules in various tissues, notably peripheral and autonomic nerves,..
  63. DIRECTED AXON GROWTH--HORMONAL CONTROL & GENE EXPRESSION
    Sally Hoskins; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..This will be accomplished by analysis of the mechanism by which thyroxine induces the development of a specific population of retinal ganglion cell axons...