Summary: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Dopamine as a prolactin (PRL) inhibitor
    N Ben-Jonathan
    Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology, and Anatomy, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA
    Endocr Rev 22:724-63. 2001
  2. ncbi Prolactin and neuroimmunomodulation: in vitro and in vivo observations
    I C Chikanza
    Department of Rheumatology, St Bartholomews, London, United Kingdom
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 876:119-30. 1999
  3. ncbi Prolactin: structure, function, and regulation of secretion
    M E Freeman
    Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 4340, USA
    Physiol Rev 80:1523-631. 2000
  4. ncbi Menin controls growth of pancreatic beta-cells in pregnant mice and promotes gestational diabetes mellitus
    Satyajit K Karnik
    Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 318:806-9. 2007
  5. ncbi Diagnostic markers for early detection of ovarian cancer
    Irene Visintin
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 14:1065-72. 2008
  6. ncbi Effects of exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy on serotonergic symptoms in newborns and cord blood monoamine and prolactin concentrations
    Kari Laine
    Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Turku and Turku University Central Hospital, Turku, Finland
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:720-6. 2003
  7. pmc What can we learn from rodents about prolactin in humans?
    Nira Ben-Jonathan
    Department of Cell and Cancer Biology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45255, USA
    Endocr Rev 29:1-41. 2008
  8. ncbi Adaptation of islets of Langerhans to pregnancy: beta-cell growth, enhanced insulin secretion and the role of lactogenic hormones
    R L Sorenson
    Department of Cell Biology and Neuroanatomy, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis 55455, USA
    Horm Metab Res 29:301-7. 1997
  9. ncbi Pregnancy-stimulated neurogenesis in the adult female forebrain mediated by prolactin
    Tetsuro Shingo
    Genes and Development Research Group, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N1
    Science 299:117-20. 2003
  10. ncbi Src mediates prolactin-dependent proliferation of T47D and MCF7 cells via the activation of focal adhesion kinase/Erk1/2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways
    Juan J Acosta
    Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas A Sols, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
    Mol Endocrinol 17:2268-82. 2003

Detail Information

Publications384 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Dopamine as a prolactin (PRL) inhibitor
    N Ben-Jonathan
    Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology, and Anatomy, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA
    Endocr Rev 22:724-63. 2001
    ..The treatment of hyperprolactinemia has greatly benefited from the generation of progressively more effective and selective dopaminergic drugs...
  2. ncbi Prolactin and neuroimmunomodulation: in vitro and in vivo observations
    I C Chikanza
    Department of Rheumatology, St Bartholomews, London, United Kingdom
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 876:119-30. 1999
    b>Prolactin (PL) is a mammotropic neuropeptide produced by the pituitary and extrapituitary cells existing as several isoforms and belongs to the growth and lactogenic hormone family, which includes growth hormone and placental lactogens...
  3. ncbi Prolactin: structure, function, and regulation of secretion
    M E Freeman
    Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 4340, USA
    Physiol Rev 80:1523-631. 2000
    b>Prolactin is a protein hormone of the anterior pituitary gland that was originally named for its ability to promote lactation in response to the suckling stimulus of hungry young mammals...
  4. ncbi Menin controls growth of pancreatic beta-cells in pregnant mice and promotes gestational diabetes mellitus
    Satyajit K Karnik
    Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 318:806-9. 2007
    ..b>Prolactin, a hormonal regulator of pregnancy, repressed islet menin levels and stimulated beta-cell proliferation...
  5. ncbi Diagnostic markers for early detection of ovarian cancer
    Irene Visintin
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 14:1065-72. 2008
    ..In this study, we characterize and validate the combination of six serum biomarkers that discriminate between disease-free and ovarian cancer patients with high efficiency...
  6. ncbi Effects of exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy on serotonergic symptoms in newborns and cord blood monoamine and prolactin concentrations
    Kari Laine
    Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Turku and Turku University Central Hospital, Turku, Finland
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:720-6. 2003
    ..We aimed to investigate the perinatal sequelae of infants exposed to SSRIs during their fetal life and the relationship of these symptoms to the cord blood monoamine and prolactin concentrations.
  7. pmc What can we learn from rodents about prolactin in humans?
    Nira Ben-Jonathan
    Department of Cell and Cancer Biology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45255, USA
    Endocr Rev 29:1-41. 2008
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is a 23-kDa protein hormone that binds to a single-span membrane receptor, a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily, and exerts its action via several interacting signaling pathways...
  8. ncbi Adaptation of islets of Langerhans to pregnancy: beta-cell growth, enhanced insulin secretion and the role of lactogenic hormones
    R L Sorenson
    Department of Cell Biology and Neuroanatomy, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis 55455, USA
    Horm Metab Res 29:301-7. 1997
    ..occur during pregnancy are complex, it appears that lactogenic influences (either placental lactogen and/or prolactin) are sufficient to induce all of the up-regulatory changes that occur in islets during pregnancy...
  9. ncbi Pregnancy-stimulated neurogenesis in the adult female forebrain mediated by prolactin
    Tetsuro Shingo
    Genes and Development Research Group, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N1
    Science 299:117-20. 2003
    ..forebrain subventricular zone of female mice during pregnancy and that this effect is mediated by the hormone prolactin. The progenitors then migrate to produce new olfactory interneurons, a process likely to be important for ..
  10. ncbi Src mediates prolactin-dependent proliferation of T47D and MCF7 cells via the activation of focal adhesion kinase/Erk1/2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways
    Juan J Acosta
    Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas A Sols, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
    Mol Endocrinol 17:2268-82. 2003
    b>Prolactin (PRL) stimulates breast cancer cell proliferation; however, the involvement of PRL-activated signaling molecules in cell proliferation is not fully established...
  11. ncbi Prolactin enhances interferon-gamma-induced production of CXC ligand 9 (CXCL9), CXCL10, and CXCL11 in human keratinocytes
    Naoko Kanda
    Department of Dermatology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Itabashi ku, Tokyo 173 8605, Japan
    Endocrinology 148:2317-25. 2007
    Psoriasis vulgaris is an autoimmune dermatosis characterized by type 1 T cell infiltration. Prolactin may be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis...
  12. pmc Autocrine prolactin induced by the Pten-Akt pathway is required for lactation initiation and provides a direct link between the Akt and Stat5 pathways
    Chien Chung Chen
    Department of Cancer Biology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Genes Dev 26:2154-68. 2012
    Extrapituitary prolactin (Prl) is produced in humans and rodents; however, little is known about its in vivo regulation or physiological function...
  13. pmc Prolactin increases SMN expression and survival in a mouse model of severe spinal muscular atrophy via the STAT5 pathway
    Faraz Farooq
    University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
    J Clin Invest 121:3042-50. 2011
    ..Here, we have shown that prolactin (PRL) increases SMN levels via activation of the STAT5 pathway...
  14. ncbi Prolactin signaling mechanisms in ovary
    Justine Bouilly
    Inserm U 693, Le Kremlin Bicetre, France
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 356:80-7. 2012
    b>Prolactin is a hormone that is essential for normal reproduction and signals through two types of receptors...
  15. ncbi Convergent evolution of endometrial prolactin expression in primates, mice, and elephants through the independent recruitment of transposable elements
    Deena Emera
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Yale Systems Biology Institute, Yale University, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 29:239-47. 2012
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is a multifunctional signaling molecule best known for its role in regulating lactation in mammals...
  16. pmc Cortistatin is not a somatostatin analogue but stimulates prolactin release and inhibits GH and ACTH in a gender-dependent fashion: potential role of ghrelin
    Jose Cordoba-Chacon
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, Cordoba, Spain
    Endocrinology 152:4800-12. 2011
    ..Specifically, CST exerted an unexpected stimulatory role on prolactin (PRL) secretion, because both male/female cort-/- mice had reduced PRL levels, and CST treatment (in vivo and in ..
  17. ncbi A functional role of the erg-like inward-rectifying K+ current in prolactin secretion from rat lactotrophs
    C K Bauer
    Physiologisches Institut, Abteilung fur angewandte Physiologie, Universitatskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 148:37-45. 1999
    ..Measurements of basal prolactin secretion with the reverse hemolytic plaque assay showed that the number of prolactin secreting cells and the ..
  18. ncbi Chromatin remodeling as a mechanism for circadian prolactin transcription: rhythmic NONO and SFPQ recruitment to HLTF
    Fabienne Guillaumond
    Institut des Sciences Moleculaires de Marseille ISM2 UMR6263 Université Aix Marseille III, Marseille, France
    FASEB J 25:2740-56. 2011
    ..This is the case for the prolactin (Prl) gene, the expression of which oscillates in individual lactotrope pituitary cells...
  19. pmc Stiff collagen matrices increase tumorigenic prolactin signaling in breast cancer cells
    Craig E Barcus
    Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Biol Chem 288:12722-32. 2013
    Clinically, circulating prolactin levels and density of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are individual risk factors for breast cancer...
  20. ncbi Significant associations of polymorphisms in the prolactin gene with growth traits in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer)
    X P He
    Molecular Population Genetics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Anim Genet 43:233-6. 2012
    b>Prolactin (encoded by PRL) is a multifunctional hormone involved in osmoregulation, reproduction, growth, development, immunomodulation, endocrine and metabolic regulation...
  21. ncbi Prolactin levels independently predict major cardiovascular events in patients with erectile dysfunction
    G Corona
    Andrology Unit and Endocrinology, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    Int J Androl 34:217-24. 2011
    The physiological role of prolactin (PRL) in men is not completely clarified...
  22. pmc Extracellular matrix-regulated gene expression requires cooperation of SWI/SNF and transcription factors
    Ren Xu
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:14992-9. 2007
    ..assays and mammary-specific genes as models, we show here that extracellular matrix molecules and prolactin cooperate to induce histone acetylation and binding of transcription factors and the SWI/SNF complex to the beta-..
  23. ncbi Prolactin, hyperprolactinaemia and antipsychotic treatment: a review and lessons for treatment of early psychosis
    John Cookson
    Burdett House, Mile End Hospital, London, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 26:42-51. 2012
    ..Higher levels of prolactin result from longer exposure to higher doses, especially with older antipsychotics or with risperidone, sulpiride ..
  24. ncbi Focus on prolactin as a metabolic hormone
    Nira Ben-Jonathan
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Cincinnati Medical School, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0521, USA
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 17:110-6. 2006
    New information about the effects of prolactin (PRL) on metabolic processes warrants re-evaluation of the overall metabolic actions of PRL...
  25. ncbi Immunomodulatory role of prolactin in diabetes development
    P Cejkova
    Institute of General Biology and Genetics, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Ruska 87, 10000 Prague 10, Czech Republic
    Autoimmun Rev 9:23-7. 2009
    Pituitary hormone and cytokine prolactin (PRL) is one of the mediators of the bidirectional communication between neuroendocrine and immune systems...
  26. ncbi Prolactin in response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men and women
    Anna Karin Lennartsson
    The Institute of Stress Medicine, Goteborg, Sweden
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 36:1530-9. 2011
    Serum levels of the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin have been reported to increase in response to different types of psychological stressors in humans...
  27. ncbi Identification of the RUSH consensus-binding site by cyclic amplification and selection of targets: demonstration that RUSH mediates the ability of prolactin to augment progesterone-dependent gene expression
    Aveline Hewetson
    Department of Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas 79430, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 16:2101-12. 2002
    ..Deletion analysis showed this region was essential to prolactin (PRL) action, but conclusions were limited by the complexity of the large deletion...
  28. ncbi Prolactin regulation of mammary gland development
    Samantha R Oakes
    Development Group, Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, NSW, 2010, Australia
    J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 13:13-28. 2008
    ..b>Prolactin is the major driver of development during pregnancy via regulation of ovarian progesterone production (in many ..
  29. ncbi Comparison of metabolic and prolactin variables from a six-month randomised trial of olanzapine and quetiapine in schizophrenia
    C Bushe
    Eli Lilly and Company, Basingstoke, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 24:1001-9. 2010
    ..Our objective was to compare changes in prolactin and metabolic variables (glucose, lipids and weight) as a post-hoc analysis from a six-month, randomised, ..
  30. pmc A PIT-1 homeodomain mutant blocks the intranuclear recruitment of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha required for prolactin gene transcription
    John F Enwright
    Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 0578, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 17:209-22. 2003
    ..Here, we correlate cooperative activation of prolactin (PRL) gene transcription by Pit-1 and C/EBPalpha with changes in the subnuclear localization of these factors in ..
  31. ncbi Prolactin suppresses glucocorticoid-induced thymocyte apoptosis in vivo
    Nithya Krishnan
    College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA
    Endocrinology 144:2102-10. 2003
    The hypothesis that prolactin (PRL) functions as an immunomodulator was based on studies showing lymphocyte PRL receptors, and its effects on growth, differentiation, and apoptosis in lymphoid cells...
  32. ncbi Prolactin receptor antagonism in mouse anterior pituitary: effects on cell turnover and prolactin receptor expression
    Jimena Ferraris
    Instituto de Investigaciones en Reproducción, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 302:E356-64. 2012
    Since anterior pituitary expresses prolactin receptors, prolactin secreted by lactotropes could exert autocrine or paracrine actions on anterior pituitary cells...
  33. pmc Cloning and expression of Stat5 and an additional homologue (Stat5b) involved in prolactin signal transduction in mouse mammary tissue
    X Liu
    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Metabolism, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:8831-5. 1995
    b>Prolactin (PRL) induces transcriptional activation of milk protein genes, such as the whey acidic protein (WAP), beta-casein, and beta-lactoglobulin genes, through a signaling cascade encompassing the Janus kinase Jak2 and the mammary ..
  34. ncbi The orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 regulates decidual prolactin expression in human endometrial stromal cells
    Yue Jiang
    Reproductive Medicine Center, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008, PR China
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 404:628-33. 2011
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is synthesized and released by several extrapituitary tissues, including decidualized stromal cells...
  35. ncbi Prolactin enhances basal and IL-17-induced CCL20 production by human keratinocytes
    Naoko Kanda
    Department of Dermatology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Eur J Immunol 39:996-1006. 2009
    Psoriasis vulgaris is an autoimmune dermatosis with Th17 infiltration. Prolactin (PRL) may participate in the pathogenesis of psoriasis...
  36. ncbi Elevation of prolactin levels by atypical antipsychotics
    Peter Turrone
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Ont, Canada
    Am J Psychiatry 159:133-5. 2002
    Atypical antipsychotics are thought not to elevate prolactin levels. The authors examined data suggesting that atypical antipsychotics do elevate prolactin levels but more transiently than typical antipsychotics.
  37. ncbi Interplay between progesterone and prolactin in mammary development and implications for breast cancer
    Heather J Lee
    Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 357:101-7. 2012
    Progesterone and prolactin remodel mammary morphology during pregnancy by acting on the mammary epithelial cell hierarchy...
  38. ncbi Prolactin, a lymphocyte growth and survival factor
    A R Buckley
    College of Pharmacy and Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Ohio 45267 0004, USA
    Lupus 10:684-90. 2001
    Evidence accumulated over the past 20 y indicates that the anterior pituitary hormone, prolactin (PRL), is a critical, physiologically relevant immunomodulator...
  39. pmc Mammary gland factor (MGF) is a novel member of the cytokine regulated transcription factor gene family and confers the prolactin response
    H Wakao
    Friedrich Miescher Institute, Basel, Switzerland
    EMBO J 13:2182-91. 1994 mammary epithelial cells is regulated by the action of the lactogenic hormones insulin, glucocorticoids and prolactin. The mammary gland factor, MGF, has been shown to be a central mediator in the lactogenic hormone response...
  40. ncbi Impact of prolactin receptor isoforms on reproduction
    Nadine Binart
    INSERM, U845, 75015 Paris, France
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 21:362-8. 2010
    b>Prolactin is a hormone involved in growth, development, reproduction, metabolism, water and electrolyte balance, brain and behavior, and immunoregulation...
  41. ncbi Tumor expression of human growth hormone and human prolactin predict a worse survival outcome in patients with mammary or endometrial carcinoma
    Zheng Sheng Wu
    Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027, People s Republic of China
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:E1619-29. 2011
    Evidence suggests that human GH (hGH) and human prolactin (hPRL) possess an autocrine or paracrine oncogenic role in mammary and endometrial carcinoma...
  42. ncbi Prolactin, growth hormone, and epidermal growth factor activate Stat5 in different compartments of mammary tissue and exert different and overlapping developmental effects
    M I Gallego
    Laboratory of Genetics and Physiology, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Dev Biol 229:163-75. 2001
    b>Prolactin (Prl)-induced phosphorylation of Stat (signal transducer and activator of transcription) 5 is considered a key event in functional mammary development and differentiation...
  43. ncbi Bridging the gap between GPCR activation and behaviour: oxytocin and prolactin signalling in the hypothalamus
    Erwin H van den Burg
    Behavioural and Molecular Neuroendocrinology, Institute of Zoology, University of Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
    J Mol Neurosci 43:200-8. 2011
    ..This paper will focus on the neuropeptides oxytocin and prolactin with respect to (1) the regulation of neuroendocrine stress responses and anxiety, and (2) the receptor-mediated ..
  44. ncbi Ferritin and prolactin levels in multiple sclerosis
    Rafael Da Costa
    Zabludovicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomrner, Israel
    Isr Med Assoc J 13:91-5. 2011
    ..The disease may present in several clinical forms that are closely associated with disease morbidity. In recent years various environmental and hormonal factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity...
  45. ncbi Prolactin: an emerging force along the cutaneous-endocrine axis
    Ewan A Langan
    Epithelial Sciences, School of Translational Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 21:569-77. 2010
    b>Prolactin (PRL), one of the most diverse regulators in mammalian biology, is produced in both human skin and hair follicles...
  46. pmc Prolactin-stimulated activation of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases is controlled by PI3-kinase/Rac/PAK signaling pathway in breast cancer cells
    Edita Aksamitiene
    Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust St, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    Cell Signal 23:1794-805. 2011
    There is strong evidence that deregulation of prolactin (PRL) signaling contributes to pathogenesis and chemoresistance of breast cancer...
  47. ncbi Thyrotropin-releasing hormone and oestrogen differentially regulate prolactin and prolactin receptor expression in female human skin and hair follicles in vitro
    E A Langan
    Dermatological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M6 8HD, UK
    Br J Dermatol 162:1127-31. 2010
    Human skin and scalp hair follicles are both a nonclassical target and an extrapituitary source of prolactin (PRL), which is a potent hair growth modulator...
  48. ncbi Prolactin and autoimmunity
    Shahar Shelly
    Department of Medicine B, Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel
    Autoimmun Rev 11:A465-70. 2012
    Sex hormones, especially estrogen and prolactin (PRL), have an important role in modulating the immune response. PRL is secreted from the pituitary gland as well as other organs and cells particularly lymphocytes...
  49. ncbi Prolactin secretion patterns: basic mechanisms and clinical implications for reproduction
    Marcel Egli
    Space Biology Group, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, ETH Zurich, 8005 Zurich, Switzerland
    Reproduction 140:643-54. 2010
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is one of the most versatile hormones in the mammalian body affecting reproductive, sexual, metabolic, immune, and other functions...
  50. ncbi Prolactin controls mammary gland development via direct and indirect mechanisms
    C Brisken
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02142 1479, USA
    Dev Biol 210:96-106. 1999
    The inactivation of the prolactin receptor gene by homologous recombination has made it possible to investigate the role of prolactin signaling in mammary gland development without resort to ablative surgery of the endocrine glands...
  51. ncbi The impact on clinical practice of routine screening for macroprolactin
    J Gibney
    Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Mellitus, St Vincent s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:3927-32. 2005
    ..Macroprolactin has reduced bioactivity in vivo and accumulates in the sera of some subjects, resulting in pseudo-hyperprolactinemia and consequent misdiagnosis...
  52. pmc Use of a prolactin-Cre/ROSA-YFP transgenic mouse provides no evidence for lactotroph transdifferentiation after weaning, or increase in lactotroph/somatotroph proportion in lactation
    Emma Castrique
    Henry Wellcome Labs for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, University of Bristol, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Bristol, UK
    J Endocrinol 205:49-60. 2010 confirm that a similar process occurs in mice, we generated and used a transgenic reporter mouse model (prolactin (PRL)-Cre/ROSA26-expression of yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP)) in which PRL promoter activity at any time ..
  53. ncbi Kisspeptin cells in the ovine arcuate nucleus express prolactin receptor but not melatonin receptor
    Q Li
    Department of Physiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
    J Neuroendocrinol 23:871-82. 2011
    ..The circannual rhythmicity of other factors, including prolactin, is also regulated by photoperiod via changes in melatonin secretion...
  54. pmc Stromal cells from endometriotic lesions and endometrium from women with endometriosis have reduced decidualization capacity
    Petra A B Klemmt
    Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The Women s Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Fertil Steril 85:564-72. 2006
    ..To evaluate the phenotype, proliferative, and differentiation capacities in vitro of stromal cells derived from peritoneal, ovarian, and deeply infiltrating endometriosis...
  55. ncbi Estrogen-receptor-alpha exchange and chromatin dynamics are ligand- and domain-dependent
    Z Dave Sharp
    Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Instititue of Biotechnology, San Antonio, TX, USA
    J Cell Sci 119:4101-16. 2006
    ..Designed after the prolactin promoter-enhancer, it allows for the direct visualization of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and/or Pit-1 ..
  56. ncbi Prolactin--a novel neuroendocrine regulator of human keratin expression in situ
    Yuval Ramot
    Department of Dermatology, University of Lubeck, Lubeck, Germany
    FASEB J 24:1768-79. 2010
    ..Here, we have investigated the effects of the neurohormone prolactin (PRL) on keratin expression in a physiologically and clinically relevant test system: organ-cultured normal ..
  57. ncbi New concepts in prolactin biology
    Sophie Bernichtein
    INSERM, Unit 845, Research Center Growth and Signaling, University Paris Descartes, Faculty of Medicine, Paris, France
    J Endocrinol 206:1-11. 2010
    Human prolactin (PRL) is currently viewed as a hormone of pituitary origin, whose production (i.e...
  58. pmc Endogenous prolactin-releasing peptide regulates food intake in rodents
    Yuki Takayanagi
    Division of Brain and Neurophysiology, Department of Physiology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan
    J Clin Invest 118:4014-24. 2008
    ..In this study, we found that neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii of the brainstem that express prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) are activated rapidly by food ingestion...
  59. ncbi A double-blind placebo-controlled study of buspirone-stimulated prolactin release in non-ulcer dyspepsia--are central serotoninergic responses enhanced?
    T G Dinan
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The Cork Clinic, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork, Ireland
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 15:1613-8. 2001
    ..The pathophysiology of non-ulcer dyspepsia is poorly understood and numerous theories have been put forward, including a theory of enhanced central serotoninergic receptor sensitivity...
  60. pmc Spatial and temporal expression of the 23 murine Prolactin/Placental Lactogen-related genes is not associated with their position in the locus
    David G Simmons
    Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, The University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
    BMC Genomics 9:352. 2008
    The Prolactin (PRL) hormone gene family shows considerable variation among placental mammals...
  61. ncbi Testosterone and prolactin are associated with emotional responses to infant cries in new fathers
    Alison S Fleming
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto at Mississauga, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada
    Horm Behav 42:399-413. 2002
    ..measured affective, heart-rate, and endocrine responses, including salivary testosterone and cortisol and plasma prolactin concentrations prior to and after cry presentations...
  62. ncbi Adipocyte prolactin: regulation of release and putative functions
    T Brandebourg
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Cincinnati School of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA
    Diabetes Obes Metab 9:464-76. 2007
    Pituitary-derived prolactin (PRL) is a well-known regulator of the lactating mammary gland...
  63. ncbi Operative treatment of prolactinomas: indications and results in a current consecutive series of 212 patients
    J Kreutzer
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Eur J Endocrinol 158:11-8. 2008
    ..Classical' surgical indications are intolerance or lack of efficiency of DA therapy. Focusing on a possible shift of recent indications, we retrospectively analyzed our results of surgical treatment in prolactinomas...
  64. ncbi The regulation of fatty acid synthase by STAT5A
    Jessica C Hogan
    Louisiana State University, Department of Biological Sciences, 202 Life Sciences Bldg, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
    Diabetes 54:1968-75. 2005
    ..GH and prolactin (PRL) are potent activators of STAT5 and exert adipogenic and antiadipogenic effects in adipocytes...
  65. ncbi Prolactin and dopamine: what is the connection? A review article
    Peter Fitzgerald
    Department of Psychiatry and Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    J Psychopharmacol 22:12-9. 2008
    Dopamine (DA) holds a predominant role in the regulation of prolactin (PRL) secretion. Through a direct effect on anterior pituitary lactotrophs, DA inhibits the basally high-secretory tone of the cell...
  66. pmc Development of multimarker panel for early detection of endometrial cancer. High diagnostic power of prolactin
    Zoya Yurkovetsky
    University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, 5117 Centre Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Gynecol Oncol 107:58-65. 2007
    ..Therefore, prevention and early detection may further reduce the burden of this challenging disease...
  67. pmc Defective mammopoiesis, but normal hematopoiesis, in mice with a targeted disruption of the prolactin gene
    N D Horseman
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0576, USA
    EMBO J 16:6926-35. 1997
    b>Prolactin (PRL) has been implicated in numerous physiological and developmental processes. The mouse PRL gene was disrupted by homologous recombination...
  68. ncbi Prolactin-induced mitogenesis in the subventricular zone of the maternal brain during early pregnancy is essential for normal postpartum behavioral responses in the mother
    Caroline M Larsen
    Centre for Neuroendocrinology and Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, University of Otago, New Zealand
    Endocrinology 151:3805-14. 2010
    High prolactin during pregnancy, which is essential for normal postpartum maternal behavior, increases neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle (SVZ) of the maternal brain...
  69. ncbi Central and peripheral effects of RFamide-related peptide-3 on luteinizing hormone and prolactin secretion in rats
    Greg M Anderson
    Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Centre for Neuroendocrinology, University of Otago School of Medical Sciences, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Endocrinology 150:1834-40. 2009
    ..5 h did not affect subsequent LH pulse frequency, pulse amplitude, or the mean concentrations of LH or prolactin. RFRP-3 treatment of isolated anterior pituitary cells at moderate doses of up to 10(-7) m did not significantly ..
  70. ncbi Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 in human prostate cancer is associated with high histological grade
    Hongzhen Li
    Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, NRB E508, 3970 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Cancer Res 64:4774-82. 2004
    ..A ligand-induced mechanism for activation of Stat5 in prostate cancer was suggested by the ability of prolactin (Prl) to stimulate activation of both Jak2 and Stat5 in CWR22Rv human prostate cancer cells and in CWR22Rv ..
  71. pmc Sustained activation of STAT5 is essential for chromatin remodeling and maintenance of mammary-specific function
    Ren Xu
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    J Cell Biol 184:57-66. 2009
    ..We showed previously that in addition to prolactin, signaling by laminin-111 was necessary to restore functional differentiation of mammary epithelia...
  72. ncbi Hypothalamic levels of NPY, MCH, and prepro-orexin mRNA during pregnancy and lactation in the rat: role of prolactin
    M C Garcia
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, R San Francisco s n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    FASEB J 17:1392-400. 2003
    ..MCH and prepro-orexin may be involved in the adaptation of other homeostatic mechanisms and their decreased levels in these physiological settings could be mediated by the elevated circulating PRL levels...
  73. ncbi A tissue-specific transcription factor containing a homeodomain specifies a pituitary phenotype
    H A Ingraham
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093
    Cell 55:519-29. 1988
    Multiple related cis-active elements required for cell-specific activation of the rat prolactin gene appear to bind a pituitary-specific positive transcription factor(s), referred to as Pit-1...
  74. ncbi Hypothesis: prolactin is tumorigenic to human breast: dispelling the myth that prolactin-induced mammary tumors are rodent-specific
    Philip W Harvey
    Covance Laboratories, Otley Road, Harrogate, North Yorkshire, HG3 1PY, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 32:1-9. 2012
    The commonly held assumption that rodent mammary tumors resulting from elevated prolactin are species-specific, or not biologically relevant to humans, is incorrect...
  75. ncbi A role for the cytoskeleton in prolactin-dependent mammary epithelial cell differentiation
    Ghada S Zoubiane
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK
    J Cell Sci 117:271-80. 2004
    ..integrin-mediated adhesion to the extracellular matrix protein laminin co-operates with soluble factors such as prolactin to regulate tissue-specific gene expression...
  76. ncbi DNA polymorphism of 5' flanking region of prolactin gene and its association with litter size in sheep
    M X Chu
    The Key Laboratory of Domestic Animal Genetic Resources and Germplasm Innovation of CAAS, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China
    J Anim Breed Genet 126:63-8. 2009
    A single nucleotide polymorphism of 5' flanking region of the prolactin gene was investigated in both high prolificacy breeds (Small Tail Han and Hu sheep) and low prolificacy breeds (Dorset and Suffolk sheep) using polymerase chain ..
  77. ncbi Activation of the unliganded estrogen receptor by prolactin in breast cancer cells
    L Gonzalez
    Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas and Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    Oncogene 28:1298-308. 2009
    Both prolactin (PRL) and estrogen (E2) are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of mammary neoplasia, but the mechanisms by which these hormones interact to exert their effects in breast cancer cells are not well understood...
  78. ncbi Functional -1149 g/t polymorphism of the prolactin gene in schizophrenia
    Janusz K Rybakowski
    Department of Adult Psychiatry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland
    Neuropsychobiology 65:41-4. 2012
    b>Prolactin in schizophrenia is considered in the context of antipsychotic drug-induced hyperprolactinemia...
  79. ncbi Monitoring and management of antipsychotic-related metabolic and endocrine adverse events in pediatric patients
    Christoph U Correll
    Zucker Hillside Hospital, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System Glen Oaks, New York 11004, USA
    Int Rev Psychiatry 20:195-201. 2008
    ..related adverse events than adults, including developmentally inappropriate weight gain and glucose, lipid and prolactin abnormalities, which can be associated with adverse physical outcomes during childhood...
  80. pmc Prolactin is a peripheral marker of manganese neurotoxicity
    A P Marreilha dos Santos
    i Med UL, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
    Brain Res 1382:282-90. 2011
    ..Male Wistar rats (180-200g) were injected intraperitoneally with 4 or 8 doses of Mn (10mg/kg). Mn exposure was evaluated by analysis of Mn levels in brain and blood along with biochemical end-points (see below)...
  81. ncbi Seasonal and biological variation of blood concentrations of total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, hemoglobin A(1c), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in healthy women
    A H Garde
    Referencelaboratory, National Institute of Occupational Health, Lerso Parkalle 105, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark Copenhagen N, Denmark
    Clin Chem 46:551-9. 2000
    ..fluctuations for total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in blood, and estimates within- (CV(i)) and between-subject (CV(g)) CVs for healthy women...
  82. ncbi The prolactin-deficient mouse has an unaltered metabolic phenotype
    Christopher R LaPensee
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Cincinnati, 3125 Eden Avenue, Ohio 45267 0521, USA
    Endocrinology 147:4638-45. 2006
    b>Prolactin (PRL), best recognized for its lactogenic activity, is also involved in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis in both mammalian and nonmammalian species...
  83. ncbi Serum prolactin levels in psoriasis and correlation with cutaneous disease activity
    E Dilmé-Carreras
    Department of Dermatology, Sagrat Cor University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain
    Clin Exp Dermatol 36:29-32. 2011
    b>Prolactin (PRL), a neuropeptide secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, possesses a variety of physiological actions...
  84. ncbi Direct stimulation of the transcellular and paracellular calcium transport in the rat cecum by prolactin
    Kamonshanok Kraidith
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand
    Pflugers Arch 458:993-1005. 2009
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is reported to stimulate calcium absorption in the rat's small intestine. However, little is known regarding its effects on the cecum, a part of the large intestine with the highest rate of intestinal calcium transport...
  85. ncbi Suppressor of cytokine signaling 7 inhibits prolactin, growth hormone, and leptin signaling by interacting with STAT5 or STAT3 and attenuating their nuclear translocation
    Nele Martens
    Neuroendocrine Immunology, and Pharmacology Department, Medical School, Free University, B 1090 Brussels, Belgium
    J Biol Chem 280:13817-23. 2005
    ..We demonstrate that SOCS-7 inhibits prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), or leptin (LEP) signaling mediated through STAT3 and STAT5 in a dose-dependent ..
  86. ncbi Serum biomarker profiles as diagnostic tools in lung cancer
    Brian M Nolen
    University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Cancer Biomark 10:3-12. 2011
    ..A minimally-invasive biomarker-based test that could further characterize CT-positive patients based on risk of malignancy would greatly enhance its clinical efficacy...
  87. ncbi Prolactin stimulates the internalization of Staphylococcus aureus and modulates the expression of inflammatory response genes in bovine mammary epithelial cells
    Angelina Gutiérrez-Barroso
    Centro Multidisciplinario de Estudios en Biotecnología Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Apdo Postal 53, Administración Chapultepec, C P 58262, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 121:113-22. 2008 the drying off period and parturition, which are characterized by high levels of the lactogenic hormone prolactin (PRL). One of the most frequently isolated contagious pathogens causing mastitis is Staphylococcus aureus...
  88. ncbi Development of real-time PCR assays in the study of gonadotropin subunits, follistatin and prolactin genes expression in the porcine anterior pituitary during the preovulatory period
    Pawel Lisowski
    Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Polish Academy of Sciences, Jastrzebiec, 05 552 Wolka Kosowska, Poland
    Neuro Endocrinol Lett 29:958-64. 2008
    ..Moreover, we focused on the influence of GnRH receptor antagonist (antide) treatment on mRNA expression levels of GPalpha, LHbeta, FSHbeta, FST(follistatin) and PRL(prolactin) genes in these cells.
  89. ncbi Distinctive roles for prolactin and growth hormone in the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 in pancreatic islets of langerhans
    T Clark Brelje
    Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota Medical School, 6 160 Jackson Hall, 321 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Endocrinology 145:4162-75. 2004
    Although the beta-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans express both prolactin (PRL) and GH receptors, we have observed that PRL is considerably more effective than GH in the up-regulation of islet function in vitro...
  90. ncbi Regulation of Ca2+ mobilization by prolactin in mammary gland cells: possible role of secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPase type 2
    Utchariya Anantamongkol
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Sciences, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 352:537-42. 2007
    Regulatory role of prolactin (PRL) on Ca2+ mobilization in human mammary gland cell line MCF-7 was examined...
  91. ncbi Blood melatonin and prolactin concentrations in dairy cows exposed to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields during 8 h photoperiods
    M Rodriguez
    Department of Animal Science, McGill University, Ste Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada
    Bioelectromagnetics 25:508-15. 2004
    ..16.3 pg/ml, P < .06) in the EMF exposed group, and no effects were observed during the dark period. Plasma prolactin (PRL) was increased in the EMF exposed group (16.6 vs. 12.7 ng/ml, P < .02) in the first experiment...
  92. ncbi Expression of pituitary prolactin, growth hormone and somatolactin is modified in response to different stressors (salinity, crowding and food-deprivation) in gilthead sea bream Sparus auratus
    Raúl Laiz-Carrión
    Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz, Spain
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 162:293-300. 2009
    b>Prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and somatolactin (SL) expression was studied in gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus) in response to several different stressors (salinity, food deprivation or stocking density)...
  93. ncbi Male pheromones initiate prolactin-induced neurogenesis and advance maternal behavior in female mice
    Caroline M Larsen
    Centre for Neuroendocrinology and Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Box 913, University of Otago, Dunedin 9001, New Zealand
    Horm Behav 53:509-17. 2008
    b>Prolactin is required for rapid onset of maternal behavior after parturition, inducing adaptive changes in the maternal brain including enhanced neurogenesis in the subventricular zone during pregnancy...
  94. pmc Prolactin stimulates precursor cells in the adult mouse hippocampus
    Tara L Walker
    Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
    PLoS ONE 7:e44371. 2012
    ..In this study, we show that the hormonal factor prolactin (PRL) can activate a pool of latent precursor cells in the adult mouse hippocampus...
  95. ncbi Clinical relevance of macroprolactin
    James Gibney
    Department of Endocrinology, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 62:633-43. 2005
  96. pmc Combinations of physiologic estrogens with xenoestrogens alter calcium and kinase responses, prolactin release, and membrane estrogen receptor trafficking in rat pituitary cells
    Yow Jiun Jeng
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA
    Environ Health 9:61. 2010
    ..Therefore, we used quantitative medium-throughput screening assays to measure the effects of physiologic estrogens in combination with these xenoestrogens...
  97. ncbi Tissue-specific regulation of porcine prolactin receptor expression by estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin
    Josephine F Trott
    Lactation and Mammary Gland Biology Group, Department of Animal Science, The University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405, USA
    J Endocrinol 202:153-66. 2009
    b>Prolactin (PRL) acts through its receptor (PRLR) via both endocrine and local paracrine/autocrine pathways to regulate biological processes including reproduction and lactation...
  98. ncbi Prolactin, dendritic cells, and systemic lupus erythematosus
    Luis J Jara
    Direction of Education and Research, Unidad Médica de Alta Especialización, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico La Raza, IMSS, Mexico
    Autoimmun Rev 7:251-5. 2008
    ..Immature DC present antigens efficiently. Prolactin (PRL) participates in DC maturation...
  99. ncbi Prolactin induces regional vasoconstriction through the beta2-adrenergic and nitric oxide mechanisms
    Claudio Molinari
    Laboratorio di Fisiologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita del Piemonte Orientale A Avogadro, Via Solaroli 17, I 28100 Novara, Italy
    Endocrinology 148:4080-90. 2007
    b>Prolactin has been associated with many effects and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders, although little is known about its vascular effects...
  100. ncbi McCune-Albright syndrome: growth hormone and prolactin hypersecretion
    Athanasios Christoforidis
    Department of Endocrinology, Great Ormond Street Hospital and The Middlesex Hospital UCLH, London, UK
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 19:623-5. 2006
    ..can be expressed as precocious puberty, mainly in girls, primary hyperthyroidism, growth hormone (GH) and/or prolactin excess, hyperparathyroidism and hypercortisolism...
  101. ncbi Maternal stress affects postnatal growth and the pituitary expression of prolactin in mouse offspring
    Pengfei Gao
    Center for Kampo Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    J Neurosci Res 89:329-40. 2011
    ..mRNA expression analysis of anterior pituitary hormones in the pups revealed that growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL), but no other hormones, were decreased by IS...

Research Grants76

  1. Role of JAK2-PAK1 interaction in prolactin-dependent signaling
    Maria Diakonova; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In normal mammary development, the hormone prolactin (PRL) is critical for alveolar proliferation and differentiation...
    ROBERT STAFFORD BRIDGES; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..previous grant period, using a rat animal model, we demonstrated that reproductive experience alters circulating prolactin and estradiol levels, estradiol-stimulated prolactin secretion, neural prolactin receptor expression, and ..
  3. Mechanisms of Bone Loss from Administration of the Second-Generation Antipsychoti
    KATHERINE JEAN MOTYL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..week old female mice and draw associations between bone changes and metabolic abnormalities, estrus cycling, and prolactin levels;I will also treat 4-week old mice for 4 weeks and observe changes in bone remodeling, metabolism and ..
  4. Prolactin as a Growth Factor in Breast Cancer
    Nira Ben-Jonathan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We present evidence that prolactin (PRL) serves as a survival factor which antagonizes the cytotoxicity of the DNA-damaging agents cisplatin and ..
  5. Immune Development: Role of Milk Cell Transfer and Recipient Gender
    Ameae M Walker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..1 and CD45.2 dam and pup pairs will also be used. A team of senior investigators with expertise in prolactin endocrinology and endocrine regulation of immune responses (PI), immunopathology (Muller), mucosal immunology ..
  6. Progression of Autoimmunity During Puberty in SLE
    KATHLEEN M O'NEIL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..most different between the sexes in adults and late adolescents: androgenic steroids and estrogen, leptin and prolactin. The last three hormones rise in both sexes early in puberty then diverge in boys and girls, mirroring the ..
  7. Developmental Origins of Phenotypic Characteristics that Predict Longevity
    Andrzej Bartke; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..3. To determine the effects of early treatment with a combination of GH, prolactin and thyroxine as compared to treatment with GH alone on adipokine levels, insulin and glucose tolerance and ..
  8. Pharmacology of Risperidone Effects on Bone Remodeling and Energy Metabolism
    Karen L Houseknecht; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a pharmacologic approach to explore the functional consequence of specific receptor binding effects of RIS, and prolactin-sparing SGAs olanzapine and clozapine, using osteoblast and osteoclast culture in vitro, and in vivo by using ..
  9. Cell Specific Expression in the Pituitary Gland
    Sally A Camper; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pituitary cells that produce thyroid stimulating hormone, at the expense of cells that make growth hormone and prolactin. Little is known about the mechanism of basic thyrotrope specification or the hypertrophy and hyperplasia...
    DIPAK KUMAR SARKAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): A high level of plasma prolactin, hyperprolactinemia, is known to be one of the major reasons for reproductive dysfunction such as amenorrhea, galactorrhea and infertility in women...
  11. Sex chromosome aneuploidies in autoimmune disease
    R Hal Scofield; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..SLE, but at the diagnosis of SLE, prior to therapy, there are no abnormalities of estrogen, androgen or prolactin. The PI has generated data showing that Klinefelter's syndrome (male 47,XXY) is 15-fold over-represented ..
  12. IGF-II regulation of FABPs in the breast cancer survival disparity among AA women
    ..mRNA levels will be assessed by quantitative rt-PCR. Since lactation is regulated by prolactin and IGF-II, we will also determine how these proteins regulate FABPs and cellular differentiation of the BC cell ..
  13. Impact of exercise on ovarian cancer prognosis
    Melinda L Irwin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..role of estrogens, insulin, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, CA-125, prolactin, osteopontin, and macrophage inhibitory factor...
  14. The Effect of PTHrP During Lactation
    John J Wysolmerski; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..stimulates afferent nerves in the breast to signal the hypothalamus to inhibit GnRH secretion and stimulate prolactin release. The resulting low estrogen levels, in turn, accelerate bone resorption and cause bone loss...
  15. Regulation of Cellular Zn Redistribution: A Role of ZnT2
    Shannon L Kelleher; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Similar to observations in prostate cells, the hormone prolactin shifts Zn distribution in mammary epithelial cells...
    Janet King; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..involved in regulating fuel metabolism (human chorionic somatomammotropin, progesterone, leptin, adiponectin, prolactin, glucagon, cortisol, catecholamines, and ghrelin);and 3) to determine if consuming low GL diets the last half of ..
    Richard N Day; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The expression of the prolactin (PRL) gene in anterior pituitary lactotrope cells is a proven model system to define the molecular mechanisms ..
  18. Clinical Risk Prediction Modeling in Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Elizabeth W Karlson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..menses, inflammatory markers including anti-CCP antibodies, and TNFR2 levels and a novel RA risk allele in the prolactin gene as significant risk factors for RA...
  19. Multimeric Signaling Complexes in PRLr Transduction
    Charles V Clevenger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    The actions of prolactin (PRL), a hormone utilized in normal and malignant mammary tissues, are mediated through its receptor, the PRLr. PRL acts to stimulate the growth, motility, and progression of human breast cancer...
  20. Social and Motivational Properties of Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide Circuits
    James L Goodson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a major regulator of prolactin secretion in vertebrates, and is thus an essential contributor to the central regulation of parental care, even if only via ..
  21. Neuroprotective Gene Therapy in the Brain of Senile Rats
    Rodolfo G Goya; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Hypothalamic and nigral DA function will be determined by measuring serum prolactin and performing motor tests, respectively...
  22. Growth Hormone Receptor Dimerization &Disulfide Linkage
    Stuart J Frank; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..including: 1) JAK2 association influences GHR surface presentation, stability, and trafficking;2) reducing prolactin receptor (PRLR) levels in human T47D breast cancer cells augments GHR abundance and GH sensitivity;3) novel, ..
    Steven M Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..largely stimulated by estrogen, expansion of the secretory alveoli in early pregnancy driven by progesterone and prolactin, secretory differentiation occurring during late pregnancy, and secretory activation that occurs at parturition...
  24. Murine slow onset outlet obstruction as a model of human voiding dysfunction
    Ronald W Wood; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The PbPRL mouse also obstructs associated with prolactin-induced benign hyperplasia...
    David D Moore; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..3) The role of protein kinases and kinase inhibitors in signal transduction and cell cycle regulation. (4) Prolactin and cytokine regulation of gene expression...
  26. Biacore T100 SPR system for studying and characterizing biomolecular interaction
    Ewa Folta Stogniew; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..S. of $3 billion), prolactin receptor, a potassium channel protein involved in acquired long QT syndrome, a life-threatening heart syndrome, ..
  27. Effect of lactation on ectopic lipid after gestational diabetes
    MARIA ANGELICA RAMOS-ROMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013 such strategy - although, the metabolic inter-relationships between the hormonal milieu of lactation (high prolactin, low insulin), insulin resistance and its associated ectopic lipid deposition are unknown...
  28. The role of HMGN2 in enhancing transcription during prolactin receptor signaling
    SUZANNE MARIE WETZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The peptide hormone prolactin (PRL) promotes normal breast tissue growth and maturation, but PRL also contributes to breast cancer development...
  29. Stability of prolactin receptor and prolactin signaling
    Serge Y Fuchs; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL), which promotes growth and survival of mammary epithelial cells and plays a key role in breast tumorigenesis, acts through PRL receptor (PRLr)...
  30. Prolactin: mammary progenitors and tumor initiating cells in luminal carcinomas
    Linda A Schuler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Multiple studies point to a close link between prolactin (PRL), aand the pathogenesis and therapeutic responsiveness of ER?+ breast cancer...
  31. Physiological Factors Driving Maturation of Neonatal Beta Cells
    Susan Bonner-Weir; Fiscal Year: 2013 are levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4), of corticosterone (the main glucocorticoid of the rat) and of prolactin, and the diet is only milk...
  32. Signaling Mechanisms Regulating Pituitary Gene Expression
    Dawn L Duval; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of threonine 220, T220D and T220E, reduced the ability of Pit-1 to target Ras and estradiol stimulation to the prolactin promoter...
  33. Stromal AR Roles in Prostate Hyperplasia and Cancer
    Shuyuan Yeh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 1. To study the stromal AR role in BPH by crossing stromal d-ARKO mice with prolactin transgenic mice. Aim 2...
  34. Neuroendocrine Control of Paternal Care in the Common Marmoset
    Toni Elaine Ziegler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will examine changes in prolactin, oxytocin, vasopressin and dopamine with steroid stimulation in both central and peripheral samples...
  35. The Effects of 5-HT Deficiency on Responses to Stress and Antidepressant Drugs
    Benjamin D Sachs; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..these mice recapitulate several physiological features often associated with depression, including inhibited prolactin secretion and hypothermic responses to serotonergic activation, and decreased levels of the 5-HT metabolite, 5-..
  36. Prolactin as a lacrimal gland immunomodulator
    Joel Schechter; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..investigators'interdisciplinary team recently found that elevated estradiol (E2), progesterone (PRG) and prolactin (PRL) induce profound cellular physiological- and immunoarchitectural transformations;E2 and PRG alter the ..
    Stuart Handwerger; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the role of growth factors in mammalian development, the molecular biology of the growth hormone, prolactin and placental lactogen gene family during development, and mechanisms of hormone action...
  38. Psychological stress, associate biologic mediators, and ovarian cancer risk
    Shelley S Tworoger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Further, a number of biologic mediators of the stress response have been identified, including MMP-2, prolactin, oxytocin, and telomere length...
    Arthur Gutierrez Hartmann; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..and this composite site were shown to be required not only for the oncogenic V12Ras response of the rat (r) prolactin (PRL) promoter, but also to reconstitute lactotropespecific rPRL promoter activity in HeLa nonpituitary cells...
  40. ErbB Family in Pituitary Tumors
    Odelia Cooper; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and immunoblotting to examine differential expression of erbB receptors, TUNEL assay to measure apoptosis, and prolactin measurements for prolactinomas. In addition, our laboratory will test lapatinib in animal models...
  41. Mechanisms of Pituitary Tumorigenesis
    Shlomo Melmed; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..neoplasms and are benign monoclonal neoplasms which may be clinically silent or secrete hormones including prolactin, growth hormone, ACTH, or rarely TSH or gonadotropins...
  42. Human islet transplantation on microporous scaffolds
    Lonnie D Shea; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and 3) to test the hypothesis that polymer scaffolds can be used to deliver peptide hormones (exendin-4 and prolactin) to enhance the engraftment and function of human islets...
  43. Adjunct Aripiprazole for Symptomatic Hyperprolactinemia in Female Schizophrenia
    Deanna L Kelly; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..available generically and one of the most widely used antipsychotic medications;but is associated with elevated prolactin. This elevation is particularly pronounced in women and most recent studies show that the vast majority of women ..
  44. Determining the role of dopamine D2L versus D2S receptors in vivo
    Emiliana Borrelli; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a key regulator of distinct neural processes such as learning and memory, reward and addiction, locomotion, and prolactin secretion...
  45. Early experience and low 5-HT markers in alcohol abuse
    Mark Laudenslager; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Biomarkers of the activity of the serotonergic system (CSF 5HIAA and the prolactin response to fenfluramine) will be evaluated...
  46. Cannabidiol Modulation of ???-9-THC???s Psychotomimetic Effects in Healthy Humans
    Mohini Ranganathan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..psychophysiological effects (P300 event related potential) and endocrine effects (serum ACTH, cortisol and prolactin levels)...
  47. A Novel Approach of beta Cell Replacement to Reverse Type I Diabetes in NOD Mice
    Roland M Tisch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is known that prolactin induces significant beta cell replication during pregnancy in humans and rodents...
  48. Role of RAMPs in Intermedin Signaling
    Sheau Yu Teddy Hsu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..we have demonstrated that intermedin exhibits potent cardiovascular effects and represents an estrogen-dependent prolactin- releasing hormone in the pituitary...
  49. Characterization of the Response to the Kappa Opiate Agonist Salvinorin A in Heal
    Mohini Ranganathan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Blood will be sampled frequently for analysis of SA and plasma prolactin levels...
  50. Interactions of PRL, Estrogen, and TFFa in Mammary Cancer
    Lisa M Arendt; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Dr. Linda Schuler, a recognized leader in the field of prolactin signaling, will mentor the principal investigator's scientific development...
    Robert Bridges; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The first series of studies will examine the role of the neural prolactin (PRL) receptor in the initiation of maternal behavior...
  52. Growth Hormones and Breast Cancer Risk
    Shelley S Tworoger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Therefore, in this proposal, we will conduct a detailed evaluation of prolactin and its association with breast cancer risk...
  53. Experimental Modeling of Human Breast Cancer in Mice
    Hallgeir Rui; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Novel and independent insight from the two collaborating laboratories suggest that prolactin acts as a modulator of drug sensitivity in human breast cancer...
  54. High collagen density favors pro-tumorigenic prolactin actions in breast cancer
    CRAIG BARCUS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Prolactin (PRL) involvement in breast cancer progression is increasingly recognized, yet its actions are poorly understood...
  55. Biomarkers in Autism of Aripiprazole and Risperidone Treatment (BAART)
    C LINDSAY LINDSAY DEVANE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..include 1) psychiatric history;2) symptom response;3) psychosocial support;4) measures of tolerability;5) serum prolactin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentration;and 6) a variety of single nucleotide polymorphisms related ..
  56. Biochemical Markers in the Nurses? Health Study Cohort
    Susan E Hankinson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specifically, we will evaluate the role of several matrix metalloproteins (MMPs), estrogen metabolites, prolactin as assessed by a novel bioassay, 25(OH) vitamin D, estradiol and testosterone in relation to risk;for prolactin ..
  57. FASEB SRC on The Growth Hormone/Prolactin Family in Biology and Disease
    Christin Carter-Su; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The "Growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) family" defines a protein family that includes several members, including GH, PRL, placental lactogens (PLs) and various proteolytic fragments called ..
  58. Immune Activation and Myocardial Recovery in Peripartum Cardiomyopathy
    Dennis M McNamara; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition while prolactin inhibition has been investigated in as a means of immune modulation in murine models of peripartum ..
  59. 1/2-A Comparison of Long-Acting Injectable Medications for Schizophrenia -ACLAIMS
    JOSEPH PATRICK MCEVOY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Fasting samples for measurement of glucose, insulin, lipids, and prolactin will be obtained at regular intervals throughout the trial...
  60. 2/2-A Comparison of Long-Acting Injectable Medications for Schizophrenia -ACLAIMS
    THOMAS SCOTT STROUP; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Fasting samples for measurement of glucose, insulin, lipids, and prolactin will be obtained at regular intervals throughout the trial...
  61. Role and Mechanisms of Prolactin on HPA Axis Activation Following Stress
    James Janik; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The major hypothesis to be tested is that circulating prolactin (PRL) levels regulate the Hypothalamic- Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress...
  62. Growth-Regulatory Signaling Networks in Breast Cancer
    Kay Uwe Wagner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We recently demonstrated that Jak2 and active Stat5 are essential for ErbB2- and prolactin-induced mammary carcinogenesis...
    Kevin J Black; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will measure ED50 for two responses of the brain to the drugs: the effect of dopamine agonists on prolactin secretion will be determined from blood serum samples in the traditional manner (independent measurements for ..
  64. Role of OFQ/N in Regulating the Prolactin Response to Stress
    Phyllis Callahan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..the physiological responses to stress remain poorly understood, particularly the regulation and role of prolactin secretion...
    Mark Alexander; Fiscal Year: 1999 female-specific, estrogen-dependent secretion of one or more adenohypophysial hormones, particularly prolactin and the gonadotropins...
    Diane Russell; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Severe hormonal imbalance caused by low doses of TCDD could, in fact, be explained by effects on prolactin synthesis and secretion since prolactin is known to affect the development and function of endocrine organs such ..
    Kathleen Ryan; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..the implication of some exciting new data in this laboratory suggesting an important role for either dopamine, prolactin or both essential components of the peripubertal shift in negative feedback of steroids on gonadotropin ..
  68. Tyrosine Phosphyorylation and Growth Hormone Signaling
    STUART FRANK; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) interact with GH and prolactin receptors (GHR; PRLR), both cytokine receptors, causing activation of the GHR- and PRLR-associated tyrosine kinase, JAK2, and the STATS and ERK pathways...
  69. Prolactin and Estrogens as Mitogens in Prostate Cancer
    Nira Ben Jonathan; Fiscal Year: 2002
    DESCRIPTION (Provided by the applicant) Prolactin (PRL) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) are members of cytokine super family. Overproduction of PRL by prostate cells results in prostatic hyperplasia in mice...
  70. Regulation of Akt and glucose transport by prolactin
    Steven Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Lactation is of great importance to survival of newborn animals. Prolactin plays a critical role in this process by regulating the differentiation of mammary epithelial cells into secretory epithelial cells...
    Charles Snowdon; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Fathers appear to anticipate infant births with increased prolactin levels prior to birth. Our specific aims are 1...
  72. Prolactin regulation of decidual activin and apoptosis
    Jennifer Bowen Shauver; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..In contrast, prolactin, which is produced by human and rodent decidua, acts as an anti-apoptotic factor in this tissue and is able to ..
  73. Role of Ras Effectors in Mammary Differentiation
    MARY CUTLER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..and synthesize beta-casein following stimulation with the lactogenic hormone mix, DIP (dexamethasone, insulin, prolactin), resulting in prolactin-dependent activation of Stat5 a and b...
    ZELTON SHARP; Fiscal Year: 1991
    Regulation of Pituitary Hormones. The synthesis and release of prolactin by the pituitary is under complex regulatory control of both the hypothalamus and the gonads...
    CYNTHIA BETHEA; Fiscal Year: 1999
    The long term goal of this research program is to define the mechanism(s) by which progesterone (P) increases prolactin secretion in estrogen (E)- primed nonhuman primates...
  76. Role of the serine-threonine kinase PAK1 in prolactin-dependent signaling
    Maria Diakonova; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In normal mammary development, the hormone prolactin (PRL) is critical for alveolar proliferation and differentiation...