activins

Summary

Summary: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi SB-431542 is a potent and specific inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta superfamily type I activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) receptors ALK4, ALK5, and ALK7
    Gareth J Inman
    Laboratory of Developmental Signalling, Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, Lincoln s Inn Fields Laboratories, London, UK
    Mol Pharmacol 62:65-74. 2002
  2. pmc Wnt and TGF-beta signaling are required for the induction of an in vitro model of primitive streak formation using embryonic stem cells
    Paul Gadue
    Department of Gene and Cell Medicine, Black Family Stem Cell Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave Levy Place, Box 1496, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:16806-11. 2006
  3. ncbi Activin/Nodal and FGF pathways cooperate to maintain pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells
    Ludovic Vallier
    Department of Surgery and Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Addenbrooke s Hospital, University of Cambridge, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK
    J Cell Sci 118:4495-509. 2005
  4. ncbi Development of definitive endoderm from embryonic stem cells in culture
    Atsushi Kubo
    The Carl C Icahn Center for Gene Therapy and Molecular Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Development 131:1651-62. 2004
  5. ncbi Generation of functional hepatocytes from human embryonic stem cells under chemically defined conditions that recapitulate liver development
    Thomas Touboul
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, INSERM, Unite 972, IFR 93, Bicetre Hospital, Kremlin Bicetre, France corrected
    Hepatology 51:1754-65. 2010
  6. ncbi TGFbeta/activin/nodal signaling is necessary for the maintenance of pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells
    Daylon James
    Laboratory of Molecular Vertebrate Embryology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Development 132:1273-82. 2005
  7. pmc Activin/Nodal signalling maintains pluripotency by controlling Nanog expression
    Ludovic Vallier
    Department of Surgery and Laboratory For Regenerative Medicine, West Forvie Building, Robinson Way, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0SZ, UK
    Development 136:1339-49. 2009
  8. ncbi The roles of activin A and its binding protein, follistatin, in inflammation and tissue repair
    David M de Kretser
    Monash Institute of Medical Research and the Department of Immunology and Pathology, Monash University, Clayton Victoria 3800, Australia
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 359:101-6. 2012
  9. ncbi Inhibition of Activin/Nodal signaling promotes specification of human embryonic stem cells into neuroectoderm
    Joseph R Smith
    Department of Surgery and Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Dev Biol 313:107-17. 2008
  10. pmc Activin A is essential for neurogenesis following neurodegeneration
    Andrea Abdipranoto-Cowley
    Neuroscience Program, The Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, Australia
    Stem Cells 27:1330-46. 2009

Detail Information

Publications350 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi SB-431542 is a potent and specific inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta superfamily type I activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) receptors ALK4, ALK5, and ALK7
    Gareth J Inman
    Laboratory of Developmental Signalling, Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, Lincoln s Inn Fields Laboratories, London, UK
    Mol Pharmacol 62:65-74. 2002
    ..SB-431542 has no effect on components of the ERK, JNK, or p38 MAP kinase pathways or on components of the signaling pathways activated in response to serum...
  2. pmc Wnt and TGF-beta signaling are required for the induction of an in vitro model of primitive streak formation using embryonic stem cells
    Paul Gadue
    Department of Gene and Cell Medicine, Black Family Stem Cell Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave Levy Place, Box 1496, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:16806-11. 2006
    ....
  3. ncbi Activin/Nodal and FGF pathways cooperate to maintain pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells
    Ludovic Vallier
    Department of Surgery and Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Addenbrooke s Hospital, University of Cambridge, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK
    J Cell Sci 118:4495-509. 2005
    ....
  4. ncbi Development of definitive endoderm from embryonic stem cells in culture
    Atsushi Kubo
    The Carl C Icahn Center for Gene Therapy and Molecular Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Development 131:1651-62. 2004
    ..These findings demonstrate that ES cells can generate endoderm in culture and, as such, establish this differentiation system as a unique murine model for studying the development and specification of this germ layer...
  5. ncbi Generation of functional hepatocytes from human embryonic stem cells under chemically defined conditions that recapitulate liver development
    Thomas Touboul
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, INSERM, Unite 972, IFR 93, Bicetre Hospital, Kremlin Bicetre, France corrected
    Hepatology 51:1754-65. 2010
    ..In addition, we showed that hepatic cells could be generated from human-induced pluripotent cells derived from reprogrammed fibroblasts, demonstrating the efficacy of this approach with pluripotent stem cells of diverse origins...
  6. ncbi TGFbeta/activin/nodal signaling is necessary for the maintenance of pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells
    Daylon James
    Laboratory of Molecular Vertebrate Embryology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Development 132:1273-82. 2005
    ..These data reveal a crucial role for TGFbeta signaling in the earliest stages of cell fate determination and demonstrate an interconnection between TGFbeta and WNT signaling in these contexts...
  7. pmc Activin/Nodal signalling maintains pluripotency by controlling Nanog expression
    Ludovic Vallier
    Department of Surgery and Laboratory For Regenerative Medicine, West Forvie Building, Robinson Way, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0SZ, UK
    Development 136:1339-49. 2009
    ..This negative-feedback loop imposes stasis in neuroectoderm and mesendoderm differentiation, thereby maintaining the pluripotent status of human ESCs and mouse EpiSCs...
  8. ncbi The roles of activin A and its binding protein, follistatin, in inflammation and tissue repair
    David M de Kretser
    Monash Institute of Medical Research and the Department of Immunology and Pathology, Monash University, Clayton Victoria 3800, Australia
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 359:101-6. 2012
    ..The modulation of activin by follistatin may represent an important therapeutic target for the modulation and amelioration of inflammatory and fibrotic disorders...
  9. ncbi Inhibition of Activin/Nodal signaling promotes specification of human embryonic stem cells into neuroectoderm
    Joseph R Smith
    Department of Surgery and Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Dev Biol 313:107-17. 2008
    ..These results show that inhibition of Nodal signaling promotes neuronal specification, indicating a role for this pathway in controlling early neural development of pluripotent cells...
  10. pmc Activin A is essential for neurogenesis following neurodegeneration
    Andrea Abdipranoto-Cowley
    Neuroscience Program, The Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, Australia
    Stem Cells 27:1330-46. 2009
    ....
  11. ncbi In vitro derivation of functional insulin-producing cells from human embryonic stem cells
    Wei Jiang
    Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    Cell Res 17:333-44. 2007
    ..Our new method provides a promising in vitro differentiation model for studying the mechanisms of human pancreas development and illustrates the potential of using human ES cells for the treatment of type I diabetes mellitus...
  12. ncbi Generation of insulin-producing islet-like clusters from human embryonic stem cells
    Jianjie Jiang
    Cell Therapy Research, Geron Corporation, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
    Stem Cells 25:1940-53. 2007
    ..Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article...
  13. ncbi Activin A maintains pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells in the absence of feeder layers
    Gillian M Beattie
    Department of Pediatrics, Whittier Institute, 9894 Genesee Ave, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Stem Cells 23:489-95. 2005
    ..hESCs retained both normal karyotype and markers of undifferentiated cells, including Oct-4, nanog, and TRA-1-60 and remained pluripotent, as shown by the in vivo formation of teratomas...
  14. ncbi Characterization of mesendoderm: a diverging point of the definitive endoderm and mesoderm in embryonic stem cell differentiation culture
    Shinsuke Tada
    Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, 2 2 3 Minatojima minamimachi, Chuo Ku, Kobe, 650 0047, Japan
    Development 132:4363-74. 2005
    ..Finally, we show that the defined culture condition and surface markers developed in this study are applicable for obtaining pure mesendodermal cells and their immediate progenies from genetically unmanipulated ES cells...
  15. pmc Pluripotency factors regulate definitive endoderm specification through eomesodermin
    Adrian Kee Keong Teo
    Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Genes Dev 25:238-50. 2011
    ..Together, these results provide for the first time a comprehensive molecular model connecting the transition from pluripotency to endoderm specification during mammalian development...
  16. pmc Wnt, activin, and BMP signaling regulate distinct stages in the developmental pathway from embryonic stem cells to blood
    M Cristina Nostro
    McEwen Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto, ON M5G 1L7, Canada
    Cell Stem Cell 2:60-71. 2008
    ..These findings highlight dynamic changes in signaling requirements during blood cell development and identify a role for Wnt signaling in the establishment of the primitive erythroid lineage...
  17. ncbi Activin and related proteins in inflammation: not just interested bystanders
    David J Phillips
    Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia
    Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 20:153-64. 2009
    ..The utility of activin as a diagnostic marker of clinical inflammation and the use of follistatin to block activin actions therapeutically are also discussed...
  18. pmc Activin in the brain modulates anxiety-related behavior and adult neurogenesis
    Hiroshi Ageta
    Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences, Machida, Tokyo, Japan
    PLoS ONE 3:e1869. 2008
    ..Activin and its signaling pathway may represent novel therapeutic targets for anxiety disorder as well as ischemic brain injury...
  19. ncbi The transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of receptors
    Mark De Caestecker
    Division of Nephrology, S 3223 Medical Center North, 1161 21st Street S, Nashville, TN 37232 2372, USA
    Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 15:1-11. 2004
    ..The purpose of this review is to describe the biochemical properties of these receptors, focusing specifically on the mechanisms regulating receptor/ligand interactions and activation in mammalian cells...
  20. ncbi Betaglycan binds inhibin and can mediate functional antagonism of activin signalling
    K A Lewis
    Clayton Foundation Laboratories for Peptide Biology, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 404:411-4. 2000
    b>Activins and inhibins, structurally related members of the TGF-beta superfamily of growth and differentiation factors, are mutually antagonistic regulators of reproductive and other functions...
  21. ncbi BMP-4 is required for hepatic specification of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived definitive endoderm
    Valerie Gouon-Evans
    Department of Gene and Cell Medicine, Black Family Stem Cell Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1425 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 24:1402-11. 2006
    ..Together, these findings establish a developmental pathway in embryonic stem cell differentiation cultures that leads to efficient generation of cells with an immature hepatocytic phenotype...
  22. pmc Hormones in synergy: regulation of the pituitary gonadotropin genes
    Varykina G Thackray
    Department of Reproductive Medicine, Center for Reproductive Science and Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0674, USA
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 314:192-203. 2010
    ..We also discuss how recent technological advances will help identify additional factors involved in the differential hormonal regulation of LH and FSH...
  23. pmc Activin A promotes multiple myeloma-induced osteolysis and is a promising target for myeloma bone disease
    Sonia Vallet
    Division of Hematology and Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5124-9. 2010
    ..Targeting activin A by a soluble decoy receptor reversed osteoblast inhibition, ameliorated MM bone disease, and inhibited tumor growth in an in vivo humanized MM model, setting the stage for testing in human clinical trials...
  24. ncbi Activin A-induced differentiation of embryonic stem cells into endoderm and pancreatic progenitors-the influence of differentiation factors and culture conditions
    Sabine Sulzbacher
    Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Corrensstr 3, 06466 Gatersleben, Germany
    Stem Cell Rev 5:159-73. 2009
    ..The review presents an overview on those factors that influence activin A activity on endoderm and endocrine progenitor cells and determines the role of signaling factors in the differentiation process into the pancreatic lineage...
  25. ncbi Strong induction of activin expression after injury suggests an important role of activin in wound repair
    G Hübner
    Max Planck Institut fur Biochemie, Martinsried, Germany
    Dev Biol 173:490-8. 1996
    b>Activins are members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) superfamily, which comprises a growing group of dimeric proteins...
  26. pmc Highly efficient differentiation of hESCs to functional hepatic endoderm requires ActivinA and Wnt3a signaling
    David C Hay
    Medical Research Council Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:12301-6. 2008
    ..These studies represent an important step toward the use of hESC-derived hepatocytes in high-throughput metabolic analysis of human liver function...
  27. ncbi Maternal serum hormone concentrations for prediction of adverse outcome in threatened miscarriage
    J Johns
    Academic Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Royal Free and University College London, UCL Campus London, 86 96 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    Reprod Biomed Online 15:413-21. 2007
    ..Inhibin A was best at predicting the likelihood of subsequent miscarriage in this group...
  28. ncbi Gastrulation in the mouse: the role of the homeobox gene goosecoid
    M Blum
    Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles 90024 1737
    Cell 69:1097-106. 1992
    ..Transplantation experiments indicate that the tip of the murine early gastrula is the equivalent of the organizer of the amphibian gastrula...
  29. ncbi Nephrogenic factors promote differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into renal epithelia
    Doyeob Kim
    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    J Am Soc Nephrol 16:3527-34. 2005
    ..These methods may facilitate the large-scale culture of renal epithelial precursor cells for a variety of applications...
  30. ncbi Serum activin A levels are lower in tubal than intrauterine spontaneously conceived pregnancies
    Pasquale Florio
    Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Reproductive Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy
    Gynecol Endocrinol 27:391-5. 2011
    ..To measure serum activin A levels together with progesterone and hCG, in women with overt clinical signs and symptoms of ectopic pregnancy (EP) and, in gestational age-matched intrauterine pregnancy (IUP)...
  31. ncbi Production and localization of activins and activin type IIA and IIB receptors by the human endosalpinx
    B A Refaat
    Section of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine, University of Sheffield, Level 4, The Jessop Wing, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield S10 2SF, UK
    Reproduction 128:249-55. 2004
    ..b>Activins may thus act as paracrine regulators of tubal epithelial cell function, and embryonic activity may also bind to ..
  32. ncbi The role of FAST-1 and Smads in transcriptional regulation by activin during early Xenopus embryogenesis
    C Y Yeo
    Department of Cell Biology and Graduate Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:26584-90. 1999
    ..These observations elucidate how broadly expressed signal transducers (Smads) regulate a developmentally specific transcriptional response in conjunction with a temporally restricted transcription factor, FAST-1...
  33. ncbi A new 'total' activin B enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): development and validation for human samples
    Helen Ludlow
    Centre for Proteins and Peptides, School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Headington, Oxford, UK
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 71:867-73. 2009
    ..The aim of this project was to develop and validate a 'total' activin B ELISA for use with human biological fluids and establish concentrations of activin B in the circulation and fluids from the reproductive organs...
  34. pmc Nodal/Activin signaling predicts human pluripotent stem cell lines prone to differentiate toward the hematopoietic lineage
    Veronica Ramos-Mejia
    Andalusian Stem Cell Bank, Centro de Investigacion Biomedica, Consejería de Salud Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
    Mol Ther 18:2173-81. 2010
    ....
  35. ncbi In vitro induction systems for analyses of amphibian organogenesis and body patterning
    T Ariizumi
    CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, The University of Tokyo
    Int J Dev Biol 45:273-9. 2001
    ..The potential use of in vitro induction systems to further our understanding of vertebrate organogenesis and body patterning will be discussed...
  36. ncbi Derivation of pluripotent epiblast stem cells from mammalian embryos
    I Gabrielle M Brons
    Department of Surgery and Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Addenbrooke s Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK
    Nature 448:191-5. 2007
    ..Epiblast stem cells provide a valuable experimental system for determining whether distinctions between mouse and human embryonic stem cells reflect species differences or diverse temporal origins...
  37. ncbi Tissue generation from amphibian animal caps
    Koji Okabayashi
    SORST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 13:502-7. 2003
    ..These in vitro induction systems will be helpful for elucidating the mechanisms of tissue induction and organ formation in vertebrate development...
  38. ncbi Directed induction of anterior and posterior primitive streak by Wnt from embryonic stem cells cultured in a chemically defined serum-free medium
    Mio Nakanishi
    Department of Life Sciences Biology, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3 8 1, Komaba, Meguro ku, Tokyo, 153 8902, Japan
    FASEB J 23:114-22. 2009
    ..These conditions of induction could constitute the initial step in generating therapeutically useful cells of the definitive endoderm lineage, such as hepatocytes and pancreatic endocrine cells, under chemically defined conditions...
  39. ncbi Activin-binding protein from rat ovary is follistatin
    T Nakamura
    Frontier Research Program, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research RIKEN, Saitama, Japan
    Science 247:836-8. 1990
    ..A binding protein for activin was purified from rat ovary and was identical to follistatin, a specific inhibitor of FSH release. It is likely that the binding protein participates in the diverse regulatory actions of activin...
  40. ncbi Follistatin attenuates early liver fibrosis: effects on hepatic stellate cell activation and hepatocyte apoptosis
    Shane Patella
    Centre for Inflammatory Diseases, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3168, Australia
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 290:G137-44. 2006
    ....
  41. pmc Regulation of muscle mass by follistatin and activins
    Se Jin Lee
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 24:1998-2008. 2010
    ....
  42. ncbi Directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells towards a pancreatic cell fate
    J H Shim
    Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, West Building Room 304, Science Campus, 1 Anam dong 5 ga, Sungbuk goo, Seoul 136 713, Republic of Korea
    Diabetologia 50:1228-38. 2007
    ....
  43. pmc Differentiating embryonic stem cells pass through 'temporal windows' that mark responsiveness to exogenous and paracrine mesendoderm inducing signals
    Steven A Jackson
    Monash Immunology and Stem Cell Laboratories, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
    PLoS ONE 5:e10706. 2010
    ..Mesendoderm induction during embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation in vitro is stimulated by the Transforming Growth Factor and Wingless (Wnt) families of growth factors...
  44. ncbi Silencing of TGF-beta signalling by the pseudoreceptor BAMBI
    D Onichtchouk
    Division of Molecular Embryology, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Germany
    Nature 401:480-5. 1999
    ..transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, including TGF-beta, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), activins and nodals, are vital for regulating growth and differentiation...
  45. ncbi Activin A induces dendritic cell migration through the polarized release of CXC chemokine ligands 12 and 14
    Laura Salogni
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Biotechnology, Section of General Pathology and Immunology, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy
    Blood 113:5848-56. 2009
    ..This study extends the proinflammatory role of activin A to DC recruitment and provides a cautionary message about the reliability of the in vitro chemotaxis assays in discriminating direct versus indirect chemotactic agonists...
  46. ncbi A two-step serum-free culture system supports development of human oocytes from primordial follicles in the presence of activin
    Evelyn E Telfer
    Institute of Cell Biology, The Darwin Building, University of Edinburgh, The King s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    Hum Reprod 23:1151-8. 2008
    ....
  47. ncbi Inhibins, activins and follistatin in reproduction
    D M de Kretser
    Centre for Molecular Reproduction and Endocrinology, Monash Institute of Reproduction and Development, Monash University, Clayton 3168, Victoria, Australia
    Hum Reprod Update 8:529-41. 2002
    ..In this review, the structure and physiology of the inhibins, activins and follistatin are discussed in terms of the evidence supporting their role as endocrine hormones, and how they ..
  48. ncbi Induction of the Xenopus organizer: expression and regulation of Xnot, a novel FGF and activin-regulated homeo box gene
    G von Dassow
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle 98195
    Genes Dev 7:355-66. 1993
    ..Our results provide experimental evidence supporting the proposed division of Spemann's organizer into independently regulated organizing centers...
  49. ncbi Bone morphogenetic protein 2 and activin A synergistically stimulate follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit transcription
    Katharine B Lee
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1Y6
    J Mol Endocrinol 38:315-30. 2007
    ..The best-described examples are the activins and inhibins, which respectively stimulate and hinder Fshb subunit transcription in gonadotrope cells...
  50. ncbi All in the family: TGF-beta family action in testis development
    Catherine Itman
    Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, 27 31 Wright Street, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia
    Reproduction 132:233-46. 2006
    ....
  51. ncbi Insertion of Inhbb into the Inhba locus rescues the Inhba-null phenotype and reveals new activin functions
    C W Brown
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
    Nat Genet 25:453-7. 2000
    The activins (dimers of betaA or betaB subunits, encoded by the genes Inhba and Inhbb, respectively) are TGF-beta superfamily members that have roles in reproduction and development...
  52. ncbi Suppression of inhibin A biological activity by alterations in the binding site for betaglycan
    Yogeshwar Makanji
    Prince Henry s Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia
    J Biol Chem 283:16743-51. 2008
    ..Together these results indicate that a high affinity interaction between betaglycan and residues Val(108)-Tyr(120) of the inhibin alpha-subunit mediate inhibin A biological activity...
  53. ncbi Activin signaling through type IB activin receptor stimulates aromatase activity in the ovarian granulosa cell-like human granulosa (KGN) cells
    Chizu Mukasa
    Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi ku, Fukuoka 812 8582, Japan
    Endocrinology 144:1603-11. 2003
    ..Activin signaling mediated by ActRIB-Smad2 system in the ovary may thus be essential for the regulation of follicular differentiation...
  54. ncbi Circulating levels of inhibin A, activin A and follistatin in missed and recurrent miscarriages
    S Muttukrishna
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Royal Free UCL Medical School, 86 96 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    Hum Reprod 17:3072-8. 2002
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in circulating levels and the clinical use of inhibin A, activin A and follistatin as endocrine markers of early pregnancy loss...
  55. ncbi Spatial expression patterns of activin and its signaling system in the zebrafish ovarian follicle: evidence for paracrine action of activin on the oocytes
    Yajun Wang
    Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China
    Biol Reprod 69:1998-2006. 2003
    ..On the other hand, instead of being controlled passively by the follicle cells, the oocytes may actively participate in the regulation of follicle development by releasing various modulating molecules such as follistatin...
  56. ncbi Inhibins and activins in pregnancy
    P Florio
    Chair of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Deaprtment of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Reproductive Medicine, University of Siena, Policlinico Le Scotte, Viale Bracci, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 225:93-100. 2004
    ..The measurement of inhibin A and activin A into the biological fluids of pregnancy will offer in the future further possibilities in early diagnosis, prediction, and monitoring pregnancy diseases...
  57. ncbi Characterisation of the rapid release of activin A following acute lipopolysaccharide challenge in the ewe
    K L Jones
    Monash Institute of Reproduction and Development, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
    J Endocrinol 182:69-80. 2004
    ..The data suggest that activin A release is an early event in the inflammatory cascade following the interaction of LPS with its cellular receptor...
  58. ncbi Both SMAD2 and SMAD3 mediate activin-stimulated expression of the follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit in mouse gonadotrope cells
    Daniel J Bernard
    Center for Biomedical Research, Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 18:606-23. 2004
    The activins are pleiotropic members of the TGFbeta superfamily. Within the anterior pituitary gland, activins stimulate FSH synthesis in an autocrine/paracrine fashion by stimulating transcription of the FSHbeta subunit gene...
  59. ncbi Activin A concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid are age-dependent and elevated in meningitis
    Sandra Ebert
    Department of Neurology, University of Gottingen, Robert Koch Str 40, 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    J Neurol Sci 250:50-7. 2006
    ..We have previously shown elevated concentrations of FS in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with meningitis and increased concentrations of activin A in the CSF of rabbits with bacterial meningitis...
  60. ncbi Proteomic analysis of articular cartilage shows increased type II collagen synthesis in osteoarthritis and expression of inhibin betaA (activin A), a regulatory molecule for chondrocytes
    Monika Hermansson
    Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, 1 Aspenlea Road, W6 8LH, UK
    J Biol Chem 279:43514-21. 2004
    ..We conclude that type II collagen synthesis in articular cartilage is down-regulated at skeletal maturity and reactivated in osteoarthritis in attempted repair and that activin A may be an anabolic factor in cartilage...
  61. ncbi Regulation of ovarian function by the TGF-beta superfamily and follistatin
    Shyr Yeu Lin
    Centre for Molecular Reproduction and Endocrinology, Monash Institute of Reproduction and Development, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3168, Australia
    Reproduction 126:133-48. 2003
    ..The complex network of TGF-beta superfamily growth factor members involved in the modulation of ovarian function and the interactions of follistatin with these proteins is highlighted...
  62. pmc Activin enhances skin tumourigenesis and malignant progression by inducing a pro-tumourigenic immune cell response
    Maria Antsiferova
    Department of Biology, Institute of Cell Biology, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nat Commun 2:576. 2011
    ..These findings highlight the parallels between wound healing and cancer, and suggest inhibition of activin action as a promising strategy for the treatment of cancers overexpressing this factor...
  63. pmc Activin A levels are associated with abnormal glucose regulation in patients with myocardial infarction: potential counteracting effects of activin A on inflammation
    Geir Ø Andersen
    Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital Ulleval, Oslo, Norway
    Diabetes 60:1544-51. 2011
    ..On the basis of the role of activin A in inflammation, atherogenesis, and glucose homeostasis, we investigated whether activin A could be related to glucometabolic abnormalities in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI)...
  64. ncbi Muscle protein synthesis, mTORC1/MAPK/Hippo signaling, and capillary density are altered by blocking of myostatin and activins
    Juha J Hulmi
    Department of Biology of Physical Activity, Neuromuscular Research Center, University of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla, Finland
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 304:E41-50. 2013
    ..associated signaling pathways, we used the soluble activin receptor IIb (sActRIIB-Fc) to block myostatin and activins in mice...
  65. ncbi The use of serum inhibin A and activin A levels in predicting the outcome of 'pregnancies of unknown location'
    Emma Kirk
    Early Pregnancy and Gynaecological Unit, St George s University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK
    Hum Reprod 24:2451-6. 2009
    ..The aim was to evaluate the role of serum inhibin A and activin A in the prediction of the outcome of women with 'pregnancies of unknown location' (PULs)...
  66. ncbi Induction of inhibitory Smad6 and Smad7 mRNA by TGF-beta family members
    M Afrakhte
    Unit of Pathology, University Hospital, Uppsala, S 751 85, Sweden
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 249:505-11. 1998
    ..Thus, expression of inhibitory Smads is induced by multiple stimuli, including the various TGF-beta family members, whose action they antagonize...
  67. ncbi Multifunctional roles of activins in the brain
    Hiroshi Ageta
    Division for Therapies against Intractable Diseases, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science ICMS, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan
    Vitam Horm 85:185-206. 2011
    b>Activins, which are members of the TGF-β superfamily, were initially isolated from gonads and served as modulators of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion...
  68. pmc Correlation between blood activin levels and clinical parameters of type 2 diabetes
    Hui Wu
    Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia
    Exp Diabetes Res 2012:410579. 2012
    b>Activins A and B, and their binding protein, follistatin, regulate glucose metabolism and inflammation. Consequently, their role in type 2 diabetes (T2D) was examined.
  69. ncbi Immunohistochemical localization of inhibin/activin subunits in the wild ground squirrel (Citellus dauricus Brandt) ovary
    Xia Sheng
    College of Biological Science and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, PR China
    J Reprod Dev 58:531-6. 2012
    ..The dynamic expression of inhibin/activin subunits indicated that they might play important paracrine and/or autocrine roles during the seasonal folliculogenesis of the wild ground squirrel...
  70. ncbi TMEPAI, a transmembrane TGF-beta-inducible protein, sequesters Smad proteins from active participation in TGF-beta signaling
    Yukihide Watanabe
    Department of Experimental Pathology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1 1 1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8575, Japan
    Mol Cell 37:123-34. 2010
    ..Consistently, TMEPAI inhibits activin-mediated mesoderm formation in Xenopus embryos. Therefore, TMEPAI participates in a negative feedback loop to control the duration and intensity of TGF-beta/Smad signaling...
  71. pmc Identification of a potential regulator of early transcriptional responses to mesoderm inducers in the frog embryo
    H C Huang
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    EMBO J 14:5965-73. 1995
    ..Characterization of this factor provides a powerful tool for studying the early steps in the induction of mesoderm by members of the activin/TGF-beta superfamily...
  72. ncbi Effect of activin A on in vitro development of rat preantral follicles and localization of activin A and activin receptor II
    J Zhao
    Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3584 CL Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Biol Reprod 65:967-77. 2001
    ..Furthermore, because activin A and ActR II are synthesized within preantral follicles, intrafollicular activin likely plays an important role in early follicular development...
  73. ncbi Activin/Nodal signaling controls divergent transcriptional networks in human embryonic stem cells and in endoderm progenitors
    Stephanie Brown
    The Anne McLaren Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Surgery, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Stem Cells 29:1176-85. 2011
    ....
  74. ncbi Wnt4-transformed mouse embryonic stem cells differentiate into renal tubular cells
    Takahiko Kobayashi
    Department of Nephrology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113 8519, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 336:585-95. 2005
    ....
  75. ncbi Characterization of inhibin/activin subunit, activin receptor, and follistatin messenger ribonucleic acid in human and mouse oocytes: evidence for activin's paracrine signaling from granulosa cells to oocytes
    Y Sidis
    Reproductive Endocrine Unit, Department of Obstetricsand Gynecology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Biol Reprod 59:807-12. 1998
    ..Taken together with previous studies, these results indicate that oocytes may be capable of responding to, but not synthesizing, activin...
  76. pmc A role for MEK kinase 1 in TGF-beta/activin-induced epithelium movement and embryonic eyelid closure
    Lin Zhang
    Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA
    EMBO J 22:4443-54. 2003
    ..This study also suggests that the signaling mechanisms that control eyelid closure in mammals and dorsal closure in Drosophila are evolutionarily conserved...
  77. ncbi Comparative study of mouse and human feeder cells for human embryonic stem cells
    Livia Eiselleova
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
    Int J Dev Biol 52:353-63. 2008
    ..Cumulatively, these results suggest that the ability of a feeder layer to promote the undifferentiated growth of hESCs is attributable to its characteristic growth factor production...
  78. pmc Activin promotes oocyte development in ovine preantral follicles in vitro
    Fiona H Thomas
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Darwin Building, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 1:76. 2003
    b>Activins have been implicated as important regulating factors for many reproductive processes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of activin A on the development of ovine preantral follicles in vitro...
  79. ncbi Activin A augments GnRH-mediated transcriptional activation of the mouse GnRH receptor gene
    Errol R Norwitz
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Endocrinology 143:985-97. 2002
    ..These data demonstrate that activin augments GnRH-mediated transcriptional activation of the mGnRHR gene and suggest that this effect may be mediated through SMAD transcription factors...
  80. ncbi FGF2 specifies hESC-derived definitive endoderm into foregut/midgut cell lineages in a concentration-dependent manner
    Jacqueline Ameri
    Stem Cell Center, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
    Stem Cells 28:45-56. 2010
    ..Thus, our results provide new knowledge of how cell fate specification of human DE is controlled-facts that will be of great value for future regenerative cell therapies...
  81. pmc Inhibitor of differentiation (Id) genes are expressed in the steroidogenic cells of the ovine ovary and are differentially regulated by members of the transforming growth factor-beta family
    Kirsten Hogg
    Division of Reproductive and Developmental Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 151:1247-56. 2010
    ..001). These data confirm that TGFbeta signaling can regulate Id gene expression in the sheep ovarian follicle and suggest a functional role for the Id family in the mammalian ovary...
  82. ncbi Direct binding of AP-1 (Fos/Jun) proteins to a SMAD binding element facilitates both gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)- and activin-mediated transcriptional activation of the mouse GnRH receptor gene
    Errol R Norwitz
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:37469-78. 2002
    ....
  83. pmc The G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 is a TGFbeta-inducible antagonist of TGFbeta signal transduction
    Joanne Ho
    Hormones and Cancer Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
    EMBO J 24:3247-58. 2005
    ....
  84. pmc Activin promotes follicular integrity and oogenesis in cultured pre-antral bovine follicles
    M McLaughlin
    Centre for Integrative Physiology, Hugh Robson Building, University of Edinburgh, George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK
    Mol Hum Reprod 16:644-53. 2010
    ..Thus, the polarized expression of cell contact interactions promoted by activin supports ongoing folliculogenesis...
  85. ncbi Biphasic induction of Pdx1 in mouse and human embryonic stem cells can mimic development of pancreatic beta-cells
    Andreia S Bernardo
    School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom
    Stem Cells 27:341-51. 2009
    ..Collectively, we show that this method of in vitro differentiation provides a template for inducing and studying ES cell differentiation into insulin-secreting cells...
  86. ncbi Activin A in brain injury
    Pasquale Florio
    Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Reproductive Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy
    Adv Clin Chem 43:117-30. 2007
    ..This approach may also facilitate the diagnosis of subclinical lesions at stages when monitoring procedures are unable to detect brain lesion and furthermore establish a prognosis...
  87. ncbi Activin from secondary follicles causes small preantral follicles to remain dormant at the resting stage
    H Mizunuma
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gunma University School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan
    Endocrinology 140:37-42. 1999
    ..These results have suggested that secondary follicles cause primary follicles to become dormant at the resting stage by secreting activin...
  88. ncbi Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) ligands and receptors in bovine ovarian follicle cells: actions of BMP-4, -6 and -7 on granulosa cells and differential modulation of Smad-1 phosphorylation by follistatin
    Claire Glister
    School of Animal and Microbial Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AJ, UK
    Reproduction 127:239-54. 2004
    ..The finding that FS can differentially modulate BMP-induced receptor activation and that this correlates with the relative binding affinity of FS for each BMP type implicates FS as a potential modulator of BMP action in the ovary...
  89. ncbi Activin A stimulates meiotic maturation of human oocytes and modulates granulosa cell steroidogenesis in vitro
    B M Alak
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA
    Fertil Steril 70:1126-30. 1998
    ..To test the hypothesis that activin A promotes in vitro human oocyte meiotic maturation while inhibiting steroid secretion by nonluteinized antral granulosa cells...
  90. ncbi The specification and growth factor inducibility of the pronephric glomus in Xenopus laevis
    H C Brennan
    Cell and Molecular Development Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Warwick University, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK
    Development 126:5847-56. 1999
    ..Activin together with high concentrations of RA can induce glomus tissue from animal cap ectoderm. Unlike the pronephric tubules, the glomus can also be induced by FGF and RA...
  91. ncbi Production and purification of recombinant human inhibin and activin
    S A Pangas
    Department of Neurobiology and Physiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    J Endocrinol 172:199-210. 2002
    ..These proteins will be valuable for future analysis of inhibin and activin function and have been distributed to the US National Hormone and Peptide Program...
  92. ncbi In vitro induction of the pronephric duct in Xenopus explants
    Kenji Osafune
    Department of Life Sciences Biology, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3 8 1 Komaba, Meguro ku, Tokyo 153 8902, Japan
    Dev Growth Differ 44:161-7. 2002
    ....
  93. ncbi Dissecting the molecular hierarchy for mesendoderm differentiation through a combination of embryonic stem cell culture and RNA interference
    Naoki Izumi
    Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, 2 2 3 Minatojima minamimachi, Chuo Ku, Kobe 650 0047, Japan
    Stem Cells 25:1664-74. 2007
    ..Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article...
  94. ncbi Regulation of the Lim-1 gene is mediated through conserved FAST-1/FoxH1 sites in the first intron
    Minoru Watanabe
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Dev Dyn 225:448-56. 2002
    ..These results illuminate the conserved nature of the transcriptional regulation of the Lim-1 gene in different vertebrate animals...
  95. ncbi Injected Wnt RNA induces a complete body axis in Xenopus embryos
    S Sokol
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138
    Cell 67:741-52. 1991
    ..The relationship between the properties of the endogenous dorsal inducer and the effects of Wnts and activins is discussed.
  96. ncbi Differentiation of murine embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells to renal lineage in vitro
    Ryuji Morizane
    Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 390:1334-9. 2009
    ..ES and iPS cells have a potential to differentiate to renal lineage cells, and they will be an attractive resource of kidney regeneration therapy. This differentiation is enhanced by Activin in both ES and iPS cells...
  97. ncbi The transcriptional role of Smads and FAST (FoxH1) in TGFbeta and activin signalling
    L Attisano
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical Sciences Building, Rm 6336, 1 King s College Circle, University of Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Toronto, Canada
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 180:3-11. 2001
    ..Thus, it is the interaction of Smads with a wide range of specific transcriptional partners that is important for the generation of diverse biological responses to TGFbeta superfamily members...
  98. ncbi Different phenotypes for mice deficient in either activins or activin receptor type II
    M M Matzuk
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030
    Nature 374:356-60. 1995
    b>Activins are believed to initiate a signal transduction cascade by binding to serine/threonine kinase receptors types I and II...
  99. ncbi Targeted disruption in murine cells reveals variable requirement for Smad4 in transforming growth factor beta-related signaling
    C Sirard
    Amgen Institute Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C1, Canada
    J Biol Chem 275:2063-70. 2000
    ..We have identified transcriptional targets for Smad4 in the BMP signaling pathway, which may contribute to the genetic defect observed in the Smad4-deficient embryos...
  100. ncbi The homeobox gene Siamois is a target of the Wnt dorsalisation pathway and triggers organiser activity in the absence of mesoderm
    G Carnac
    Wellcome CRC Institute, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Development 122:3055-65. 1996
    ..Hence, in the absence of mesoderm induction, overexpression of Siamois is sufficient to confer organiser properties on embryonic cells...
  101. ncbi Postnatal regulation of germ cells by activin: the establishment of the initial follicle pool
    Sarah K Bristol-Gould
    Department of Neurobiology and Physiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Dev Biol 298:132-48. 2006
    ..The proposed mechanism provides a means by which the ovary eliminates excess follicles containing oocytes of poor quality prior to puberty, thus maintaining fertility in the face of abnormal hormonal stimuli in the prepubertal period...

Research Grants65

  1. Suppression of Ocular Scarring - Controlled Delivery of an ALK-5 Inhibitor
    Hiroshi Nakamura; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The in vitro and in vivo results will be valuable for glaucoma therapy as well as in treatments for other ocular disorders related to scarring, such as proliferative vitreoretinopathy. ..
  2. Mechanism and therapy for arteriovenous malformation
    Suk Paul Oh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Results from this study map provide important novel insights for developing therapeutic reagents for controlling development of AVMs. ..
  3. Pluripotent Stem Cells: Modeling syncytiotrophoblast development and pathogenesis
    Danny J Schust; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will test this hypothesis in vitro using iPSCs derived from the umbilical cords of babies born to mothers with severe preeclampsia and gestational age-matched control iPSCs. ..
  4. Mediators &prognostic value of muscle mass &function in chronic kidney disease
    Francis Perry Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Controls will be matched based upon age, race, gender eGFR, and baseline muscle mass but be selected from the lowest quintile. The primary analysis will use mixed-effects models clustered at the matched-pair level. ..
  5. Regulation of TGF-beta Signaling and Embryonic Development by GTPases
    Gerald H Thomsen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our studies will provide crucial information about GTPBPs which may eventually translate into clinical treatments for diseases caused by abnormal TGF[unreadable] or GTPBP signaling. ..
  6. Bone Morphogenic Protein Signaling Pathways in Uterine Biology
    Martin M Matzuk; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in BMP signaling in the uterus and identifying new agents for inhibiting and/or mimicking the functions of BMPs, activins and myostatin in uterine, ovarian, muscle, and bone physiology...
  7. Stem cell-mediated reversal of thymic involution in premature aging models
    Kenneth I Weinberg; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  8. HEMODYNAMICS OF CEREBRAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS
    Hua Su; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The work will allow development of an animal model to test mechanistic hypotheses that are pertinent to development of novel therapeutics that can beneficially alter the natural history of AVMs. ..
  9. LPS binding to TLR4 regulates hepatic stellate cell activation and fibrosis
    Ekihiro Seki; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The results from this study might establish TLR4 and its related functions as targets for the therapy of hepatic fibrosis. ..
  10. NEURONAL CONTROL OF CGRP GENE EXPRESSION
    ANDREW RUSSO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The significance of this proposal is that it will restablish a molecular mechanism linking cytokines and neuropeptides and potentially reveal new therapeutic (strategies to attenuate neuropeptide synthesis. ..
  11. Regulation of Follistatin Expression by Activin
    Louise M Bilezikjian; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Activins are pleiotropic regulators of diverse tissues and cellular functions, often acting through autocrine/paracrine ..
  12. Center for Reproductive Research at Northwestern University
    Teresa K Woodruff; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Moreover, each of our continuing projects reaffirms our commitment to translate our findings to the bedside, and thereby contribute to the overall health of women. ..
  13. Significance of Pituitary Leptin to Gonadotropes
    Gwen V Childs; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These studies focus on basic regulatory mechanisms that link nutritional status to fertility. ..
  14. Role of Dicer in Gonadotrope and Reproductive Function
    T Rajendra Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Delineation of mechanisms of gonadotropin secretion is fundamental to physiology of reproduction and offers long-term clinical benefits of diagnosing and treating gonadotropin-dependent fertility/infertility disorders. ..
  15. Genetic Markers Associated with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and Hypodontia
    Lorri A Morford; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  16. Regulation of call adhesion in Xenopus
    KEN CHO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..As the development of tumors often parallels the process of embryonic development in terms of rapid cell proliferation and extensive cellular movements, our work may provide direct relevance for a better understanding of tumorigenesis. ..
  17. Mechanism of Action of Prohibitin in Ovarian Cell Function
    Winston E Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  18. The Role of MAP 3 kinase 1 in Ocular Surface Morphogenesis
    Ying Xia; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Information derived from this work will pave the way for further investigation of genetic and environmental interactions in ocular surface development and identification of the etiology of congenital corneal anomalies. ..
  19. Role of Shh-Hey1/Hey2 and Activin A in Hair Cell Differentiation
    Ana Benito-Gonzalez; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is our hope that the experiments put forth in this application will advance our understanding of the genetic mechanism underlying the development and maintenance of sensory cell in the cochlea. ..
  20. TGF-beta polymorphisms and breast cancer in families
    Boris Pasche; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This project will study 65 genes of the TGF-2 pathway in 5357 women with breast cancer and their unaffected sisters and determine which genes are associated with breast cancer risk. ..
  21. Maternal markers and prediction of preeclampsia
    Lorraine Dugoff; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Accomplishing either of these objectives would lead to reduced morbidity and mortality of both mothers and babies. ..
  22. Cell Signaling in Developing Epithelia
    Gregory R Dressler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..How these interactions can be manipulated for therapeutic effects needs to be investigated and is the subject of this proposal. ..
  23. TCF3: A Wnt Pathway Effector in Pluripotent Stem Cell Self-Renewal
    Marian L Waterman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies could provide new insights into mechanisms regulating early human development. ..
  24. Oncogenic Cripto Signaling in Models of Breast Cancer
    Peter Gray; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Together, these studies will illuminate novel therapeutic targets and reagents for the management of neoplastic disease. ..
  25. Mechanisms underlying myostatin regulation and activity
    Se Jin Lee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  26. TRAINING IN REPRODUCTIVE SCIENCES
    Pamela L Mellon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our aim is to prepare outstanding physician-scientists and basic scientists to become the future leaders in academic reproductive research. ..
  27. Signaling inputs that maintain the heterogeneity of colorectal cancer cells
    Darina Lazarova; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will analyze the mechanisms via which colorectal cancer cell heterogeneity arises, and test a novel treatment approach to overcome it. ..
  28. Roles of Inhibitory Smads in Endochondral Bone Formation
    KRISTINE DAVID ESTRADA; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..abstract_text> ..
  29. Role of Vwc2-assisted activin signaling in bone formation
    Yoshiyuki Mochida; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  30. The role of activin A in mediating liver repopulation after cell transplantation
    Michael Oertel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Results from the proposed studies will also provide critical understanding of the basic requirements and mechanisms that will serve as a guide for effective liver repopulation in patients of all ages. ..
  31. Mechanisms Controlling RPE Development
    Sabine Fuhrmann; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  32. Activin receptor-based therapies for musculoskeletal disease
    DOUGLAS JAMES DIGIROLAMO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We expect the results from the studies proposed in this application will expedite clinical trials of activin receptor-based biologics to treat age-related bone and muscle loss in humans. ..
  33. Characterizing the R8 cell subtype fate in Drosophila
    Brent S Wells; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It will also add to our knowledge of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway as well as Dpp and Activin signaling pathways, all of which are utilized in non-canonical ways here. ! ..
  34. Regulating TGF-beta Signaling in Drosophila
    MICHAEL BRENDAN O'CONNOR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Aim 3 we will use molecular genetics methods, to determine how one sub-family (Activins) influences the signaling output of another subfamily (BMPs) to control tissue growth...
  35. Role of the BMP SMADs in Oncogenesis
    Stephanie A Pangas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The TGF? family can be divided into two main subgroups: the TGF?/activins and the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)...
  36. Modulation of Bone Morphogenic Protein signaling for cancer immunotherapy
    PIOTR J KRAJ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Proteins (BMPs) belong to TGF-[unreadable] family of cytokines that also includes TGF-[unreadable] and activins. BMPs play crucial roles in embryonic development, tissue differentiation and homeostasis and development of ..
  37. Center for Reproductive Science and Medicine
    Pamela L Mellon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The SCCPIR Human Ovary Tissue Bank provides tissue to NIH-funded investigators nation-wide. ..
  38. Hormonal Signals that Regulate Ovarian Diffrentiation
    Kelly E Mayo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is our expectation that the basic research projects presented in this P01 program proposal will have considerable impact, ultimately leading to improvements in human reproductive health. ..
  39. ACTIVIN SIGNALING AND REGULATION IN THE COLON
    Barbara H Jung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..S., with the deaths due largely to metastatic disease. Understanding the genetic mechanisms of how colon cancer metastases form will help to develop better tools to prevent, diagnose, and treat colon cancer. ..
  40. EXPRESSION OF OVARIAN INHIBIN AND ACTIVIN GENES
    Kelly Mayo; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ....
  41. The role of Activin A signaling in esophageal cell invasion
    Claudia D Andl; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Activins are members of this superfamily...
  42. Regulation of R7 axon tiling in the Drosophila visual system
    Tory G Herman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  43. Inhibin/Activin Family in Human Cranifocial Development
    Geralyn Messerlian; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  44. BMP and Notch Crosstalk in Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations
    Yucheng Yao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..If successful, the obtained information may translate into strategies for using BMP and Notch inhibitors in the treatment of cerebral AVMs. ..
  45. Mechanisms of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk during esophageal cell invasion
    Claudia D Andl; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  46. Control of Toxoplasma gondii Growth by the Host Cell Transcription Factor HIF1
    Ira J Blader; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies are likely to provide important information regarding the interaction between Toxoplasma and its host cell. ..
  47. Analysis of TGFbeta-regulated microRNAs in hESC stemness and differentiation
    Ali H Brivanlou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  48. PREDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIPS FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES
    James T Trbovich; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  49. Creation &Validation of a BMP/TGF-B/Activin Biosensor System
    Vicki Rosen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..As such we believe that the impact of this innovative approach to understanding canonical signaling warrants the risks inherent in developing this novel reagent. ..
  50. Reversible vitamin A-dependent arrest of spermatogonia
    JAMES TSURUTA; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. ACTIVIN, INHIBIN AND FOLLISTATIN AND OSTEOBLASTOGENESIS
    Dana Gaddy; Fiscal Year: 2003
    b>Activins (ACTs) are growth factors in the TGFbeta superfamily whose effects are antagonized by inhibin (INH) and follistatin (FS) through different mechanisms...
  52. FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR IN EARLY DEVELOPMENT
    Thomas Musci; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Understanding the early molecular events that direct differentiation pathways and control embryonic development is essential to the full understanding of the pathogenesis of these conditions...
  53. Cytokine Dysregulation in GM-CSF Autoimmunity
    Mary Jane Thomassen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The rituximab trial offers a unique opportunity to explore effects of B cell depletion on PAP pulmonary AM function and at the same time investigate new therapy that may improve the lung disease in PAP. ..
  54. Structural basis of antagonism within the TGFbeta-superfamily
    Thomas B Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by applicant): Approximately 40 unique secreted ligands, divided into three subgroups (TGF[unreadable]s, activins and BMPs) form the TGF[unreadable]-superfamily whose function is to coordinate numerous cellular events...
  55. Role of integrins and activin in granulosa cell growth
    Kutluk Oktay; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Cell proliferation and survival will be determined before and after transfection with the dominant-negative mutants. ..
  56. Prolactin regulation of decidual activin and apoptosis
    Jennifer Bowen Shauver; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  57. Induction of FSH-beta by TGF-Beta Family Members
    William Miller; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Moreover, AIM 3 will begin to characterize a cell-targeting mechanism on the FSHB gene that controls gonadotrope-specific express on and it likely to be prototypical of mechanisms that express most endocrine hormones. ..
  58. Endocrine and Growth Factor Regulation in the Pituitary
    PAMELA MELLON; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  59. Activin Target Genes in the Ovary: Regulation of Ovarian Follicle Development
    JINGJING KIPP; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  60. REGULATION OF GNRH RECEPTOR GENE EXPRESSION
    Colin Clay; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  61. Patterning of the optic vesicle by extrinsic factors
    Sabine Fuhrmann; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Subsequently, the identified molecule will be cloned and tested for the RPE-promoting activity in explant cultures and by transfection of chick embryos. ..
  62. PROSTATE CANCER--THE ROLE OF ACTIVIN AND FOLLISTATIN
    Alan Dalkin; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..We will then examine whether the pharmacologic agents identified in Aim I that increase activin action can improve the clinical performance of animal bearing tumors from the Dunning cancer cell lines. ..
  63. Genes regulated by activin receptor II signaling in gonadotropes
    T Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2009
    b>Activins are abundantly expressed in gonads and elicit important autocrine/paracrine actions within the pituitary and hypothalamus. Activins signal through two types of receptors, activin receptor II (ACVR2) and IIB (ACVR2B)...
  64. GENETICS OF THE CELEGANS DAUER LARVA
    DONALD RIDDLE; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  65. Activin in cerebral hypoxia and acute focal ischemia
    SHIBANI MUKERJI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This proposal potentially identifies a novel HIF-1 target in cortical neurons and implicates activin and its signals in both ischemia and preconditioning effects. ..