threonine

Summary

Summary: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Characterization of the AMP-activated protein kinase kinase from rat liver and identification of threonine 172 as the major site at which it phosphorylates AMP-activated protein kinase
    S A Hawley
    Biochemistry Department, The University, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 271:27879-87. 1996
  2. ncbi NF-kappaB activation by tumour necrosis factor requires the Akt serine-threonine kinase
    O N Ozes
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, The Walther Oncology Center, Indianapolis 46202, USA
    Nature 401:82-5. 1999
  3. pmc Specific threonine phosphorylation of a host target by two unrelated type III effectors activates a host innate immune receptor in plants
    Eui Hwan Chung
    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 27599, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 9:125-36. 2011
  4. ncbi Pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress cause p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by dual phosphorylation on tyrosine and threonine
    J Raingeaud
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester 01605, USA
    J Biol Chem 270:7420-6. 1995
  5. ncbi Two histone marks establish the inner centromere and chromosome bi-orientation
    Yuya Yamagishi
    Laboratory of Chromosome Dynamics, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Tokyo 113 0032, Japan
    Science 330:239-43. 2010
  6. pmc Threonine-4 of mammalian RNA polymerase II CTD is targeted by Polo-like kinase 3 and required for transcriptional elongation
    Corinna Hintermair
    Department of Molecular Epigenetics, Helmholtz Center Munich, Center of Integrated Protein Science, Germany
    EMBO J 31:2784-97. 2012
  7. pmc mTORC1-activated S6K1 phosphorylates Rictor on threonine 1135 and regulates mTORC2 signaling
    Louis Andre Julien
    Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer, Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Mol Cell Biol 30:908-21. 2010
  8. pmc Mechanism of activation of protein kinase B by insulin and IGF-1
    D R Alessi
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, UK
    EMBO J 15:6541-51. 1996
  9. pmc Activation of yeast Snf1 and mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase by upstream kinases
    Seung Pyo Hong
    Department of Genetics and Development, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:8839-43. 2003
  10. ncbi Interdependence of threonine, methionine and isoleucine metabolism in plants: accumulation and transcriptional regulation under abiotic stress
    Vijay Joshi
    Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Amino Acids 39:933-47. 2010

Detail Information

Publications346 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Characterization of the AMP-activated protein kinase kinase from rat liver and identification of threonine 172 as the major site at which it phosphorylates AMP-activated protein kinase
    S A Hawley
    Biochemistry Department, The University, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 271:27879-87. 1996
    ..The upstream kinase phosphorylates the downstream kinase at a single major site on the alpha subunit, i.e. threonine 172, which lies in the "activation segment" between the DFG and APE motifs...
  2. ncbi NF-kappaB activation by tumour necrosis factor requires the Akt serine-threonine kinase
    O N Ozes
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, The Walther Oncology Center, Indianapolis 46202, USA
    Nature 401:82-5. 1999
    ..Here we show that the Akt serine-threonine kinase is involved in the activation of NF-kappaB by tumour necrosis factor (TNF)...
  3. pmc Specific threonine phosphorylation of a host target by two unrelated type III effectors activates a host innate immune receptor in plants
    Eui Hwan Chung
    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 27599, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 9:125-36. 2011
    ..and, with appropriate localization sequences, sufficient to support effector-triggered RPM1 activation, with the threonine residue at position 166 being critical...
  4. ncbi Pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress cause p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by dual phosphorylation on tyrosine and threonine
    J Raingeaud
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester 01605, USA
    J Biol Chem 270:7420-6. 1995
    ..Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that p38 MAP kinase is present in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of activated cells. Together, these data establish that p38 is a member of the mammalian MAP kinase group...
  5. ncbi Two histone marks establish the inner centromere and chromosome bi-orientation
    Yuya Yamagishi
    Laboratory of Chromosome Dynamics, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Tokyo 113 0032, Japan
    Science 330:239-43. 2010
    ..Here, we show that the phosphorylation of histone H3-threonine 3 (H3-pT3) mediated by Haspin cooperates with Bub1-mediated histone 2A-serine 121 (H2A-S121) phosphorylation in ..
  6. pmc Threonine-4 of mammalian RNA polymerase II CTD is targeted by Polo-like kinase 3 and required for transcriptional elongation
    Corinna Hintermair
    Department of Molecular Epigenetics, Helmholtz Center Munich, Center of Integrated Protein Science, Germany
    EMBO J 31:2784-97. 2012
    ..Since Thr4 replacement mutants are viable in yeast we conclude that this amino acid has evolved an essential function(s) in the CTD of Pol II for gene transcription in mammalian cells...
  7. pmc mTORC1-activated S6K1 phosphorylates Rictor on threonine 1135 and regulates mTORC2 signaling
    Louis Andre Julien
    Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer, Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Mol Cell Biol 30:908-21. 2010
    ..Together, our results uncover a new regulatory link between the two mTOR complexes, whereby Rictor integrates mTORC1-dependent signaling...
  8. pmc Mechanism of activation of protein kinase B by insulin and IGF-1
    D R Alessi
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, UK
    EMBO J 15:6541-51. 1996
    ..We propose a model whereby PKBalpha becomes phosphorylated and activated in insulin/IGF-1-stimulated cells by an upstream kinase(s)...
  9. pmc Activation of yeast Snf1 and mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase by upstream kinases
    Seung Pyo Hong
    Department of Genetics and Development, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:8839-43. 2003
    ..All three kinases phosphorylate recombinant Snf1p on the activation-loop threonine. Moreover, Tos3p phosphorylates mammalian AMPK on the equivalent residue and activates the enzyme, suggesting ..
  10. ncbi Interdependence of threonine, methionine and isoleucine metabolism in plants: accumulation and transcriptional regulation under abiotic stress
    Vijay Joshi
    Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Amino Acids 39:933-47. 2010
    Pathways regulating threonine, methionine and isoleucine metabolism are very efficiently interconnected in plants...
  11. pmc Survivin reads phosphorylated histone H3 threonine 3 to activate the mitotic kinase Aurora B
    Alexander E Kelly
    Laboratory of Chromosome and Cell Biology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Science 330:235-9. 2010
    ..Here, we demonstrate that histone H3 phosphorylated at threonine 3 is directly recognized by an evolutionarily conserved binding pocket in the BIR domain of Survivin, which is a ..
  12. ncbi Characterization of a 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase which phosphorylates and activates protein kinase Balpha
    D R Alessi
    Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 4HN, Scotland
    Curr Biol 7:261-9. 1997
    ..The phosphorylation of both residues is required for maximal activation of PKB. The kinases that phosphorylate PKB are, however, unknown...
  13. ncbi Rho-associated kinase ROCK activates LIM-kinase 1 by phosphorylation at threonine 508 within the activation loop
    K Ohashi
    Biological Institute, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980 8578, Japan
    J Biol Chem 275:3577-82. 2000
    ..In vitro kinase reaction revealed that the active forms of ROCK phosphorylated LIMK1 on the threonine residue and markedly increased its cofilin-phosphorylating activity...
  14. pmc Extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylates tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme at threonine 735: a potential role in regulated shedding
    Elena Diaz-Rodriguez
    Instituto de Microbiología Bioquímica and Centro de Investigación del Cáncer, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas Universidad de Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
    Mol Biol Cell 13:2031-44. 2002
    ..that the cytosolic tail of the tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme (TACE) is phosphorylated by Erk at threonine 735. In addition, we show that Erk and TACE associate...
  15. pmc Serine-threonine ubiquitination mediates downregulation of BST-2/tetherin and relief of restricted virion release by HIV-1 Vpu
    Andrey A Tokarev
    Department of Medicine University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    J Virol 85:51-63. 2011
    ..However, a serine-threonine-serine sequence specifically mediates the downregulation of BST-2 from the cell surface and the optimal relief ..
  16. pmc Influence of threonine metabolism on S-adenosylmethionine and histone methylation
    Ng Shyh-Chang
    Stem Cell Transplantation Program, Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research, Boston Children s Hospital and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 339:222-6. 2013
    b>Threonine is the only amino acid critically required for the pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), but the detailed mechanism remains unclear...
  17. pmc Regulation of insulin sensitivity by serine/threonine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate proteins IRS1 and IRS2
    K D Copps
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Division of Endocrinology, Boston Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, CLS 16020, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Diabetologia 55:2565-82. 2012
    ..However, IRS1 and IRS2 are regulated through a complex mechanism involving phosphorylation of >50 serine/threonine residues (S/T) within their long, unstructured tail regions...
  18. pmc The role of RelA (p65) threonine 505 phosphorylation in the regulation of cell growth, survival, and migration
    Aichi Msaki
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom
    Mol Biol Cell 22:3032-40. 2011
    ..Using rela(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts reconstituted with RelA, we find that mutation of the threonine 505 (T505) phospho site to alanine has wide-ranging effects on NF-κB function...
  19. ncbi Phosphorylation of threonine 558 in the carboxyl-terminal actin-binding domain of moesin by thrombin activation of human platelets
    F Nakamura
    Department of Pathology, Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305 5324, USA
    J Biol Chem 270:31377-85. 1995
    ..shifts (0-100%) in the number of phosphorylated molecules are observed in the presence of inhibitors of serine/threonine kinases and phosphatases...
  20. ncbi Quantification of tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 in human cerebrospinal fluid: a sandwich ELISA with a synthetic phosphopeptide for standardization
    E Vanmechelen
    Innogenetics NV, Industriepark Zwijnaarde 7, Box 4, B 9052, Gent, Belgium
    Neurosci Lett 285:49-52. 2000
    ..73; frontotemporal dementia, r(2)=0.43; Control, r(2)=0.42), suggesting that the degree of phosphorylation of CSF-tau changes in different clinical conditions...
  21. ncbi Effects of phosphorylation of threonine 160 on cyclin-dependent kinase 2 structure and activity
    N R Brown
    Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, and Oxford Centre for Molecular Sciences, University of Oxford, The Rex Richards Building, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 274:8746-56. 1999
    ..The majority of these states are likely to correspond to inactive conformations, but a small fraction of phosphorylated CDK2 may be in an active conformation and hence explain the basal activity observed...
  22. pmc Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins
    Sean A Beausoleil
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:12130-5. 2004
    ..From 967 proteins, 2,002 phosphorylation sites were determined by tandem MS. This unprecedented large collection of sites permitted a detailed accounting of known and unknown kinase motifs and substrates...
  23. pmc Arabidopsis methionine gamma-lyase is regulated according to isoleucine biosynthesis needs but plays a subordinate role to threonine deaminase
    Vijay Joshi
    Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Plant Physiol 151:367-78. 2009
    The canonical pathway for isoleucine biosynthesis in plants begins with the conversion of threonine to 2-ketobutyrate by threonine deaminase (OMR1)...
  24. pmc RNAP II CTD phosphorylated on threonine-4 is required for histone mRNA 3' end processing
    Jing Ping Hsin
    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
    Science 334:683-6. 2011
    ..Our data thus illustrate how a CTD modification can play a highly specific role in facilitating efficient gene expression...
  25. pmc Berberine inhibits metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma 5-8F cells by targeting Rho kinase-mediated Ezrin phosphorylation at threonine 567
    Faqing Tang
    Department of Clinical Laboratory, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, Hunan, China
    J Biol Chem 284:27456-66. 2009
    ..1% inhibition of tumor metastasis to the lymph nodes and decreased Ezrin phosphorylation at threonine 567 in metastatic samples...
  26. pmc Threonine 22 phosphorylation attenuates Hsp90 interaction with cochaperones and affects its chaperone activity
    Mehdi Mollapour
    Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Cell 41:672-81. 2011
    ..We report here that casein kinase 2 phosphorylates a conserved threonine residue (T22) in α helix-1 of the yeast Hsp90 N-domain both in vitro and in vivo...
  27. ncbi Threonine at position 306 of the KAT1 potassium channel is essential for channel activity and is a target site for ABA-activated SnRK2/OST1/SnRK2.6 protein kinase
    Aiko Sato
    Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aobayama 6 6 07, Sendai 980 8579, Japan
    Biochem J 424:439-48. 2009
    ..These results suggest that negative regulation of KAT1 activity, required for stomatal closure, probably occurs by phosphorylation of KAT1 Thr306 by the stress-activated endogenous SnRK2.6 protein kinase...
  28. ncbi Analysis of the large inactive P-TEFb complex indicates that it contains one 7SK molecule, a dimer of HEXIM1 or HEXIM2, and two P-TEFb molecules containing Cdk9 phosphorylated at threonine 186
    Qintong Li
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Program, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:28819-26. 2005
    ..HEXIM complex. A model illustrates what is currently known about how HEXIM proteins, 7SK, and P-TEFb assemble to maintain an activated kinase in a readily available, but inactive form...
  29. pmc Histone H3 Thr-3 phosphorylation by Haspin positions Aurora B at centromeres in mitosis
    Fangwei Wang
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Smith Building, 1 Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 330:231-5. 2010
    ..Here we show that phosphorylation of histone H3 threonine 3 (H3T3ph) by Haspin is necessary for CPC accumulation at centromeres and that the CPC subunit Survivin binds ..
  30. pmc Silencing threonine deaminase and JAR4 in Nicotiana attenuata impairs jasmonic acid-isoleucine-mediated defenses against Manduca sexta
    Jin Ho Kang
    Department of Molecular Ecology, Max Planck Institute of Chemical Ecology, D 07745 Jena, Germany
    Plant Cell 18:3303-20. 2006
    b>Threonine deaminase (TD) catalyzes the conversion of Thr to alpha-keto butyrate in Ile biosynthesis; however, its dramatic upregulation in leaves after herbivore attack suggests a role in defense...
  31. ncbi Osmotic stress regulates the stability of cyclin D1 in a p38SAPK2-dependent manner
    O Casanovas
    Departament de Biologia Cellular i Anatomia Patologica, Facultat de Medicina, Institut d Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi Sunyer, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
    J Biol Chem 275:35091-7. 2000
    ....
  32. pmc Myosin II dynamics and cortical flow during contractile ring formation in Dictyostelium cells
    S Yumura
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Yamaguchi University, Yoshida 1677 1, Yamaguchi 753 8512, Japan
    J Cell Biol 154:137-46. 2001
    ..Similar experiments were performed in cells expressing GFP-3ALA myosin II, of which three phosphorylatable threonine residues were replaced with alanine residues...
  33. pmc Phosphorylation of threonine 1736 in the C-terminal tail of integrin β4 contributes to hemidesmosome disassembly
    Evelyne Frijns
    Division of Cell Biology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Mol Biol Cell 23:1475-85. 2012
    ..In conclusion, we identify T1736 as a novel phosphorylation site that contributes to the regulation of hemidesmome disassembly, a dynamically regulated process involving the concerted phosphorylation of multiple β4 residues...
  34. pmc An unusual tRNAThr derived from tRNAHis reassigns in yeast mitochondria the CUN codons to threonine
    Dan Su
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 8114, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:4866-74. 2011
    ..In certain yeast mitochondria, CUN codons are reassigned from leucine to threonine, which requires an unusual tRNA(Thr) with an enlarged 8-nt anticodon loop ( )...
  35. ncbi Mirk/dyrk1B kinase destabilizes cyclin D1 by phosphorylation at threonine 288
    Yonglong Zou
    Department of Pathology, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:27790-8. 2004
    The phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at threonine 286 by glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) has been shown to be required for the ubiquitination and nuclear export of cyclin D1 and its subsequent degradation in the proteasome...
  36. pmc A conserved threonine residue in the juxtamembrane domain of the XA21 pattern recognition receptor is critical for kinase autophosphorylation and XA21-mediated immunity
    Xuewei Chen
    Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:10454-63. 2010
    ..Here we show that the XA21 juxtamembrane (JM) domain is required for kinase autophosphorylation. Threonine 705 in the XA21 JM domain is essential for XA21 autophosphorylation in vitro and XA21-mediated innate immunity ..
  37. pmc Yeast mitochondrial threonyl-tRNA synthetase recognizes tRNA isoacceptors by distinct mechanisms and promotes CUN codon reassignment
    Jiqiang Ling
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:3281-6. 2012
    ..Besides a regular tRNA(2Thr) with a threonine (Thr) anticodon, MST1 also recognizes an unusual tRNA(1Thr), which contains an enlarged anticodon loop and an ..
  38. ncbi Phosphorylation of the norepinephrine transporter at threonine 258 and serine 259 is linked to protein kinase C-mediated transporter internalization
    Lankupalle D Jayanthi
    Department of Neurosciences, Division of Neuroscience Research, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:23326-40. 2006
    ..trophoblast cells revealed that the phorbol ester (beta-PMA)-induced phosphorylation of NET occurs on serine and threonine residues...
  39. pmc Molecular genetics of serine and threonine catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    J G Petersen
    Department of Physiology, Carlsberg Laboratory, Copenhagen Valby, Denmark
    Genetics 119:527-34. 1988
    The catabolic L-serine (L-threonine) deaminase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae allows the yeast to grow on media with L-serine or L-threonine as sole nitrogen source...
  40. ncbi Phosphorylation of human respiratory syncytial virus P protein at threonine 108 controls its interaction with the M2-1 protein in the viral RNA polymerase complex
    Ana Asenjo
    Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Crta Majadahonda Pozuelo km 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid, Spain
    J Gen Virol 87:3637-42. 2006
    ..syncytial virus (HRSV) P protein is phosphorylated, with different turnover rates, at several serine (S) and threonine (T) residues...
  41. pmc A wheat PI4K gene whose product possesses threonine autophophorylation activity confers tolerance to drought and salt in Arabidopsis
    Pei Liu
    Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences CAAS National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Beijing 100081, China
    J Exp Bot 64:2915-27. 2013
    ..TaPI4KIIγ, localized on the plasma membrane, underwent threonine autophosphorylation, but had no detectable lipid kinase activity...
  42. ncbi Analysis of the serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphoproteome of the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes reveals phosphorylated proteins related to virulence
    Sandeep K Misra
    INRA, UMR Micalis, Jouy en Josas, France
    Proteomics 11:4155-65. 2011
    ..gain insight into the role of protein phosphorylation in the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, the serine (Ser), threonine (Thr) and tyrosine (Tyr) phosphoproteome of this bacterium was determined...
  43. ncbi DYRK1A-mediated hyperphosphorylation of Tau. A functional link between Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease
    Soo Ryoon Ryoo
    Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Institute for Brain Science and Technology, Inje University, Busan 614 735, South Korea
    J Biol Chem 282:34850-7. 2007
    ..These results provide the first in vivo evidence for a physiological role of DYRK1A in the hyperphosphorylation of Tau and suggest that the extra copy of the DYRK1A gene contributes to the early onset of AD...
  44. pmc Murine protein serine/threonine kinase 38 activates apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 via Thr 838 phosphorylation
    Haiyoung Jung
    Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology Research Institute, School of Life Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361 763, Republic of Korea
    J Biol Chem 283:34541-53. 2008
    Murine protein serine/threonine kinase 38 (MPK38) is a member of the AMP-activated protein kinase-related serine/threonine kinase family that plays an important role in various cellular processes, including cell cycle, signaling pathways,..
  45. ncbi Xiamenmycin attenuates hypertrophic scars by suppressing local inflammation and the effects of mechanical stress
    Xiao Jin Liu
    State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Ren Ji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
    J Invest Dermatol 133:1351-60. 2013
    ....
  46. ncbi The prolyl isomerase Pin1 regulates amyloid precursor protein processing and amyloid-beta production
    Lucia Pastorino
    Cancer Biology Program, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nature 440:528-34. 2006
    ..Phosphorylation of tau and APP on certain serine or threonine residues preceding proline affects tangle formation and Abeta production in vitro...
  47. pmc LRRK2 phosphorylates moesin at threonine-558: characterization of how Parkinson's disease mutants affect kinase activity
    Mahaboobi Jaleel
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, MSI WTB complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK
    Biochem J 405:307-17. 2007
    ..The results of the present study suggest that moesin, ezrin and radixin may be LRRK2 substrates, findings that have been exploited to develop the first robust quantitative assay to measure LRRK2 kinase activity...
  48. pmc Proline substitutions and threonine pseudophosphorylation of the SH3 ligand of 18.5-kDa myelin basic protein decrease its affinity for the Fyn-SH3 domain and alter process development and protein localization in oligodendrocytes
    Graham S T Smith
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    J Neurosci Res 90:28-47. 2012
    ....
  49. pmc The intracellular threonine of amyloid precursor protein that is essential for docking of Pin1 is dispensable for developmental function
    Alessia P M Barbagallo
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e18006. 2011
    ..Thr residue at amino acid 668 of the APP intracellular domain (AID) is highly conserved. When phosphorylated, this residue generates a binding site for Pin1. The interaction of APP with Pin1 has been involved in AD pathogenesis...
  50. ncbi C-terminal threonine phosphorylation activates ERM proteins to link the cell's cortical lipid bilayer to the cytoskeleton
    P C Simons
    Department of Internal Medicine and Cancer Research and Treatment Center, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque 87131, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 253:561-5. 1998
    ..C-terminal threonine phosphorylation of a fragment of radixin has been found to destroy its ability to bind the amino-terminal domain ..
  51. ncbi Quantitative analysis of both protein expression and serine / threonine post-translational modifications through stable isotope labeling with dithiothreitol
    Keith Vosseller
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Proteomics 5:388-98. 2005
    ..labeling by prior oxidation of a cytosolic lysate from mouse brain allowed specific targeting of serine / threonine post-translational modifications as demonstrated through identification of 21 phosphorylation sites (5 ..
  52. pmc Site-specific characterization of threonine, serine, and tyrosine glycosylations of amyloid precursor protein/amyloid beta-peptides in human cerebrospinal fluid
    Adnan Halim
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, SE 413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:11848-53. 2011
    ..APP/Aβ sialylated O-glycans, including that of a Tyr residue, the first in a mammalian protein, may modulate APP processing, inhibiting the amyloidogenic pathway associated with AD...
  53. pmc ATMPK4, an Arabidopsis homolog of mitogen-activated protein kinase, is activated in vitro by AtMEK1 through threonine phosphorylation
    Y Huang
    Department of Biological Sciences, Laboratory for Molecular Biology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA
    Plant Physiol 122:1301-10. 2000
    ..This phosphorylation occurred principally on threonine (Thr) residues and resulted in elevated ATMPK4 kinase activity...
  54. pmc Interleukin-1 stimulates ADAM17 through a mechanism independent of its cytoplasmic domain or phosphorylation at threonine 735
    Katherine C Hall
    Arthritis and Tissue Degeneration Program, The Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e31600. 2012
    ....
  55. ncbi Dysfunctionality of a tobacco mosaic virus movement protein mutant mimicking threonine 104 phosphorylation
    E M Karger
    Department of Virology and A N Belozersky Institute of Physico Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, Vorobiovy Gory Moscow 119899, Russia
    J Gen Virol 84:727-32. 2003
    ..plants. Conversely, mutation of Thr to Asp mimicking Thr(104) phosphorylation strongly inhibited cell-to-cell movement. The possible role of Thr(104) phosphorylation in TMV MP function is discussed...
  56. ncbi Taspase1: a threonine aspartase required for cleavage of MLL and proper HOX gene expression
    James J D Hsieh
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 115:293-303. 2003
    ..We entitle it Taspase1 as it initiates a class of endopeptidases that utilize an N-terminal threonine as the active site nucleophile to proteolyze polypeptide substrates following aspartate...
  57. pmc Phosphorylation of histone H3 at threonine 11 establishes a novel chromatin mark for transcriptional regulation
    Eric Metzger
    Universitäts Frauenklinik und Zentrale Klinische Forschung, Klinikum der Universität Freiburg, Breisacherstrasse 66, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    Nat Cell Biol 10:53-60. 2008
    ..Here we show that protein-kinase-C-related kinase 1 (PRK1) phosphorylates histone H3 at threonine 11 (H3T11) upon ligand-dependent recruitment to androgen receptor target genes...
  58. pmc Regulation of the transcription factor YY1 in mitosis through phosphorylation of its DNA-binding domain
    Raed Rizkallah
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 4300, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 20:4766-76. 2009
    ..These results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the inactivation of YY1 through phosphorylation of its DNA-binding domain...
  59. ncbi Checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) monomers or dimers phosphorylate Cdc25C after DNA damage regardless of threonine 68 phosphorylation
    Jinwoo Ahn
    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:48418-26. 2002
    ..Thus, although phosphorylation of Thr-68 may be required for initial oligomerization and activation of Chk2, it is not needed for maintenance of dimerization or kinase activity...
  60. ncbi Phosphorylation of claudin-3 at threonine 192 by cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulates tight junction barrier function in ovarian cancer cells
    Theresa D'Souza
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Gerontology Research Center, NIA, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:26233-40. 2005
    ..In addition, our findings may have general implications for the regulation of TJs in normal epithelial cells...
  61. ncbi O-GlcNAc transferase is in a functional complex with protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunits
    Lance Wells
    Department of Biological Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:38466-70. 2004
    ..O-GlcNAc modifies serine and threonine residues on a myriad of nuclear and cytosolic proteins, and for several proteins there appears to be a ..
  62. pmc Activation of tyrosine kinases by mutation of the gatekeeper threonine
    Mohammad Azam
    Karp Research Building, 7th Floor, Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Children s Hospital of Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 15:1109-18. 2008
    Protein kinases targeted by small-molecule inhibitors develop resistance through mutation of the 'gatekeeper' threonine residue of the active site...
  63. pmc Walker-A threonine couples nucleotide occupancy with the chaperone activity of the AAA+ ATPase ClpB
    Maria Nagy
    Department of Biochemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA
    Protein Sci 18:287-93. 2009
    ..We postulate that AAA+ ATPases with the noncanonical Walker A might utilize distinct mechanisms to couple the ATPase cycle with their substrate-remodeling activity...
  64. ncbi Facilitation of stress-induced phosphorylation of beta-amyloid precursor protein family members by X11-like/Mint2 protein
    Hidenori Taru
    Laboratory of Neuroscience, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita Ku Kita 12 Nishi 6, Sapporo 060 0812, Japan
    J Biol Chem 279:21628-36. 2004
    ....
  65. ncbi Role of phosphorylation of Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein during neuronal differentiation
    K Ando
    Laboratory of Neurobiophysics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7 3 1, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo, 113 0033 Japan
    J Neurosci 19:4421-7. 1999
    ..These observations suggest that the phosphorylated form of APP may play an important role in neurite outgrowth of differentiating neurons...
  66. ncbi Dynamic interplay between O-glycosylation and O-phosphorylation of nucleocytoplasmic proteins: alternative glycosylation/phosphorylation of THR-58, a known mutational hot spot of c-Myc in lymphomas, is regulated by mitogens
    Kazuo Kamemura
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 2185, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:19229-35. 2002
    ..These data suggest that hierarchical phosphorylation of Ser-62 and Thr-58 and alternative glycosylation/phosphorylation of Thr-58 together regulate the myriad functions of c-Myc in cells...
  67. ncbi Protein O-mannosylation: conserved from bacteria to humans
    Mark Lommel
    Department V Cell Chemistry, Heidelberg Institute for Plant Sciences, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    Glycobiology 19:816-28. 2009
    ..the endoplasmic reticulum by the transfer of mannose from dolichol monophosphate-activated mannose to serine and threonine residues of secretory proteins...
  68. ncbi Serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS-1 triggers its degradation: possible regulation by tyrosine phosphorylation
    T M Pederson
    Diabetes Research, Pharmaceutical Products Division, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois 60064-3500, USA
    Diabetes 50:24-31. 2001
    ..Incubation with okadaic acid increased the serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and its degradation, mimicking insulin, and its effect was prevented by the proteasome ..
  69. ncbi Dependence of mouse embryonic stem cells on threonine catabolism
    Jian Wang
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390 9152, USA
    Science 325:435-9. 2009
    ..These findings led to the discovery of copious expression of the gene encoding threonine dehydrogenase (TDH) in ES cells...
  70. pmc Mitochondrial phosphoglycerate mutase 5 uses alternate catalytic activity as a protein serine/threonine phosphatase to activate ASK1
    Kohsuke Takeda
    Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Global Center of Excellence Program, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:12301-5. 2009
    ....
  71. ncbi Mapping sites of O-GlcNAc modification using affinity tags for serine and threonine post-translational modifications
    Lance Wells
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    Mol Cell Proteomics 1:791-804. 2002
    ..This same methodology can be applied to mapping sites of serine and threonine phosphorylation, and we provide a strategy that uses modification-specific antibodies and enzymes to ..
  72. ncbi CDK/ERK-mediated phosphorylation of the human influenza A virus NS1 protein at threonine-215
    Benjamin G Hale
    Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, UK
    Virology 383:6-11. 2009
    ..we report that during infection the multifunctional human influenza A virus NS1 protein is phosphorylated at threonine-215...
  73. pmc Expression of a protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor, cdNIPP1, increases CDK9 threonine 186 phosphorylation and inhibits HIV-1 transcription
    Tatiana Ammosova
    Center for Sickle Cell Disease, Howard University, Washington, DC 20001, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:3798-804. 2011
    ..Expression of cdNIPP1 as a part of the HIV-1 genome inhibited HIV-1 replication. Our study provides a proof-of-concept for the future development of PP1-targeting compounds as inhibitors of HIV-1 replication...
  74. ncbi Threonine 68 of Chk2 is phosphorylated at sites of DNA strand breaks
    I M Ward
    Division of Oncology Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:47755-8. 2001
    ..In response to ionizing radiation, Chk2 becomes rapidly phosphorylated at threonine 68 by ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM)...
  75. ncbi Nitric oxide regulates prolidase activity by serine/threonine phosphorylation
    Arkadiusz Surazynski
    Metabolism and Cancer Susceptibility Section, Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    J Cell Biochem 96:1086-94. 2005
    ..We observed increased serine/threonine phosphorylation on prolidase protein in cells treated with NO donors and in cells transfected with iNOS...
  76. ncbi Threonine phosphorylation of the MMAC1/PTEN PDZ binding domain both inhibits and stimulates PDZ binding
    N B Adey
    Myriad Genetics Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108, USA
    Cancer Res 60:35-7. 2000
    ..b>Threonine phosphorylation of the MMAC1/ PTEN-PDZBD peptide inhibited both microtiter plate binding to the hDLG and ..
  77. ncbi Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of the interaction of amyloid precursor protein with Fe65 affects the production of beta-amyloid
    K Ando
    Laboratory of Neurobiophysics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7 3 1, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033 Japan
    J Biol Chem 276:40353-61. 2001
    ....
  78. ncbi Insulin antagonizes ischemia-induced Thr172 phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha-subunits in heart via hierarchical phosphorylation of Ser485/491
    Sandrine Horman
    Hormone and Metabolic Research Unit, Christian de Duve Institute of Cellular Pathology and Universite catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 75, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    J Biol Chem 281:5335-40. 2006
    ....
  79. pmc Axin and GSK3- control Smad3 protein stability and modulate TGF- signaling
    Xing Guo
    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Genes Dev 22:106-20. 2008
    ....
  80. ncbi The human vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) phosphorylates threonine-18 within the mdm-2 binding site of the p53 tumour suppressor protein
    S Lopez-Borges
    Centro de Investigacion del Cancer, Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular del Cancer, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Salamanca, Spain
    Oncogene 19:3656-64. 2000
    ..Human c-Jun is not phosphorylated by VRK1. VRK1 phosphorylates murine p53 in threonine 18...
  81. pmc The phagosomal transporter A couples threonine acquisition to differentiation and replication of Legionella pneumophila in macrophages
    John Demian Sauer
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0620, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:9924-9. 2005
    ..Biolog phenotype microarray analysis indicated that PhtA transports threonine, an essential amino acid. Either excess threonine or threonine peptides bypass phtA function...
  82. pmc Bromodomain protein Brd4 regulates human immunodeficiency virus transcription through phosphorylation of CDK9 at threonine 29
    Meisheng Zhou
    Virus Tumor Biology Section, Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 83:1036-44. 2009
    ..Brd4 induces phosphorylation of CDK9 at threonine 29 (T29) in the HIV transcription initiation complex, inhibiting CDK9 kinase activity...
  83. pmc Growth factors can activate ATF2 via a two-step mechanism: phosphorylation of Thr71 through the Ras-MEK-ERK pathway and of Thr69 through RalGDS-Src-p38
    D Margriet Ouwens
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Section of Signal Transduction, Leiden University Medical Centre, Wassenaarseweg 72, 2333 AL Leiden, The Netherlands
    EMBO J 21:3782-93. 2002
    ..These results reveal a so far unknown mechanism by which distinct MAPK pathways and Ras effector pathways cooperate to activate a transcription factor...
  84. ncbi PKB/Akt mediates cell-cycle progression by phosphorylation of p27(Kip1) at threonine 157 and modulation of its cellular localization
    Incheol Shin
    Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    Nat Med 8:1145-52. 2002
    ..These data indicate that Akt may contribute to tumor-cell proliferation by phosphorylation and cytosolic retention of p27, thus relieving CDK2 from p27-induced inhibition...
  85. ncbi Overexpression of mutated forms of aspartate kinase and cystathionine gamma-synthase in tobacco leaves resulted in the high accumulation of methionine and threonine
    Yael Hacham
    Laboratory of Plant Science, Migal Galilee Technology Center, P O Box 831, Kiryat Shmona 12 100, Israel
    Plant J 54:260-71. 2008
    Methionine and threonine are two essential amino acids, the levels of which limit the nutritional quality of plants...
  86. ncbi Wnt signaling controls the phosphorylation status of beta-catenin
    Mascha van Noort
    Department of Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Biol Chem 277:17901-5. 2002
    ..Immunohistochemical analysis of mouse embryos utilizing the antibody visualizes sites that transduce Wnt signals through the canonical Wnt cascade...
  87. pmc Central role of the threonine residue within the p+1 loop of receptor tyrosine kinase in STAT3 constitutive phosphorylation in metastatic cancer cells
    Zheng Long Yuan
    Department of Surgery Science, Brown University School of Medicine Rhode Island Hospital, 593 Eddy St, Providence, RI 02903, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 24:9390-400. 2004
    ..These findings provide insight into Thr(p+1loop) residue in RTK autophosphorylation and constitutive activation of STAT3 in metastatic cancer cells...
  88. ncbi Threonine phosphorylation post-translationally regulates protein secretion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Joseph D Mougous
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 9:797-803. 2007
    ..Here, we identify a threonine phosphorylation event that post-translationally regulates the Hcp secretion island-I-encoded type VI secretion ..
  89. ncbi The p53-induced oncogenic phosphatase PPM1D interacts with uracil DNA glycosylase and suppresses base excision repair
    Xiongbin Lu
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Mol Cell 15:621-34. 2004
    The wild-type p53-induced phosphatase PPM1D (or Wip1) is a serine/threonine phosphatase that is transcriptionally upregulated by p53 following ultraviolet and ionizing radiation...
  90. ncbi Phosphorylation of p27Kip1 at threonine 198 by p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinases promotes its binding to 14-3-3 and cytoplasmic localization
    Naoya Fujita
    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 0032, Japan
    J Biol Chem 278:49254-60. 2003
    ..Several reports suggest that phosphorylation of p27Kip1 at serine 10, threonine 157, and threonine 187 regulate its localization...
  91. pmc TAK1-mediated serine/threonine phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor via p38/extracellular signal-regulated kinase: NF-{kappa}B-independent survival pathways in tumor necrosis factor alpha signaling
    Miki Nishimura
    Division of Pathogenic Biochemistry, Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Mol Cell Biol 29:5529-39. 2009
    ..These results demonstrated that TAK1 controls two different signaling pathways, IkappaB kinase-NF-kappaB and MAPK-EGFR, leading to the survival of cells exposed to the death signal from the TNF-alpha receptor...
  92. ncbi Critical roles of threonine 187 phosphorylation in cellular stress-induced rapid and transient activation of transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in a signaling complex containing TAK1-binding protein TAB1 and TAB2
    Pattama Singhirunnusorn
    Division of Pathogenic Biochemistry, Institute of Natural Medicine, 21st Century Center of Excellence COE Program, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    J Biol Chem 280:7359-68. 2005
    ..These results indicate critical roles of Thr-187 phosphorylation in the stress-induced rapid and transient activation of TAK1 in a signaling complex containing TAB1 and TAB2...
  93. ncbi Phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Threonine-34 is required for cocaine action
    Venetia Zachariou
    Department of Psychiatry, Center for Basic Neuroscience, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 9070, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:555-62. 2006
    ..These findings highlight distinct roles of the Thr-34 and Thr-75 phosphorylation sites of DARPP-32 in mediating short- and long-term behavioral and biochemical actions of cocaine...
  94. ncbi Phosphorylation of the transcription factor forkhead family member FKHR by protein kinase B
    G Rena
    Department of Biochemistry, Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation Unit, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 274:17179-83. 1999
    ..The conservation of Thr-24, Ser-256, and Ser-319 and the sequences surrounding them in DAF16 therefore suggests that DAF16 is also a direct substrate for PKB in C. elegans...
  95. ncbi Novel phosphorylation of aquaporin-5 at its threonine 259 through cAMP signaling in salivary gland cells
    Takahiro Hasegawa
    Dept of Molecular Oral Physiology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The Univ of Tokushima Graduate School, Japan
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 301:C667-78. 2011
    ..These results suggest that AQP5 is phosphorylated at its Thr259 by PKA through cAMP, but not Ca(2+), signaling pathways, and that this phosphorylation does not contribute to AQP5 trafficking in the salivary gland cells...
  96. ncbi Norfuraneol dephosphorylates eNOS at threonine 495 and enhances eNOS activity in human endothelial cells
    Christoph A Schmitt
    Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Cardiovasc Res 81:750-7. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to show whether NF, which is taken up regularly, for example with cooked food, affects the human endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) system...
  97. pmc Phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I at protein kinase C site threonine 144 depresses cooperative activation of thin filaments
    Qun Wei Lu
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:11810-7. 2010
    ..These data highlight the importance of thin filament-based cooperative mechanisms in cardiac regulation, with implications for mechanisms of control of function in normal and pathological hearts...
  98. ncbi Phosphorylation of threonine 68 promotes oligomerization and autophosphorylation of the Chk2 protein kinase via the forkhead-associated domain
    Joon Young Ahn
    Department of Hematology Oncology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:19389-95. 2002
    ..Oligomerization of Chk2 may therefore increase the efficiency of trans-autophosphorylation resulting in the release of active Chk2 monomers that proceed to enforce checkpoint control in irradiated cells...
  99. ncbi Detection of tau phosphorylated at threonine 231 in cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer's disease patients
    R Kohnken
    Molecular Geriatrics Corp, Vernon Hills, IL, USA
    Neurosci Lett 287:187-90. 2000
    A new sandwich ELISA is described which shows specificity for tau phosphorylated at threonine 231 and preferentially reacts with Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain extracts relative to other dementias...
  100. pmc Auxin activates the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by phosphorylation during hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis
    Koji Takahashi
    Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    Plant Physiol 159:632-41. 2012
    ..etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by auxin through phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine during early-phase hypocotyl elongation...
  101. ncbi Phosphoproteome analysis of E. coli reveals evolutionary conservation of bacterial Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation
    Boris Macek
    Max Planck Institut for Biochemistry, Department of Proteomics and Signal Transduction, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Mol Cell Proteomics 7:299-307. 2008
    Protein phosphorylation on serine, threonine, and tyrosine (Ser/Thr/Tyr) is generally considered the major regulatory posttranslational modification in eukaryotic cells...

Research Grants68

  1. Regulation of B Cell Function by Membrane-Cytoskeletal Remodeling
    Neetu Gupta; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Ezrin accomplishes this by undergoing dephosphorylation at a critical threonine residue (T567) in its actin-binding site which results in a folded structure that is incapable of membrane-..
  2. Trichothecene Toxicity and the Ribotoxic Stress Response
    James J Pestka; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and 28S ribosomal (r)RNA, 2) double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), a ribosome-associated serine-threonine kinase, is essential for DON-induced protein kinase activation and 3) DON induces mobilization of several ..
  3. Role of JAK2-PAK1 interaction in prolactin-dependent signaling
    Maria Diakonova; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Preliminary data demonstrate that the serine-threonine kinase PAK1 associates with and is Tyr phosphorylated by JAK2...
  4. Role and Regulation of INrf2
    ANIL KUMAR JAISWAL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..INrf2 from antioxidant untreated and treated cells demonstrated phosphorylation of specific serine, threonine and tyrosine residues that might control INrf2 functions but remains unknown...
  5. Regulation of myocardial growth and death by GSK-3
    Junichi Sadoshima; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a serine/threonine kinase, plays an important role in regulating growth and death of cardiomyocytes...
  6. The role of IKK beta in cardiomyocytes at baseline and following stress
    MATTHEW PETER COGGINS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Understanding NF-kB's role in the heart thus has important practical implications. The serine-threonine kinase, Inhibitor of Kappa B Kinase beta (IKKB), is the primary activator of NF-kB in response to inflammatory ..
  7. ALTERED CARDIAC MYOCYTE SIGNALING IN DIABETIC MYOCARDIUM AND FUNCTIONAL SEQUELAE
    ANTHONY JUSTIN MUSLIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Insulin action is dependent on the activation of an intracellular signaling pathway that stimulates the serine/threonine kinase Akt2, leading to increased glucose uptake, glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis...
  8. Molecular mechanisms of lung disease in ataxia telangiectasia
    JoAnn M Sekiguchi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The gene mutated in A-T, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), has been identified and encodes a large serine-threonine protein kinase...
  9. Mechanisms of Endothelin 1-Induced Sickle Cell Pathology
    Alicia Rivera; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Moreover, we demonstrated that ET-1 regulates the activity of casein kinase II (CK2), a ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase found in eukaryotic cells that phosphorylate acidic proteins...
  10. Functional Analysis of the Dual Specificity Kinase NEK1 in Mammalian Meiosis
    JOANNA KIM HOLLOWAY; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..NEK1 is a dual activity serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase, and is highly expressed in germ cells, particularly the narrow window encompassing the ..
  11. Genetic &Functional Analyses of Hypertension Susceptibility Genes
    YEN PEI CHRISTY CHANG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our prior GWAS effort demonstrated that variants in the serine-threonine kinase, STK39, are associated with BP and highlighted an incompletely understood network of kinases and co-..
  12. The function of ATM protein in the biology of the adult neuron CNS:
    Karl Herrup; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this location, it serves as a serine-threonine kinase but equally as a chaperone protein that nucleates a complex of proteins that includes vesicle proteins ..
  13. 14th International Workshop on Ataxia-Telangiectasia and ATM
    Richard A Gatti; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..encodes a large (369 kDa) protein, ATM, which is a member of the phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase family of serine/threonine protein kinases...
  14. The Effects of PP2A on TNF Signaling and Smoke-Induced Lung Injury
    Robert F Foronjy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This is significant since PP2A is the primary serine threonine protein phosphatase present in all eukaryotic cells...
  15. The role of LKB1 in the maintenance of genomic stability.
    Zhi Xiang Xu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): (Also known as serine/threonine kinase 11, STK11) tumor suppressor is mutationally inactivated in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by gastrointestinal polyps, ..
  16. Regulation of the Endothelial Citrulline-Nitric Oxide Cycle
    Duane C Eichler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Based on our evidence that insulin regulates AS expression and serine-threonine phosphorylation, the first aim of this proposal is designed to explore the mechanisms by which insulin regulates ..
  17. The Role of CD5 in B-Cell Development and Autoimmunity
    Chander Raman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The survival activity of CD5 is mediated its unique interaction with CK2, a serine/threonine kinase that is a major positive regulator of multiple cellular prosurvival signaling cascades...
  18. ATM Controls Genomic Stability in Pluripotent Stem Cells
    JASON MARK BECKTA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ATM, a serine-threonine kinase, plays a major role in many intracellular signaling networks, such as the DNA damage response...
  19. Studying a novel regulator of GBM tumorigeneis: the role of CK2alpha in maintaini
    Gordon Li; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..My studies focus on the role of casein kinase 2 (CK2), a highly conserved pleiotropic serine/threonine kinase that has been associated with cell survival in many cancers...
  20. Zot, Zonulin, and Pathophysiology of Intestinal Tight Junctions
    Alessio Fasano; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..demonstrated that this transactivation is followed by protein kinase C (PKC)a-mediated ZO-1 and myosin 1c serine/threonine phosphorylation, provoking ZO-1 disengagement from three of its binding partners, occludin, claudin-1, and ..
  21. Chromosomal Control of Segregation of C. Elegans
    Abby F Dernburg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..meiotic components and regulatory mechanisms, we will build on the knowledge that three conserved serine/threonine kinases, CHK-2, PLK-2, and AIR-2, play essential regulatory roles in meiosis...
  22. Functional Analysis of the Dual Specificity Kinase NEK1 in Mammalian Meiosis
    JOANNA KIM HOLLOWAY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..NEK1 is a dual activity serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase, and is highly expressed in germ cells, particularly the narrow window encompassing the ..
  23. Pulmonary Vascular-Right Ventricular Axis Research Program
    Wai Hong Wilson Tang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Activation of eNOS requires enzyme dephosphorylation at Threonine 495 (T495) and phosphorylation at Serine 1177 (S1177), the latter mediated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (..
  24. Global Regulation of Gene expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Bernard Weisblum; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposed studies will focus on the response regulator RitR, on a Serine/Threonine kinase phosphatase pair, and on their mutual interactions...
  25. SFRP2 and NFAT are therapeutic targets in angiosarcoma
    NANCY K DEMORE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..between the activity of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin, and the activity of serine/threonine kinases(20)...
  26. Dysfunctional PGC-1alpha expression in skeletal muscle during diabetes
    S Russ Price; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..signaling through one or more pathways that are regulated by calcineurin (Cn), a calcium-activated serine/threonine phosphatase...
  27. Tpl2 in Carcinogenesis-Related Inflammation
    KATHLEEN LEIGH DECICCO-SKINNER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We propose to examine the mechanism by which tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2), a serine/threonine kinase in the MAPK signal transduction cascade, affects skin cancer development by analyzing the relationship ..
  28. Peripheral T Cell tolerance by targeting AKT
    Claudio Anasetti; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: AKT, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent serine-threonine kinase, promotes glucose metabolism and survival of activated T cells and limits differentiation of regulatory T ..
  29. GPCR Signaling &Vascular Wall Remodeling
    Gadiparthi N Rao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Thrombin, a serine/threonine protease, besides its role in blood coagulation, plays a significant role as a mitogen and motogen to many cell types, in particular to vascular smooth muscle cells (..
  30. AKT Signaling and Oxidative Stress Regulation of Erythropoiesis
    Saghi Ghaffari; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Evidence from our laboratory suggests that AKT serine threonine protein kinase mediates significant functions in the regulation of erythroid cell division and maturation ..
  31. Herpesvirus protein kinases: Substrate recognition and pathway targeting.
    S Diane Hayward; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The human herpesviruses each encode a serine/threonine protein kinase...
  32. Eicosanoids and Endothelial Cell Dysfunction
    Gadiparthi N Rao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) mediate 15-LOX1-15(S)-HETE-induced TJ protein serine/threonine phosphorylation and their disassembly from TJs resulting in EC barrier dysfunction and 4...
  33. GSK3beta, a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity
    Xianglin Shi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Glycogen synthase kinase 3[unreadable] (GSK3[unreadable]), a serine/threonine kinase, is an important mediator of neuron degeneration...
  34. PCAF/GCN5 ACETYLATION ON P53 TRANSACTIVATION
    Shelley L Berger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For example, the serine/threonine kinase AMPK may function to target both p53 and histones in a coordinated fashion, and this may also be the case ..
  35. IMMUNOLOGY OF UNIQUE TUMOR SPECIFIC ANTIGENS
    Hans Schreiber; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is a truncation of the growing sugar tree after linkage of the first sugar, N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), to threonine or serine on the peptide chain of proteins by an [unreadable]1-O- glycosyl linkage...
  36. TPL2: A Central Node in Obesity-Associated Inflammation and Metabolic Disorders
    Andrew S Greenberg; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..TPL2 is a serine/threonine kinase, located downstream of IKK-2 and reported to activate MAP Kinases (MAPK) (ERK, JNK) and upregulate pro-..
  37. Targeting Mitotic Kinases Inhibitors for Cancer Therapy
    E Premkumar Reddy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myelogenous leukemia has made tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases major targets for cancer therapy...
  38. Mechanisms of Lipid-Induced Hepatic Insulin Resistance
    Gerald I Shulman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This aim wil examine the hypothesis that PKC5 activation promotes increased threonine phosphorylation of IRK, which in turn blocks insulin-stimulated IRK activity, utilizing state-of-the-art LC-MS/..
  39. THE ROLE OF THE AKT/PKB SIGNALING IN INSULIN ACTION
    MORRIS JAY BIRNBAUM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Central to this signaling cascade is the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt, also known as Protein Kinase B...
  40. Sodium Chloride Cotransporter Regulation by WNK Kinase
    Hui Cai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    WNKs (with no lysine (K)) are a newly described novel subfamily of serine/threonine kinases implicated in controlling the ionic permeability of epithelia...
  41. Signaling of Integrin Alpha 7
    Jianhua Luo; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Interestingly, we also found that ILK, a serine/threonine kinase and structural protein associated with integrins and the cytoskeleton, bound and phosphorylated a tumor ..
  42. Bone Morphogenic Protein Signaling Pathways in Uterine Biology
    Martin M Matzuk; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These ligands signal through a heteromeric complex of type 1 and type 2 serine/threonine kinase receptors...
  43. Targeting Kinases that Phosphorylate the KSHV LANA Chromatin Binding Domain
    S Diane Hayward; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We noted that the LANA chromatin binding domain contains serine and threonine residues that could be subject to phosphorylation...
  44. Signaling of Integrin Alpha 7
    Jianhua Luo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Interestingly, we also found that ILK, a serine/threonine kinase and structural protein associated with integrins and the cytoskeleton, bound and phosphorlyated a tumor ..
  45. ACTIVATION INDUCED DEAMINASE (AID) INTERACTING PROTEINS
    Michel C Nussenzweig; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..and immunochemical approaches, we found that in addition to S38, AID is also phosphorylated at position threonine 140 (T140)...
  46. Nemo-Like Kinase and the Pathogenesis of Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy
    TIFFANY WERLYNE TODD; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This proposal therefore investigates the role of the serine/threonine protein kinase Nemo-Like Kinase (NLK) in the pathogenesis of SBMA with the hope that NLK will prove a viable ..
  47. Biomarker Screening of Essential Putative Glycoprotease Inhibitor
    Yinduo Ji; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..gcp expression significantly increases the productions of acetolactate synthase, dihydroxy-acid dehydratase and threonine dehydratase, which are located in the same metabolic pathway in S. aureus...
  48. Novel mechanisms of immune activation following allogeneic, hematopoietic stem ce
    JOHN JAMES LETTERIO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Cdk5 is a ubiquitously expressed serine-threonine kinase that is predominantly active in post-mitotic neurons where the expression of its obligate partner ..
  49. SGK Regulation of Epithelial Sodium Transport
    David Pearce; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The serine-threonine kinase SGK1 is one of the most intensively studied regulators of epithelial Na+ transport, and has been ..
  50. Molecular genetics of epithelium formation in C. elegans
    Stephen E Von Stetina; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For example, the serine/threonine kinase LKB1 is sufficient to polarize single human intestine cells in the absence of cadherin-mediated signaling...
  51. Physiological Regulation of MLCK in Intact Arteries
    Withrow Gil Wier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Regulation of MLCP in isolated arteries will be studied by quantifying threonine-855 phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1)...
  52. Plk1-Numb Cooperation in Melanomagenesis
    Nihal Ahmad; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a member of highly conserved family of mitotic serine/threonine kinases, plays a critical role in cell division and cycle progression...
  53. INTESTINAL MUCOSAL PROTECTION BY EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR
    Radhakrishna Rao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..epithelial tight junction by phosphorylation of occludin on tyrosine residues and dephosphorylation on threonine residues;these processes involve the intracellular signaling molecules such as c-Src, FAK, PI3K, PP2A, PKC7, ..
  54. Protein Kinase D2 Function and Signaling in Angiogenesis
    Hua Tang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We have recently reported that the serine/threonine protein kinase D2 (PKD2) plays a pivotal role in endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, migration, and in vitro ..
  55. Inhibition of GRK2 to Prevent Ventricular Remodeling and Heart Failure After CABG
    Shahab A Akhter; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have found that G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2), a serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates and uncouples agonist-occupied 2-ARs, is robustly expressed in CF and GRK2 activity ..
  56. Neuroprotective role of RAB3B in rodent models of Parkinson's disease
    Chee Yeun Chung; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..2. Chung, C.Y., Koprich, J.B., Endo, S. &Isacson, O. An endogenous serine/threonine protein phosphatase inhibitor, G-substrate, reduces vulnerability in models of Parkinson's disease. J...
  57. Tumorigenic role of mitochondria in African-American women
    Keshav K Singh; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The G to A substitution results in an amino acid change from alanine (encoded by the G allele) to threonine (encoded by the A allele)...
  58. Regulation of striatal cannabinoid CB1 receptors by DARPP32 and deltaFosB mediate
    Matthew F Lazenka; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at threonine 34 (T34-DARPP-32) is important for the induction of FosB and the activation of ERK whereas cyclin dependent ..
  59. Forms of HCV NS5A in vivo
    Craig E Cameron; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..three domains are intrinsically disordered, and it contains numerous sites of phosphorylation for myriad serine/threonine kinases, including cAMP-activated protein kinase (PKA), casein kinase 1 family members and casein kinase 2...
  60. Fundamental mechanisms of protein kinase activation loop autophosphorlyation
    Vaughn Cleghon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..their activation loop on an essential tyrosine but phosphorylate their substrates on serine and threonine. Work in this lab has shown that autophosphorylation of the critical activation-loop tyrosine is intra-molecular ..
  61. PKCdelta and Salivary Gland Apoptosis
    MARY ELAINE REYLAND; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Signal transduction by serine/threonine protein kinases plays an essential role in apoptosis induced by a variety of stimuli...
  62. REGULATION OF MYOCARDIAL GROWTH AND DEATH BY THE HIPPO PATHWAY
    Junichi Sadoshima; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): Mammalian sterile 20 like kinase 1 (Mst1) is one of the most prominently activated serine/threonine kinases when cardiomyocytes (CMs) undergo apoptosis...
  63. ACTIONS OF CYCLIC GMP IN SMOOTH MUSCLE
    Thomas Lincoln; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The receptor protein for cGMP in vascular smooth muscle cells is the protein serine/threonine kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGMP kinase), but little is known concerning the mechanisms by which this ..
  64. DiosMemTM, a natural gamma-secretase inhibitor, opposes AD pathogenesis
    Jun Tan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These compounds target this tonically active serine/threonine kinase, which has been implicated in several disorders of the CNS...
  65. CARDIOPROTECTIVE AGENTS IN ISCHEMIC MYOCYTES
    RICHARD HONKANEN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..fostriecin is a potent inhibitor of type 2A, a strong inhibitor of type 5, and a weak inhibitor of type 1 serine/threonine protein phosphatases, suggesting that the cardioprotective properties of fostriecin arise from its inhibitory ..
  66. Prevention of neointimal thickening by Mst1
    Junichi Sadoshima; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Mst1 is a serine threonine kinase having versatile functions, including apoptosis and suppression of cell growth and migration, many of ..
  67. Structure and mechanism of the AMP-activated protein kinase
    Lawrence Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..AMPK is an abg heterotrimer that includes a subunit with serine/threonine kinase activity and an adenylate-binding regulatory region composed of elements from all three subunits...
  68. INTESTINAL MUCOSAL PROTECTION BY EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR
    Radhakrishna Rao; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..epithelial tight junction by phosphorylation of occludin on tyrosine residues and dephosphorylation on threonine residues;these processes involve the intracellular signaling molecules such as c-Src, FAK, PI3K, PP2A, PKCh, ..