tryptophan

Summary

Summary: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Human bone marrow stromal cells inhibit allogeneic T-cell responses by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-mediated tryptophan degradation
    Roland Meisel
    Clinic of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Immunology, University Hospital, Moorenstrasse 5, D 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Blood 103:4619-21. 2004
  2. ncbi IDO expression by dendritic cells: tolerance and tryptophan catabolism
    Andrew L Mellor
    Program in Molecular Immunology, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 4:762-74. 2004
  3. ncbi CTLA-4-Ig regulates tryptophan catabolism in vivo
    Ursula Grohmann
    Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, 06126 Perugia, Italy
    Nat Immunol 3:1097-101. 2002
  4. ncbi Prevention of allogeneic fetal rejection by tryptophan catabolism
    D H Munn
    Program in Molecular Immunology, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
    Science 281:1191-3. 1998
  5. pmc Inhibition of T cell proliferation by macrophage tryptophan catabolism
    D H Munn
    Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA
    J Exp Med 189:1363-72. 1999
  6. pmc Tryptophan-derived catabolites are responsible for inhibition of T and natural killer cell proliferation induced by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase
    Guido Frumento
    Immunogenetics Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132 Genoa, Italy
    J Exp Med 196:459-68. 2002
  7. pmc Inhibition of allogeneic T cell proliferation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing dendritic cells: mediation of suppression by tryptophan metabolites
    Peter Terness
    Institute of Immunology, Department of Transplantation Immunology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Exp Med 196:447-57. 2002
  8. pmc Lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior is mediated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activation in mice
    J C O'Connor
    Integrative Immunology and Behavior, Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 14:511-22. 2009
  9. pmc Rapid synthesis of auxin via a new tryptophan-dependent pathway is required for shade avoidance in plants
    Yi Tao
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cell 133:164-76. 2008
  10. ncbi Defective tryptophan catabolism underlies inflammation in mouse chronic granulomatous disease
    Luigina Romani
    Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, 06126 Perugia, Italy
    Nature 451:211-5. 2008

Detail Information

Publications378 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Human bone marrow stromal cells inhibit allogeneic T-cell responses by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-mediated tryptophan degradation
    Roland Meisel
    Clinic of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Immunology, University Hospital, Moorenstrasse 5, D 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Blood 103:4619-21. 2004
    ..2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which is induced by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and catalyzes the conversion from tryptophan to kynurenine, has been identified as a T-cell inhibitory effector pathway in professional antigen-presenting ..
  2. ncbi IDO expression by dendritic cells: tolerance and tryptophan catabolism
    Andrew L Mellor
    Program in Molecular Immunology, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 4:762-74. 2004
    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an enzyme that degrades the essential amino acid tryptophan. The concept that cells expressing IDO can suppress T-cell responses and promote tolerance is a relatively new paradigm in immunology...
  3. ncbi CTLA-4-Ig regulates tryptophan catabolism in vivo
    Ursula Grohmann
    Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, 06126 Perugia, Italy
    Nat Immunol 3:1097-101. 2002
    ..allografts induced by the soluble fusion protein CTLA-4-immunoglobulin (CTLA-4-Ig) is contingent upon effective tryptophan catabolism in the host...
  4. ncbi Prevention of allogeneic fetal rejection by tryptophan catabolism
    D H Munn
    Program in Molecular Immunology, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
    Science 281:1191-3. 1998
    ..occurred when pregnant mice were treated with a pharmacologic inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme expressed by trophoblasts and macrophages...
  5. pmc Inhibition of T cell proliferation by macrophage tryptophan catabolism
    D H Munn
    Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA
    J Exp Med 189:1363-72. 1999
    ..factor acquire the ability to suppress T cell proliferation in vitro via rapid and selective degradation of tryptophan by IDO...
  6. pmc Tryptophan-derived catabolites are responsible for inhibition of T and natural killer cell proliferation induced by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase
    Guido Frumento
    Immunogenetics Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132 Genoa, Italy
    J Exp Med 196:459-68. 2002
    ..acquire the capacity to suppress T cell proliferation; this effect is associated with de novo expression of the tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)...
  7. pmc Inhibition of allogeneic T cell proliferation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing dendritic cells: mediation of suppression by tryptophan metabolites
    Peter Terness
    Institute of Immunology, Department of Transplantation Immunology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Exp Med 196:447-57. 2002
    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme involved in the catabolism of tryptophan, is expressed in certain cells and tissues, particularly in antigen-presenting cells of lymphoid organs and in the placenta...
  8. pmc Lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior is mediated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activation in mice
    J C O'Connor
    Integrative Immunology and Behavior, Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 14:511-22. 2009
    Although elevated activity of the tryptophan-degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been proposed to mediate comorbid depression in inflammatory disorders, its causative role has never been tested...
  9. pmc Rapid synthesis of auxin via a new tryptophan-dependent pathway is required for shade avoidance in plants
    Yi Tao
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cell 133:164-76. 2008
    ..TAA1, an aminotransferase, and show that TAA1 catalyzes the formation of indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) from L-tryptophan (L-Trp), the first step in a previously proposed, but uncharacterized, auxin biosynthetic pathway...
  10. ncbi Defective tryptophan catabolism underlies inflammation in mouse chronic granulomatous disease
    Luigina Romani
    Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, 06126 Perugia, Italy
    Nature 451:211-5. 2008
    ..Here we show that a superoxide-dependent step in tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway is blocked in CGD mice with lethal pulmonary aspergillosis, leading to ..
  11. pmc Reconciling the role of serotonin in behavioral inhibition and aversion: acute tryptophan depletion abolishes punishment-induced inhibition in humans
    Molly J Crockett
    Behavioral and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 29:11993-9. 2009
    ..We used acute tryptophan depletion to temporarily lower brain serotonin in healthy human volunteers as they completed a novel task ..
  12. ncbi Evidence for a tumoral immune resistance mechanism based on tryptophan degradation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase
    Catherine Uyttenhove
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and Cellular Genetics Unit, Universite de Louvain, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    Nat Med 9:1269-74. 2003
    T lymphocytes undergo proliferation arrest when exposed to tryptophan shortage, which can be provoked by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that is expressed in placenta and catalyzes tryptophan degradation...
  13. pmc A novel double-tryptophan peptide pheromone controls competence in Streptococcus spp. via an Rgg regulator
    Lauren Mashburn-Warren
    Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA
    Mol Microbiol 78:589-606. 2010
    ..circuit linked to the sigX genes of mutans, pyogenic, and bovis streptococci that uses a novel small, double-tryptophan-containing sigX-inducing peptide (XIP) pheromone...
  14. ncbi Tryptophan metabolism, from nutrition to potential therapeutic applications
    Nathalie Le Floc'h
    INRA, UMR, Systeme d Elevage, Nutrition Animale et Humaine, Saint Gilles, France
    Amino Acids 41:1195-205. 2011
    b>Tryptophan is an indispensable amino acid that should to be supplied by dietary protein...
  15. pmc Plant UVR8 photoreceptor senses UV-B by tryptophan-mediated disruption of cross-dimer salt bridges
    John M Christie
    Institute of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Science 335:1492-6. 2012
    ..propeller subunits form a remarkable, tryptophan-dominated, dimer interface stitched together by a complex salt-bridge network...
  16. ncbi Metabolic syndrome, age-associated neuroendocrine disorders, and dysregulation of tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism
    Gregory F Oxenkrug
    Department of Psychiatry, Tufts University Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1199:1-14. 2010
    ..of MetS/AAND is transcriptional induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), rate-limiting enzyme of tryptophan (TRY)-kynurenine (KYN) pathway, by pro-inflammatory cytokines (PIC)...
  17. ncbi Mechanism of acute tryptophan depletion: is it only serotonin?
    E L van Donkelaar
    Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Mol Psychiatry 16:695-713. 2011
    The method of acute tryptophan depletion (ATD), which reduces the availability of the essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP), the dietary serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) precursor, has been applied in many experimental studies...
  18. ncbi IDO and interferon-alpha-induced depressive symptoms: a shift in hypothesis from tryptophan depletion to neurotoxicity
    M C Wichers
    Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Mol Psychiatry 10:538-44. 2005
    ..The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which converts tryptophan (TRP) into kynurenine (KYN) and which is stimulated by proinflammatory cytokines, may be implicated in the ..
  19. ncbi Potential regulatory function of human dendritic cells expressing indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase
    David H Munn
    Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
    Science 297:1867-70. 2002
    ..IDO+ DCs could also be readily detected in vivo, which suggests that these cells may represent a regulatory subset of APCs in humans...
  20. ncbi The combined effects of tryptophan starvation and tryptophan catabolites down-regulate T cell receptor zeta-chain and induce a regulatory phenotype in naive T cells
    Francesca Fallarino
    Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
    J Immunol 176:6752-61. 2006
    b>Tryptophan catabolism is a tolerogenic effector system in regulatory T cell function, yet the general mechanisms whereby tryptophan catabolism affects T cell responses remain unclear...
  21. ncbi Serotonin, a tryptophan-derived signal conserved in plants and animals, regulates root system architecture probably acting as a natural auxin inhibitor in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Ramón Pelagio-Flores
    Instituto de Investigaciones Quimico Biologicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edificio B3, Ciudad Universitaria CP 58030 Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico
    Plant Cell Physiol 52:490-508. 2011
    ..This compound is synthesized from tryptophan and shares structural similarity with IAA...
  22. ncbi T cell apoptosis by tryptophan catabolism
    F Fallarino
    Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy
    Cell Death Differ 9:1069-77. 2002
    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme that, expressed by different cell types, has regulatory effects on T cells resulting from tryptophan depletion in specific local tissue microenvironments...
  23. pmc Spectroscopic studies of the AppA BLUF domain from Rhodobacter sphaeroides: addressing movement of tryptophan 104 in the signaling state
    Vladimira Dragnea
    Departments of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
    Biochemistry 48:9969-79. 2009
    ..using a combination of NMR and absorption spectroscopy, steady-state fluorescence, and acrylamide quenching of tryptophan fluorescence...
  24. ncbi Cyclization increases the antimicrobial activity and selectivity of arginine- and tryptophan-containing hexapeptides
    Margitta Dathe
    Institute of Molecular Pharmacology, Robert Roessle Strasse 10, D 13125 Berlin, Germany
    Biochemistry 43:9140-50. 2004
    Arginine- and tryptophan-rich motifs have been identified in antimicrobial peptides with various secondary structures...
  25. pmc Tryptophan hydroxylase-1 regulates immune tolerance and inflammation
    Elizabeth C Nowak
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dartmouth Medical School and the Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA
    J Exp Med 209:2127-35. 2012
    ..Here we report the novel finding that Tph-1 (tryptophan hydroxylase-1), a synthase which catalyses the conversion of tryptophan to serotonin and exhausts tryptophan, is ..
  26. pmc Tryptophan kynurenine metabolism as a common mediator of genetic and environmental impacts in major depressive disorder: the serotonin hypothesis revisited 40 years later
    Gregory F Oxenkrug
    Department of Psychiatry, Tufts University School of Medicine and Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 47:56-63. 2010
    The original 1969 Lancet paper proposed in depression the activity of liver tryptophan-pyrrolase is stimulated by raised blood corticosteroids levels, and metabolism of tryptophan is shunted away from serotonin production, and towards ..
  27. ncbi The biology of tryptophan depletion and mood disorders
    Lilach Toker
    Psychiatry Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, and Mental Health Center, Beersheva, Israel
    Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 47:46-55. 2010
    ..The tryptophan depletion paradigm is widely used to study the effect of lowering serotonin levels...
  28. ncbi Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in T-cell tolerance and tumoral immune escape
    Jessica B Katz
    Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Wynnewood, PA 19096, USA
    Immunol Rev 222:206-21. 2008
    Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) degrades the essential amino acid tryptophan in mammals, catalyzing the initial and rate-limiting step in the de novo biosynthesis nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)...
  29. pmc Kynurenine is an endothelium-derived relaxing factor produced during inflammation
    Yutang Wang
    Centre for Vascular Research, School of Medical Sciences Pathology and Bosch Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
    Nat Med 16:279-85. 2010
    Control of blood vessel tone is central to vascular homeostasis. Here we show that metabolism of tryptophan to kynurenine by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (Ido) expressed in endothelial cells contributes to arterial vessel relaxation and ..
  30. ncbi The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation as a drug target
    Robert Schwarcz
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 4:12-7. 2004
    In mammalian cells, the essential amino acid tryptophan is degraded primarily by the kynurenine pathway, a cascade of enzymatic steps containing several biologically active compounds...
  31. ncbi Kynurenic acid as a ligand for orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR35
    Jinghong Wang
    Amgen Inc, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:22021-8. 2006
    Local catabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan is considered an important mechanism in regulating immunological and neurological responses. The kynurenine pathway is the main route for the non-protein metabolism of tryptophan...
  32. ncbi The codon 620 tryptophan allele of the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (LYP) gene is a major determinant of Graves' disease
    M R Velaga
    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 3BZ, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:5862-5. 2004
    ..Recently, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), encoding a functional arginine to tryptophan residue change at LYP codon 620 has been shown to be associated with type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune ..
  33. ncbi Monitoring tryptophan metabolism in chronic immune activation
    Katharina Schröcksnadel
    Division of Biological Chemistry, Biocentre, Innsbruck Medical University, Fritz Pregl Strasse 3 A 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    Clin Chim Acta 364:82-90. 2006
    The essential amino acid tryptophan is a constituent of proteins and is also a substrate for two important biosynthetic pathways: the generation of neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) by tryptophan 5-hydroxylase, and the ..
  34. ncbi Tryptophan- and arginine-rich antimicrobial peptides: structures and mechanisms of action
    David I Chan
    Structural Biology Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1758:1184-202. 2006
    ..In this review, the structures of a number of different Trp- and Arg-rich antimicrobial peptides are examined and some of the major mechanistic studies are presented...
  35. pmc Mechanisms of tryptophan fluorescence shifts in proteins
    J T Vivian
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA
    Biophys J 80:2093-109. 2001
    b>Tryptophan fluorescence wavelength is widely used as a tool to monitor changes in proteins and to make inferences regarding local structure and dynamics...
  36. ncbi Potential role of tryptophan derivatives in stress responses characterized by the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species
    Fabienne Peyrot
    Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, CNRS, Gif sur Yvette, France
    J Pineal Res 45:235-46. 2008
    ..Among the latter, this review focusses on natural 3-substituted indolic structures. Tryptophan-derived indoles are unsensitive to NO(*), oxygen and superoxide anion (O(2)(*-)), but react directly with other ..
  37. ncbi Treatment of autoimmune neuroinflammation with a synthetic tryptophan metabolite
    Michael Platten
    Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Beckman Center for Molecular Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 310:850-5. 2005
    Local catabolism of the amino acid tryptophan (Trp) by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is considered an important mechanism of regulating T cell immunity...
  38. ncbi Interferon-alpha-induced changes in tryptophan metabolism. relationship to depression and paroxetine treatment
    Lucile Capuron
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 54:906-14. 2003
    b>Tryptophan (TRP) degradation into kynurenine (KYN) by the enzyme, indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase, during immune activation may contribute to development of depressive symptoms during interferon (IFN)-alpha therapy.
  39. ncbi Tryptophan and the immune response
    John R Moffett
    Department of Anatomy, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Building C, Room 2109, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    Immunol Cell Biol 81:247-65. 2003
    ..The mechanisms that mediate tolerance are not well understood, but recent findings have implicated tryptophan catabolism through the kynurenine metabolic pathway as one of many mechanisms involved...
  40. ncbi Site-saturation mutagenesis of tryptophan 116 of Saccharomyces pastorianus old yellow enzyme uncovers stereocomplementary variants
    Santosh Kumar Padhi
    Department of Chemistry, 127 Chemistry Research Building, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 131:3271-80. 2009
    ..These computational tools will allow preliminary in silico screening of additional residues to identify those most likely to control the substrate binding orientation and provide some guidance to future experimental studies...
  41. ncbi Correlation between breakfast tryptophan content and morning-evening in Japanese infants and students aged 0-15 yrs
    Tetsuo Harada
    Laboratory of Environmental Physiology, Faculty of Education, Kochi University, Japan
    J Physiol Anthropol 26:201-7. 2007
    b>Tryptophan can be metabolized via 5-hydroxytryptamine=serotonin to melatonin by a series of 4 enzymes in pineal body...
  42. pmc Tryptophan biosynthesis protects mycobacteria from CD4 T-cell-mediated killing
    Yanjia J Zhang
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Disease, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 155:1296-308. 2013
    ..Through this analysis, we found that CD4 T cells attempt to contain Mtb growth by starving it of tryptophan--a mechanism that successfully limits infections by Chlamydia and Leishmania, natural tryptophan auxotrophs...
  43. ncbi Effects of a diet integration with an oily emulsion of DHA-phospholipids containing melatonin and tryptophan in elderly patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment
    Mariangela Rondanelli
    Department of Applied Health Sciences, Section of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona ASP, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
    Nutr Neurosci 15:46-54. 2012
    ..their diet with either an oily emulsion of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-phospholipids containing melatonin and tryptophan (11 subjects) or a placebo (14-matched subjects) for 12 weeks...
  44. ncbi Molecular basis defining human Chlamydia trachomatis tissue tropism. A possible role for tryptophan synthase
    Christine Fehlner-Gardiner
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba and National Microbiology Laboratory, Health Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0W3, Canada
    J Biol Chem 277:26893-903. 2002
    ..trachomatis containing the tryptophan biosynthesis genes...
  45. ncbi Anxiogenic and depressive-like effects, but no cognitive deficits, after repeated moderate tryptophan depletion in the rat
    Arjan Blokland
    Faculty of Psychology, Maastricht Brain and Behaviour Institute, Maastricht University, The Netherlands
    J Psychopharmacol 16:39-49. 2002
    The tryptophan (TRP) depletion method has been used as a tool to investigate the effects of acute lowered serotonin levels in the brain...
  46. ncbi Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-mediated tryptophan catabolism regulates accumulation of Th1/Th17 cells in the joint in collagen-induced arthritis
    Gabriel Criado
    Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Arthritis Rheum 60:1342-51. 2009
    Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) is a catabolic enzyme that initiates the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation and has immunomodulatory properties...
  47. ncbi GCN2 kinase in T cells mediates proliferative arrest and anergy induction in response to indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase
    David H Munn
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
    Immunity 22:633-42. 2005
    Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) catabolizes the amino acid tryptophan. IDO-expressing immunoregulatory dendritic cells (DCs) have been implicated in settings including tumors, autoimmunity, and transplant tolerance...
  48. pmc The indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitor 1-methyl-D-tryptophan upregulates IDO1 in human cancer cells
    Christiane A Opitz
    Department of Neurooncology, Neurology Clinic and National Center for Tumor Diseases, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e19823. 2011
    1-methyl-D-tryptophan (1-D-MT) is currently being used in clinical trials in patients with relapsed or refractory solid tumors with the aim of inhibiting indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-mediated tumor immune escape...
  49. ncbi Violacein and related tryptophan metabolites produced by Chromobacterium violaceum: biosynthetic mechanism and pathway for construction of violacein core
    Tsutomu Hoshino
    Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, and Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Ikarashi 2 8050, Nishi ku, Niigata, 950 2181, Japan
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 91:1463-75. 2011
    ..The X-ray crystallographic structure of VioE that mediates the indole rearrangement reaction was recently identified, and the mechanism of the indole shift is discussed here...
  50. pmc Bisubstrate specificity in histidine/tryptophan biosynthesis isomerase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis by active site metamorphosis
    Anne V Due
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hamburg Unit, Notkestrasse 85, D 22603 Hamburg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:3554-9. 2011
    In histidine and tryptophan biosynthesis, two related isomerization reactions are generally catalyzed by two specific single-substrate enzymes (HisA and TrpF), sharing a similar (β/α)(8)-barrel scaffold...
  51. pmc Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity by levo-1-methyl tryptophan blocks gamma interferon-induced Chlamydia trachomatis persistence in human epithelial cells
    Joyce A Ibana
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitiology, Medical Education Building, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1901 Perdido St, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Infect Immun 79:4425-37. 2011
    Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) induces expression of the tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) in human epithelial cells, the permissive cells for the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis...
  52. ncbi Methanol is an endogenous elicitor molecule for the synthesis of tryptophan and tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites upon senescence of detached rice leaves
    Kiyoon Kang
    Department of Biotechnology, Interdisciplinary Program of Graduate School for Bioenergy and Biomaterials, Bioenergy Research Center, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500 757, Republic of Korea
    Plant J 66:247-57. 2011
    During senescence of detached rice leaves, tryptophan (Trp) and Trp-derived secondary metabolites such as serotonin and 4-coumaroylserotonin accumulated in concert with methanol (MeOH) production...
  53. pmc Insights into transport mechanism from LeuT engineered to transport tryptophan
    Chayne L Piscitelli
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    EMBO J 31:228-35. 2012
    ..The mutation I359Q converts the activity of tryptophan from inhibitor to transportable substrate...
  54. pmc Opposing biological functions of tryptophan catabolizing enzymes during intracellular infection
    Senad Divanovic
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Research Foundation, and the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio, USA
    J Infect Dis 205:152-61. 2012
    Recent studies have underscored physiological and pathophysiological roles for the tryptophan-degrading enzyme indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in immune counterregulation...
  55. pmc Cytochrome P450–catalyzed L-tryptophan nitration in thaxtomin phytotoxin biosynthesis
    Sarah M Barry
    Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
    Nat Chem Biol 8:814-6. 2012
    ..Here we report that TxtE, a unique cytochrome P450, catalyzes L-tryptophan nitration using NO and O(2).
  56. ncbi Transcriptional activation and production of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites in arabidopsis roots contributes to the defense against the fungal vascular pathogen Verticillium longisporum
    Tim Iven
    Julius Maximilians Universitat Wurzburg, Julius von Sachs Institut, Pharmazeutische Biologie, Julius von Sachs Platz 2, 97082 Wurzburg, Germany
    Mol Plant 5:1389-402. 2012
    ..Here, we focused on the highly coordinated gene induction resulting in the production of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites...
  57. pmc Induction of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (L1) retrotransposition by 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), a tryptophan photoproduct
    Noriyuki Okudaira
    National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8655, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:18487-92. 2010
    ..Herein we found that 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), a tryptophan photoproduct postulated as a candidate physiological ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), induces L1-..
  58. ncbi Tryptophan depletion reduces right inferior prefrontal activation during response inhibition in fast, event-related fMRI
    Katya Rubia
    Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, De Crespigny Park, SE5 8AF, London, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:791-803. 2005
    ..that 5-HT modulates neuro-cognitive brain activation during inhibitory control, we examined the effect of acute tryptophan depletion (ATD), a dietary challenge, which has been shown to decrease 5-HT synthesis in the brain, on ..
  59. ncbi Differential immunosuppressive effect of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) on primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells
    Farshad Forouzandeh
    BC Professional Fire Fighters Burn and Wound Healing Research Lab, Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, 2660 Oak Street, 351 Jack Bell Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6H 3Z6
    Mol Cell Biochem 309:1-7. 2008
    We have previously demonstrated that indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression by skin cells generates a tryptophan deficient environment in which THP-1, Jurkat cells as well as human PBMC are unable to survive...
  60. ncbi The role of serotonin in human mood and social interaction. Insight from altered tryptophan levels
    Simon N Young
    Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 1033 Pine Avenue West, H3A 1A1, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 71:857-65. 2002
    Alterations in brain tryptophan levels cause changes in brain serotonin synthesis, and this has been used to study the implication of altered serotonin levels in humans...
  61. ncbi Antimicrobial and immunoregulatory properties of human tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase
    Silvia K Schmidt
    Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf 40225, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 39:2755-64. 2009
    In mammals, the regulation of local tryptophan concentrations by the IFN-gamma-i inducible enzyme IDO is a prominent antimicrobial and immunoregulatory effector mechanism...
  62. ncbi Serotonergic functioning and trait-impulsivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disordered boys (ADHD): influence of rapid tryptophan depletion
    Florian Daniel Zepf
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, J W Goethe University of Frankfurt a M, Germany
    Hum Psychopharmacol 23:43-51. 2008
    The present study investigated the effects of rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) and the ensuing reduction of central nervous levels of serotonin (5-HT) on reactive aggression with respect to personality factors comprising aspects of trait-..
  63. ncbi Reduced serotonergic functioning changes heart rate in ADHD
    Florian Daniel Zepf
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Goethe University of Frankfurt am Main, Deutschordenstr, Frankfurt, Germany
    J Neural Transm 116:105-8. 2009
    ..A total of 16 ADHD-diagnosed boys were subjected to rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) and a placebo in a double-blind within-subject crossover-design...
  64. pmc Tryptophan-lipid interactions in membrane protein folding probed by ultraviolet resonance Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy
    Katheryn M Sanchez
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    Biophys J 100:2121-30. 2011
    Aromatic amino acids of membrane proteins are enriched at the lipid-water interface. The role of tryptophan on the folding and stability of an integral membrane protein is investigated with ultraviolet resonance Raman and fluorescence ..
  65. ncbi An oxidized tryptophan facilitates copper binding in Methylococcus capsulatus-secreted protein MopE
    Ronny Helland
    Norwegian Structural Biology Centre, Faculty of Science, University of Tromso, N 9073 Tromso, Norway
    J Biol Chem 283:13897-904. 2008
    ..through backbone amino and carbonyl groups, but the amino acid side chains coordinating metals do not include tryptophan. Here we show for the first time the involvement of the tryptophan metabolite kynurenine in a protein metal-..
  66. pmc Tryptophan/kynurenine metabolism in human leukocytes is independent of superoxide and is fully maintained in chronic granulomatous disease
    Suk See De Ravin
    Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Blood 116:1755-60. 2010
    ..the lack of O(2)(·)-dependent interferon γ (IFNγ)-induced synthesis of kynurenine (kyn), an anti-inflammatory tryptophan metabolite produced by indolamine 2,3 deoxygenase (IDO), was proposed as a cause of hyperinflammation in CGD and ..
  67. pmc Conserved residues Asp16 and Pro24 of TnaC-tRNAPro participate in tryptophan induction of Tna operon expression
    Luis R Cruz-Vera
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Bacteriol 190:4791-7. 2008
    ..coli, interactions between the nascent TnaC-tRNA(Pro) peptidyl-tRNA and the translating ribosome create a tryptophan binding site in the ribosome where bound tryptophan inhibits TnaC-tRNA(Pro) cleavage...
  68. ncbi Increased depressive ratings in patients with hepatitis C receiving interferon-alpha-based immunotherapy are related to interferon-alpha-induced changes in the serotonergic system
    Stefania Bonaccorso
    Psychiatric Hospital, University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 22:86-90. 2002
    ..of IFN-alpha-based immunotherapy on the development of depressive symptoms in relation to its effects on plasma tryptophan and kynurenine and serum serotonin (5-HT)...
  69. ncbi IDO1 and IDO2 are expressed in human tumors: levo- but not dextro-1-methyl tryptophan inhibits tryptophan catabolism
    Stefan Lob
    Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, University Hospital of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 58:153-7. 2009
    ..A novel therapeutic approach in cancer envisages inhibition of IDO with 1-methyl-tryptophan (1MT)...
  70. pmc Tryptophan depletion as a mechanism of gamma interferon-mediated chlamydial persistence
    W L Beatty
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706
    Infect Immun 62:3705-11. 1994
    ..host cells to restrict intracellular growth of the bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis by induction of the tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)...
  71. pmc Altered interactions of tryptophan metabolites in first-episode neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia
    J K Yao
    Neurochemistry and Psychopharmacology Laboratory, VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Pittsburgh, PA 15206, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 15:938-53. 2010
    ..targeted electrochemistry-based metabolomics platform, we compared metabolic signatures consisting of 13 plasma tryptophan (Trp) metabolites simultaneously between first-episode neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia (FENNS, n=..
  72. ncbi Modulation of tryptophan catabolism by human leukemic cells results in the conversion of CD25- into CD25+ T regulatory cells
    Antonio Curti
    Institute of Hematology and Medical Oncology L and A Seragnoli, University of Bologna and Stem Cell Center, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Blood 109:2871-7. 2007
    ..expressing surface CTLA-4 and FOXP3 mRNA, and this effect is completely abrogated by the IDO inhibitor, 1-methyl tryptophan (1-MT)...
  73. ncbi Towards a structure-function analysis of bovine lactoferricin and related tryptophan- and arginine-containing peptides
    Hans J Vogel
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, AB, Canada
    Biochem Cell Biol 80:49-63. 2002
    ..Residues that are of particular importance for the activity of lactoferricin are tryptophan and arginine...
  74. ncbi Tryptophan catabolism and T-cell tolerance: immunosuppression by starvation?
    A L Mellor
    Molecular Immunology Program, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
    Immunol Today 20:469-73. 1999
    Some macrophages inhibit microbial infections by producing indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), which catabolizes tryptophan. Here, Andrew Mellor and David Munn discuss evidence that cells that synthesize IDO protect the mammalian fetus ..
  75. ncbi Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in dendritic cells by stereoisomers of 1-methyl-tryptophan correlates with antitumor responses
    De Yan Hou
    Immunotherapy Center and Departments of Pediatrics, Medicine, and Biostatistics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia
    Cancer Res 67:792-801. 2007
    ..In cancer, IDO activity may help promote acquired tolerance to tumor antigens. The IDO inhibitor 1-methyl-tryptophan is being developed for clinical trials...
  76. ncbi The new '5-HT' hypothesis of depression: cell-mediated immune activation induces indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which leads to lower plasma tryptophan and an increased synthesis of detrimental tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), both of which contribute to th
    M Maes
    Maes Clinics TRIA, Piyavate Hospital, 998 Rimklongsamsen Road, Bangkok 10310, Thailand
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 35:702-21. 2011
    This paper reviews the body of evidence that not only tryptophan and consequent 5-HT depletion, but also induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and the detrimental effects of tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs) play a role in the ..
  77. ncbi Chronic low-grade inflammation in elderly persons is associated with altered tryptophan and tyrosine metabolism: role in neuropsychiatric symptoms
    Lucile Capuron
    Laboratory of Psychoneuroimmunology, Nutrition and Genetics, INRA, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France
    Biol Psychiatry 70:175-82. 2011
    ..The present study assessed this possibility in 284 healthy elderly subjects drawn from the Three-City cohort...
  78. pmc The effect of acute tryptophan depletion on the neural correlates of emotional processing in healthy volunteers
    Jonathan P Roiser
    Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, London, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:1992-2006. 2008
    ..We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the effect of acute tryptophan depletion, which reduces central 5-HT synthesis, on neural responses to emotionally valenced verbal stimuli...
  79. ncbi Modulation of tryptophan catabolism by regulatory T cells
    Francesca Fallarino
    Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, 06126 Perugia, Italy
    Nat Immunol 4:1206-12. 2003
    ..CD4+CD25+ cells, either resting or induced to overexpress CTLA-4 by treatment with antibody to CD3, initiated tryptophan catabolism in dendritic cells through a CTLA-4-dependent mechanism...
  80. pmc Physiological studies of tryptophan transport and tryptophanase operon induction in Escherichia coli
    C Yanofsky
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, California 94305 5020
    J Bacteriol 173:6009-17. 1991
    Escherichia coli forms three permeases that can transport the amino acid tryptophan: Mtr, AroP, and TnaB. The structural genes for these permeases reside in separate operons that are subject to different mechanisms of regulation...
  81. pmc Delaying aging and the aging-associated decline in protein homeostasis by inhibition of tryptophan degradation
    Annemieke T van der Goot
    Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:14912-7. 2012
    ..Here, we identify tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (tdo-2), the first enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, as a metabolic ..
  82. ncbi In vitro biosynthesis of violacein from L-tryptophan by the enzymes VioA-E from Chromobacterium violaceum
    Carl J Balibar
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
    Biochemistry 45:15444-57. 2006
    The purple chromobacterial pigment violacein arises by enzymatic oxidation and coupling of two molecules of l-tryptophan to give a rearranged pyrrolidone-containing scaffold in the final pigment...
  83. pmc Understanding the roles of strictly conserved tryptophan residues in O2 producing chlorite dismutases
    Béatrice Blanc
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46656, USA
    Dalton Trans 42:3156-69. 2013
    ..These observations and the lack of redox protection for the heme in any of the Trp mutants suggests a tendency for protein radical formation in DaCld that is independent of any of these conserved active site residues...
  84. pmc Phospholipid flippases Lem3p-Dnf1p and Lem3p-Dnf2p are involved in the sorting of the tryptophan permease Tat2p in yeast
    Takeru Hachiro
    Division of Molecular Interaction, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Life Science, N15 W7, Kita ku, Sapporo 060 0815, Japan
    J Biol Chem 288:3594-608. 2013
    ..Here, we report that Lem3p-Dnf1/2p are involved in transport of the tryptophan permease Tat2p to the plasma membrane...
  85. ncbi Circadian levels of serotonin in plasma and brain after oral administration of tryptophan in rats
    Soledad Sánchez Mateos
    Department of Physiology, Neuroimmunophysiology Research Group, Faculty of Science, University of Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 104:52-9. 2009
    ..one of the most important neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, is synthesized by the amino acid, tryptophan. Given that this essential amino acid is consumed in the diet, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect ..
  86. pmc Reversal of the Kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism may improve depression in ART-treated HIV-infected Ugandans
    Priscilla Martinez
    Norwegian Center for Addiction Research, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Alcohol Research Group, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA Center for Global Health, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA Division of Global Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA Division of HIV AIDS, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, CA Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA and Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT and Harvard, Boston, MA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 65:456-62. 2014
    ..We investigated the extent to which ART-mediated suppression of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism (via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 and potentially other sources) may correlate with improvements in ..
  87. ncbi A key role for tryptophan 84 in receptor activity-modifying protein 1 in the amylin 1 receptor
    Joseph J Gingell
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
    Peptides 31:1400-4. 2010
    ..The data reveal the importance of Trp84 in the AMY(1(a)) receptor...
  88. ncbi Alterations in tryptophan and purine metabolism in cocaine addiction: a metabolomic study
    Ashwin A Patkar
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 206:479-89. 2009
    ..Mapping metabolic "signatures" can provide new insights into addictive mechanisms and potentially identify biomarkers and therapeutic targets...
  89. ncbi More rapid method for simultaneous measurement of tryptophan and kynurenine by HPLC
    Andreas Laich
    Institute for Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Leopold Franzens University, A 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    Clin Chem 48:579-81. 2002
  90. ncbi The effect of acute tryptophan depletion on the BOLD response during performance monitoring and response inhibition in healthy male volunteers
    Elisabeth A T Evers
    Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology DRT 10, Brain and Behavior Institute, Maastricht University, P O Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, Netherlands
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 187:200-8. 2006
    ..However, the way in which 5-HT manipulations affect brain activation patterns underlying different subprocesses of cognitive flexibility remains largely unknown...
  91. pmc A conserved aromatic lock for the tryptophan rotameric switch in TM-VI of seven-transmembrane receptors
    Birgitte Holst
    Laboratory for Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, DK2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Biol Chem 285:3973-85. 2010
    The conserved tryptophan in position 13 of TM-VI (Trp-VI:13 or Trp-6...
  92. ncbi Tryptophan depletion, serotonin, and depression: where do we stand?
    Alexander Neumeister
    National Institute for Mental Health s Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Psychopharmacol Bull 37:99-115. 2003
    b>Tryptophan depletion is a widely used paradigm to study serotonin system-related mechanisms in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression...
  93. pmc Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase mediates cell type-specific anti-measles virus activity of gamma interferon
    Karola Obojes
    Institut fur Virologie und Immunbiologie, Versbacher Str 7, D 97078 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Virol 79:7768-76. 2005
    ..induced by IFN-gamma correlates with the induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme of the tryptophan degradation pathway known to mediate antiviral as well as antibacterial and antiparasitic effects...
  94. ncbi Substance P is associated with the development of brain edema and functional deficits after traumatic brain injury
    James J Donkin
    Discipline of Pathology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 29:1388-98. 2009
    ..Inhibition of SP action by administration of the neurokinin-1 (NK1) antagonist, N-acetyl-L-tryptophan, at 30 mins after trauma attenuated vascular permeability and edema formation...
  95. pmc The presence of a single N-terminal histidine residue enhances the fusogenic properties of a Membranotropic peptide derived from herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein H
    Stefania Galdiero
    Department of Experimental Medicine, II University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, Napoli 80138, Italy
    J Biol Chem 285:17123-36. 2010
    ..Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies have shown that the addition of the N-terminal His contributes to the formation and stabilization of an alpha-helical domain with high fusion propensity...
  96. pmc Serotonergic contribution to boys' behavioral regulation
    Amélie Nantel-Vivier
    Psychology Department, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
    PLoS ONE 6:e20304. 2011
    ..Whether these findings apply to children is unclear. The present study investigated serotonergic functioning in boys with a history of behavior regulation difficulties through a double-blind, acute tryptophan supplementation procedure.
  97. ncbi Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase: from catalyst to signaling function
    Francesca Fallarino
    Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
    Eur J Immunol 42:1932-7. 2012
    Control of tryptophan metabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in dendritic cells (DCs) is a highly versatile regulator of innate and adaptive immune responses...
  98. ncbi Inflammation-related disorders in the tryptophan catabolite pathway in depression and somatization
    George Anderson
    CRC, Glasgow, UK
    Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol 88:27-48. 2012
    ..with depression, somatization, comorbid depression+somatization, and controls--showed specific changes in the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway in somatization, specifically lowered tryptophan and kynurenic acid, and increased ..
  99. ncbi Reversed sequence enhances antimicrobial activity of a synthetic peptide
    Ramamourthy Gopal
    Research Center for Proteineous Materials RCPM, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea
    J Pept Sci 17:329-34. 2011
    ..Both the peptides show less affinities while binding to EYPC:CH (10:1, w/w). This clearly indicated that the reversal of sequence factors is relevant to increased antimicrobial activity and lipid membrane permeability...
  100. ncbi Prevention of T cell-driven complement activation and inflammation by tryptophan catabolism during pregnancy
    A L Mellor
    Program in Molecular Immunology, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, 1120 15th St, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
    Nat Immunol 2:64-8. 2001
    ..These data show that IDO activity protects the fetus by suppressing T cell-driven local inflammatory responses to fetal alloantigens...
  101. ncbi Antimicrobial and immunoregulatory effects mediated by human lung cells: role of IFN-gamma-induced tryptophan degradation
    Kathrin Heseler
    Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Germany
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 52:273-81. 2008
    ..lung bronchus epithelial cells) and A549 (human type II alveolar cells) correlated with the activation of the tryptophan-degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)...

Research Grants72

  1. Pilot and definitive studies to evaluate Insertional Mutagenesis
    LU TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..profiles (MAPs);N-acetyl-p-Aminophenol(APAP);Nitrosodimethylamine;Anthraquinone;Aflatoxin B1;Ascorbic acid;l-tryptophan;Methlyeugenol;Senna;PolyBrominated diphenyl ether congeners;PBDE-47;Carcinogen and Non-carcinogen;RNA ..
  2. Studies to Evaluate the Toxicological Potential of Test Articles
    LU TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..profiles (MAPs);N-acetyl-p-Aminophenol(APAP);Nitrosodimethylamine;Anthraquinone;Aflatoxin B1;Ascorbic acid;l-tryptophan;Methlyeugenol;Senna;PolyBrominated diphenyl ether congeners;PBDE-47;Carcinogen and Non-carcinogen;RNA ..
  3. Neuroimaging abnormalities in major depressive disorder: effect of inflammation
    Jonathan Savitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Inflammation is hypothesized to contribute to depression by altering the breakdown of tryptophan (TRP), the precursor of serotonin, reducing serotonin levels and increasing the synthesis of kynurenine (KYN) ..
  4. Novel Peptide MPO Inhibitors for Treating Atherosclerosis
    Kirkwood A Pritchard; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..MPO also oxidizes aromatic amino acids such as tyrosine and tryptophan to generate cytotoxic tyrosyl and tryptophanyl radicals...
  5. Regulation of Type 1 Interferon Production by Autoimmunity-Associated PTPN22
    Yaya Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..One such genetic variant is the PTPN22 C1858T, which leads to an Arginine to Tryptophan (R->W) change in the Lymphoid tryrosine phosphatase (Lyp)...
  6. Role of TPH2 and 5HT Neuronal Loss in Non-motor Symptoms of Parkinson's
    Donald M Kuhn; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..with PD have significantly lower levels of 5HT, reduced 5HT synthesis and turnover, reductions in the amount of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2) and losses in the number of intact 5HT neurons...
  7. Novel Collagen II Alternative Transcripts and Mouse Skeletal Development
    Audrey McAlinden; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..IID mRNA contains an extra three nucleotides at the end of exon 2 that encodes either tryptophan (in human) or arginine (in mouse) without altering the subsequent protein reading frame...
  8. MECHANISMS OF GASTROINTESTINAL GROWTH AND TRANSFORMATION
    Juanita L Merchant; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Mice conditionally null for ZBP-89 in the colon exhibited reduced numbers of EC cells and reduced tryptophan hydroxylase 1 gene (TPH1) transcripts on a microarray...
  9. Electron Transfer in Iron and Copper Proteins
    Jay R Winkler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this research program, the molecular parameters that control multistep electron tunneling through tryptophan (Aim 1) and tyrosine (Aim 2) radicals will be examined...
  10. BRAINSTEM MATURATION IN THE SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME
    HANNAH CHASE KINNEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..24 years, we have reported a deficiency of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) and its biosynthetic enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2), in regions of the medulla oblongata that modulate cardiorespiratory function during sleep (..
  11. Epigenetic Regulation of Serotonin:Relevance to HIV and Methamphetamine Abuse
    GREGORY MICHAEL MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..modulators of the serotonin system, including the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) have been well-documented, epigenetic regulation of these genes is poorly understood...
  12. Inducible recombination and gene expression in specific neurotransmitter systems
    Steven A Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..dopamine 2- hydroxylase, for the dopaminergic system - dopamine transporter, for the serotonergic system - tryptophan hydroxylase 2, and for the orexinergic system - orexin...
  13. Neuroendocrine Contribution to Behavior &Cognition in the Female Lifespan
    C NEILL NEILL EPPERSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our previous work using the tryptophan depletion paradigm in menopausal women (Epperson et al., 2007b;Amin et al...
  14. Novel therapy for monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency in PKU
    Cary O Harding; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed causes of dopamine and serotonin deficiencies include decreased brain content of L-tyrosine and L-tryptophan, the substrates for dopamine and serotonin synthesis respectively, and phenylalanine- mediated competitive ..
  15. BRAINSTEM MATURATION IN THE SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME
    Hannah C Kinney; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will utilize selected markers to 5-HT cells, terminals, receptor subtypes, and the synthetic enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase, using tissue autoradiography, immunocytochemistry, and in situ hybridization in brain tissues from ..
  16. Kynurenic Acid Synthesis in Mouse Brain
    Jianyong Li; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Kynurenic acid (KYNA, a tryptophan metabolite) acts as a glutamate receptor antagonist and is believed to play a role in modulating glutamate-..
  17. Molecular mechanism of apolipoprotein binding to lipopolysaccharides
    PAUL MICHIEL WEERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the need for a large protein conformational change will be investigated using molecular spectroscopy with single tryptophan and double cysteine mutant proteins...
  18. Functionally Significant Polymorphisms in Serotonin Pathway Genes
    Beverly H Koller; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is produced by a two step enzymatic process from the amino acid tryptophan, primarily by neurons located in the raphe nuclei...
  19. Biobehavioral Role of Brain Kynurenine Metabolism in Mental Illness
    JASON C O'CONNOR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..from our laboratory have demonstrated that these biobehaviors are mediated by cytokine-induced activation of the tryptophan-degrading enzyme indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO), which is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the ..
  20. Mechanisms of abnormal enterochromaffin cell secretion in Crohn's disease
    Mark S Kidd; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..functional consequence would be an increase in transcription of the rate-limiting serotonin synthesizing enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph-1), with a resultant increase in serotonin synthesis and secretion...
  21. Mechanisms of Neurotransmitter Biosynthesis
    Paul F Fitzpatrick; Fiscal Year: 2011
    Phenylalanine hydroxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase, and tryptophan hydroxylase make up the family of non-heme iron pterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylases...
  22. Targeting NAD Metabolism to Improve Glucose Homeostasis in Obesity and Aging
    Joseph A Baur; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is derived from a number of dietary compounds, including tryptophan and vitamin B3, and prolonged deficiency in all of these precursors leads to Pellagra, and then death...
  23. Low-affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptors in the frog Xenopus laevis
    Wade H Powell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..One candidate endogenous ligand is 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), a tryptophan photoproduct...
  24. AIDS, Immune Activation and Mental Health
    Robert Dantzer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), a key enzyme that regulates degradation of the essential amino acid tryptophan, and blockade of this enzyme abrogates depressive-like behavior...
  25. General Anesthetic Sites in GABA-A Receptor Subunit Interfacial Pockets
    Stuart A Forman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our experimental strategy employs scanning cysteine and tryptophan mutants and electrophysiology in recombinant GABAA receptors in two expression systems, and exploits sulfhydryl-..
  26. Alkylammonium Formate Mobile Phase Modifiers for Protein Liquid Chromatography
    NEIL DANIELSON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..ethylammonium formate (EAF), have shown less unfolding and exposure of hydrophobic aromatic amino acids such as tryptophan as compared to methanol and acetonitrile...
  27. Visualizing Actomyosin Transients by Data Merging
    Thomas P Burghardt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pathways identified for study mediate actin-activation of myosin ATPase and conformation change triggering tryptophan nucleotide sensitivity that might link small active site displacements to the larger lever arm movement...
  28. DORSAL RAPHE NUCLEUS SEROTONIN NEURONS IN ALCOHOLISM
    Mark D Underwood; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..have made findings in alcoholics of changes in serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of increased tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) serotonin-synthesizing enzyme, a decrease in the amount of serotonin transporter and 5-HT1A ..
  29. Hormonal Modulation of Aggression in Drosophila
    Edward A Kravitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is the major amine synthesized from tyrosine;and serotonin (5HT), is the major amine derived from tryptophan. There are approximately 100 OA and 5HT neurons in the Drosophila central nervous system...
  30. MECHANISM OF INOSITOL TRISPHOSPHATE ACTION
    Suresh K Joseph; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Conformational changes induced by IP3 in the ligand-binding domain will be studied using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and FRET methods...
  31. Intragenic Suppressors of McCune-Albright Syndrome Mutations
    ROBIN PALS RYLAARSDAM; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..inactive conformations by observing differential trypsin digestion patterns and/or tryptophan autofluorescence...
  32. Postnatal Serotonin Deficits in Behavioral Pathogenesis: A Novel Genetic Approach
    MEREDITH SORENSON WHITNEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Since the recent discovery of the sequence of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2), the sole rate- limiting enzyme in brain 5-HT synthesis, knockout studies have shown that ..
  33. Voltage-Gating in Bacterial Ion Channels
    Ana M Correa; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The terbium emits upon excitation of a nearby tryptophan residue encoded in the LBT...
  34. EPR and Mossbauer Characterization of Mn and Fe Proteins, Models, Intermediates
    Michael P Hendrich; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) catalyzes the insertion of dioxygen and oxidative cleavage of the indole ring of L-..
  35. Benefits of dietary essential amino acid restriction
    James Mitchell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Importantly, we have also found that restriction of two other essential amino acids - tryptophan and leucine - lend similar benefits...
  36. The structural role of ING proteins in chromatin remodeling.
    KAREN CHAMPAGNE GLASS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will measure the effect of these mutations on peptide binding using NMR and tryptophan fluorescence by titrating in histone peptides to determine their dissociation constants (Kds)...
  37. Immune-based nutrient deprivation and neurodegenerative disease
    Carol Anne Colton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..By increasing arginine and tryptophan uptake, immune cells reduce the levels of these essential amino acids in the microenvironment...
  38. Serotonergic Contribution to Adolescent Risk Taking
    ANDREW EMMETT ARRANT; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Depletion of serotonin with the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor p- chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) was anxiolytic in adult rats in the novelty induced ..
  39. MICROENVIRONMENT IN ENTERIC NEURON DEVELOPMENT
    Michael D Gershon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Neuronal 5-HT biosynthesis depends on tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) while that in enterochromaffin cells depends on TPH1...
  40. Bupropion for Depression in ESRD Patients on Hemodialysis
    Pedro L Delgado; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ESRD/HD patients have marked elevation in plasma inflammatory cytokines, diminished total tryptophan (TRP), and increased levels of free TRP and the TRP catabolites kynurenine (KYN) and quinolinic acid...
  41. IDO Regulation in the SIV Model of HIV CNS Disease
    M Christine Zink; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Chronic HIV infection leads to the expression of a key enzyme in tryptophan metabolism, IDO (Indolamine 2, 3, Di-Oxygenase), which is upregulated during SIV/HIV infection...
  42. NEURAL CONTROL OF GASTROINTESTINAL ACTIVITY
    Michael D Gershon; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..that 5-HT plays 2 different, but synergistic roles in defense of the gut: (i) Mucosal 5-HT, synthesized by tryptophan hydroxylase1 (TpH1), promotes inflammation (a function that might help to protect the bowel from microbial ..
  43. Genetic Regulation of Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase and Psychiatric Complications o
    Gregory F Oxenkrug; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the up-regulation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the rate-limiting enzyme of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan (TRY) metabolism, is responsible for the depression, anxiety, and psychosis observed during IFN-alpha therapy: a)..
  44. Mechanisms and Regulation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase
    JOSEPH EDWARD SABAT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), which is responsible for the degradation of tryptophan, directly regulates the expression and activity of iNOS via tryptophan metabolites...
  45. Role of Serotonin in Mediating Stress-Induced Infertility
    Judy L Cameron; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..release of serotonin, a down regulation of function in the central serotonergic system [as indicated by lower tryptophan hydroxylase (THP) 2 gene expression, less serotonin transporter (SERT) gene expression, less 5HT-1A receptor ..
  46. Identifying Epileptogenic Tubers in TSC
    Harry Chugani; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..studies (RO1 NS38324), we found that positron emission tomography (PET) using the tracer alpha[C-11]methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT) can differentiate between epileptogenic and non-epileptogenic tubers interictally...
  47. Eliciting B cells to produce anti-HIV gp41 MPER-specific neutralizing antibodies
    Ellis L Reinherz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..alterations in the viral MPER region induced by 4E10 and 2F5 and suggest how these two BNABs perturb function of tryptophan residues therein, critical for fusion pore activity...
  48. Can the Sunshine Vitamin Improve Mood and Self-Management in Women with Diabetes?
    Sue M Penckofer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Some of these inflammatory biomarkers alter the metabolic pathway of tryptophan by shunting it away from serotonin synthesis via stimulation of the enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO)...
  49. Metabolic approaches to treat severe viral and inflammatory diseases
    Augusto C Ochoa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The depletion of the amino acids arginine or tryptophan by the enzymes arginase 1 (Ase-1) and indoleamine 2,3- dioxygenase (IDO) is one of the mechanisms by which the ..
  50. Functional protein-lipid interactions for the mechanosensitive channel MscS
    JUANDELL LATRICE PARKER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Tryptophan fluorescence will be used to verify the relative affinities of various lipid headgroups for specific residues of ..
  51. Novel Design of a Fast-On/Fast-Off Insulin Analog for Closed-Loop Systems
    BRUCE HILL FRANK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of leucine position A13 (a non- conserved residue on the back surface of insulin adjoining Site 2) by tryptophan. We hypothesize that this bulkier aromatic residue foreshortens molecular communication between the hormone-..
  52. Amino acid sensing and phenotypic adaptation in T cells
    Peter J Murray; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to T cells via expression of inducible enzymes that degrade essential amino acids such as arginine and tryptophan, and have been hypothesized to restrict T cell activity and proliferation in immune microenvironments...
  53. Polymerase Interactions with Carcinogen-modified DNA
    F Peter Guengerich; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..events in catalysis by two model DNA polymerases will be done using rapid fluorescence kinetics (Dpo4 tryptophan mutants and a coumarin-labeled bacteriophage T7 polymerase mutant) and H-D exchange kinetics (Dpo4), with a view ..
  54. Nitro-Fatty Acids and Nrf2 in Vascular Remodeling
    Yuqing Eugene Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..NO) and ROS, react with carbohydrates, DNA bases, protein tyrosine/tryptophan, and unsaturated fatty acids to form relatively stable nitrated products...
  55. The Role of Microglia and the Kynurenine Pathway in Huntington's Disease
    Paul J Muchowski; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..with single gene deletion strains that identified kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), an enzyme in the KP of tryptophan degradation, as a potent suppressor of mutant htt toxicity...
  56. Translational control of regulatory T cell induction
    Alexander Khoruts; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Similarly, other means of cellular metabolic stress during antigen activation, e.g., L-tryptophan deprivation, also lead to induction of anergic and Treg phenotypes...
  57. Predictors and Targets of Response to Cytokine Antagonism in Depression
    Andrew H Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..hypotheses, symptom data, neuropsychological testing, polysomnography and peripheral blood measures of plasma tryptophan, KYN and cortisol will be compared in infliximab vs. placebo responders and non-responders...
  58. TOTAL SYNTHESIS AND BIOSYNTHESIS OF BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES
    Robert Michael Williams; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..synthesis to fully elucidate the biosynthetic pathway from the primary amino acids (isoleucine, proline, and tryptophan) and mevalonate-derived isoprene moieties to the polycyclic indole alkaloids comprising the paraherquamides, ..
  59. Novel Pattern Specific Isotopic Labeling of Aromatic Amino Acids
    Robert McFeeters; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..since isotope incorporation is at specific, known positions in the side chains of phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. The distinct chemical shifts of aromatic acid side chains can be implemented as initiators in saturation ..
  60. Drug Abuse-related Neurobiology and Genetic Variance Modeled in Rhesus Monkeys
    GREGORY MICHAEL MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will systematically uncover functionally comparable polymorphisms in rhesus monkey serotonin transporter (SERT), tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genes, and assess genotype/phenotype relationships relevant ..
  61. Chemically-Rich Structure and Dynamics in the Active Site of Tryptophan Synthase
    Leonard J Mueller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of this proposal is to provide the chemical level details necessary to understand the enzymatic mechanism in tryptophan synthase at atomic resolution...
  62. ER-to-cell surface transport and signal regulation of GPCRs
    Guangyu Wu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, we have identified a novel signaling pathway in which the di-tryptophan motif-mediated, agonist-dependent interaction of alpha2B-AR with the small GTPase ARF1 dictates the activation ..
  63. Mechanisms and novel therapy in intrauterine inflammation induced brain injury
    Sujatha Kannan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Increased tryptophan metabolism by the kynurenine pathway induced by intrauterine inflammation may play a crucial role in the ..
  64. Pathogenesis of Persistent Chlamydial STDs
    Deborah Dean; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Further, CT contains a partial tryptophan biosynthesis operon (trpR, trpA, trpB) not found in a CT mouse strain (MoPn) or other species of Chlamydia...
  65. Neuroprotective Effects of Estrogen in Serotonin Neurons
    Jessica Henderson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We hypothesize that estrogen down regulates kynurenine mono-oxygenase (KMO), the enzyme responsible for shifting tryptophan metabolism away from pathways in which tryptophan is converted to serotonin or the neuroprotective kynurenic ..
  66. COCAINE & SEROTONIN NEUROCHEMISTRY
    DONALD KUHN; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..b>Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the initial and rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of 5HT and the influence of cocaine ..
  67. MECHANISMS OF PYRIDOXAL-5'-PHOSPHATE DEPENDENT ENZYMES
    Robert Phillips; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These enzymes include tryptophan indole-lyase, tyrosine phenol-lyase, tryptophan synthase, bacterial and human kynureninases, and aspartate beta-..
  68. Interaction of Estrogen and Serotonin in Modulating Brain Activation in Menopause
    C Neill Epperson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that estrogen treatment (ET) modulates verbal memory performance in menopausal women undergoing depletion of tryptophan (TRP), the precursor of serotonin (Amin et al. 2006b;Epperson et al. 2006)...
  69. AROMATIC AMINO ACID CATABOLISM DURING TRYPANOSOMIASIS
    John Seed; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..acid, indole-3-lactic acid and indole-3-acetic acid concurrent with large decreases in serum concentrations of tryptophan and tyrosine...
  70. ELECTRON TRANSFER IN DYNAMIC PROTEIN COMPLEXES
    JAMES ERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..above the native FeIII state of the CcP with the two oxidized sites identified as an FeIV heme and an oxidized tryptophan radical...
  71. SEROTONIN Treatment of Cocaine Dependence
    ERIC STRAIN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The originally funded study examined tryptophan, the precursor of serotonin, in the treatment of cocaine abuse, and hence the grant was titled "Tryptophan and ..
  72. TRYPTOPHAN METABOLISM IN MOSQUITOES
    Jianyong Li; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Our studies dealing with tryptophan metabolism in Aedes aegypti revealed some unique aspects of tryptophan catabolism in mosquitoes...