Summary: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Creatine and creatinine metabolism
    M Wyss
    F Hoffmann La Roche, Vitamins and Fine Chemicals Division, Basel, Switzerland
    Physiol Rev 80:1107-213. 2000
  2. pmc The creatine kinase system and pleiotropic effects of creatine
    Theo Wallimann
    Institute of Cell Biology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Amino Acids 40:1271-96. 2011
  3. ncbi Creatine deficiency syndromes and the importance of creatine synthesis in the brain
    Olivier Braissant
    Inborn Errors of Metabolism, Clinical Chemistry Laboratory, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Avenue Pierre Decker 2, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Amino Acids 40:1315-24. 2011
  4. ncbi The metabolic burden of creatine synthesis
    John T Brosnan
    Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John s, NL, Canada
    Amino Acids 40:1325-31. 2011
  5. ncbi Use of creatine in the elderly and evidence for effects on cognitive function in young and old
    Eric S Rawson
    Department of Exercise Science, 131 CEH, Bloomsburg University, Bloomsburg, PA 17815, USA
    Amino Acids 40:1349-62. 2011
  6. ncbi Direct antioxidant properties of creatine
    John M Lawler
    276 B Read Building, Redox Biology and Cell Signaling Laboratory, Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 4243, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 290:47-52. 2002
  7. ncbi Treatment with L-arginine improves neuropsychological disorders in a child with creatine transporter defect
    Anna Chilosi
    Department of Developmental Neuroscience, IRCCS Stella Maris, Calambrone, Pisa, Italy
    Neurocase 14:151-61. 2008
  8. ncbi Mitochondrial creatine kinase activity prevents reactive oxygen species generation: antioxidant role of mitochondrial kinase-dependent ADP re-cycling activity
    Laudiene Evangelista Meyer
    Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Programa de Biofísica e Bioquímica Celular and Programa de Biologia Molecular e Biotecnologia
    J Biol Chem 281:37361-71. 2006
  9. pmc Combination therapy with coenzyme Q10 and creatine produces additive neuroprotective effects in models of Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases
    Lichuan Yang
    Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Neurochem 109:1427-39. 2009
  10. pmc 1H MR spectroscopy in common dementias
    K Kantarci
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mayo Clinic 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Neurology 63:1393-8. 2004

Detail Information

Publications353 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Creatine and creatinine metabolism
    M Wyss
    F Hoffmann La Roche, Vitamins and Fine Chemicals Division, Basel, Switzerland
    Physiol Rev 80:1107-213. 2000
    The goal of this review is to present a comprehensive survey of the many intriguing facets of creatine (Cr) and creatinine metabolism, encompassing the pathways and regulation of Cr biosynthesis and degradation, species and tissue ..
  2. pmc The creatine kinase system and pleiotropic effects of creatine
    Theo Wallimann
    Institute of Cell Biology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Amino Acids 40:1271-96. 2011
    The pleiotropic effects of creatine (Cr) are based mostly on the functions of the enzyme creatine kinase (CK) and its high-energy product phosphocreatine (PCr)...
  3. ncbi Creatine deficiency syndromes and the importance of creatine synthesis in the brain
    Olivier Braissant
    Inborn Errors of Metabolism, Clinical Chemistry Laboratory, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Avenue Pierre Decker 2, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Amino Acids 40:1315-24. 2011
    b>Creatine deficiency syndromes, due to deficiencies in AGAT, GAMT (creatine synthesis pathway) or SLC6A8 (creatine transporter), lead to complete absence or very strong decrease of creatine in CNS as measured by magnetic resonance ..
  4. ncbi The metabolic burden of creatine synthesis
    John T Brosnan
    Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John s, NL, Canada
    Amino Acids 40:1325-31. 2011
    b>Creatine synthesis is required in adult animals to replace creatine that is spontaneously converted to creatinine and excreted in the urine. Additionally, in growing animals it is necessary to provide creatine to the expanding tissue mass...
  5. ncbi Use of creatine in the elderly and evidence for effects on cognitive function in young and old
    Eric S Rawson
    Department of Exercise Science, 131 CEH, Bloomsburg University, Bloomsburg, PA 17815, USA
    Amino Acids 40:1349-62. 2011
    The ingestion of the dietary supplement creatine (about 20 g/day for 5 days or about 2 g/day for 30 days) results in increased skeletal muscle creatine and phosphocreatine...
  6. ncbi Direct antioxidant properties of creatine
    John M Lawler
    276 B Read Building, Redox Biology and Cell Signaling Laboratory, Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 4243, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 290:47-52. 2002
    b>Creatine is the most popular supplement proposed to be an ergogenic aid. There is some evidence in the literature that creatine supplementation increases lean body mass, muscular strength, and sprint power...
  7. ncbi Treatment with L-arginine improves neuropsychological disorders in a child with creatine transporter defect
    Anna Chilosi
    Department of Developmental Neuroscience, IRCCS Stella Maris, Calambrone, Pisa, Italy
    Neurocase 14:151-61. 2008
    b>Creatine transporter deficit (CT1) is an inherited metabolic disorder that causes mental retardation, epilepsy, speech, language and behavioral deficits. Until now, no treatment has been proven to be successful for this condition...
  8. ncbi Mitochondrial creatine kinase activity prevents reactive oxygen species generation: antioxidant role of mitochondrial kinase-dependent ADP re-cycling activity
    Laudiene Evangelista Meyer
    Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Programa de Biofísica e Bioquímica Celular and Programa de Biologia Molecular e Biotecnologia
    J Biol Chem 281:37361-71. 2006
    ..In the present work we show that ADP re-cycling accomplished by the mitochondrial creatine kinase (mt-CK) regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, particularly in high glucose concentrations...
  9. pmc Combination therapy with coenzyme Q10 and creatine produces additive neuroprotective effects in models of Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases
    Lichuan Yang
    Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Neurochem 109:1427-39. 2009
    Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) and creatine are promising agents for neuroprotection in neurodegenerative diseases via their effects on improving mitochondrial function and cellular bioenergetics and their properties as antioxidants...
  10. pmc 1H MR spectroscopy in common dementias
    K Kantarci
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mayo Clinic 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Neurology 63:1393-8. 2004
    ..To determine the 1H MR spectroscopic (MRS) findings and intergroup differences among common dementias: Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD)...
  11. pmc Brain creatine elevation and N-Acetylaspartate reduction indicates neuronal dysfunction in the setting of enhanced glial energy metabolism in a macaque model of neuroAIDS
    Eva Maria Ratai
    Neuroradiology Division, Department of Radiology and Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts, USA
    Magn Reson Med 66:625-34. 2011
    ..Reductions in the level of N-Acetylaspartate and N-Acetylaspartate/creatine are established markers of neuronal injury or loss...
  12. ncbi In vivo spectroscopic quantification of the N-acetyl moiety, creatine, and choline from large volumes of brain gray and white matter: effects of normal aging
    A Pfefferbaum
    Neuropsychiatry Program, Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA
    Magn Reson Med 41:276-84. 1999 each metabolite voxel, was developed and used to estimate the concentration of the N-acetyl-moiety (NAc), creatine (Cr), and choline (Cho) in gray matter and white matter...
  13. ncbi Brainstem neurodegeneration correlates with clinical dysfunction in SCA1 but not in SCA2. A quantitative volumetric, diffusion and proton spectroscopy MR study
    L Guerrini
    Radiodiagnostic Section, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, University of Florence, Viale Morgagni 85, Florence, Italy
    Brain 127:1785-95. 2004
    ..patients, which is accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) or of the NAA/creatine ratio in the pons and cerebellum...
  14. ncbi Methylation demand and homocysteine metabolism: effects of dietary provision of creatine and guanidinoacetate
    L M Stead
    Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John s, Newfoundland, Canada A1B 3X9
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 281:E1095-100. 2001
    ..The methylation of guanidinoacetate to form creatine consumes more methyl groups than all other methylation reactions combined...
  15. ncbi Striatal creatine and glutamate/glutamine in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Normand J Carrey
    Department of Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 17:11-7. 2007
    ..We used short echo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to examine glutamate in the prefrontal cortex, left striatum, and, as a control area, the occipital lobe...
  16. ncbi Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex N-acetylaspartate/total creatine (NAA/tCr) loss in male recreational cannabis users
    Derik Hermann
    Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    Biol Psychiatry 61:1281-9. 2007
    ..Cannabinoids present neurotoxic and neuroprotective properties in in vitro studies, inconsistent alterations in human neuroimaging studies, neuropsychological deficits, and an increased risk for psychotic episodes...
  17. ncbi A placebo-controlled crossover trial of creatine in mitochondrial diseases
    T Klopstock
    Department of Neurology, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat Munchen, Germany
    Neurology 55:1748-51. 2000
    To test the efficacy and safety of creatine (Cr) monohydrate in mitochondrial diseases, 16 patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia or mitochondrial myopathy were randomized in a crossover design to receive double-blind ..
  18. ncbi MR spectroscopic evaluation of N-acetylaspartate's T2 relaxation time and concentration corroborates white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia
    Nuran Tunc-Skarka
    Department of Neuroimaging, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    Neuroimage 48:525-31. 2009
    ..Furthermore, they elucidate why reports of a reduced N-acetylaspartate concentration in schizophrenia were not always corroborated...
  19. pmc Regional gray and white matter metabolite differences in subjects with AD, with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia, and elderly controls with 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging
    S Mackay
    Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, USA
    Arch Neurol 53:167-74. 1996
    ..differences in neuron density (N-acetylaspartate [NAA]), membrane phospholipid metabolites (choline [Cho]), and creatine-containing metabolites (creatine plus phosphocreatine [Cr]) in subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), with ..
  20. ncbi Neuroprotective effects of creatine
    M Flint Beal
    Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Cornell Medical College, 525 East 68th Street, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Amino Acids 40:1305-13. 2011
    There is a substantial body of literature, which has demonstrated that creatine has neuroprotective effects both in vitro and in vivo. Creatine can protect against excitotoxicity as well as against β-amyloid toxicity in vitro...
  21. ncbi Glutaric aciduria I: creatine supplementation restores creatinephosphate levels in mixed cortex cells from rat incubated with 3-hydroxyglutarate
    A M Das
    Department of Pediatrics, Hanover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
    Mol Genet Metab 78:108-11. 2003 prevented by preincubation with the non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist MK 801 or coincubation with 1mM creatine. NMDA-receptor associated ion channels may be opened due to a lack of energy inside the neurons caused by a ..
  22. ncbi Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to evaluate spinal cord axonal injury in cervical spondylotic myelopathy
    Langston T Holly
    Departments of Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California at Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Neurosurg Spine 10:194-200. 2009
    ..The authors sought to determine the feasibility of using MR spectroscopy to analyze spinal cord biochemical function in patients with CSM...
  23. pmc Whole-brain proton MR spectroscopic imaging of mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury and correlation with neuropsychological deficits
    Varan Govind
    Department of Radiology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136, USA
    J Neurotrauma 27:483-96. 2010
    ..the magnetic resonance (MR)-observable brain metabolites N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), total choline (Cho), and total creatine (Cre), following mild-to-moderate closed-head traumatic brain injury (mTBI) were evaluated using volumetric ..
  24. ncbi Treatment of intractable epilepsy in a female with SLC6A8 deficiency
    Saadet Mercimek-Mahmutoglu
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Biochemical Diseases, British Columbia Children s Hospital, UBC, Canada
    Mol Genet Metab 101:409-12. 2010
    A female heterozygous for a novel, disease causing, missense mutation in the X-linked cerebral creatine transporter (SLC6A8) gene (c.1067G>T, p...
  25. ncbi Studies on the safety of creatine supplementation
    Hyo Jeong Kim
    Department of Human Physiology, Korea National Sport University, Seoul, South Korea
    Amino Acids 40:1409-18. 2011
    Doubtful allegations of adverse effects of creatine supplementation have been released through the press media and through scientific publications...
  26. ncbi Ammonium-induced impairment of axonal growth is prevented through glial creatine
    Olivier Braissant
    Clinical Chemistry Laboratory, University Hospital, CH 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Neurosci 22:9810-20. 2002
    ..Exposure to NH4Cl decreased intracellular creatine, phosphocreatine, and ADP...
  27. ncbi 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy markers of cognitive and language ability in clinical subtypes of autism spectrum disorders
    Lidia Gabis
    Weinberg Child Development Center, Safra Children s Hospital, Tel Hashomer, Israel
    J Child Neurol 23:766-74. 2008
    ..The autism spectrum disorder group had significantly lower N-acetyl-aspartate/creatine ratios bilaterally in the hippocampus-amygdala but not cerebellum, whereas myo-inositol/creatine was ..
  28. ncbi Creatine metabolism and the urea cycle
    John T Brosnan
    Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John s, NL, Canada
    Mol Genet Metab 100:S49-52. 2010
    Because creatine and creatine phosphate are irreversibly converted to creatinine, there is a continuous need for their replacement. This occurs by means of diet and de novo synthesis...
  29. ncbi Arginine and glycine stimulate creatine synthesis in creatine transporter 1-deficient lymphoblasts
    Vincenzo Leuzzi
    Department of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Rome La Sapienza, 00185 Rome, Italy
    Anal Biochem 375:153-5. 2008
    b>Creatine transporter 1 (CT1) defect is an X-linked disease that causes severe neurological impairment. No treatment has been available for this condition so far...
  30. ncbi The creatine transporter mediates the uptake of creatine by brain tissue, but not the uptake of two creatine-derived compounds
    G Lunardi
    Section of Pharmacology, Department of Oncology, Biology and Genetics, University of Genova, Genova, Italy
    Neuroscience 142:991-7. 2006
    Hereditary creatine transporter deficiency causes brain damage, despite the brain having the enzymes to synthesize creatine. Such damage occurring despite an endogenous synthesis is not easily explained...
  31. ncbi Dissociation of AGAT, GAMT and SLC6A8 in CNS: relevance to creatine deficiency syndromes
    Olivier Braissant
    Inborn Errors of Metabolism, Clinical Chemistry Laboratory, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Neurobiol Dis 37:423-33. 2010
    AGAT and GAMT, the two enzymes of the creatine synthesis pathway, are well expressed within CNS, suggesting autonomous brain creatine synthesis...
  32. pmc Creatine and tempol attenuate noise-induced hearing loss
    Shujiro B Minami
    Kresge Hearing Research Institute, University of Michigan, 1301 E Ann Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0506, USA
    Brain Res 1148:83-9. 2007 noise induced hearing loss (NIHL), we measured the effectiveness of tempol (free radical scavenger) and creatine (enhances cellular energy storage) alone and in combination to attenuate NIHL...
  33. ncbi Exocytotic release of creatine in rat brain
    Ligia S Almeida
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Metabolic Unit, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Synapse 60:118-23. 2006
    The guanidino compound creatine has been shown to occur throughout the brain affecting energy metabolism and mental performance and to act at central GABAA receptors as a partial agonist...
  34. ncbi Creatine supplementation and riluzole treatment provide similar beneficial effects in copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (G93A) transgenic mice
    R J Snow
    School of Health Sciences, Deakin University, Victoria, 3125, Burwood, Australia
    Neuroscience 119:661-7. 2003
    This study investigated the effects of riluzole (Ril), creatine (Cr) and a combination of these treatments on the onset and progression of clinical signs and neuropathology in an animal model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the ..
  35. ncbi Functional characterization of missense variants in the creatine transporter gene (SLC6A8): improved diagnostic application
    Efraim H Rosenberg
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Metabolic Unit, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Hum Mutat 28:890-6. 2007
    b>Creatine transporter deficiency is an X-linked mental retardation disorder caused by mutations in the creatine transporter gene (SLC6A8). So far, 20 mutations in the SLC6A8 gene have been described...
  36. ncbi Transient alterations of creatine, creatine phosphate, N-acetylaspartate and high-energy phosphates after mild traumatic brain injury in the rat
    Stefano Signoretti
    Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosciences Head and Neck Surgery, San Camillo Hospital, Rome, Italy
    Mol Cell Biochem 333:269-77. 2010
    In this study, the concentrations of creatine (Cr), creatine phosphate (CrP), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), ATP, ADP and phosphatidylcholine (PC) were measured at different time intervals after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in whole brain ..
  37. ncbi Metabolic profiles of human brain tumors using quantitative in vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy
    F A Howe
    Cancer Research UK Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, St George s Hospital Medical School, Cramner Terrace, London, UK
    Magn Reson Med 49:223-32. 2003
    ..Very low myo-Inositol ([mI]) and creatine ([Cr]) were characteristic of meningiomas, and high [mI] characteristic of grade II astrocytomas...
  38. ncbi Creatine: endogenous metabolite, dietary, and therapeutic supplement
    John T Brosnan
    Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John s, Newfoundland, Canada
    Annu Rev Nutr 27:241-61. 2007
    b>Creatine and phosphocreatine serve not only as an intracellular buffer for adenosine triphosphate, but also as an energy shuttle for the movement of high-energy phosphates from mitochondrial sites of production to cytoplasmic sites of ..
  39. ncbi Functions and effects of creatine in the central nervous system
    Robert H Andres
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Berne, Inselspital, CH 3010 Berne, Switzerland
    Brain Res Bull 76:329-43. 2008
    b>Creatine kinase catalyses the reversible transphosphorylation of creatine by ATP...
  40. ncbi Creatine and creatine deficiency syndromes: biochemical and clinical aspects
    Fahmi Nasrallah
    Department of Biochemistry, Rabta Hospital, Tunis, Tunisia
    Pediatr Neurol 42:163-71. 2010
    b>Creatine deficiency syndromes, which have only recently been described, represent a group of inborn errors of creatine synthesis (L-arginine-glycine amidinotransferase deficiency and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency) and ..
  41. ncbi Quantitative objective markers for upper and lower motor neuron dysfunction in ALS
    H Mitsumoto
    Eleanor and Lou Gehrig MDA ALS Research Center, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neurology 68:1402-10. 2007
    ..To investigate the value of objective biomarkers for upper (UMN) and lower (LMN) motor neuron involvement in ALS...
  42. ncbi Methyl balance and transmethylation fluxes in humans
    S Harvey Mudd
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 85:19-25. 2007
    ..most important pathways for S-adenosylmethionine-dependent transmethylation in mammals are the syntheses of creatine by guanidinoacetate methyltransferase, of phosphatidylcholine by phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase, and ..
  43. pmc Neurometabolite concentrations in gray and white matter in mild traumatic brain injury: an 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy study
    Charles Gasparovic
    The MIND Research Network, Albuquerque, New Mexico 7131, USA
    J Neurotrauma 26:1635-43. 2009
    ..Our preliminary findings indicate significantly lower levels of gray matter Glx and higher levels of white matter creatine-phosphocreatine (Cr) in mTBI subjects relative to healthy controls...
  44. ncbi Creatine in Huntington disease is safe, tolerable, bioavailable in brain and reduces serum 8OH2'dG
    S M Hersch
    Department of Neurology, MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA
    Neurology 66:250-2. 2006
    In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 64 subjects with Huntington disease (HD), 8 g/day of creatine administered for 16 weeks was well tolerated and safe...
  45. ncbi Beneficial effects of creatine, CoQ10, and lipoic acid in mitochondrial disorders
    M Christine Rodriguez
    Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Muscle Nerve 35:235-42. 2007
    ..The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a combination therapy (creatine monohydrate, coenzyme Q(10), and lipoic acid to target the above-mentioned cellular consequences) on several ..
  46. ncbi Resistance training with creatine monohydrate improves upper-body strength in patients with Parkinson disease: a randomized trial
    Chris J Hass
    Department of Biobehavioral Sciences, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
    Neurorehabil Neural Repair 21:107-15. 2007
    ..Persons with Parkinson disease (PD) exhibit decreased muscular fitness including decreased muscle mass, muscle strength, bioenergetic capabilities and increased fatigability...
  47. ncbi Quantitation of simulated short echo time 1H human brain spectra by LCModel and AMARES
    Martin Kanowski
    Department of Neurology II, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany
    Magn Reson Med 51:904-12. 2004
    ..Metabolite-to-creatine ratios estimated by LCModel with extended prior knowledge are more accurate than absolute concentrations, and are ..
  48. ncbi Neuroprotective effects of creatine in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease
    R J Ferrante
    Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Bedford Veteran s Administration Medical Center, Bedford, Massachusetts 01730, USA
    J Neurosci 20:4389-97. 2000
    ..We examined whether creatine, which may exert neuroprotective effects by increasing phosphocreatine levels or by stabilizing the mitochondrial ..
  49. pmc Creatine supplementation and physical training in patients with COPD: a double blind, placebo-controlled study
    Gun Faager
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Physiotherapy, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden
    Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 1:445-53. 2006
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate whether creatine supplementation together with exercise training may increase physical performance compared with exercise training ..
  50. ncbi Progressive decrease of phosphocreatine, creatine and creatine kinase in skeletal muscle upon transformation to sarcoma
    Subrata Patra
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata, India
    FEBS J 275:3236-47. 2008
    In vertebrates, phosphocreatine and ATP are continuously interconverted by the reversible reaction of creatine kinase in accordance with cellular energy needs...
  51. ncbi Maternal creatine: does it reach the fetus and improve survival after an acute hypoxic episode in the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus)?
    Zoe Ireland
    Department of Physiology, Monash University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 198:431.e1-6. 2008
    We hypothesized that elevating creatine in the maternal diet would reach fetal and placental tissues and improve fetal survival after acute hypoxia at birth.
  52. pmc Lateralized caudate metabolic abnormalities in adolescent major depressive disorder: a proton MR spectroscopy study
    Vilma Gabbay
    NYU Child Study Center, Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 557 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 164:1881-9. 2007
    ..extends the use of this modality to pediatric major depression to test the hypothesis that adolescents with major depression have elevated concentrations of striatal choline and creatine and lower concentrations of N-acetylaspartate.
  53. pmc Creatine abnormalities in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
    Dost Ongur
    McLean Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States
    Psychiatry Res 172:44-8. 2009
    Total creatine (Cr) levels are widely used as an internal reference for the quantification of other metabolites in (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
  54. ncbi Clinical application of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the diagnosis of intracranial mass lesions
    W Moller-Hartmann
    Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Aachen, University of Technology, Pauwelsstrasse 30, Germany
    Neuroradiology 44:371-81. 2002
    ..Non-neoplastic lesions such as cerebral infarctions and brain abscesses are marked by decreases in choline (Cho), creatine (Cr) and N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), while tumours generally have elevated Cho and decreased levels of Cr and NAA...
  55. ncbi Creatine protects the immature brain from hypoxic-ischemic injury
    Richard Berger
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    J Soc Gynecol Investig 11:9-15. 2004
    We tested the neuroprotective effects of creatine against hypoxic-ischemic injury in the immature brain.
  56. ncbi Creatine decreases convulsions and neurochemical alterations induced by glutaric acid in rats
    Danieli Valnes Magni
    Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Laboratorio de Psicofarmacologia e Neurotoxicidade, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105 900, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
    Brain Res 1185:336-45. 2007 metabolism and induces reactive species generation, we investigated whether the acute administration of creatine, an amino acid with antioxidant and ergogenic properties, protects against the seizures and neurochemical ..
  57. ncbi Proton T2 relaxation study of water, N-acetylaspartate, and creatine in human brain using Hahn and Carr-Purcell spin echoes at 4T and 7T
    Shalom Michaeli
    Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Magn Reson Med 47:629-33. 2002
    ..A significant reduction in the T2 values of proton resonances (water, N-acetylaspartate, and creatine/phosphocreatine) was observed with increasing magnetic field strength and was attributed mainly to increased ..
  58. ncbi Asperger syndrome: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of brain
    Declan G M Murphy
    Department of Psychological Medicine, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, England
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:885-91. 2002
    ..Nobody has examined the relationship between abnormalities in the frontal and parietal lobes and clinical symptoms in people with AS...
  59. ncbi Differential regulation of AMPK activation in leptin- and creatine-deficient mice
    Malte Stockebrand
    1Experimental Neuropediatrics, Center for Molecular Neurobiology and Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Falkenried 94, 20251 Hamburg, Germany
    FASEB J 27:4147-56. 2013
  60. pmc An MRI and proton spectroscopy study of the thalamus in children with autism
    Antonio Y Hardan
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    Psychiatry Res 163:97-105. 2008
    ..Lower levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), phosphocreatine and creatine, and choline-containing metabolites were observed on the left side in the autism group compared with controls...
  61. pmc Living without creatine: unchanged exercise capacity and response to chronic myocardial infarction in creatine-deficient mice
    Craig A Lygate
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, UK
    Circ Res 112:945-55. 2013
    b>Creatine is thought to be involved in the spatial and temporal buffering of ATP in energetic organs such as heart and skeletal muscle...
  62. ncbi Absolute quantification in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is superior to relative ratio to discriminate Alzheimer's disease from Binswanger's disease
    Toshiyuki Watanabe
    Center of Neurological and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Takeda Hospital, Kyoto, Japan
    Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 26:89-100. 2008
    ..The aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of these 2 methods in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in discriminating Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Binswanger's disease (BD) from healthy controls (HC)...
  63. pmc Moderate elevation of intracellular creatine by targeting the creatine transporter protects mice from acute myocardial infarction
    Craig A Lygate
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK
    Cardiovasc Res 96:466-75. 2012
    Increasing energy storage capacity by elevating creatine and phosphocreatine (PCr) levels to increase ATP availability is an attractive concept for protecting against ischaemia and heart failure...
  64. ncbi 3-T proton magnetic spectroscopy in unmedicated first episode psychosis: a focus on creatine
    Philip G Tibbo
    Department of Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Magn Reson Med 69:613-20. 2013
    ..However, it is unknown as to whether levels of creatine (Cr) would be involved in these anomalies...
  65. ncbi Use of comparative proteomics to identify the effects of creatine pyruvate on lipid and protein metabolism in broiler chickens
    Juan Chen
    Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, PR China
    Vet J 193:514-21. 2012
    Four hundred male chickens were selected to study the effects of pyruvate (Pyr), creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) and creatine (Cr) on the expression of hepatic mitochondrial and cytoplasm proteins associated with lipid and protein metabolism...
  66. pmc Age dependence of regional proton metabolites T2 relaxation times in the human brain at 3 T
    Ivan I Kirov
    Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Magn Reson Med 60:790-5. 2008
    ..Consequently, the age effect on regional brain choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) T(2)s was examined in four age groups using 3D (four slices, 80 voxels 1 cm(3) ..
  67. pmc Synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy study showing an increased frequency of creatine inclusions in the rat hippocampal formation following pilocarpine-induced seizures
    J Dulinska
    AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow, Poland
    Anal Bioanal Chem 402:2267-74. 2012
    ..Fourier-transform infrared (SRFTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies were used to evaluate a possible role of creatine in the pathogenesis and progress of pilocarpine-evoked seizures and seizure-induced neurodegenerative changes in ..
  68. ncbi Effect of creatine monohydrate in improving cellular energetics and muscle strength in ambulatory Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled 31P MRS study
    Bidisha Banerjee
    Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
    Magn Reson Imaging 28:698-707. 2010
    Randomized, placebo-controlled single blinded study was carried out to evaluate the effect of oral creatine supplementation on cellular energetics, manual muscle test (MMT) score and functional status in steroid-naive, ambulatory boys ..
  69. ncbi Creatine transport in brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from rat kidney cortex
    M García-Delgado
    Department of Animal Physiology and Biology, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain
    J Am Soc Nephrol 12:1819-25. 2001
    The kidney efficiently salvages creatine from the urine; however, the mechanism(s) that mediates renal creatine reabsorption has not been investigated...
  70. ncbi Elevated white matter myo-inositol in clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of multiple sclerosis
    K T M Fernando
    Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Brain 127:1361-9. 2004
    ..Absolute concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate, total creatine and phosphocreatine (Cr), choline-containing compounds, glutamate plus glutamine, and myo-inositol (Ins) were ..
  71. pmc BMI and neuronal integrity in healthy, cognitively normal elderly: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study
    Stefan Gazdzinski
    Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases, San Francisco Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 18:743-8. 2010
    ..Glu, involved in cellular metabolism), choline-containing compounds (Cho, involved in membrane metabolism), and creatine (Cr, involved in high-energy metabolism) in anterior (ACC) and posterior cingulate cortices (PCC)...
  72. ncbi Lactate, choline, and creatine levels measured by vitro 1H-MRS as prognostic parameters in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer
    Hajime Yokota
    Department of Radiology, Kanazawa Medical University, 1 1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Kahoku, Ishikawa 920 0293, Japan
    J Magn Reson Imaging 25:992-9. 2007
    ..biochemical characteristics of lung cancer tissue using in vitro (1)H-MRS, and investigate the correlation between survival probabilities and lactate (Lac), creatine (Cr), and choline (Cho) concentrations measured by in vitro (1)H-MRS.
  73. ncbi T2 relaxation time abnormalities in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia
    Dost Ongur
    McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts 02478, USA
    Magn Reson Med 63:1-8. 2010
    ..We measured T2 relaxation times for three intracellular metabolites (N-acetylaspartate+N-acetylaspartylglutamate, creatine+phosphocreatine, and choline-containing compounds) in the anterior cingulate cortex and parieto-occipital cortex ..
  74. ncbi Distinction between high-grade gliomas and solitary metastases using peritumoral 3-T magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion, and perfusion imagings
    I Chan Chiang
    Department of Radiology, Chung Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, No 100 Shih chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Neuroradiology 46:619-27. 2004
    ..The results showed that the choline to creatine ratio and relative cerebral blood volume in the peritumoral regions of high-grade gliomas were significantly ..
  75. ncbi Effect of creatine ingestion after exercise on muscle thickness in males and females
    Philip D Chilibeck
    College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 36:1781-8. 2004
    Muscles exercised before creatine (Cr) supplementation have a greater elevation of intramuscular Cr than nonexercised muscles.
  76. ncbi In vivo 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of amygdala-hippocampal and parietal regions in autism
    Lisa A Page
    Section of Brain Maturation, Institute of Psychiatry, London
    Am J Psychiatry 163:2189-92. 2006
    ..However, the concentration of glutamate/glutamine in brain regions implicated in autistic spectrum disorders has not yet been examined in vivo...
  77. ncbi Creatine supplementation does not impair kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial
    Bruno Gualano
    Laboratory of Applied Nutrition and Metabolism, School of Physical Education and Sports, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Eur J Appl Physiol 111:749-56. 2011
    b>Creatine supplementation may have a therapeutic role in diabetes, but it is uncertain whether this supplement is safe for kidney function...
  78. ncbi Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the motor cortex in 70 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    C Pohl
    Department of Neurology, University of Bonn, Sigmund Freud Str 25, D 53105 Bonn, Germany
    Arch Neurol 58:729-35. 2001
    ..To evaluate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for detection and monitoring of upper motoneuron degeneration in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
  79. ncbi 1H-MRS quantification of tNA and tCr in patients with multiple sclerosis: a meta-analytic review
    Zografos Caramanos
    Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Brain 128:2483-506. 2005
    ..resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) or spectroscopic imaging to (i) quantify the mean concentrations of total creatine (tCr, found in neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), and/or total N-acetyl groups (tNA, found only in ..
  80. ncbi Two novel mutations in SLC6A8 cause creatine transporter defect and distinctive X-linked mental retardation in two unrelated Dutch families
    G M S Mancini
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University MC Sophia Children s Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Am J Med Genet A 132:288-95. 2005
    ..Excretion of creatine to creatinine ratio in urine of the four boys was increased compared to controls and their creatine uptake in ..
  81. ncbi Creatine and glycerol hyperhydration in trained subjects before exercise in the heat
    Chris Easton
    Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland
    Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 17:70-91. 2007
    The authors examined the effects of combined creatine (Cr) and glycerol (Gly) supplementation on responses to exercise in the heat. Subjects (N=24) were matched for body mass and assigned to either a Cr or placebo (Pl) group...
  82. ncbi Differential effect of creatine on oxidatively-injured mitochondrial and nuclear DNA
    Chiara Guidi
    Istituto di Ricerca sull Attività Motoria, Universita degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo, Via I Maggetti 26, 61029 Urbino PU, Italy
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1780:16-26. 2008
    b>Creatine is a naturally occurring compound obtained in humans from endogenous production and consumption through the diet. It is used as an ergogenic aid to improve exercise performance and increase fat-free mass...
  83. ncbi Creatine synthesis: production of guanidinoacetate by the rat and human kidney in vivo
    Erica E Edison
    Dept of Biochemistry, Memorial Univ of Newfoundland, St John s, NL, Canada, A1B 3X9
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 293:F1799-804. 2007
    A fraction of the body's creatine and creatine phosphate spontaneously degrades to creatinine, which is excreted by the kidneys...
  84. ncbi Diffusely elevated cerebral choline and creatine in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
    Matilde Inglese
    Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Magn Reson Med 50:190-5. 2003
    ..the metabolic characteristics of this activity we compared the absolute levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), and choline (Cho) in the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) between relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients ..
  85. pmc Metabolic agents that enhance ATP can improve cognitive functioning: a review of the evidence for glucose, oxygen, pyruvate, creatine, and L-carnitine
    Lauren Owen
    Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Victoria 3122, Australia
    Nutrients 3:735-55. 2011
    ..This review provides a brief overview of the metabolic agents glucose, oxygen, pyruvate, creatine, and L-carnitine and their beneficial effects on cognitive function...
  86. ncbi Met carriers of BDNF Val66Met genotype show increased N-acetylaspartate concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex
    Jurgen Gallinat
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charite, University Medicine Berlin, Campus Mitte, Berlin, Germany
    Neuroimage 49:767-71. 2010
    ..2, df=1, p=0.025). On the other hand, the concentration of creatine+phosphocreatine in the hippocampus was significantly decreased in Met carriers...
  87. ncbi Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency in a newborn: early treatment can prevent phenotypic expression of the disease
    Roberta Battini
    Department of Developmental Neuroscience, IRCCS Stella Maris, Calambrone Pisa, Italy
    J Pediatr 148:828-30. 2006
    Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency is a treatable inborn error of creatine synthesis, characterized by mental retardation, language impairment, and behavioral disorders...
  88. ncbi Effect of oral creatine supplementation on urinary methylamine, formaldehyde, and formate
    Jacques R Poortmans
    Higher Institute of Physical Education and Physical Therapy, Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:1717-20. 2005
    It has been claimed that oral creatine supplementation might have potential cytotoxic effects on healthy consumers by increasing the production of methylamine and formaldehyde...
  89. ncbi Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: diffusion-tensor and chemical shift MR imaging at 3.0 T
    Sumei Wang
    Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce St, Dulles 2, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Radiology 239:831-8. 2006
  90. ncbi Neuroprotective effects of creatine in a transgenic animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    P Klivenyi
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Neurology Service, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston 02118, USA
    Nat Med 5:347-50. 1999
    ..If this is true, then buffering intracellular energy levels could exert neuroprotective effects. Creatine kinase and its substrates creatine and phosphocreatine constitute an intricate cellular energy buffering and ..
  91. ncbi In sickness and in health: the widespread application of creatine supplementation
    Bruno Gualano
    School of Physical Education and Sport, University of Sao Paulo, Av Mello de Moraes, 65 Butantã, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Amino Acids 43:519-29. 2012
    There is an extensive and still growing body of the literature supporting the efficacy of creatine (Cr) supplementation...
  92. pmc Brief report: biochemical correlates of clinical impairment in high functioning autism and Asperger's disorder
    Natalia M Kleinhans
    Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Box 357115, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    J Autism Dev Disord 39:1079-86. 2009
    ..Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine/phosphocreatine (Cre), choline/choline containing compounds (Cho), and Myoinositol (mI) in the right and left ..
  93. pmc Analysis of the efficacy, safety, and regulatory status of novel forms of creatine
    Ralf Jäger
    Increnovo LLC, 2138 E Lafayette Pl, Milwaukee, WI 53202, USA
    Amino Acids 40:1369-83. 2011
    b>Creatine has become one of the most popular dietary supplements in the sports nutrition market. The form of creatine that has been most extensively studied and commonly used in dietary supplements is creatine monohydrate (CM)...
  94. ncbi Creatine supplementation affords cytoprotection in oxidatively injured cultured mammalian cells via direct antioxidant activity
    Piero Sestili
    Istituto di Ricerca sull Attività Motoria, Universita degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo, Italy
    Free Radic Biol Med 40:837-49. 2006
    A growing body of evidence suggests that creatine (Cr) might exert protective effects in a variety of pathologies where oxidative stress plays a concausal etiologic role; furthermore, it has been recently reported that Cr displays direct ..
  95. ncbi The blood-brain barrier transport and cerebral distribution of guanidinoacetate in rats: involvement of creatine and taurine transporters
    Masanori Tachikawa
    Department of Pharmaceutics, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan
    J Neurochem 111:499-509. 2009 vitro BBB model, revealed that GAA was transported from the circulating blood across the BBB most likely via a creatine transporter (CRT)...
  96. ncbi Plasma creatinine and creatine quantification by capillary electrophoresis diode array detector
    Angelo Zinellu
    Chair of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Sassari, Viale San Pietro 43 B, I 07100 Sassari, Italy
    Anal Biochem 342:186-93. 2005
    Traditional clinical assays for nonprotein nitrogen compounds, such as creatine and creatinine, have focused on the use of enzymes or chemical reactions that allow measurement of each analyte separately...
  97. pmc Effects of creatine and β-guanidinopropionic acid and alterations in creatine transporter and creatine kinases expression in acute seizure and chronic epilepsy models
    Dae Won Kim
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Science, Hallym University, Chunchon Kangwon Do 200 702, Republic of Korea
    BMC Neurosci 11:141. 2010
    In order to confirm the roles of creatine (Cr) in epilepsy, we investigated the anti-convulsive effects of Cr, creatine transporter (CRT) and creatine kinases (CKs) against chemical-induced acute seizure activity and chronic epileptic ..
  98. ncbi Creatine supplementation reduces increased homocysteine concentration induced by acute exercise in rats
    Rafael Deminice
    Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Av Bandeirantes 3900, SP, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil
    Eur J Appl Physiol 111:2663-70. 2011
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of creatine supplementation on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism after acute aerobic and anaerobic exercise...
  99. ncbi Creatine metabolism in combined methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria
    Olaf A Bodamer
    Unit of Biochemical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Vienna Children s Hospital, Vienna, Austria
    Ann Neurol 57:557-60. 2005
    Methylation is an important aspect of many fundamental biological processes including creatine biosynthesis...
  100. ncbi Acute variations in homocysteine levels are related to creatine changes induced by physical activity
    Salvatore Sotgia
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Viale San Pietro 43 B I 07100, Sassari, Italy
    Clin Nutr 26:444-9. 2007
    ..In this study, we have investigated whether the modification in Hcy level after a moderate physical activity was explainable in the light of the common connection of physical activity and Hcy to creatine (Cn).

Research Grants74

  1. Infant Screening and Diagnosis of Duchenne Muscular Dys*
    Paul Fernhoff; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..A bioluminescence assay will be used to measure creatine kinase (CK) levels and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) techniques to detect deletions and ..
  2. MR Monitoring of PTC124 Treatment in DMD
    KRISTA H VANDENBORNE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..only relatively noninvasive method of monitoring the disease process is unreliable and measures blood levels of creatine kinase...
  3. Dietary Supplement Creatine for Adolescent Females with SSRI-Resistant Depression
    PERRY FRANKLIN RENSHAW; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The organic acid creatine is endogenous to all vertebrates, and is known to play a vital role in maintaining ATP supplies in brain and ..
  4. PET Imaging of Myocardial Oxidative Stress in T2DM
    KOORESH ISAAC SHOGHI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..energetics as defined by the phosphocreatine and adenosine triphosphate concentrations and their ratio and creatine kinase flux using [31]P-MRS;and left ventricular structure/ work by MRI and superoxide levels by optical imaging ..
  5. Interrelationships among nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism in Banglades
    MEGAN NINA HALL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..e. folate and creatine, in the methylation of both As and DNA utilizing data and biospecimens from a randomized controlled trial of 600 ..
  6. Striated Muscle Gene Transcription and Regulatory Gene Cassettes for Gene Therapy
    ..Both components focus on the mouse M-creatine kinase gene...
    Veronique L Roger; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..As troponin is more sensitive than previous biomarkers (creatine kinase and its MB fraction), it was hypothesized that the new definition would change the number and case mix of ..
  8. Intravenous Protein Therapy for Treatment of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy
    Bradley L Hodges; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..reduced myofiber degeneration, was associated with increased expression of the alpha7 integrin, and reduced serum creatine kinase activity. Subsequent preliminary data has demonstrated that multiple systemic doses of 1...
  9. Discovering tissue-specific biomarkers of radiation injury in SILAC-labeled mice
    Amanda G Paulovich; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Precedents include the troponins in myocardial infarction, transaminases in liver injury, creatine kinase in muscle injury, and lipase in pancreatic processes...
  10. In vivo Studies of Creatine Kinase Kinetics by 31P Magnetization Transfer MRS
    Adil Bashir; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The creatine kinase (CK) system acts as the primary ATP reserve for the heart and instantaneously supplies ATP for its ..
  11. Nutrients involved 1-carbon metabolism and the methylation of arsenic and DNA
    MEGAN NINA HALL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e. folate and creatine, in the methylation of both As and DNA utilizing data and biospecimens from a randomized controlled trial of 600 ..
  12. Preventing Anthracycline Cardiovascular Toxicity with Statins
    William Gregory Hundley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of side effects related to the administration of statins including diabetes, cognitive decline, myalgias and creatine kinase elevations...
  13. Intermediate Filaments & Costamere Structure & Function
    Robert J Bloch; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The K19-null mutation in mice also leads to mitochondrial mislocalization, increased serum creatine kinase levels and reduced contractile force, suggesting that the absence of IFs containing K19 causes a mild ..
  14. PGC-1 &Mitichondrial Dysfunction in Diabetes
    Lawrence J Mandarino; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..resistant human muscle have decreased respiration during conditions of increased energy demand simulated by a creatine kinase "energy clamp". 2...
  15. MR Spectroscopy to Evaluate Liver Repopulation by Transplanted Hepatocytes
    Chandan Guha; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..To address this issue, we hypothesized that the expression of brain isozyme of creatine kinase (CK-B), an ATP buffering enzyme that is expressed in muscle and brain but absent from the liver, as a ..
    Young Hoon Sung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, METH users may have a distinct pattern of bioenergetic dysfunction related to creatine kinase (CK), the enzyme that is directly involved in regeneration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from PCr...
  17. Mechanisms Underlying Sex-Specific Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Depress
    PATRICIA JOAN ALLEN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Growing evidence supports the potential for creatine, a critical regulator of energy homeostasis in muscle and brain tissue, to function in an antidepressant manner...
  18. Parenteral Methionine Requirements in Septic Children
    Leticia Castillo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..methionine and cysteine are important in critical illness due to methionine role as a methyl group donor for creatine, choline and DNA methylation, and as the precursor of cysteine, the rate limiting amino acid in glutathione (GSH) ..
  19. Neuroendocrine and Neuroimaging Endophenotypes in Postpartum Depression
    ..Specific Aim 2: To measure cortical GABA/Creatine with magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and corticolimbic rs-fc in HR ..
  20. System for DNA-Guided Optimization and Personalization of Statin Therapy
    GUALBERTO RUANO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..side effects, including myalgia (muscle aches, cramps, weakness) and myopathy (muscular injury monitored by serum creatine kinase (CK) elevation)...
  21. NET-PD LS-1 Nicotine and Neuroprotection in Parkinson's Disease
    Jayaraman Rao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Phase 3, double-blind clinical trial that tests the hypothesis that daily administration of creatine (10gm/day) is more effective than placebo in slowing clinical decline in PD between baseline and the 5 year ..
  22. Bioenergetics in Hypertrophied and Remodeled Left Ventricle
    Jianyi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We hypothesize that there is transmural gradient of reserves of ATP production rate via both creatine kinase (CK) and ATPase, which is the lowest in ENDO that results in the ENDO vulnerability in LVH hearts...
  23. p53-GAMT pathway in cancer cell metabolism and DNA damage-induced carcinogenesis
    Sam W Lee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We identified GAMT/guanidinoacetate methyltransferase, an enzyme involved in creatine synthesis metabolism as a novel p53 target gene, and a key downstream effector of the adaptive response to DNA ..
  24. Cortical GABA in MDD and Primary Insomnia with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    John W Winkelman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..METHOD: We plan to perform 1H-MRS imaging for GABA levels (referenced to both creatine and water) in the ACC and OC in 50 subjects with MDD (half of whom will have insomnia and the other half will not)..
  25. NT-3 gene therapy to improve peripheral nerve function induced by genetic defect
    Zarife Sahenk; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..NT-3 under control of the CMV promoter versus the muscle specific truncated creatine kinase (tMCK) promoter both given at high dose (1X 1011 vg)...
  26. Altered Creatine Kinase Energy Metabolism in Human Heart Failure
    Robert G Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our focus is on the creatine kinase (CK) reaction which generates ATP at the contractile elements, is the major cardiac energy reserve ..
  27. Protein Damage and Repair in the Brain
    DANA WILLIAM ASWAD; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will initially focus on creatine kinase B (brain specific isoform) and the 70 kDa heat shock cognate protein (HSC70) which are among the 22 ..
  28. Vascular Delivery of alpha-Sarcoglycan for LGMD2D
    JERRY ROY MENDELL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..trial in LGMD2D to replace the human alpha-sarcoglycan gene (hSGCA) delivered by rAAV1 under control of a muscle creatine kinase promoter was recently completed. Gene expression was observed for as long as 6 months...
  29. 3/3-Brain Chemistry and Genetics in Pediatric OCD
    Paul Daniel Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..well as measure other compounds including the putative neuronal marker, N-acetyl-aspartate, choline compounds and creatine. Targeted 1H MRS and volumetric imaging at 3T at the Children's Hospital of Michigan at Wayne State will be ..
  30. Diffusion tensor MR spectroscopic imaging in human brain
    Stefan Posse; Fiscal Year: 2012 3 T The working hypothesis is that single-shot DTSI can map the diffusion tensors of tissue water, Choline, Creatine and NAA with sensitivity per unit time and unit volume that is comparable to single-voxel diffusion tensor ..
  31. Cardiomyocyte Lineage and Turnover by Metabolic Fate-Mapping
    Richard T Lee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This metabolic fate-mapping approach utilizes an isotope-enriched metabolic tracer, specifically creatine, which is taken up by cells and utilized in the cytoplasmic phosphocreatine shuttle...
  32. Effect of Alcohol on Hepatic Creatine Biosynthesis: Role of Defective Methylation
    Kusum K Kharbanda; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This methyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from SAM to guanidinoacetate (GAA) to form creatine. It has been recently established that GAA is primarily synthesized in the kidney and transported through the ..
  33. Novel 31P MRS Approach for Measuring Abnormal Bioenergetics in Schizophrenia
    Fei Du; Fiscal Year: 2012 anesthetic rats'brains demonstrate that measurements of cerebral energy metabolic rates catalyzed by the creatine kinase (CK) and ATPase enzymes by 31P magnetization transfer (MT) spectroscopy provide more sensitive and ..
  34. Limited Competition for Continuation of the NIH Exploratory Trials in PD
    Oksana Suchowersky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The consortium has already completed 2 futility trials, resulting in the identification of creatine as promising compound. This has led to the initiation of a large simple trial (LS-1)...
  35. Determination of Skeletal Muscle Mass by Creatine Dilution
    Peggy Mannen Cawthon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A novel measure of total body skeletal muscle mass is the creatine dilution method...
  36. Folic Acid and Creatine as Therapeutic Approaches for Lowering Blood Arenic
    MARY VELESCA GAMBLE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have previously found that urinary creatinine (a catabolite of creatine) is by far the strongest predictor of As methylation, and that participants with lower urinary creatinine are at ..
  37. Phase 2b Study of PTC124 in Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy (IND 68,431)
    JAY A BARTH; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..functional dystrophin protein in muscle, decreasing eccentric contraction injury and reducing muscle-derived creatine kinase (CK) in the serum...
  38. Development of a novel small molecule, UTL-5g, to treat oxaliplatin-induced throm
    Jiajiu Shaw; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will also monitor the injuries on liver and kidney by analyzing AST, ALT, BUN, and creatine. In addition, cytokines, including TNF- and IL-10 (both are significantly reduced by oxaliplatin) will be assayed...
  39. Continuation of NET-PD Trials at University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
    Carlos Singer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..conducted by the NET-PD network whose aim is to investigate the primary hypotheses that daily administration of creatine (10 gm a day) is more effective than placebo in slowing clinical decline in Parkinson disease (PD) between ..
  40. MSU Parkinson Disease Clincal Center
    John L Goudreau; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..on the ongoing in a large, double blind, placebo controlled, phase III clinical trial comparing placebo versus creatine using a large-simple study design (the LS-1 study)...
  41. Rapid homogeneous antibody-based detection of proteins
    Tomasz Heyduk; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..pincer assays for six markers of cardiac disease (troponin I, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), myoglobin, creatine kinase (CK-MB), C-reactive protein (CRP), and D-dimer) for research market...
  42. Novel High-field MRS Study of CNS Neurotransmitter Function in Schizophrenia
    Changho Choi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..e., N-acetylaspartate, creatine and choline), in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in volunteers with ..
  43. in Vivo Quantification of Cerebellar GABA and NAA in Essential Tremor
    Elan D Louis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Years 1 - 2) to assess in vivo cerebellar dentate GABA levels and cerebellar cortex NAA levels (NAA/total creatine, tCR) in ET cases and controls...
  44. NIH Exploratory Trials in Parkinson's Disease (NET-PD): Clinical Site
    Jay S Schneider; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Trials in Parkinson's disease (NET-PD) network successfully completed futility studies, which identified creatine as a potential agent to slow clinical decline in PD. The NET-PD network is now conducting a large, long-term...
  45. Bioenergetics and fatigability in older individuals
    Robert G Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2013 magnetization transfer techniques, developed in our laboratory, to determine the rate of ATP production via creatine kinase, the primary muscle energy reserve reaction...
  46. Molecular Physiology of Muscle Growth
    Grace K Pavlath; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In addition, our preliminary data show that creatine, an activator of NFAT5 transcriptional activity, enhances muscle growth...
  47. MR Metabolic Markers for Evaluation of Patients with Recurrent Glioma
    Sarah J Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of interest for mapping out the true extent of recurrent tumor are myo-inositol (myo-I), N-acetylasparate (NAA), creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho)...
  48. 31P magnetization transfer study of bipolar disorder
    Chun S Zuo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Furthermore, molecular genetics studies have reported decreases in the mRNA expression of creatine kinase (CK), the enzyme that facilitates the reversible transfer of a phosphate group from PCr to ADP, resulting ..
  49. Creative biosynthesis mitigates pathogenesis in mdx mice
    Brian S Tseng; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Research will focuses on the hypothesis of de novo creatine synthesis in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice...
  50. UAB PD Neuroprotection Clinical Trial Center
    David G Standaert; Fiscal Year: 2013 is currently conducting a Phase 3 randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled clinical trial of creatine (LSI), and a futility trial of pioglitazone (FS-ZONE)...
  51. Creatine Safety and Efficacy in HD: Coordination and Statistical Supplement
    Giovanni Schifitto; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..funding for the study coordination, data management, and biostatistical support for a Phase III clinical trial of creatine in Huntington's disease (HD). This is a companion application to that of Steven M...
    JAMES BRYANT HURLEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ATP in the cell body is converted to phosphocreatine by a mitochondrial creatine kinase...
  53. Identification of MRS Markers of Glioma Progression
    Tracy Richmond McKnight; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The aims of this project will test the following hypotheses: (1) reductions in the creatine+phosphocreatine peak and elevations in the peak corresponding to lactate are observed more often in Grade II OD ..
  54. Continuation of NET-PD Trials
    Anne Marie Wills; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Based on prior NET-PD coordinated studies of creatine in patients with early Parkinsons disease, the NET-PD LS-1 study was designed as a large, randomized, multi-..
  55. Continuation of NET-PD Trials at the University of Kansas Medical Center
    Rajesh Pahwa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..As part of this initiative 2 futility trials examining creatine, minocycline, co-enzyme Q10 and GPI-1485 were conducted as a unique approach for PD studies, to quickly identify ..
  56. Parkinson's Disease Clinical Trial: Statistical Center
    Barbara C Tilley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..based on futility studies, the NINDS Exploratory Trials in Parkinson's disease (NET-PD) network identified creatine as a potential agent to slow clinical decline in PD...
  57. Prospective Neuroimaging in Huntington's Disease
    HERMINIA DIANA ROSAS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We also used these tools as a pharmacodynamic biomarker in a pilot study of high-dose Creatine, a leading candidate neuroprotective agent, in HD subjects...
  58. Intravenous Protein Therapy for the Treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
    BRADLEY HODGES; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..localized around myofibers for at least 4 weeks, substantially reduced myofiber degeneration, reduced serum creatine kinase and was associated with increased expression of the alpha7 integrin and utrophin...
  59. Creatine Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy in Huntington's Disease: CREST-E
    Steven M Hersch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    b>Creatine Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy in Huntington's Disease: CREST-E Cellular energy depletion and secondary oxidative injury are present early, even presymptomatically in Huntington's disease (HD), and play a ..
  60. Emory University PD Neuroprotecion Clinical Trail Center
    Jorge L Juncos; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..He continues to do well and is followed by an outside cardiologists;2) After stopping use of creatine, a second subject had a planned research hospitalization...
    Gabor Huszar; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..year we will develop the preservation and shipping of samples for tests routinely used in our laboratory: sperm creatine kinase (CK)-activity, CK-M isoform ratio, and CK- immunostaining for CK-B in order to highlight immature sperm, ..
    Gabor Huszar; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..idiopathic infertility in the physician's office and in the Andrology laboratory we propose to study: 1) Sperm creatine kinase (CK) activity and CK-M isoform ratios, objective biochemical markers of sperm cellular maturity and ..
  63. High Content Screening for Muscular Dystrophy
    Herman Vandenburgh; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..forces as well as myofiber formation; (2) determine the damaging effects of DmBAM eccentric contractions based on creatine kinase release, force generation, and muscle fiber morphology; and (3) test the ability of Prednisone to ..
  64. Noninvasive assessment of skeletal muscle integrity and function with statin use
    Jill Slade; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Currently serum creatine kinase (CK) or muscle biopsies are used to verify statin induced myopathy...
  65. Cardiac Troponin Testing for Myocardial Infarction
    Fred Apple; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..for the sensitive and specific detection of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), supporting the replacement of creatine kinase MB (CKMB) as the new standard biochemical marker for AMI...
    William Craigen; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The kinases known to bind VDACs include hexokinase, glucokinase, glycerol kinase, and mitochondrial creatine kinase...
  67. Implementing Newborn Screening for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy in the Community
    Jerry Mendell; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..newborn screening program (NBS) for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was established and included: the range of creatine kinase (CK) observed on >30,000 anonymous samples, a successful method to measure CK isoenzymes, with ..
  68. Diaphragm Mitochondrial Alterations in Sepsis
    Leigh Callahan; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..evaluate specific performance of complexes within the electron transport chain, assess sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase activity, and perform a metabolic control analysis...
    THOMAS ALBER; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..series of enzymes: adenylate kinase isoenzymes from rabbit and calf; nucleoside diphosphokinase from yeast; creatine kinase isoenzymes from rabbit and calf; thiamin pyrophosphokinase from porcine brain...
  70. MR Studies of Myocardial Creatine Kinase Metabolism
    PAUL BOTTOMLEY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Human biopsy and autopsy data show that total myocardial creatine (CR=PCr+unphosphorylated creatine,Cr) is also reduced, while animal studies show that the rate of generating ATP ..
  71. Diagnosis of Cardiac Viability by Functional Ultrasound
    Marek Belohlavek; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The accepted measures are a) adenosine triphosphate turnover, b) creatine phosphate/ inorganic phosphate ratio, and c) creatine kinase activity...
    GEORGE KENYON; Fiscal Year: 1999
    DESCRIPTION: This project focuses on investigation of structure-function relationships in creatine kinase (C.K.), a phosphotransferase enzyme. The C.K...