glutamine

Summary

Summary: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Metabolic flux analysis in mammalian cell culture
    Lake Ee Quek
    Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology AIBN, The University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia
    Metab Eng 12:161-71. 2010
  2. pmc c-Myc suppression of miR-23a/b enhances mitochondrial glutaminase expression and glutamine metabolism
    Ping Gao
    Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nature 458:762-5. 2009
  3. pmc Myc regulates a transcriptional program that stimulates mitochondrial glutaminolysis and leads to glutamine addiction
    David R Wise
    Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6160, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:18782-7. 2008
  4. ncbi Glutamate uptake
    N C Danbolt
    Department of Anatomy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1105, Blindern, N-0317, Oslo, Norway
    Prog Neurobiol 65:1-105. 2001
  5. pmc Reductive glutamine metabolism by IDH1 mediates lipogenesis under hypoxia
    Christian M Metallo
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Nature 481:380-4. 2012
  6. pmc Beyond aerobic glycolysis: transformed cells can engage in glutamine metabolism that exceeds the requirement for protein and nucleotide synthesis
    Ralph J DeBerardinis
    Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Room 450, BRB II III, 421 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6160, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19345-50. 2007
  7. ncbi Nrf2 redirects glucose and glutamine into anabolic pathways in metabolic reprogramming
    Yoichiro Mitsuishi
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2 1 Seiryo machi, Aoba ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980 8575, Japan
    Cancer Cell 22:66-79. 2012
  8. pmc Glutamine supports pancreatic cancer growth through a KRAS-regulated metabolic pathway
    Jaekyoung Son
    Division of Genomic Stability and DNA Repair, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nature 496:101-5. 2013
  9. pmc Brick by brick: metabolism and tumor cell growth
    Ralph J DeBerardinis
    Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Cancer Center and Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, 1600 Penn Tower, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 18:54-61. 2008
  10. pmc Bidirectional transport of amino acids regulates mTOR and autophagy
    Paul Nicklin
    Respiratory Diseases Area, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Horsham Research Centre, West Sussex, UK
    Cell 136:521-34. 2009

Detail Information

Publications320 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Metabolic flux analysis in mammalian cell culture
    Lake Ee Quek
    Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology AIBN, The University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia
    Metab Eng 12:161-71. 2010
    Mammalian cell culture metabolism is characterized by glucoglutaminolysis, that is, high glucose and glutamine uptake combined with a high rate of lactate and non-essential amino acid secretion...
  2. pmc c-Myc suppression of miR-23a/b enhances mitochondrial glutaminase expression and glutamine metabolism
    Ping Gao
    Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nature 458:762-5. 2009
    ..also depend on continued mitochondrial function for metabolism, specifically glutaminolysis that catabolizes glutamine to generate ATP and lactate...
  3. pmc Myc regulates a transcriptional program that stimulates mitochondrial glutaminolysis and leads to glutamine addiction
    David R Wise
    Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6160, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:18782-7. 2008
    Mammalian cells fuel their growth and proliferation through the catabolism of two main substrates: glucose and glutamine. Most of the remaining metabolites taken up by proliferating cells are not catabolized, but instead are used as ..
  4. ncbi Glutamate uptake
    N C Danbolt
    Department of Anatomy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1105, Blindern, N-0317, Oslo, Norway
    Prog Neurobiol 65:1-105. 2001
    ..g. osteoporosis) can be properly understood unless more is learned about these transporter proteins. Like glutamate itself, glutamate transporters are somehow involved in almost all aspects of normal and abnormal brain activity...
  5. pmc Reductive glutamine metabolism by IDH1 mediates lipogenesis under hypoxia
    Christian M Metallo
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Nature 481:380-4. 2012
    ..Although glutamine is consumed at levels exceeding that required for nitrogen biosynthesis, the regulation and use of glutamine ..
  6. pmc Beyond aerobic glycolysis: transformed cells can engage in glutamine metabolism that exceeds the requirement for protein and nucleotide synthesis
    Ralph J DeBerardinis
    Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Room 450, BRB II III, 421 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6160, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19345-50. 2007
    ..Surprisingly, both these needs were met by a high rate of glutamine metabolism...
  7. ncbi Nrf2 redirects glucose and glutamine into anabolic pathways in metabolic reprogramming
    Yoichiro Mitsuishi
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2 1 Seiryo machi, Aoba ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980 8575, Japan
    Cancer Cell 22:66-79. 2012
    ..Here, we show that Nrf2 redirects glucose and glutamine into anabolic pathways, especially under the sustained activation of PI3K-Akt signaling...
  8. pmc Glutamine supports pancreatic cancer growth through a KRAS-regulated metabolic pathway
    Jaekyoung Son
    Division of Genomic Stability and DNA Repair, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nature 496:101-5. 2013
    ..Among these dependencies is an increased use of the amino acid glutamine to fuel anabolic processes...
  9. pmc Brick by brick: metabolism and tumor cell growth
    Ralph J DeBerardinis
    Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Cancer Center and Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, 1600 Penn Tower, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 18:54-61. 2008
    ..we discuss how tumor cells achieve high rates of nucleotide and fatty acid synthesis, how oncogenes and tumor suppressors influence these activities, and how glutamine metabolism enables macromolecular synthesis in proliferating cells.
  10. pmc Bidirectional transport of amino acids regulates mTOR and autophagy
    Paul Nicklin
    Respiratory Diseases Area, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Horsham Research Centre, West Sussex, UK
    Cell 136:521-34. 2009
    ..We show that cellular uptake of L-glutamine and its subsequent rapid efflux in the presence of essential amino acids (EAA) is the rate-limiting step that ..
  11. pmc Glucose-independent glutamine metabolism via TCA cycling for proliferation and survival in B cells
    Anne Le
    Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Pathology, Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Cell Metab 15:110-21. 2012
    ..Using [U-(13)C,(15)N]-glutamine as the tracer, glutamine import and metabolism through the TCA cycle persisted under hypoxia, and glutamine ..
  12. pmc Mitochondrial metabolism and ROS generation are essential for Kras-mediated tumorigenicity
    Frank Weinberg
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University Medical School Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:8788-93. 2010
    ..The major function of glycolytic ATP is to support growth under hypoxic conditions. Glutamine conversion into the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate alpha-ketoglutarate through glutaminase and alanine ..
  13. pmc Glutamine addiction: a new therapeutic target in cancer
    David R Wise
    Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Room 450, BRB II III, 421 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6160, USA
    Trends Biochem Sci 35:427-33. 2010
    ..Paradoxically, some cancer cell lines also display addiction to glutamine despite the fact that glutamine is a nonessential amino acid that can be synthesized from glucose...
  14. pmc Edc3p and a glutamine/asparagine-rich domain of Lsm4p function in processing body assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Carolyn J Decker
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721
    J Cell Biol 179:437-49. 2007
    ..These results suggest a stepwise model for P-body assembly with the initial formation of a core mRNA-protein complex that then aggregates through multiple specific mechanisms...
  15. pmc Oncogenic K-Ras decouples glucose and glutamine metabolism to support cancer cell growth
    Daniela Gaglio
    Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy
    Mol Syst Biol 7:523. 2011
    ..we employed ¹³C metabolic flux analysis (MFA), non-targeted tracer fate detection (NTFD) of ¹⁵N-labeled glutamine, and transcriptomic profiling in mouse fibroblast and human carcinoma cell lines...
  16. pmc SIRT4 has tumor-suppressive activity and regulates the cellular metabolic response to DNA damage by inhibiting mitochondrial glutamine metabolism
    Seung Min Jeong
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cancer Cell 23:450-63. 2013
    ..Here, we find that DNA damage triggers a critical block in glutamine metabolism, which is required for proper DNA damage responses...
  17. pmc Phosphate-activated glutaminase (GLS2), a p53-inducible regulator of glutamine metabolism and reactive oxygen species
    Sawako Suzuki
    Department of Clinical Cell Biology and Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba shi, Chiba 260 8670, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7461-6. 2010
    ..a p53 target gene, phosphate-activated mitochondrial glutaminase (GLS2), a key enzyme in conversion of glutamine to glutamate, and thereby a regulator of glutathione (GSH) synthesis and energy production...
  18. pmc MYC-induced cancer cell energy metabolism and therapeutic opportunities
    Chi V Dang
    Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 15:6479-83. 2009
    ..and conversion of glucose to lactate by cancer cells under adequate oxygen tension, changes in the metabolism of glutamine and fatty acid have also been documented...
  19. ncbi Glutamine repeats and neurodegeneration
    H Y Zoghbi
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 23:217-47. 2000
    ..The review concludes with a model for pathogenesis that illuminates the unifying features of these polyglutamine disorders. This model may prove relevant to other neurodegenerative disorders as well...
  20. pmc Mitochondrial metabolism of glucose and glutamine is required for intracellular growth of Toxoplasma gondii
    James I Macrae
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Institute of Molecular Science and Biotechnology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
    Cell Host Microbe 12:682-92. 2012
    ..These stages also catabolize glutamine via the TCA cycle and an unanticipated γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, which generates GABA and additional ..
  21. pmc Glucose, not glutamine, is the dominant energy source required for proliferation and survival of head and neck squamous carcinoma cells
    Vlad C Sandulache
    Bobby R Alford Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
    Cancer 117:2926-38. 2011
    ..An understanding of the metabolic phenotype of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) will allow the development of appropriate antimetabolic strategies for this tumor type...
  22. pmc Q's next: the diverse functions of glutamine in metabolism, cell biology and cancer
    R J DeBerardinis
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390 9063, USA
    Oncogene 29:313-24. 2010
    ..However, since the 1950s cancer biologists have also recognized the importance of glutamine (Q) as a tumor nutrient...
  23. pmc Viral effects on metabolism: changes in glucose and glutamine utilization during human cytomegalovirus infection
    Yongjun Yu
    Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Trends Microbiol 19:360-7. 2011
    ..from the TCA cycle (cataplerosis) requires induction of enzymes to promote glutaminolysis, the conversion of glutamine to α-ketoglutarate to maintain the TCA cycle (anaplerosis) and ATP production...
  24. pmc Role of glutamine in cancer: therapeutic and imaging implications
    Kartik N Rajagopalan
    Department of Pediatrics and McDermott Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9063, USA
    J Nucl Med 52:1005-8. 2011
    ..Novel imaging strategies focused on glutamine could provide a valuable complement to (18)F-FDG PET, because glutamine complements glucose in the metabolic ..
  25. ncbi Subtype-specific alterations of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate in patients with major depression
    Gerard Sanacora
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 61:705-13. 2004
    ..An initial report, using this technique, suggested that occipital cortex GABA concentrations are reduced in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) relative to healthy comparison subjects...
  26. ncbi Case-control studies show that a non-conservative amino-acid change from a glutamine to arginine in the P2RX7 purinergic receptor protein is associated with both bipolar- and unipolar-affective disorders
    A McQuillin
    Molecular Psychiatry Laboratory, Department of Mental Health Sciences, Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, Royal Free and University College Medical School, University College London, London, UK
    Mol Psychiatry 14:614-20. 2009
    ..The effect of the polymorphism is non-conservative and results in a glutamine to arginine change (Gln460Arg), which is likely to affect P2RX7 dimerization and protein-protein interactions...
  27. ncbi Multiple Gln/Asn-rich prion domains confer susceptibility to induction of the yeast [PSI(+)] prion
    L Z Osherovich
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Cell 106:183-94. 2001
    ..New1p and Rnq1p, can control susceptibility to [PSI(+)] induction as well as enhance aggregation of a human glutamine expansion disease protein...
  28. ncbi Transfer of glutamine between astrocytes and neurons
    S Broer
    Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
    J Neurochem 77:705-19. 2001
    The export of glutamine from astrocytes, and the uptake of glutamine by neurons, are integral steps in the glutamate-glutamine cycle, a major pathway for the replenishment of neuronal glutamate...
  29. pmc Reprogramming of proline and glutamine metabolism contributes to the proliferative and metabolic responses regulated by oncogenic transcription factor c-MYC
    Wei Liu
    Metabolism and Cancer Susceptibility Section, Basic Research Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:8983-8. 2012
    In addition to glycolysis, the oncogenic transcription factor c-MYC (MYC) stimulates glutamine catabolism to fuel growth and proliferation of cancer cells through up-regulating glutaminase (GLS)...
  30. ncbi Metabolic reprogramming in cancer: unraveling the role of glutamine in tumorigenesis
    Dania Daye
    Department of Cancer Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 23:362-9. 2012
    ..In this review, we discuss the roles of glutamine in contributing to the core metabolism of proliferating cells by supporting energy production and biosynthesis...
  31. ncbi Growth, productivity and protein glycosylation in a CHO EpoFc producer cell line adapted to glutamine-free growth
    Michael Taschwer
    Department of Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria
    J Biotechnol 157:295-303. 2012
    ..It results in high uptake rates of glucose and glutamine and the concomitant accumulation of waste products which in turn limits final cell concentrations and growth...
  32. pmc Caspase and bid involvement in Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced apoptosis and modulation of toxin A effects by glutamine and alanyl-glutamine in vivo and in vitro
    Benedito A Carneiro
    Center for Global Health, Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia, MR4, Lane Road, Room 3148, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Infect Immun 74:81-7. 2006
    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial bacterial diarrhea. Glutamine and its stable and highly soluble derivative alanyl-glutamine, have been beneficial in models of intestinal injury...
  33. pmc The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway couples growth factor-induced glutamine uptake to glucose metabolism
    Kathryn E Wellen
    Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Genes Dev 24:2784-99. 2010
    Glucose and glutamine serve as the two primary carbon sources in proliferating cells, and uptake of both nutrients is directed by growth factor signaling...
  34. pmc Branched tricarboxylic acid metabolism in Plasmodium falciparum
    Kellen L Olszewski
    Department of Molecular Biology and Lewis Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Nature 466:774-8. 2010
    ..cyclic, but rather is a branched structure in which the major carbon sources are the amino acids glutamate and glutamine. As a consequence of this branched architecture, several reactions must run in the reverse of the standard ..
  35. pmc The mTORC1 pathway stimulates glutamine metabolism and cell proliferation by repressing SIRT4
    Alfred Csibi
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 153:840-54. 2013
    Proliferating mammalian cells use glutamine as a source of nitrogen and as a key anaplerotic source to provide metabolites to the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) for biosynthesis...
  36. pmc Molecular models predict light-induced glutamine tautomerization in BLUF photoreceptors
    Tatiana Domratcheva
    Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Department of Biomolecular Mechanisms, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Biophys J 94:3872-9. 2008
    ..Light-induced isomerization of an amino acid residue instead of a chromophore represents a feature that has not been described previously in photoreceptors...
  37. ncbi Glutamine and the immune system
    P C Calder
    Institute of Human Nutrition, University of Southampton, United Kingdom
    Amino Acids 17:227-41. 1999
    b>Glutamine is utilised at a high rate by cells of the immune system in culture and is required to support optimal lymphocyte proliferation and production of cytokines by lymphocytes and macrophages...
  38. ncbi The key role of anaplerosis and cataplerosis for citric acid cycle function
    Oliver E Owen
    Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Robert Schwartz M D Center for Metabolism and Nutrition, MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44109, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:30409-12. 2002
  39. pmc Malnutrition as an enteric infectious disease with long-term effects on child development
    Richard L Guerrant
    Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22901, USA
    Nutr Rev 66:487-505. 2008
    ..Further intervention studies are needed to document the relevance of these mechanisms and, most importantly, to interrupt the vicious diarrhea-malnutrition cycle so children may develop their full potential...
  40. ncbi The NF-κB member p65 controls glutamine metabolism through miR-23a
    Moeez G Rathore
    INSERM, U1040, Montpellier, France
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 44:1448-56. 2012
    ..But several tumor cells, including leukemic cells, also increase glutamine metabolism, which is initiated by glutaminase (GLS)...
  41. ncbi The glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle: aspects of transport, neurotransmitter homeostasis and ammonia transfer
    Lasse K Bak
    Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, The Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Neurochem 98:641-53. 2006
    ..A metabolite shuttle known as the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle describes the release of neurotransmitter glutamate or GABA from neurons and subsequent uptake into ..
  42. ncbi Long glutamine tracts cause nuclear localization of a novel form of huntingtin in medium spiny striatal neurons in HdhQ92 and HdhQ111 knock-in mice
    V C Wheeler
    Molecular Neurogenetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 9:503-13. 2000
    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by an expanded N-terminal glutamine tract that endows huntingtin with a striatal-selective structural property ultimately toxic to medium spiny neurons...
  43. ncbi Glutamine: pleiotropic roles in tumor growth and stress resistance
    Naval P Shanware
    Oncology Research Unit, Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Pearl River, NY 10965, USA
    J Mol Med (Berl) 89:229-36. 2011
    Tumors and tumor cell lines rapidly consume the amino acid glutamine (Gln) and use it to supply metabolic pathways that support cell growth and proliferation...
  44. pmc Evaluation of 13C isotopic tracers for metabolic flux analysis in mammalian cells
    Christian M Metallo
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Building 56 Room 469C, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States
    J Biotechnol 144:167-74. 2009
    ..Using these data, we computationally evaluated specifically labeled (13)C glucose and glutamine tracers for their ability to precisely and accurately estimate fluxes in central carbon metabolism...
  45. ncbi Why is L-glutamine metabolism important to cells of the immune system in health, postinjury, surgery or infection?
    P Newsholme
    Department of Biochemistry, Conway Institute for Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    J Nutr 131:2515S-22S; discussion 2523S-4S. 2001
    b>Glutamine is normally considered to be a nonessential amino acid. However, recent studies have provided evidence that glutamine may become "conditionally essential" during inflammatory conditions such as infection and injury...
  46. ncbi The glutamate-glutamine cycle is not stoichiometric: fates of glutamate in brain
    Mary C McKenna
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Neurosci Res 85:3347-58. 2007
    ..has many other fates in brain, including oxidation for energy, incorporation into proteins, and formation of glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutathione...
  47. ncbi Astrocytic control of glutamatergic activity: astrocytes as stars of the show
    Leif Hertz
    College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang, P R China
    Trends Neurosci 27:735-43. 2004
    ..addition, astrocytes are essential for production of the neuroprotectant glutathione, yet they can also contribute to neuronal death during ischemia by maintaining glutamine synthesis, enabling neuronal formation of neurotoxic glutamate.
  48. ncbi Persistent arterial hyperammonemia increases the concentration of glutamine and alanine in the brain and correlates with intracranial pressure in patients with fulminant hepatic failure
    Flemming Tofteng
    Department of Hepatology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 26:21-7. 2006
    ..the hypothesis that arterial hyperammonemia results in cerebral accumulation of the osmotic active amino acids glutamine and alanine, processes that were expected to correlate with intracranial pressure (ICP)...
  49. ncbi Liver-specific loss of beta-catenin blocks glutamine synthesis pathway activity and cytochrome p450 expression in mice
    Shigeki Sekine
    Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0573, USA
    Hepatology 43:817-25. 2006
    ..Expression analysis revealed loss of genes required for glutamine synthesis in knockout mice...
  50. pmc L-Glutamine inhibits beta-aminobutyric acid-induced stress resistance and priming in Arabidopsis
    Chen Chi Wu
    Department of Life Science and Institute of Plant Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
    J Exp Bot 61:995-1002. 2010
    ..High concentrations of amino acids, except for L-glutamine, cause a general amino acid stress inhibition...
  51. pmc Brain glutamine synthesis requires neuronal-born aspartate as amino donor for glial glutamate formation
    Beatriz Pardo
    Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa UAM CSIC, and CIBER de Enfermedades Raras, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 31:90-101. 2011
    The glutamate-glutamine cycle faces a drain of glutamate by oxidation, which is balanced by the anaplerotic synthesis of glutamate and glutamine in astrocytes...
  52. ncbi Elevated prefrontal cortex γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate-glutamine levels in schizophrenia measured in vivo with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy
    Lawrence S Kegeles
    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 69:449-59. 2012
    ..Magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies in unmedicated patients have reported glutamine or glutamate-glutamine (Glx) elevations in this region...
  53. ncbi The B55α subunit of PP2A drives a p53-dependent metabolic adaptation to glutamine deprivation
    Michael A Reid
    Department of Cancer Biology, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope Cancer Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Mol Cell 50:200-11. 2013
    b>Glutamine is an essential nutrient for cancer cell survival and proliferation, yet the signaling pathways that sense glutamine levels remain uncharacterized...
  54. pmc Identification of SLC38A7 (SNAT7) protein as a glutamine transporter expressed in neurons
    Maria G A Hägglund
    Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology, Uppsala University, 75124 Uppsala, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 286:20500-11. 2011
    ..into systems A (SLC38A1, SLC38A2, and SLC38A4) and N (SLC38A3 and SLC38A5) showing the highest transport for glutamine and alanine...
  55. ncbi Glutamine therapy improves outcome of in vitro and in vivo experimental colitis models
    Hongyu Xue
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA
    JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 35:188-97. 2011
    Pharmacologic doses of glutamine (GLN) can improve clinical outcome following acute illness and injury. Recent studies indicate enhanced heat shock protein (HSP) expression is a key mechanism underlying GLN's protection...
  56. ncbi Roles of glutamine in neurotransmission
    Jan Albrecht
    Department of Neurotoxicology, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
    Neuron Glia Biol 6:263-76. 2010
    b>Glutamine (Gln) is found abundantly in the central nervous system (CNS) where it participates in a variety of metabolic pathways...
  57. pmc Glutamine-mediated dual regulation of heat shock transcription factor-1 activation and expression
    Hongyu Xue
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:40400-13. 2012
    ..Regulation of transcriptional activity of heat shock factor-1 (HSF1) is widely thought to be the main point of control for heat shock protein (Hsp) expression...
  58. pmc Metformin decreases glucose oxidation and increases the dependency of prostate cancer cells on reductive glutamine metabolism
    Sarah Maria Fendt
    Departments of Chemical Engineering and Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA02139, USA
    Cancer Res 73:4429-38. 2013
    ..We found that metformin decreased glucose oxidation and increased dependency on reductive glutamine metabolism in both cancer cell lines and in a mouse model of prostate cancer...
  59. ncbi Glutamine as a mediator of ammonia neurotoxicity: A critical appraisal
    Jan Albrecht
    Department of Neurotoxicology, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
    Biochem Pharmacol 80:1303-8. 2010
    ..Here we discuss evidence that many aspects of ammonia toxicity in HE-affected brain are mediated by glutamine (Gln), synthesized in excess from ammonia and glutamate by glutamine synthetase (GS), an astrocytic enzyme...
  60. ncbi Glutamine rotamers in BLUF photoreceptors: a mechanistic reappraisal
    Anikó Udvarhelyi
    Department of Biomolecular Mechanisms, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Jahnstraße 29, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Phys Chem B 117:2888-97. 2013
    ..a long-standing debate: The two main hypotheses postulate rotation as opposed to tautomerization of a conserved glutamine residue...
  61. pmc Opposing effects of glutamine and asparagine govern prion formation by intrinsically disordered proteins
    Randal Halfmann
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Mol Cell 43:72-84. 2011
    Sequences rich in glutamine (Q) and asparagine (N) residues often fail to fold at the monomer level. This, coupled to their unusual hydrogen-bonding abilities, provides the driving force to switch between disordered monomers and amyloids...
  62. ncbi Modulation of glutamine metabolism by the PI(3)K-PKB-FOXO network regulates autophagy
    Kristan E van der Vos
    Department of Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht 3584CX, The Netherlands
    Nat Cell Biol 14:829-37. 2012
    ..we report an unexpected role for FOXO transcription factors in regulating autophagy by modulating intracellular glutamine levels...
  63. pmc Quantifying reductive carboxylation flux of glutamine to lipid in a brown adipocyte cell line
    Hyuntae Yoo
    Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical Engineering, Bioinformatics and Metabolic Engineering Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:20621-7. 2008
    We previously reported that glutamine was a major source of carbon for de novo fatty acid synthesis in a brown adipocyte cell line...
  64. ncbi Glutamine inhibits over-expression of pro-inflammatory genes and down-regulates the nuclear factor kappaB pathway in an experimental model of colitis in the rat
    Henrique Fillmann
    Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Hospital de Clinicas Porto Alegre, Brazil
    Toxicology 236:217-26. 2007
    We investigated the effects of glutamine on markers of oxidative stress, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, and pro-inflammatory mediators in a rat model of experimental colitis induced by intracolonic administration of 7% ..
  65. pmc Rethinking the Warburg effect with Myc micromanaging glutamine metabolism
    Chi V Dang
    Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Cancer Res 70:859-62. 2010
    ..in regulating the cell cycle and glucose metabolism, recent studies document a role for Myc in stimulating glutamine catabolism, in part through the repression of miRNAs miR-23a and miR-23b...
  66. ncbi Amino acid signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway: Role of glutamine and of cell shrinkage
    Claudia Fumarola
    Department of Experimental Medicine, Division of Molecular Pathology and Immunology, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
    J Cell Physiol 204:155-65. 2005
    ..b>Glutamine- or amino acid-deprivation and hyperosmotic stress induce a fast cell shrinkage (with marked decrease of the ..
  67. ncbi Risk assessment for the amino acids taurine, L-glutamine and L-arginine
    Andrew Shao
    Council for Responsible Nutrition, 1828 L Street, NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20036 5114, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 50:376-99. 2008
    Taurine, glutamine and arginine are examples of amino acids which have become increasingly popular as ingredients in dietary supplements and functional foods and beverages...
  68. pmc In vivo 13C NMR measurements of cerebral glutamine synthesis as evidence for glutamate-glutamine cycling
    N R Sibson
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8043, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:2699-704. 1997
    The cerebral tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate and the rate of glutamine synthesis were measured in rats in vivo under normal physiological and hyperammonemic conditions using 13C NMR spectroscopy...
  69. ncbi PKM2 tyrosine phosphorylation and glutamine metabolism signal a different view of the Warburg effect
    Chi V Dang
    Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Sci Signal 2:pe75. 2009
    ..This effect, which describes the propensity for cancer cells to convert glucose to lactate at a high rate, must now accommodate links among glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and glutamine metabolism in cancer cells.
  70. ncbi Glutamine: a Trojan horse in ammonia neurotoxicity
    Jan Albrecht
    Department of Neurotoxicology, M Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
    Hepatology 44:788-94. 2006
    ..It has long been accepted that the conversion of glutamate to glutamine, catalyzed by glutamine synthetase, a cytoplasmic enzyme largely localized to astrocytes in brain, represented ..
  71. pmc Pyruvate carboxylase is required for glutamine-independent growth of tumor cells
    Tzuling Cheng
    Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Imaging Research Center, and McDermott Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 9063, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:8674-9. 2011
    ..Many tumor cells use glutamine to feed anaplerosis...
  72. pmc Stoichiometric coupling of brain glucose metabolism and glutamatergic neuronal activity
    N R Sibson
    Department of Molecular Biophysics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:316-21. 1998
    ..Another implication of this result is that brain activation studies, which map cortical oxidative Glc metabolism, provide a quantitative measure of synaptic glutamate release...
  73. ncbi New targets of beta-catenin signaling in the liver are involved in the glutamine metabolism
    Axelle Cadoret
    Département de génétique, Developpement et Pathologie Moleculaire, Institut Cochin, INSERM U567, CNRS UMR 8104, Universite Paris V, 24 rue du Faubourg St Jacques, 75014 Paris, France
    Oncogene 21:8293-301. 2002
    ..We identified three genes involved in glutamine metabolism, encoding glutamine synthetase (GS), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) and the glutamate transporter ..
  74. ncbi Glutaminolysis: supplying carbon or nitrogen or both for cancer cells?
    Chi V Dang
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Cell Cycle 9:3884-6. 2010
    ..which is avidly transported and converted to lactate by aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, but also glutamine as a major substrate...
  75. ncbi A critical role for amino-terminal glutamine/asparagine repeats in the formation and propagation of a yeast prion
    A H DePace
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California San Francisco, 94143 0450, USA
    Cell 93:1241-52. 1998
    ..Strikingly, our mutations map exclusively within a short glutamine/asparagine-rich region of Sup35p, and all but one occur at polar residues...
  76. pmc Glioblastoma cells require glutamate dehydrogenase to survive impairments of glucose metabolism or Akt signaling
    Chendong Yang
    Department of Pediatrics, McDermott Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Texas 75390 9063, USA
    Cancer Res 69:7986-93. 2009
    Oncogenes influence nutrient metabolism and nutrient dependence. The oncogene c-Myc stimulates glutamine metabolism and renders cells dependent on glutamine to sustain viability ("glutamine addiction"), suggesting that treatments ..
  77. ncbi Glutamine and its relationship with intracellular redox status, oxidative stress and cell proliferation/death
    José M Matés
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, s n 29071 Malaga, Spain
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 34:439-58. 2002
    b>Glutamine is a multifaceted amino acid used for hepatic urea synthesis, renal ammoniagenesis, gluconeogenesis in both liver and kidney, and as a major respiratory fuel for many cells...
  78. ncbi Metabolomics data reveal a crucial role of cytosolic glutamine synthetase 1;1 in coordinating metabolic balance in rice
    Miyako Kusano
    RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1 7 22 Suehiro cho, Tsurumi ku, Yokohama 230 0045, Japan
    Plant J 66:456-66. 2011
    Rice plants grown in paddy fields preferentially use ammonium as a source of inorganic nitrogen. Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyses the conversion of ammonium to glutamine...
  79. ncbi Proteasomal degradation of glutamine synthetase regulates schwann cell differentiation
    Fuminori Saitoh
    Department of Peripheral Nervous System Research, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo 187 8502, Japan
    J Neurosci 30:1204-12. 2010
    ..Here we report the identification of glutamine synthetase (GS), an enzyme that synthesizes glutamine using glutamate and ammonia, as a substrate for E3 ..
  80. ncbi Acetaldehyde disrupts tight junctions and adherens junctions in human colonic mucosa: protection by EGF and L-glutamine
    S Basuroy
    Dept of Physiology, University of Tennessee, 894 Union Avenue, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 289:G367-75. 2005
    ..The role of EGF and L-glutamine in prevention of acetaldehyde-induced effects was also evaluated...
  81. pmc Metabolite profiling identifies pathways associated with metabolic risk in humans
    Susan Cheng
    Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Circulation 125:2222-31. 2012
    ..Although metabolic risk factors are known to cluster in individuals who are prone to developing diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, the underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood...
  82. ncbi Glutamine transport at the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers
    Jianming Xiang
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, R5550 Kresge I, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0532, USA
    Neurochem Int 43:279-88. 2003
    b>Glutamine has multiple physiological and pathophysiological roles in the brain...
  83. ncbi Branched-chain amino acid supplementation and the immune response of long-distance athletes
    Reinaldo A Bassit
    Department of Histology and Embryology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Nutrition 18:376-9. 2002
    ..are not fully determined and seem to be multifactorial, including endocrine changes and alteration of plasma glutamine concentration...
  84. ncbi Glutamine homeostasis and mitochondrial dynamics
    José M Matés
    Departamento de Biologia Molecular y Bioquimica, Laboratorio de Quimica de Proteinas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga, Spain
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 41:2051-61. 2009
    b>Glutamine is a multifaceted amino acid that plays key roles in many metabolic pathways and also fulfils essential signaling functions...
  85. pmc Glutamine triggers and potentiates glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion by raising cytosolic Ca2+ and cAMP
    Gwen Tolhurst
    Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0XY, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 152:405-13. 2011
    L-glutamine stimulates glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion in human subjects and cell lines...
  86. ncbi Dosing and efficacy of glutamine supplementation in human exercise and sport training
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU England
    J Nutr 138:2045S-2049S. 2008
    Some athletes can have high intakes of l-glutamine because of their high energy and protein intakes and also because they consume protein supplements, protein hydrolysates, and free amino acids...
  87. ncbi Should immunonutrition become routine in critically ill patients? A systematic review of the evidence
    D K Heyland
    Angada 3, Kingston General Hospital, 76 Stuart St, Kingston, Ontario K7L 2V7, Canada
    JAMA 286:944-53. 2001
    ..Several nutrients have been shown to influence immunologic and inflammatory responses in humans. Whether these effects translate into an improvement in clinical outcomes in critically ill patients remains unclear...
  88. pmc Activation of glutamate transport evokes rapid glutamine release from perisynaptic astrocytes
    Nneka M Uwechue
    Department of Pharmacology, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD, UK
    J Physiol 590:2317-31. 2012
    ..of the trapezoid body (MNTB) are stimulated by the activation of glutamate transporters and consequently release glutamine on a very rapid timescale...
  89. ncbi Select nutrients in the ovine uterine lumen. VII. Effects of arginine, leucine, glutamine, and glucose on trophectoderm cell signaling, proliferation, and migration
    Jin Young Kim
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 84:62-9. 2011
    ..Results from our laboratory indicate that arginine (Arg), leucine (Leu), glutamine (Gln), and glucose increase in the uterine lumen between Days 10 and 15 of pregnancy, coincident with increases ..
  90. ncbi Glutamine as indispensable nutrient in oncology: experimental and clinical evidence
    Katharina S Kuhn
    Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, IEL Nutrition Physiology, University of Bonn, Endenicher Allee 11 13, 53115, Bonn, Germany
    Eur J Nutr 49:197-210. 2010
    In hypermetabolic situations, glutamine is intensively used by rapidly dividing cells such as enterocytes, lymphocytes, and fibroblasts as nitrogen source and/or alternative energy fuel...
  91. ncbi Metabolite concentrations in supraventricular white matter from teenage to early old age: A short echo time 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study
    Raili Raininko
    Departments of Radiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    Acta Radiol 51:309-15. 2010
    ..A long repetition time and short echo time technique reduces quantification errors due to T(1) and T(2) relaxation effects and makes it possible to measure metabolites with short T(2) relaxation times...
  92. pmc Zinc and glutamine improve brain development in suckling mice subjected to early postnatal malnutrition
    Fernando V L Ladd
    Department of Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Nutrition 26:662-70. 2010
    The effect of zinc and glutamine on brain development was investigated during the lactation period in Swiss mice.
  93. pmc Glutamine synthetase is a genetic determinant of cell type-specific glutamine independence in breast epithelia
    Hsiu Ni Kung
    Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 7:e1002229. 2011
    ..While many cancer cells depend on exogenous glutamine for survival to justify the therapeutic targeting of glutamine metabolism, the mechanisms of glutamine ..
  94. pmc Alanyl-glutamine and glutamine supplementation improves 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal epithelium damage in vitro
    Manuel B Braga-Neto
    Institute of Biomedicine and Clinical Research Unit University Hospital, Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, Brazil
    Dig Dis Sci 53:2687-96. 2008
    In this study, we have examined the role of glutamine derivatives in reducing 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced epithelial damage in an undifferentiated crypt intestinal cell line, IEC-6...
  95. ncbi Clinical use of glutamine supplementation
    Jan Wernerman
    Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, 14186 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Nutr 138:2040S-2044S. 2008
    Endogenous production of glutamine may become insufficient during critical illness. The shortage of glutamine is reflected as a decrease in plasma concentration, which is a prognostic factor for poor outcome in sepsis...
  96. pmc Normal glutamate but elevated myo-inositol in anterior cingulate cortex in recovered depressed patients
    Matthew J Taylor
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Affect Disord 119:186-9. 2009
    MRS studies of acutely depressed patients reveal decreased levels of total glutamate and glutamine (Glx) in frontal cortex which may reflect abnormalities of glutamate-glutamine cycling through astrocytes...
  97. pmc Hepatic zonation of carbon and nitrogen fluxes derived from glutamine and ammonia transformations
    Jurandir F Comar
    Laboratory of Liver Metabolism, Biochemistry Department, University of Maringa, Maringa, Brazil
    J Biomed Sci 17:1. 2010
    Glutaminase predominates in periportal hepatocytes and it has been proposed that it determines the glutamine-derived nitrogen flow through the urea cycle...
  98. ncbi Proteomic identification of oxidatively modified proteins in Alzheimer's disease brain. Part I: creatine kinase BB, glutamine synthase, and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L-1
    Alessandra Castegna
    Department of Chemistry, Center of Membrane Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506 0055, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 33:562-71. 2002
    ..the presence of specific targets of protein oxidation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain: creatine kinase BB, glutamine synthase, and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L-1...
  99. pmc The Rap-RapGAP complex: GTP hydrolysis without catalytic glutamine and arginine residues
    Andrea Scrima
    Department of Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, Dortmund, Germany
    EMBO J 27:1145-53. 2008
    ..Unlike most other Ras-related proteins, it contains a threonine in switch II instead of a glutamine (Gln61 in Ras), a residue crucial for the GTPase reaction of most G proteins...
  100. pmc Ligand-free open-closed transitions of periplasmic binding proteins: the case of glutamine-binding protein
    Guillermo A Bermejo
    Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Biochemistry 49:1893-902. 2010
    ..Here, we use PRE to study the unliganded open-closed transition of another PBP: glutamine-binding protein (GlnBP)...
  101. ncbi Antagonistic effects of leucine and glutamine on the mTOR pathway in myogenic C2C12 cells
    L Deldicque
    Département d Education Physique et de Réadaptation, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain la Neuve, Belgium
    Amino Acids 35:147-55. 2008
    This study compared the effects of leucine and glutamine on the mTOR pathway, on protein synthesis and on muscle-specific gene expression in myogenic C(2)C(12) cells...

Research Grants67

  1. Metabolic Adapation and Control of Lactation in Humans
    Morey W Haymond; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..2. Lactate is the primary substrate for hexoneogenesis in the breast. 3. Glutamine and alanine both contribute to hexoneogenesis in the breast. 4...
  2. MECHANISM OF ENDOTOXIN ABSORPTION IN ALCOHOLISM
    Radhakrishna Rao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, our studies demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) and L-glutamine prevent acetaldehyde-mediated increase in permeability to endotoxins by a PLC?, PKC?, PKC?I and calcium-..
  3. Rho-Modifying Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor of E. coli
    ALISON DAVIS O'BRIEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (CNF1) is a member of a family of bacterial toxins that deamidate single glutamine residues in RhoA, Rac, and Cdc42 and thereby constitutively activate these small GTPases...
  4. Glutamate-Glutamine Metabolism in Primary Human Brain Tumors
    Anne Williamson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In normal brain, glial cells avidly transport glutamate, use it to detoxify ammonia by synthesizing glutamine (via glutamine synthetase (GS)), and export glutamine into the extracellular space and blood via specific ..
  5. MECHANISM AND CONTROL OF UREA BIOSYNTHESIS
    Frank M Raushel; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This group of enzymes catalyzes the formation of amide functional groups in substrates using ammonia/glutamine as the nitrogen source and ATP as the activating agent...
  6. Mitochondrial Metabolism and ROS Regulate Lung Cancer
    Navdeep S Chandel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recent studies indicate that glutamine is a major fuel for the TCA cycle to generate NADH and FADH2...
  7. Cellular Mechanisms for Increased Gluconeogenesis in Type 2 Diabetes
    Varman T Samuel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g. glycerol and glutamine) and unbiased gene expression profiling...
  8. Control of Renal Glutaminase Expression during Acidosis
    Norman P Curthoys; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..During metabolic acidosis, a compensatory increase in renal glutamine catabolism occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule...
  9. Human hepatocytes for drug toxicity screening from Cardiac Death Donor livers
    Mark G Clemens; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..periporta hepatocytes in the isolate. This will be accomplished by assessing the activity the perivenous marker glutamine synthetase by measuring total activity and determining the percentage of isolated cells positive for glutamine ..
  10. REGULATION OF 15N UREA ISOTOPOMERS PRODUCTION
    Itzhak Nissim; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this renewal proposal our overall aim is to elucidate the mechanisms by which AGM or AICAR regulates hepatic glutamine metabolism and urea synthesis in NAFLD or MS...
  11. Effect of preimplantation embryo culture on adult glucose homeostasis
    Paolo Rinaudo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Txnip levels are regulated by cellular contents of glucose, glutamine, adenosine containing compounds;txnip appears therefore to link the cellular nutritional state with redox state ..
  12. REGULATION OF 15N UREA ISOTOPOMERS PRODUCTION
    Itzhak Nissim; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..but not mutually exclusive, hypothesis is that fatty liver decreases mitochondrial uptake and metabolism of glutamine. AGM promotes FAO, diminishes hepatic steatosis, and thus improves glutamine uptake and metabolism via phosphate ..
  13. Regulation of Tumor Metabolism by Retinoblastoma Protein
    Brian F Clem; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..requires not only loss of proliferative control, but also a metabolic shift towards increased glucose and glutamine consumption required for increased energy production and to drive the de novo biosynthesis of nucleotides, amino ..
  14. Metabolic reprogramming: A new paradigm for targeting cisplatin resistant cells
    Medhi Wangpaichitr; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Significantly, glutamine deprivation or inhibition of key enzyme in fatty acid synthetic pathway can selectively kill cisplatin resistant ..
  15. Characterization of the NOD2 NBD domain and role in chronic inflammation
    Jae W Dugan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Mutations found in Blau syndrome cluster in the NOD domain (the most frequent being a glutamine at position 334 instead of an arginine, indicated as R334Q)...
  16. Stable isotopomer analysis of anabolic metabolic pathways in breast cancer
    Andrew N Lane; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The precursors ([U-13C]-glucose, [13C-1] and [13C-2] glucose), and 13C/15N glutamine can differentiate relative fluxes through glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathways, citric acid cycle and major ..
  17. Beta2-Adrenergic Receptor Gene Variation and Cardiovascular Control in Humans
    John H Eisenach; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..mental stress and isometric handgrip exercise than individuals with haplotypes homozygous for arginine (Arg16) + glutamine (Gln27) (haplotype 2) and Gly16 + Gln27 (haplotype 3)...
  18. GENETIC STUDIES OF GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE IN BACTERIA
    SYDNEY GOVONS KUSTU; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..NH3 is limiting (>or equal to 50 nM) and is functionally coupled to the high-affinity NH3 assimilatory enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS). One long-term goal of this project is to understand how the E...
  19. REGULATION OF GLUTAMATE SYNTHESIS IN BACILLUS SUBTILIS
    ABRAHAM LINCOLN SONENSHEIN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase) that produce a-ketoglutarate and the enzymes of nitrogen assimilation (glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase and glutamate dehydrogenase) are encoded by genes that are subject to multiple ..
  20. Mechanism of Heat Shock Protein Induction by Glutamine
    Paul E Wischmeyer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our laboratory has shown glutamine (GLN) can safely enhance HSP expression in tissues of critically ill and injured animals and established HSP ..
  21. Glutamine Transporters SNAT1 and SNAT2 in Rett Syndrome Microglia
    Izumi Maezawa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We subsequently found that MeCP2 is a potent transcriptional suppressor of the glutamine transporters SNAT1 and SNAT2...
  22. A3AR agonists to prevent chemotherapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy
    Daniela Salvemini; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the effects on the expression &activities of spinal glutamate transporters (neuronal &glial) &glial glutamine synthetase...
  23. Pathogenesis of Ketosis Prone Diabetes
    Ashok Balasubramanyam; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..higher concentrations of an acyl carnitine marker of beta-hydroxybutyrate, and markedly higher concentrations of glutamine / glutamate, together with higher ornithine, lower citrulline and arginine, and depressed levels of amino acids ..
  24. RNAi therapy for Huntingtons disease: safety & efficacy in the nonhuman primate
    Jodi L McBride; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The glutamine expansion in the encoded protein, huntingtin (HTT) confers a toxic gain of function, causing degeneration of ..
  25. Mitochondrial Fission in Huntington's Disease
    ELLA R BOSSY-WETZEL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by an abnormal expansion of a poly- glutamine (poly-Q) repeats in huntingtin (Htt), a 350 kDa protein...
  26. Mechanisms of Altered Gastrointestinal Dysfunction
    QiQi Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of strategies to develop a comprehensive high-confidence model of miRNA targeting networks for opioid and glutamine receptors...
  27. Role of peroxynitrite in morphine hyperalgesia and tolerance
    Daniela Salvemini; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..tolerance coincided with: 1) post-translational nitration of MnSOD, a glutamate transporter (GLT-1), and glutamine synthase (GS);2) increased formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines;and 3) oxidative DNA damage and activation of ..
  28. MODULATION OF ACUTE LIVER INJURY
    Mark J Czaja; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of cell death is mediated through effects on common cellular functions such as microtubule stabilization, glutamine metabolism and autophagy...
  29. Structural Analysis of Mechanism and Regulation of Glutamine Amidotransferases
    AMBER MARIE SMITH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The glutamine amidotranferases (GATs) are responsible for the hydrolysis of glutamine to produce ammonia for a diverse array of biosynthetic pathways...
  30. Epigenetic Regulation of Heterochromatin Condensation in Huntington's Disease
    Hoon Ryu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is an incurable progressive autosomal-dominant neurological disorder caused by expanded CAG repeats coding for glutamine in the huntingtin (Htt) gene but it is not known how this mutation causes neurodegeneration...
  31. Novel Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Preventive Therapies
    Carine M Lenders; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Given the emerging evidence that glutamine and leucine (building blocks of protein) may affect energy partition and thus diabetes risk, and that the ..
  32. SURGICAL STUDIES OF FUNCTIONAL GENE EXPRESSION
    BERNARD MARK EVERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Also, we have recently described the molecular mechanisms contributing to glutamine-mediated intestinal cell survival and proliferation;the PI3K/mTOR pathway plays an important protective role to ..
  33. Glutaminase: neurotoxic link in HIV-1 Associated Dementia
    JIALIN CHARLES ZHENG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Glutaminase catalyzes the deamination of glutamine to glutamate and is generally localized to the inner membrane of the mitochondria...
  34. Vitamin D, Metabolic Flux and Breast Cancer
    JoEllen Welsh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Through genomic profiling, we identified SLC1A1 (a glutamate transporter) and GLUL (glutamine synthetase) as vitamin D regulated genes suggesting that, like p53, vitamin D might act to reduce risk of ..
  35. Changes in Glutamine/Glutamate Metabolism as a Novel Cardiometabolic Risk Factor
    Andre Dejam; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..individuals with metabolic risk factors have higher circulating concentrations of glutamate and lower levels of glutamine. Since glutamine and glutamate are in a precursor-product relationship via the enzyme glutaminase, we also ..
  36. Pathophysiology and Gene Replacement Strategies for Arginase Deficiency
    Gerald S Lipshutz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Aim 2, the effect of hyperargininemia on the nervous system will be examined in vitro along with GABA and glutamine synthesis/release, and extensive microarray analysis...
  37. Albumin AFP Gene Family Regulation in Fetal and Adult Liver
    Brett T Spear; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..homeostatic functions in the body, including xenobiotic metabolism, energy storage/production, urea formation, glutamine synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis...
  38. GABAergic regulation of glutamine synthetase and its role in preventing epilepsy
    Stephen J Moss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The major metabolic precursor for GABA synthesis by neurons is glutamine, which in turn is supplied by astrocytes...
  39. RNAi therapy for Huntingtons disease: safety &efficacy in the nonhuman primate
    Jodi L McBride; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The glutamine expansion in the encoded protein, huntingtin (HTT) confers a toxic gain of function, causing degeneration of ..
  40. REGULATION OF NITROGEN METABOLISM IN BACILLUS SUBTILIS
    Susan H Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..low G+C Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is controlled by a novel regulatory system where the enzyme glutamine synthetase is required for both glutamine synthesis and the direct control of the activity of two transcription ..
  41. Understanding the Regulation of Megakaroblastic Leukemia 1 (MLK1)
    THERA C ALEXIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..MKL1 is found either in the cytoplasm or the nucleus;it has RPEL, Basic, Glutamine-rich, SAP, Leucine zipper-like and transcriptional activation domains...
  42. Metabolic Regulators of Tumor Cell Growth
    Ralph J DeBerardinis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..with RNA interference to identify key metabolic regulators that allow GBM cells to use the amino acid glutamine as the preferred mitochondrial substrate...
  43. Efficacy and Mechanisms of GLN Dipeptide in the SICU
    Thomas R Ziegler; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Relative glutamine (GLN) deficiency may contribute to morbidity and mortality in surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients...
  44. Metabolomics-Measured Urinary Metabolites, Diet and BP, 17 Random Samples
    LINDA VERNER VAN HORN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..these, 5 related to BP - - alanine directly, formate, hippurate, 4 cresyl sulphate, phenyl acetyl glutamine inversely...
  45. Elucidating the regulation of mitochondrial glutaminase in cancer progression
    Kelly E Sullivan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Rapidly proliferating cancer cells are highly dependent on glutamine metabolism for the biosynthesis of protein, lipid, and nucleic acid building blocks, which are required for growth and ..
  46. Cytomegalovirus-mediated modification of host cell metabolism
    James C Alwine; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): HCMV infection dramatically alters glucose and glutamine metabolism...
  47. Glutamatergic Mediators of Antidepressant Response in Major Depression
    Brian P Brennan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..MRS technique, J-resolved proton MRS, to measure acute and chronic changes in brain levels of glutamate and glutamine in depressed patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) following treatment with citalopram while ..
  48. Urease Activity and Nitrogen Assimilation in Helicobacter pylori
    ERICA FRANCESCA MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..regard to both the structure and the regulation of the enzymes thought to assimilate ammonium in this organism-glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase...
  49. Long term Impact and Intervention for Diarrhea in Brazil
    Richard L Guerrant; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): This project will examine the long-term impact of zinc and Vitamin A, with or without glutamine or arginine, using completed clinical trials of interventions for diarrhea in children in northeast Brazil...
  50. Genetic Dissection of Context-Dependent and Opposing Roles of Androgen Receptor
    Diane M Robins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We first tested the effect of a polymorphic glutamine (Q) tract associated with male phenotypic variation...
  51. TPN INDUCED CHANGES IN INTRAEPITHELIAL LYMPHOCYTES
    Daniel H Teitelbaum; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Interestingly, preliminary data also shows that the addition of glutamine to TPN, exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) or the removal of pro-inflammatory cytokines can prevent many of ..
  52. Development of an Oral Therapeutic Drug for Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy
    Charles C Y Shih; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by an X-chromosome linked androgen receptor (AR) gene mutation resulting in excessive repeats of the amino acid glutamine (polyQ)...
  53. Mechanism of action of the ammonia gas channel AmtB in E. coli
    Joanne Hsu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..coli and S. typhimurium show that at low NH3 concentrations NH3 transport by AmtB appears to be coupled to glutamine synthetase which assimilates NH3 into glutamine. Therefore, in this proposal we seek to understand how AmtB in E...
  54. Identification of transamidated proteins involved in cell death induction
    BASSAM M FRAIJ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Transglutaminases utilize the 3-carboxyamide group of peptide-bound glutamine residues as acyl donor, having a broad specificity for acceptor substrates...
  55. Impact of Blood Viscosity on Oxygen Delivery in humans with Sickle Cell Anemia
    THOMAS DUANE COATES; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..improve in parallel with improvement in exercise tolerance and pain-free days after dietary supplementation with glutamine. Aim 3 will be done in collaboration with the randomized glutamine trial proposed in Project 2B (PI:Niihara)...
  56. Impaired amino acid metabolism in mitochondrial diseases
    Giovanni Manfredi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have identified previously unrecognized defects in glutamine metabolism in cells harboring mitochondrial DNA mutations associated with human mitochondrial diseases...
  57. METHAMPHETAMINE TOXICITY AND CORTICOSTRIATAL GLUTAMATE
    Bryan K Yamamoto; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..glutamate (GLU) release, activates NMDA receptors, and down- regulates the GLU transporter, while inhibiting glutamine synthetase (condensation of GLU) and increasing superoxide radical and nitric oxide formation...
  58. Identification of Metabolic Vulnerabilities of Ras-Driven Cancer Cells
    Eileen White; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..also decreases acetyl-CoA production from glucose and fatty acids, and enhances dependence of the TCA cycle on glutamine, revealing a metabolic vulnerability...
  59. MR Imaging of the Excitatory and Inhibitory Neurotransmitters in Chronic Pain
    Bradley Foerster; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will study both excitatory (glutamate + glutamine (Glx) and N-acetylasparatylglutamate (NAAG)) as well as inhibitory (gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)) ..
  60. Genetics and Biology of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
    RONALD ANTHONY DEPINHO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..drug resistance mechanisms, the Impact of MEK/PI3K inhibition on PDAC metabolism, and the effect of inhibiting glutamine metabolism on PDAC...
  61. New Mice Models for Studies of Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer
    Shuyuan Yeh; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Epidemiological data regarding prostate cancer genetics indicate roles of AR mutation, as well as AR poly-glutamine (poly-Q) polymorphism, in susceptibility to prostate cancer development and response to therapy...
  62. Specificity in the Synthesis of Aminoacyl-tRNA
    John J Perona; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..scanning mutagenesis will be used to create a mapping of which enzyme-tRNA contacts influence the affinity for glutamine. This overall study will then be followed with an in-depth analysis of the roles of indirect readout, ..
  63. ENTERAL PRECURSORS FOR UREA SYNTHESIS IN HUMANS
    Brendan Lee; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..and arginino succinic acid synthase deficiency appear to have a partial block in their ability to use glutamine as a nitrogen source for urea synthesis, and that they rely on the hepatic clearance of ammonia generated in the ..
  64. CEREBROVASCULAR ALTERATIONS DURING HYPERAMMONEMIA
    Raymond Koehler; Fiscal Year: 2000
    Hyperammonemia with or without liver disease results in swollen astrocytes and large increases in brain glutamine levels. Ammonia is metabolized by an active glutamine synthetase pool localized in astrocytes...
  65. AMINO ACID TRANSPORT AFTER SMALL BOWEL RESECTION
    HARRY SAX; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..A major nutrient glutamine (GLN) is the primary oxidative fuel for the enterocyte...
  66. ORAL L GLUTAMINE THERAPY FOR SICKLE CELL ANEMIA
    Yutaka Niihara; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..data from this laboratory on sickle red blood cell metabolism, we have conducted a pilot study recently using L-glutamine as an oral agent...
  67. HYPERAMMONEMIA AND CANCER ANOREXIA
    WILLIAM CHANCE; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The amino acid, glutamine, appears to be particularly important for tumor metabolism, since blockade of glutamine metabolism effectively ..