beta alanine

Summary

Summary: An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Down-regulation of placental transport of amino acids precedes the development of intrauterine growth restriction in rats fed a low protein diet
    Nina Jansson
    Perinatal Center, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Goteborg University, Sweden
    J Physiol 576:935-46. 2006
  2. ncbi System A transporter SAT2 mediates replenishment of dendritic glutamate pools controlling retrograde signaling by glutamate
    Monica Jenstad
    The Biotechnology Centre of Oslo, University of Oslo, N 0317 Oslo, Norway
    Cereb Cortex 19:1092-106. 2009
  3. ncbi Glutamine uptake by neurons: interaction of protons with system a transporters
    Farrukh A Chaudhry
    Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California 94143 0435, USA
    J Neurosci 22:62-72. 2002
  4. ncbi Effects of 28 days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on aerobic power, ventilatory and lactate thresholds, and time to exhaustion
    R F Zoeller
    Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Florida Atlantic University, Davie, FL, USA
    Amino Acids 33:505-10. 2007
  5. ncbi Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women
    J R Stout
    Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 6081, USA
    Amino Acids 32:381-6. 2007
  6. ncbi Tertiary active transport of amino acids reconstituted by coexpression of System A and L transporters in Xenopus oocytes
    Fiona E Baird
    Div of Molecular Physiology, College of Life Sciences, Univ of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, UK
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297:E822-9. 2009
  7. pmc Amino acid transport system A resembles system N in sequence but differs in mechanism
    R J Reimer
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:7715-20. 2000
  8. ncbi Hormonal regulation of glucose and system A amino acid transport in first trimester placental villous fragments
    Anette Ericsson
    Perinatal Center, Dept of Physiology and Pharmacology, Goteborg University, Box 432, 405 30 Goteborg, Sweden
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 288:R656-62. 2005
  9. ncbi System beta and system A amino acid transporters in the feline endotheliochorial placenta
    E E Champion
    Academic Unit of Child Health, University of Manchester, St Mary s Hospital, Hathersage Road, Manchester M13 0JH, UK
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 287:R1369-79. 2004
  10. ncbi Physiological importance of system A-mediated amino acid transport to rat fetal development
    Stuart Cramer
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 282:C153-60. 2002

Research Grants

  1. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS OF THE GLOBUS PALLIDUS
    RONALD HUFFMAN; Fiscal Year: 1980
  2. AMINO ACIDS IN URINE, DIET & BP: INT'L POPULATION STUDY
    Martha Daviglus; Fiscal Year: 2003
  3. ALKALOID SYNTHESIS USING ORGANORHODIUM CHEMISTRY
    MARIE KRAFFT; Fiscal Year: 1992
  4. ADAPTATION OF RENAL TAURINE TRANSPORT
    Russell Chesney; Fiscal Year: 1993
  5. CELLULAR ASPECTS OF ACTIVE TRANSPORT
    Roy Forster; Fiscal Year: 1980
  6. REGULATION OF B-ALANINE METABOLISM
    THOMAS TRAUT; Fiscal Year: 1990
  7. Mechanism-Based & Structure-Based Inhibitors of GABA-AT
    Richard Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2007
  8. THE ROLE OF CARNOSINE IN OLFACTION
    Joseph Harding; Fiscal Year: 1980
  9. EFFECTS OF BETA-ALANINE ON BEHAVIOR AND STRUCTURE
    Merle Jacobs; Fiscal Year: 1980
  10. Novel Amino Acid-Based Glass-Ionomer Biomaterials
    Dong Xie; Fiscal Year: 2005

Detail Information

Publications231 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Down-regulation of placental transport of amino acids precedes the development of intrauterine growth restriction in rats fed a low protein diet
    Nina Jansson
    Perinatal Center, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Goteborg University, Sweden
    J Physiol 576:935-46. 2006
    ..Reduced maternal levels of insulin, leptin and IGF-1 may link maternal protein malnutrition to reduced fetal growth by down-regulation of key placental amino acid transporters...
  2. ncbi System A transporter SAT2 mediates replenishment of dendritic glutamate pools controlling retrograde signaling by glutamate
    Monica Jenstad
    The Biotechnology Centre of Oslo, University of Oslo, N 0317 Oslo, Norway
    Cereb Cortex 19:1092-106. 2009
    ..In summary, we demonstrate that SAT2 maintains a key metabolic glutamine/glutamate balance underpinning retrograde signaling by dendritic release of the neurotransmitter glutamate...
  3. ncbi Glutamine uptake by neurons: interaction of protons with system a transporters
    Farrukh A Chaudhry
    Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California 94143 0435, USA
    J Neurosci 22:62-72. 2002
    ..Differences between System N and A transporters in coupling to H+ thus contribute to the delivery of glutamine from glia to neurons. Nonetheless, although they are not transported, H+ inhibit SA1 and SA2 by competing with Na+...
  4. ncbi Effects of 28 days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on aerobic power, ventilatory and lactate thresholds, and time to exhaustion
    R F Zoeller
    Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Florida Atlantic University, Davie, FL, USA
    Amino Acids 33:505-10. 2007
    ..No significant group effects were found. However, within groups, a significant time effect was observed for CrBa on 5 of the 8 parameters measured. These data suggest that CrBA may potentially enhance endurance performance...
  5. ncbi Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women
    J R Stout
    Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 6081, USA
    Amino Acids 32:381-6. 2007
    ..In conclusion, beta-alanine supplementation appears to improve submaximal cycle ergometry performance and TTE in young women, perhaps as a result of an increased buffering capacity due to elevated muscle carnosine concentrations...
  6. ncbi Tertiary active transport of amino acids reconstituted by coexpression of System A and L transporters in Xenopus oocytes
    Fiona E Baird
    Div of Molecular Physiology, College of Life Sciences, Univ of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, UK
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297:E822-9. 2009
    ..5 nmol/oocyte). The observed changes in Leu accumulation are sufficient to activate the TOR pathway in oocytes, although intracellular AA metabolism limits the potential for AA accumulation by tertiary active transport in this system...
  7. pmc Amino acid transport system A resembles system N in sequence but differs in mechanism
    R J Reimer
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:7715-20. 2000
    ..Transport mediated by SA1 is also electrogenic. Amino acid transport Systems A and N thus appear closely related in function as well as structure, but exhibit important differences in ionic coupling...
  8. ncbi Hormonal regulation of glucose and system A amino acid transport in first trimester placental villous fragments
    Anette Ericsson
    Perinatal Center, Dept of Physiology and Pharmacology, Goteborg University, Box 432, 405 30 Goteborg, Sweden
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 288:R656-62. 2005
    ..In contrast to term placental villous fragments, system A activity was not regulated by insulin or leptin in first trimester but was downregulated by GH...
  9. ncbi System beta and system A amino acid transporters in the feline endotheliochorial placenta
    E E Champion
    Academic Unit of Child Health, University of Manchester, St Mary s Hospital, Hathersage Road, Manchester M13 0JH, UK
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 287:R1369-79. 2004
    ..This study therefore provides the first evidence of the presence of amino acid transport systems beta and A in the cat placenta...
  10. ncbi Physiological importance of system A-mediated amino acid transport to rat fetal development
    Stuart Cramer
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 282:C153-60. 2002
    ..55 +/- 0.04 g (n = 113), experimental group: -3.29 +/- 0.04 g (n = 128)], implying an integral role for system A transport in fetal growth and development in the rat...
  11. ncbi Leptin stimulates the activity of the system A amino acid transporter in human placental villous fragments
    N Jansson
    Perinatal Center, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Goteborg University, 405 30 Goteborg, Sweden
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:1205-11. 2003
    ..We conclude that primary single isolated villous fragments can be used in studies of hormonal regulation of nutrient uptake into the syncytiotrophoblast. These data suggest that leptin regulates system A, a key amino acid transporter...
  12. pmc Dynamic regulation of synaptic GABA release by the glutamate-glutamine cycle in hippocampal area CA1
    Shu Ling Liang
    Division of Neurology and the Pediatric Regional Epilepsy Program, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Neurosci 26:8537-48. 2006
    ..We conclude that the glutamate-glutamine cycle is a major contributor to synaptic GABA release under physiological conditions, which dynamically regulates inhibitory synaptic strength...
  13. ncbi Evidence for the transport of neutral as well as cationic amino acids by ATA3, a novel and liver-specific subtype of amino acid transport system A
    T Hatanaka
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1510:10-7. 2001
    ..Since liver does not express any of the previously known high-affinity cationic amino acid transporters, ATA3 is likely to provide the major route for the uptake of arginine in this tissue...
  14. ncbi Inhibition of glutamine transport depletes glutamate and GABA neurotransmitter pools: further evidence for metabolic compartmentation
    Caroline Rae
    Discipline of Biochemistry, School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    J Neurochem 85:503-14. 2003
    ..The resultant implications for metabolic compartmentation and regulation of metabolism by transport processes are discussed...
  15. ncbi Structure and function of ATA3, a new subtype of amino acid transport system A, primarily expressed in the liver and skeletal muscle
    M Sugawara
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta 30912 2100, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1509:7-13. 2000
    ..Analysis of the currents with alanine as the substrate has shown that the K(0. 5) for alanine (i.e., concentration of the amino acid yielding half-maximal current) is 4.2+/-0.1 mM and that the Na(+):alanine stoichiometry is 1:1...
  16. ncbi Primary structure, functional characteristics and tissue expression pattern of human ATA2, a subtype of amino acid transport system A
    T Hatanaka
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta 30912 2100, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1467:1-6. 2000
    ..The transporter is specific for neutral amino acids. It is pH-sensitive and Li+-intolerant. The Na+:amino acid stoichiometry is 1:1...
  17. ncbi The absorption of orally supplied beta-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis
    R C Harris
    School of Sports, Exercise and Health Sciences, University College Chichester, West Sussex, Chichester, UK
    Amino Acids 30:279-89. 2006
    ..2 and II) 6.4 g . d(-1) beta-alanine (as multiple doses of 400 or 800 mg) or III) L-carnosine (isomolar to II) for 4 w resulted in significant increases in muscle carnosine estimated at 42.1, 64.2 and 65.8%...
  18. ncbi Synthesis and evaluation of radioiodinated substituted beta-naphthylalanine as a potential probe for pancreatic beta-cells imaging
    J K Amartey
    Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, P O Box 3354, Riyadh 11211, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
    Appl Radiat Isot 64:769-77. 2006
    ..The result implies that the pancreatic uptake was receptor mediated but may not involve the SSTR2 and therefore warrants further investigation...
  19. ncbi Distribution and pharmacology of alanine-serine-cysteine transporter 1 (asc-1) in rodent brain
    Lone Helboe
    H Lundbeck A S, Biological Research, Department of Molecular Disease Biology, Ottiliavej 9, DK 2500 Valby, Denmark
    Eur J Neurosci 18:2227-38. 2003
    ..We conclude that asc-1-ir is widespread in the brain and limited to neuronal structures and that asc-1 may contribute to synaptic clearance of d-serine in brain...
  20. ncbi Benzodiazepines block alpha2-containing inhibitory glycine receptors in embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons
    Liu Lin Thio
    Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    J Neurophysiol 90:89-99. 2003
    ..Thus benzodiazepines allosterically inhibit alpha2-containing GlyRs in embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons via a "low"-affinity site...
  21. ncbi Specific strychnine binding sites on acrosome-associated membranes of golden hamster spermatozoa
    Miguel N Llanos
    Unidad de Hormonas y Receptores, INTA, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 138 11, Santiago, Chile
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 306:376-81. 2003
    ..Localization of this receptor fits well with its previously proposed role in acrosomal exocytosis during mammalian fertilization...
  22. ncbi Beta-alanine acts on glycine receptors in the rat sacral dorsal commissural neurons
    Dian Shi Wang
    Department of Anatomy and K K Leung Brain Research Centre, Fourth Military Medical University, 17 West Changle Road, Xi an, 710032, Shaanxi, China
    Int J Neurosci 113:293-305. 2003
    ..The results indicate that beta-ALA activates the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in the SDCN neurons, and suggest that beta-ALA may act as a functional neurotransmitter in the mammalian SDCN...
  23. pmc Kinetic determinants of agonist action at the recombinant human glycine receptor
    Trevor M Lewis
    Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia
    J Physiol 549:361-74. 2003
    ..Based upon these data, we propose a kinetic scheme with three independent open states, where the opening rates are dependent upon the activating agonist, while the closing rates are an intrinsic characteristic of the receptor...
  24. ncbi Transport of L-carnitine in isolated cerebral cortex neurons
    A Wawrzeńczyk
    Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Department of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, Warsaw, Poland
    Eur J Biochem 268:2091-8. 2001
    ..E. Mroczkowska, A. Broër, S. Broër, M. J. Nałecz and R. Cecchelli, unpublished results), together with the insensitivity of carnitine accumulation towards betaines, implies that a novel transporting protein is present in these cells...
  25. pmc Rat alpha6beta2delta GABAA receptors exhibit two distinct and separable agonist affinities
    Stephen H Hadley
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
    J Physiol 581:1001-18. 2007
    ..The possibility that the high affinity state of the alpha6beta2delta receptor modulates the granule neuron activity as well as potential mechanisms affecting its expression are discussed...
  26. ncbi Effects of taurine deficiency and chronic methanol administration on rat retina, optic nerve and brain amino acids and monoamines
    A Gonzalez-Quevedo
    Instituto de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba
    Nutr Neurosci 6:253-61. 2003
    ..On the other hand, in the hippocampus, Asp metabolism could be affected by Tau depletion with beta-Ala...
  27. ncbi Modulation of inhibitory glycine receptors in cultured embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons by zinc, thiol containing redox agents and carnosine
    L L Thio
    Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Neuroscience 139:1315-27. 2006
    ..Carnosine had similar effects. Thus, Zn(2+) and thiol containing redox agents that chelate Zn(2+) modulate hippocampal glycine receptors with the mechanism of Zn(2+) modulation being agonist dependent...
  28. pmc Glycine receptors in a population of adult mammalian cones
    E Balse
    Laboratoire de Physiopathologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire de la Retine, INSERM U592, Hopital Saint Antoine, Bâtiment Kourilsky, 184, rue du Faubourg Saint Antoine, 75 571 Paris Cedex 12, France
    J Physiol 571:391-401. 2006
    ..This glycine receptor expression in a minority of cones defines a new cone population suggesting an unexpected role for glycine in the visual information processing in the outer retina...
  29. ncbi Functional characterisation of human glycine receptors in a fluorescence-based high throughput screening assay
    Anders A Jensen
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, The Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universitetsparken 2, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Eur J Pharmacol 521:39-42. 2005
    ..Hence, this high throughput screening assay will be of great use in future pharmacological studies of glycine receptors, particular in the search for novel compound structures acting at them...
  30. ncbi Efflux of a suppressive neurotransmitter, GABA, across the blood-brain barrier
    A Kakee
    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan
    J Neurochem 79:110-8. 2001
    ..The BBB acts as the efflux pump for GABA to reduce the brain interstitial fluid concentration...
  31. pmc Beta-alanine and taurine as endogenous agonists at glycine receptors in rat hippocampus in vitro
    Masahiro Mori
    Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Physiol 539:191-200. 2002
    ..These data indicate that modulation of transporters for the endogenous amino acids, beta-alanine and taurine, can regulate tonic activation of glycine receptors, which may function in maintenance of inhibitory tone in the hippocampus...
  32. ncbi ATA2 is predominantly expressed as system A at the blood-brain barrier and acts as brain-to-blood efflux transport for L-proline
    Hitomi Takanaga
    Department of Molecular Biopharmacy and Genetics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
    Mol Pharmacol 61:1289-96. 2002
    ..The predominantly expressed ATA2 mRNA at the BBB may play a role in maintaining the concentration of small neutral amino acids and cerebral osmotic pressure in the brain under pathological conditions...
  33. pmc Differential agonist sensitivity of glycine receptor alpha2 subunit splice variants
    Paul S Miller
    Department of Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT
    Br J Pharmacol 143:19-26. 2004
    ....
  34. ncbi Glycine receptors mediate excitation of subplate neurons in neonatal rat cerebral cortex
    W Kilb
    Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Duesbergweg 6, 55128 Mainz, Germany
    J Neurophysiol 100:698-707. 2008
    ..In summary, these results demonstrate that SPn express glycine receptors that mediate robust excitatory membrane responses during early postnatal development...
  35. pmc Extrinsic factors regulate partial agonist efficacy of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors
    Jeffrey S Farroni
    Department of Medical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, College Station TX 77843, USA
    BMC Pharmacol 4:16. 2004
    ..To identify subtype-specific pharmacologic tools for the forebrain alpha2beta receptors, it is important to identify a heterologous expression system that closely resembles these native glycine-gated chloride channels...
  36. ncbi Beta-alanine but not taurine can function as an organic osmolyte in preimplantation mouse embryos cultured from fertilized eggs
    Mary Anne Hammer
    Ottawa Health Research Institute Hormones, Growth and Development Program, Ontario
    Mol Reprod Dev 66:153-61. 2003
    ..Thus, the beta-amino acid transporter is likely present in early preimplantation embryos to supply beta-amino acids such as taurine for purposes other than to serve as organic osmolytes...
  37. ncbi Effect of glycine on synaptic transmission at the third order giant synapse of the squids Alloteuthis subulata and Loligo vulgaris
    I M Vinogradova
    Marine Biological Association Laboratory, Plymouth, UK
    Neurosci Lett 325:42-6. 2002
    ..Modulation of this synaptic input may provide an effective mechanism to suppress or potentiate synaptic transmission in the squid giant synapse...
  38. ncbi Parasitoid wasp sting: a cocktail of GABA, taurine, and beta-alanine opens chloride channels for central synaptic block and transient paralysis of a cockroach host
    Eugene L Moore
    Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, 92521, USA
    J Neurobiol 66:811-20. 2006
    ..Together these data demonstrate that Ampulex utilizes GABAergic chloride channel activation as a strategy for central synaptic block to induce transient and focal leg paralysis in its host...
  39. ncbi Carnosine, taurine and enzyme activities of human skeletal muscle fibres from elderly subjects with osteoarthritis and young moderately active subjects
    Mark J Tallon
    SSEHS, University of Chichester, Chichester PO19 6PE, UK
    Biogerontology 8:129-37. 2007
    ..These differences were less apparent in elderly subjects. Possible causes for the change in the carnosine content are reduced physical activity, reduced meat intake, or the result of progressive denervation...
  40. ncbi Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity
    C A Hill
    School of Sports, Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Chichester, Chichester, UK
    Amino Acids 32:225-33. 2007
    ..0%); with a further +3.2% increase at 10 wks. TWD was unchanged at 4 and 10 wks in the control subjects. The increase in TWD with supplementation followed the increase in muscle carnosine...
  41. ncbi Transmembrane domains I and II of the gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter GAT-4 contain molecular determinants of substrate specificity
    Nir Melamed
    Department of Biochemistry, Hadassah Medical School, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
    Mol Pharmacol 65:1452-61. 2004
    ..The size of the side chain at positions 61 and 94 seems to determine the ability of substrate and substrate analogs to interact with the transporter...
  42. ncbi Creatine supplementation augments skeletal muscle carnosine content in senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8)
    Wim Derave
    Research Center for Exercise and Health, Department of Biomedical Kinesiology, Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Rejuvenation Res 11:641-7. 2008
    ..Oral creatine supplementation is able to transiently but potently increase muscle carnosine and anserine content, which coincides with improved resistance to contractile fatigue...
  43. ncbi ATA2-mediated amino acid uptake following partial hepatectomy is regulated by redistribution to the plasma membrane
    Thomas L Freeman
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center and Veterans Administration Medical Center, Alcohol Study Unit, Omaha, NE 68105, USA
    Arch Biochem Biophys 400:215-22. 2002
    ..In addition, the pattern of expression of System A activity in oocytes, transport kinetics, and sensitivity to chemical modification indicate the presence of a second System A isoform in liver that differs substantially from ATA2...
  44. pmc Cloning, expression, and localization of a rat brain high-affinity glycine transporter
    J Guastella
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:7189-93. 1992
    ..The primary structure and hydropathicity profile of GLYT1 protein reveal that this protein is a member of the sodium- and chloride-dependent superfamily of transporters that utilize neurotransmitters and related substances as substrates...
  45. ncbi Regulation of taurine transport at the blood-brain barrier by tumor necrosis factor-alpha, taurine and hypertonicity
    Young Sook Kang
    College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women s University, Seoul, Korea New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba ku, Sendai, Japan
    J Neurochem 83:1188-95. 2002
    ..Therefore, taurine transport activity at the BBB appears to be regulated at the transcriptional level by cell damage, osmolality and taurine in the brain...
  46. ncbi Novel long-circulating liposomes containing peptide library-lipid conjugates: synthesis and in vivo behavior
    Estelle L Riché
    School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7360, USA
    J Drug Target 12:355-61. 2004
    ..Tailoring of the pharmacokinetic profile of the liposomes depending on their intended application may allow for a greater flexibility of use than PEG-PE...
  47. ncbi Effect of taurine deficiency on adenosine receptor-mediated relaxation of the rat aorta
    Worku Abebe
    Department of Oral Biology and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, CB 3710, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912 1128, USA
    Vascul Pharmacol 40:219-28. 2003
    ..Given the recognized role of adenosine in the vasculature, these alterations suggest taurine-mediated modulation of blood flow regulation...
  48. ncbi Lipid peroxidation potential and antioxidants in the heart tissue of beta-alanine- or taurine-treated old rats
    Hande Parildar
    Department of Biochemistry, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
    J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 54:61-5. 2008
    ....
  49. ncbi Accelerated NaCl-induced hypertension in taurine-deficient rat: role of renal function
    M S Mozaffari
    Department of Oral Biology and Maxillofacial Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA
    Kidney Int 70:329-37. 2006
    ..In conclusion, taurine deficiency modulates renal adaptation to combined uninephrectomy and dietary NaCl excess, resulting in an accelerated development of hypertension...
  50. ncbi Contribution of the PI 3-kinase/Akt survival pathway toward osmotic preconditioning
    Viktor Pastukh
    University of South Alabama, School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Mobile, AL 36688, USA
    Mol Cell Biochem 269:59-67. 2005
    ..Since inhibition of PI 3-kinase with Wortmannin also prevents osmotic-mediated cardioprotection, we conclude that hyperosmotic-mediated activation of the PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway contributes to osmotic preconditioning...
  51. ncbi Intrauterine low protein diet increases fetal beta-cell sensitivity to NO and IL-1 beta: the protective role of taurine
    S Merezak
    Laboratory of Cell Biology, World Health Organization Collaborating Center for the Biology of Development of the Endocrine Pancreas, , B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
    J Endocrinol 171:299-308. 2001
    ..However, through in vitro and in vivo experiments our studies indicate that such effects can be rescued using amino acids such as taurine...
  52. ncbi Betaine or taurine administration prevents fibrosis and lipid peroxidation induced by rat liver by ethanol plus carbon tetrachloride intoxication
    F Erman
    Department of Biochemistry, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Capa Istanbul, Turkey
    Amino Acids 27:199-205. 2004
    ..In conclusion, the administration of betaine or taurine prevented the development of liver fibrosis probably associated with decreased oxidative stress...
  53. ncbi Beneficial effect of taurine depletion on osmotic sodium and calcium loading during chemical hypoxia
    Stephen W Schaffer
    Department of Pharmacology, University of South Alabama School of Medicine, Mobile, Alabama 36688, USA
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 282:C1113-20. 2002
    ..Taurine deficiency also reduced the degree of hypoxia-induced calcium overload. Thus the observed resistance against hypoxia-induced necrosis and apoptosis is probably related to an improvement in sodium and calcium handling...
  54. ncbi Decreases in taurine levels induced by beta-alanine treatment did not affect the susceptibility of tissues to lipid peroxidation
    H Parildar-Karpuzoglu
    Department of Biochemistry, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Capa, Istanbul, Turkey
    Amino Acids 32:115-9. 2007
    ..According to this, buffering or sequestering capacity of tissues to exogenous stimuli was not influenced by reduced taurine levels in tissues of rats...
  55. ncbi The effect of taurine depletion by beta-alanine treatment on the susceptibility to ethanol-induced hepatic dysfunction in rats
    M D Kerai
    Pharmacy Department, Kings' College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 8WA, UK
    Alcohol Alcohol 36:29-38. 2001
    ..These in vivo findings demonstrate for the first time that animals treated with beta-alanine may be more susceptible to ethanol-induced hepatic dysfunction, possibly as a result of taurine depletion...
  56. ncbi Conformational variability of the glycine receptor M2 domain in response to activation by different agonists
    Stephan A Pless
    School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
    J Biol Chem 282:36057-67. 2007
    ..Thus, results from two separate labeled residues support the conclusion that the glycine receptor M2 domain responds with distinct conformational changes to activation by different agonists...
  57. ncbi Taurine modulates induction of cytochrome P450 3A4 mRNA by rifampicin in the HepG2 cell line
    Hideyasu Matsuda
    Clinical Evaluation of Medicines and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1 6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1593:93-8. 2002
    ..On the other hand, taurine did not affect the induction by phenobarbital. Taurine did not increase intracellular uptake of RFP. Therefore, we conclude that taurine is an enhancer for the induction of CYP3A4 by RFP...
  58. ncbi Synthesis and activity of HCO-Met-Leu-Phe-OMe analogues containing beta-alanine or taurine at the central position
    Cesare Giordano
    Istituto di Chimica Biomolecolare del CNR, Sezione di Roma c o, Dipartimento di Studi Farmaceutici, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, P le A Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
    Farmaco 58:1121-30. 2003
    ..Superoxide anion production and lysozyme release have been also evaluated and the biological results are discussed together with the conformational preferences of the examined models...
  59. ncbi [In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of pazufloxacin mesilate, a new injectable quinolone]
    Nobuhiko Nomura
    Jpn J Antibiot 55:412-39. 2002
    ..6) Intravenous administration of PZFX with high plasma concentration just after administration, showed more excellent therapeutic effect against the rat intraperitoneal infection, than p.o. and s.c. administration...
  60. pmc Modulation of epileptiform activity by glutamine and system A transport in a model of post-traumatic epilepsy
    Hiroaki Tani
    Department of Neurology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 25:230-8. 2007
    ....
  61. ncbi Involvement of K+ channels and calcium-dependent pathways in the action of T3 on amino acid accumulation and membrane potential in Sertoli cells of immature rat testis
    Karine Cunha Volpato
    Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Bairro Trindade, Cx Postal 5069, CEP 88040 970 Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil
    Life Sci 74:1277-88. 2004
    ..These results clearly demonstrate for the first time the existence of an ionic mechanism related to Ca2+ and K+ fluxes in the rapid, nongenomic action of T3...
  62. ncbi Synaptosomal GABA uptake decreases in paraoxon-treated rat brain
    Moslem Mohammadi
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
    Toxicology 244:42-8. 2008
    ..In conclusion, present data suggests that GABA uptake by synaptosomes decreases probably secondary to paraoxon-induced seizure activity...
  63. ncbi The GABA uptake inhibitor beta-alanine reduces pilocarpine-induced tremor and increases extracellular GABA in substantia nigra pars reticulata as measured by microdialysis
    Keita Ishiwari
    Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 1020, USA
    J Neurosci Methods 140:39-46. 2004
    ..This research may lead to a better understanding of how parkinsonian symptoms are modulated by SNr GABA mechanisms...
  64. ncbi Beta-scorpion toxin induces the release of gamma-[3 H]aminobutyric acid in rat brain slices
    V M Fernandes
    , Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina, ICB-UFMG, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627-Pampulha, 31270-901-Belo Horizonte MG, Brazil
    Neuroreport 12:2911-3. 2001
    ..beta-Alanine also induced the release of [3H]GABA and this effect was not inhibited by tetrodotoxin but was additive in the presence of TiTX gamma. The data suggest a neuronal origin for the release of [3H]GABA by TiTX gamma...
  65. ncbi Release of gamma-[(3)H]aminobutyric acid in rat brain cortical slices by alpha-scorpion toxin
    R Nicolato
    Laboratorio de Neurofarmacologia, Departamento de Farmacologia, ICB UFMG, Avenida Antonio Carlos 6627, Pampulha, 31270 901 Belo Horizonte MG, Brazil
    Neurosci Lett 325:155-8. 2002
    ..beta-Alanine also induces the release of [(3)H]GABA that was not inhibited by TTX but was additive in the presence of TsTX. The data suggest a neuronal origin for the release of [(3)H]GABA by TsTX...
  66. ncbi Ligand-specific temperature-dependent shifts in EC50 values for the GABAA receptor
    Maria Millingen
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Physical Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, SE 412 96 Goteborg, Sweden
    Anal Chem 80:340-3. 2008
    ..g., studies of kinetics and thermodynamics, drug screening, compliant ADME/Tox testing, and in studies of temperature-gated ion channels...
  67. ncbi Functional expression and adaptive regulation of Na+ -dependent neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2/ATA2 in normal human astrocytes under amino acid starved condition
    Kazunari Tanaka
    Department of Biochemical Pharmacology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Yamashina ku, Kyoto 607 8414, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 378:70-5. 2005
    ....
  68. ncbi Osmotic regulation of ATA2 mRNA expression and amino acid transport System A activity
    R R Alfieri
    Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Sezione di Patologia Molecolare e Immunologia, , Parma, 43100, Italy
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 283:174-8. 2001
    ..These findings confirm that ATA2 is a major isoform of System A and show that changes in the expression of ATA2 mRNA precede both the induction and subsequent down regulation of transport activity...
  69. ncbi Impact of forskolin and amino acid depletion upon System A activity and SNAT expression in BeWo cells
    Don Novak
    Box 100296, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 0296, USA
    Biochimie 88:39-44. 2006
    ..In summary, SysA activity in BeWo cells responds to amino acid depletion through the differential regulation of SNAT subtypes...
  70. ncbi G-CSF receptor-binding cyclic peptides designed with artificial amino-acid linkers
    Kenji Shibata
    BioFrontier Laboratories, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co, Ltd, 3 6 6, Asahi machi, Machida shi, Tokyo 194 8533, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 341:483-8. 2006
    ..This artificial peptide showed G-CSF antagonistic activity in a cell proliferation assay...
  71. ncbi Two new reactive targets of 2,5-hexanedione in vitro - beta-alanine and glycine
    W Pei
    Department of Public Health and Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Yufu City, Oita, Japan
    Amino Acids 32:261-4. 2007
    ..Since both beta-alanine and glycine are considered as neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, the reaction products remain to be identified in vivo...
  72. ncbi Retention/quantitation properties of the o-phthaldialdehyde-3-mercaptopropionic acid and the o-phthaldialdehyde-N-acetyl-L-cysteine amino acid derivatives in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography
    A Vasanits
    Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, , Budapest, Hungary
    J Chromatogr A 870:271-87. 2000
    ..Derivatization of the apple pulp was performed with filtered samples, applying any special isolation processes...
  73. ncbi Postsynaptic integration of cholinergic and dopaminergic signals on medium-sized GABAergic projection neurons in the neostriatum
    L G Harsing
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA h 13768
    Brain Res Bull 45:607-13. 1998
    ....
  74. ncbi Effects of BX661A, a new therapeutic agent for ulcerative colitis, on reactive oxygen species in comparison with salazosulfapyridine and its metabolite sulfapyridine
    I Kimura
    Medical Information and Development Division, Hoechst Marion Roussel Ltd, Saitama, Japan
    Arzneimittelforschung 48:1007-11. 1998
    ..radical scavenging effects. Therefore, these effects may be partially involved in the therapeutic effects of BX661A on ulcerative colitis...
  75. ncbi Determination of the active moiety of BX661A, a new therapeutic agent for ulcerative colitis, by studying its therapeutic effects on ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium in rats
    I Kimura
    Infusion Research Department, Hoechst Marion Roussel Ltd, Saitama, Japan
    Arzneimittelforschung 48:1091-6. 1998
    ..Therefore, it seems that BX661A is clinically safe and more effective than SASP in the treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis...
  76. ncbi Evaluation of early DNA damage in healthcare workers handling antineoplastic drugs
    Cinzia Lucia Ursini
    Dipartimento Medicina del Lavoro ISPESL, Via Fontana Candida 1, 00040, Monteporzio Catone Roma, Italy
    Int Arch Occup Environ Health 80:134-40. 2006
    ..The aim was to identify a suitable biomarker of DNA damage by exposure to low levels of such drugs...
  77. ncbi Intracellular localization of two betaine lipids by cell fractionation and immunomicroscopy
    K Kunzler
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, Switzerland
    Z Naturforsch C 52:487-95. 1997
    ..These results describe for the first time the cytochemical localization of DGTS and DGTA strongly suggesting both these lipids to be associated mainly with non-plastidial structures...
  78. ncbi Putative glycine receptors in Hydra: a biochemical and behavioural study
    P Pierobon
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Cibernetica E Caianiello, Comprensorio Olivetti, Building 70, Via Campi Flegrei 34, I 80078 Pozzuoli, Naples, Italy
    Eur J Neurosci 14:1659-66. 2001
    ..In vitro, [(3)H]strychnine binding was not displaced by d-serine. These results indicate a dual action of glycine in Hydra tissues. The hypothesis that NMDA receptors may also be present in this elementary nervous system is proposed...
  79. ncbi Anthelmintic efficacy of genistein, the active principle of Flemingia vestita (Fabaceae): alterations in the free amino acid pool and ammonia levels in the fluke, Fasciolopsis buski
    Pradip Kumar Kar
    Department of Zoology, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, India
    Parasitol Int 53:287-91. 2004
    ..The changes in the levels of the amino acids and nitrogen components post treatment suggest that the amino acid metabolism in the parasite may have been altered under the influence of the test materials...
  80. ncbi Pharmacokinetics and the bystander effect in CD::UPRT/5-FC bi-gene therapy of glioma
    De zhi Shi
    Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, China
    Chin Med J (Engl) 122:1267-72. 2009
    ..Thus, we developed a preclinical tumor model to investigate the feasibility of using (19)F-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((19)F-MRS) and optical imaging to measure non-invasive CD and UPRT expression and its bystander effect...
  81. ncbi Acrolein-sequestering ability of endogenous dipeptides: characterization of carnosine and homocarnosine/acrolein adducts by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry
    Marina Carini
    Istituto Chimico Farmaceutico Tossicologico, University of Milan, Viale Abruzzi 42, 20131 Milan, Italy
    J Mass Spectrom 38:996-1006. 2003
    ....
  82. ncbi Aspects of cuticular sclerotization in the locust, Scistocerca gregaria, and the beetle, Tenebrio molitor
    Svend Olav Andersen
    Institute of Molecular Biology and Physiology, University of Copenhagen, The August Krogh Building, Universitetsparken 13, DK 2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 37:223-34. 2007
    ....
  83. ncbi Role of cytosine deaminase and beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase in pyrimidine base catabolism by Burkholderia cepacia
    T P West
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007, USA
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 77:1-5. 2000
    ..cepacia would seem to be suggested from the similarity in how its enzyme activity responded to cell growth on pyrimidine bases and catabolic products when compared to the response of the three reductive catabolic enzymes...
  84. pmc Molecular and functional analyses of amino acid decarboxylases involved in cuticle tanning in Tribolium castaneum
    Yasuyuki Arakane
    Department of Biochemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:16584-94. 2009
    ..Injection of dsTcDDC resulted in more than a 5-fold increase in levels of DOPA, indicating that lack of TcDDC led to accumulation of its substrate, DOPA...
  85. ncbi The accumulation of methylamine counteracting solutes in elasmobranchs with differing levels of urea: a comparison of marine and freshwater species
    Jason R Treberg
    Ocean Sciences Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada A1C 5S7
    J Exp Biol 209:860-70. 2006
    ..The latter relationship may be important in maintaining methylamine levels during periods of low dietary TMAO intake for species lacking TMAO synthesis...
  86. ncbi Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: synthesis of sulfonamides incorporating 2,4,6-trisubstituted-pyridinium-ethylcarboxamido moieties possessing membrane-impermeability and in vivo selectivity for the membrane-bound (CA IV) versus the cytosolic (CA I and CA II
    C T Supuran
    Laboratorio di Chimica Inorganica e Bioinorganica, Universita degli Studi, Florence, Italy
    J Enzyme Inhib 15:381-401. 2000
    ..were used, unselective inhibition of all CA isozymes (I, II and IV) occurred...
  87. ncbi Renal handling of taurine, L-alanine, L-glutamate and D-glucose in Opsanus tau: studies on isolated brush border membrane vesicles
    N A Wolff
    Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Rhode Island 02906
    J Comp Physiol B 157:573-81. 1987
    ..D-glucose uptake, however, appeared to occur via Na+-independent pathways, since it was not affected by phlorizin in the presence of Na+, or by Na+ replacement...
  88. ncbi A novel antiangiogenesis therapy using an integrin antagonist or anti-Flk-1 antibody coated 90Y-labeled nanoparticles
    Lingyun Li
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, CA, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 58:1215-27. 2004
    ..In the studies described here, we investigated the potential therapeutic efficacy of two three-component treatment regimens using two murine tumor models...
  89. ncbi Key role of uridine kinase and uridine phosphorylase in the homeostatic regulation of purine and pyrimidine salvage in brain
    Francesco Balestri
    Dipartimento di Biologia, Unità di Biochimica, Universita di Pisa, Via S Zeno 51, 56100 Pisa, Italy
    Neurochem Int 51:517-23. 2007
    ..On the contrary, at relatively high UTP and CTP levels the inhibition of uridine kinase channels uridine towards phosphorolysis. The ribose-1-phosphate is then transformed into PRPP, which is used for purine salvage synthesis...
  90. ncbi Pharmacokinetics of S-1, an oral formulation of ftorafur, oxonic acid and 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine (molar ratio 1:0.4:1) in patients with solid tumors
    G J Peters
    Department of Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 52:1-12. 2003
    ....
  91. ncbi One-pot synthesis of amino-alcohols using a de-novo transketolase and beta-alanine: pyruvate transaminase pathway in Escherichia coli
    C U Ingram
    Department of Biochemical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JW, United Kingdom
    Biotechnol Bioeng 96:559-69. 2007
    ..ABT synthesis was achieved in a one-pot process, using either whole cells of the dual plasmid strain or cell lysate, while the dual alcohol-amine functionality of ABT makes it an excellent synthon for many pharmaceutical syntheses...
  92. ncbi Select nutrients and their associated transporters are increased in the ovine uterus following early progesterone administration
    M Carey Satterfield
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 82:224-31. 2010
    ..Thus, select nutrients are increased in the uterine lumen by P4 concomitant with the upregulation of epithelial transporters for glucose and basic amino acids, suggesting that these nutrients stimulate blastocyst growth and development...
  93. ncbi Vascular smooth muscle actions of carnosine as its zinc complex are mediated by histamine H(1) and H(2) receptors
    D J Miller
    Clinical Research Initiative in Heart Failure, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, West Medical Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, UK
    Biochemistry (Mosc) 65:798-806. 2000
    ..The functional relationship of carnosine with histamine and the possible physiological relevance of Zn ions for the activity of both agents have not previously been reported...
  94. pmc Effect of intrathecal glycine and related amino acids on the allodynia and hyperalgesic action of strychnine or bicuculline in mice
    Eui Sung Lim
    Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Madi Hospital, Seoul, Korea
    Korean J Anesthesiol 58:76-86. 2010
    ..This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of glycine-related amino acids on antagonizing the effects of IT strychnine (STR) or bicuculline (BIC) when each amino acid was administered in combination with STR or BIC...
  95. pmc Agonist pharmacology of two Drosophila GABA receptor splice variants
    A M Hosie
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge
    Br J Pharmacol 119:1577-85. 1996
    ..The differences in the potency of agonists on RDLac and DRC 17-1-2 homo-oligomers observed in the present study may assist in identification of further molecular determinants of GABA receptor function...
  96. pmc Expression of the Corynebacterium glutamicum panD gene encoding L-aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase leads to pantothenate overproduction in Escherichia coli
    N Dusch
    Lehrstuhl fur Genetik, Fakultat fur Biologie, Universitat Bielefeld, D 33501 Bielefeld, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 65:1530-9. 1999
    ..The enhanced expression of panDC.g. in E. coli yielded the highest amount of pantothenate in the culture medium, with a specific productivity of 140 ng of pantothenate mg (dry weight)-1 h-1...
  97. ncbi [Transport of drugs through human erythrocyte membranes. Change of transport by introduction of amino group or amino acids in benzoic acid]
    Y Matsumoto
    Department of Pharmacy, Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Science, Fukuoka, Japan
    Yakugaku Zasshi 110:120-6. 1990
    ..The same correlation was also observed in the drugs to which hydroxyl groups were introduced except alpha- or gamma-RA. This transport of alpha- or gamma-RA suggested the participation of the band 3 anion transporter protein...
  98. pmc Oligolysine-based saccharide clusters: synthesis and specificity
    Natacha Frison
    Glycobiologie, Vectorologie et Trafic Intracellulaire, Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, CNRS, 1, rue Charles Sadron, F 45071 Orleans cedex 2, France
    Biochem J 368:111-9. 2002
    ..The glycoclusters containing four or five disaccharides were shown to bind plant lectins and cell surface membrane lectins with a narrow selectivity and with a high affinity...
  99. pmc Role of the D-alanyl carrier protein in the biosynthesis of D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid
    M P Heaton
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208
    J Bacteriol 176:681-90. 1994
    ..The formation of D-alanine esters of mLTA provides a mechanism for modulating the net anionic charge in the cell wall...
  100. ncbi Negative allosteric modulators of AMPA-preferring receptors inhibit [(3)H]GABA release in rat striatum
    L G Harsing
    Institute for Drug Research Ltd, 47 49 Berlini ut, 1045, Budapest, Hungary
    Neurochem Int 37:33-45. 2000
    ..It is also postulated that these AMPA receptors are located extrasynaptically on GABAergic striatal neurons...
  101. ncbi Role of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine and exercise performance
    Guilherme Giannini Artioli
    Laboratory of Applied Nutrition and Metabolism, School of Physical Education and Sports, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 42:1162-73. 2010
    ..No important side effect was related to the use of this amino acid so far. In conclusion, beta-alanine supplementation seems to be a safe nutritional strategy capable of improving high-intensity anaerobic performance...

Research Grants30

  1. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS OF THE GLOBUS PALLIDUS
    RONALD HUFFMAN; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ....
  2. AMINO ACIDS IN URINE, DIET & BP: INT'L POPULATION STUDY
    Martha Daviglus; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. ALKALOID SYNTHESIS USING ORGANORHODIUM CHEMISTRY
    MARIE KRAFFT; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Both the Amaryllidaceae alkaloids and Dendrobine provide ideal targets for investigating the scope of our new rhodium promoted olefin functionalization reaction sequence...
  4. ADAPTATION OF RENAL TAURINE TRANSPORT
    Russell Chesney; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..5 ) The renal adaptive response may serve to enhance both taurine and chloride uptake by renal epithelium. ( 6 ) The prolonged adaptive response involves transcription of increased amounts of messenger RNA...
  5. CELLULAR ASPECTS OF ACTIVE TRANSPORT
    Roy Forster; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..A kinetic analysis will seek to affinity, capcacity, saturability, and the degree of specificity of this unique taurine transport system. ..
  6. REGULATION OF B-ALANINE METABOLISM
    THOMAS TRAUT; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Upon completion of studies with the rat enzyme, we will begin to isolate and characterize the human enzyme. With antibodies to the rat enzyme as a probe, we will also start work on cloning the human gene for beta-alanine synthase...
  7. Mechanism-Based & Structure-Based Inhibitors of GABA-AT
    Richard Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The driving force of the proposal is the design of novel inactivators, the elucidation of inactivation mechanisms, and the design of new potent inhibitors. ..
  8. THE ROLE OF CARNOSINE IN OLFACTION
    Joseph Harding; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ....
  9. EFFECTS OF BETA-ALANINE ON BEHAVIOR AND STRUCTURE
    Merle Jacobs; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..The fungus, Morchella esculenta is used for this part of the study. Electron microscopic autoradiography is used extensively...
  10. Novel Amino Acid-Based Glass-Ionomer Biomaterials
    Dong Xie; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  11. Novel Nanostructured Dental Glass-Ionomers for Advanced Dental Restoratives
    Dong Xie; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  12. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF PLACENTAL AMINO ACID TRANSPORT
    Donald Novak; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These studies will significantly advance our understanding of the regulation of and interrelationships between nutrient transfer and metabolism in the developing fetoplacental unit. ..
  13. Diet Impacts Nutrient Transfer to Subsequent Generations
    Donald Novak; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  14. Mechanisms of Inhibitory Glycine Receptor Modulation
    KWEE THIO; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  15. Arginine and Ovine Model for Fetal Growth Restriction
    Guoyao Wu; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This will ultimately promote favorable pregnancy outcomes while saving billions of healthcare dollars in the U.S. and worldwide. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  16. Properties of GABAc Receptors on Retinal Neurons
    Haohua Qian; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The information gained from these studies will enhance our knowledge about the physiological function of the GABA-C receptor in the retina, and broaden our understanding of retinal signal processing mechanisms. ..
  17. Screen for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (RMI)
    E White; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..tuberculosis. 3) To study the effect of these novel inhibitors on the pantothenate pathway in M. smegmatis. 4) To co-crystallize these compounds with pantothenate synthetase to study their mode of binding ..
  18. RNAi-medicated inhibition of BDNF expression and alcohol-drinking behavior
    QINGSHAN YAN; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  19. TREATMENT OF NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS AND COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS
    Daniel Javitt; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The study will provide new information on the efficacy of d-cycloserine and glycine for both persistent primary and secondary negative symptoms and its effect on cognitive functioning. ..
  20. Leptin As A Novel Neurohormonal Anticonvulsant
    KWEE THIO; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  21. Identifying and Characterizing Histamine Transporters
    ANN STUART; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Successful cloning of a mammalian homologue would open the door to localizing this transporter within regions and cell types of the brain and determining whether it is present in other histamine-containing cells of the body. ..
  22. 2007 Cellular Osmoregulation: Sensors, Tranducers & Regulators Gordon Research Co
    PAUL YANCEY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In all aspects of the conference, the organizers are working to promote the involvement of women, minorities and people with disabilities. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  23. Phencyclidine Abuse & Psychosis: Biomedical Mechanisms
    Daniel C Javitt; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  24. ALCOHOL AND MESOLIMBIC DOPAMINE PATHWAY
    QINGSHAN YAN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This will elucidate the relative contribution of 5-HT2 receptors to the regulation of ethanol-induced DA release and help to explain the effects of 5-HT2 antagonists on alcohol consumption reported in the literature. ..
  25. Effects of Antioxidants on Human Macular Pigments
    Kyung Jin Yeum; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  26. Novel therapeutics for chronic pain
    Paul Wood; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  27. MECHANISMS OF COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Daniel Javitt; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This study will evaluate neurophysiological and neurochemical hypotheses concerning potential etiology of early sensory processing dysfunction in schizophrenia. ..
  28. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL NMDA DYSFUNCTION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Daniel Javitt; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The research will build upon studies currently supported by NIH research and career development awards to the candidate, and will permit the candidate to continue to devote >75 percent effort to research. ..
  29. High-Density ERP mapping & FMRI
    Daniel Javitt; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The equipment will also permit monitoring of background EEG during both human and animal studies. Software is requested for state-of-the-art ERP dipole mapping and ERP/MRI co-registration. ..