alanine

Summary

Summary: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Top Publications

  1. pmc A simple physical model for binding energy hot spots in protein-protein complexes
    Tanja Kortemme
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:14116-21. 2002
  2. ncbi Inactivation of the dlt operon in Staphylococcus aureus confers sensitivity to defensins, protegrins, and other antimicrobial peptides
    A Peschel
    Mikrobielle Genetik, Universitat Tubingen, Waldhäuser Strasse 70 8, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    J Biol Chem 274:8405-10. 1999
  3. pmc Four of the most common mutations in primary hyperoxaluria type 1 unmask the cryptic mitochondrial targeting sequence of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase encoded by the polymorphic minor allele
    Sonia Fargue
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 288:2475-84. 2013
  4. ncbi Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-3 contains coiled-coil motifs in an alanine-rich central domain
    M R Galinski
    Department of Medical and Molecular Parasitology, New York University School of Medicine, NY 10010, USA
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 101:131-47. 1999
  5. ncbi Purification and properties of L-Aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase, an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of beta-alanine in Escherichia coli
    J M Williamson
    J Biol Chem 254:8074-82. 1979
  6. ncbi The Ala16Val genetic dimorphism modulates the import of human manganese superoxide dismutase into rat liver mitochondria
    Angela Sutton
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 481, Hopital Beaujon, Clichy, France
    Pharmacogenetics 13:145-57. 2003
  7. ncbi Probing the structural and energetic basis of kinesin-microtubule binding using computational alanine-scanning mutagenesis
    Minghui Li
    Physics Department, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260, United States
    Biochemistry 50:8645-55. 2011
  8. pmc Use of NMR metabolomics to analyze the targets of D-cycloserine in mycobacteria: role of D-alanine racemase
    Steven Halouska
    Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68522, USA
    J Proteome Res 6:4608-14. 2007
  9. pmc Genetics and regulation of the major enzymes of alanine synthesis in Escherichia coli
    Sok Ho Kim
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080, USA
    J Bacteriol 192:5304-11. 2010
  10. ncbi Structure-function relationships of omega-conotoxin GVIA. Synthesis, structure, calcium channel binding, and functional assay of alanine-substituted analogues
    M J Lew
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3052, Victoria, Australia
    J Biol Chem 272:12014-23. 1997

Detail Information

Publications288 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc A simple physical model for binding energy hot spots in protein-protein complexes
    Tanja Kortemme
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:14116-21. 2002
    ..physical model can account for the wide range of experimentally measured free energy changes brought about by alanine mutation at protein-protein interfaces...
  2. ncbi Inactivation of the dlt operon in Staphylococcus aureus confers sensitivity to defensins, protegrins, and other antimicrobial peptides
    A Peschel
    Mikrobielle Genetik, Universitat Tubingen, Waldhäuser Strasse 70 8, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    J Biol Chem 274:8405-10. 1999
    ..The mutant teichoic acids lacked D-alanine, as a result of which the cells carried an increased negative surface charge...
  3. pmc Four of the most common mutations in primary hyperoxaluria type 1 unmask the cryptic mitochondrial targeting sequence of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase encoded by the polymorphic minor allele
    Sonia Fargue
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 288:2475-84. 2013
    The gene encoding the liver-specific peroxisomal enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT, EC. 2.6.1.44) exists as two common polymorphic variants termed the "major" and "minor" alleles...
  4. ncbi Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-3 contains coiled-coil motifs in an alanine-rich central domain
    M R Galinski
    Department of Medical and Molecular Parasitology, New York University School of Medicine, NY 10010, USA
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 101:131-47. 1999
    ..encodes a protein with a calculated mass of 89 573 Da, which has a potential signal peptide and a major central alanine-rich domain (31%) that exhibits largely alpha-helical secondary structure and is flanked by charged regions...
  5. ncbi Purification and properties of L-Aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase, an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of beta-alanine in Escherichia coli
    J M Williamson
    J Biol Chem 254:8074-82. 1979
    L-Aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase, an enzyme that catalyzes the production of beta-alanine, has been purified to apparent homogeneity from Escherichia coli. The properties of the enzyme are: (a) pH optimum of 6.8 to 7...
  6. ncbi The Ala16Val genetic dimorphism modulates the import of human manganese superoxide dismutase into rat liver mitochondria
    Angela Sutton
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 481, Hopital Beaujon, Clichy, France
    Pharmacogenetics 13:145-57. 2003
    A genetic dimorphism encodes for either alanine (Ala) or valine (Val) in the mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) of human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and has been reported to modulate the risk of some cancers, ..
  7. ncbi Probing the structural and energetic basis of kinesin-microtubule binding using computational alanine-scanning mutagenesis
    Minghui Li
    Physics Department, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260, United States
    Biochemistry 50:8645-55. 2011
    ..obtain a detailed structural and energetic picture of kinesin-MT binding, we performed large-scale computational alanine-scanning mutagenesis based on long-time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the kinesin-MT complex in both ADP ..
  8. pmc Use of NMR metabolomics to analyze the targets of D-cycloserine in mycobacteria: role of D-alanine racemase
    Steven Halouska
    Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68522, USA
    J Proteome Res 6:4608-14. 2007
    ..We have applied NMR-based metabolomics combined with principal component analysis to monitor the in vivo effect of DCS on Mycobacterium smegmatis. Our analysis suggests DCS functions by inhibiting multiple protein targets...
  9. pmc Genetics and regulation of the major enzymes of alanine synthesis in Escherichia coli
    Sok Ho Kim
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080, USA
    J Bacteriol 192:5304-11. 2010
    Genetic analysis of alanine synthesis in the model genetic organism Escherichia coli has implicated avtA, the still uncharacterized alaA and alaB genes, and probably other genes. We identified alaA as yfbQ...
  10. ncbi Structure-function relationships of omega-conotoxin GVIA. Synthesis, structure, calcium channel binding, and functional assay of alanine-substituted analogues
    M J Lew
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3052, Victoria, Australia
    J Biol Chem 272:12014-23. 1997
    ..GVIA (GVIA), have been elucidated by structural, binding and in vitro and in vivo functional studies of alanine-substituted analogues of the native molecule...
  11. ncbi Persistent arterial hyperammonemia increases the concentration of glutamine and alanine in the brain and correlates with intracranial pressure in patients with fulminant hepatic failure
    Flemming Tofteng
    Department of Hepatology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 26:21-7. 2006
    ..that arterial hyperammonemia results in cerebral accumulation of the osmotic active amino acids glutamine and alanine, processes that were expected to correlate with intracranial pressure (ICP)...
  12. ncbi The common PPARgamma Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes
    D Altshuler
    Whitehead Institute MIT Center for Genome Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Genet 26:76-80. 2000
    ..Because the risk allele occurs at such high frequency, its modest effect translates into a large population attributable risk-influencing as much as 25% of type 2 diabetes in the general population...
  13. pmc Allosteric features of KCNQ1 gating revealed by alanine scanning mutagenesis
    Li Juan Ma
    Institut für Neurale Signalverarbeitung, Zentrum für Molekulare Neurobiologie, Universitat Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    Biophys J 100:885-94. 2011
    ..Here, we describe the peculiarities of the KCNQ1 gating process in parallel comparison to Shaker. We applied alanine scanning mutagenesis to the S4-S5 linker and pore region and followed the regularities of gating perturbations in ..
  14. ncbi A comprehensive alanine scanning mutagenesis of the Escherichia coli transcriptional activator SoxS: identifying amino acids important for DNA binding and transcription activation
    Kevin L Griffith
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA
    J Mol Biol 322:237-57. 2002
    ..In the work described here, we prepared a complete library of 101 SoxS mutants containing single alanine substitutions of SoxS, and we characterized the mutant proteins in vivo and in vitro...
  15. pmc Human wild-type alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase and its naturally occurring G82E variant: functional properties and physiological implications
    Barbara Cellini
    Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologico Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita degli Studi di Verona, Strada Le Grazie, 8, 37134 Verona, Italy
    Biochem J 408:39-50. 2007
    Human hepatic peroxisomal AGT (alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase) is a PLP (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate)-dependent enzyme whose deficiency causes primary hyperoxaluria Type I, a rare autosomal recessive disorder...
  16. pmc Alanine scanning of the hepatitis C virus core protein reveals numerous residues essential for production of infectious virus
    Catherine L Murray
    Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Ave, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Virol 81:10220-31. 2007
    ..To investigate the roles of core in the viral life cycle, we performed a comprehensive deletion and alanine scanning mutagenesis study of this protein in the context of a genotype 2a reporter virus...
  17. pmc Hyperpolarized 13C lactate, pyruvate, and alanine: noninvasive biomarkers for prostate cancer detection and grading
    Mark J Albers
    Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158 2330, USA
    Cancer Res 68:8607-15. 2008
    ..Fast spectroscopic imaging techniques were used to image lactate, alanine, and total hyperpolarized carbon (THC = lactate + pyruvate + alanine) from the entire abdomen of normal mice and ..
  18. ncbi Effect of experimental elevation of free fatty acids on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in healthy carriers of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator--activated receptor-gamma2 gene
    N Stefan
    Medizinische Klinik, Abteilung für Endokrinologie, Stoffwechsel und Pathobiochemie, Eberhard Karls Universitat, Tubingen, Germany
    Diabetes 50:1143-8. 2001
    ..8). In conclusion, these results provide evidence that the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-gamma2 gene might be involved in a differential regulation of insulin secretion in response to increased FFAs in humans...
  19. pmc Beta-alanine synthesis in Escherichia coli
    J E Cronan
    J Bacteriol 141:1291-7. 1980
    ..1.1.15), that catalyzes the reaction aspartate leads to beta-alanine + CO2 was found in extracts of Escherichia coli. panD mutants of E...
  20. ncbi Computational alanine scanning of the 1:1 human growth hormone-receptor complex
    Shuanghong Huo
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0446, USA
    J Comput Chem 23:15-27. 2002
    ..Hormone (hGH) complexed with its receptor to assess both the validity and the limitations of the computational alanine scanning approach...
  21. ncbi Importance of individual side chains for the stability of a protein fold: computational alanine scanning of the insulin monomer
    Vincent Zoete
    Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics SIB, Molecular Modeling Group, Quartier Sorge Batiment Genopode, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Comput Chem 27:1843-57. 2006
    ..In the present application, CMEPS replaces each amino acid by an alanine residue. Therefore, most mutations lead to cavities in the protein...
  22. ncbi Alanine variant of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARgamma gene might be associated with decreased risk of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes
    Maciej T Malecki
    Department of Metabolic Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 15 Kopernika Street, 31 501 Krakow, Poland
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract 80:139-45. 2008
    ..Molecular background of diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains unknown. An interesting group of candidate genes encode proteins involved in insulin resistance...
  23. ncbi ASCT-1 is a neutral amino acid exchanger with chloride channel activity
    N Zerangue
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    J Biol Chem 271:27991-4. 1996
    ..transport activity known as system ASC is characterized by a preference for small neutral amino acids including alanine, serine, and cysteine...
  24. pmc Interactions of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) subunit NIP1/c with eIF1 and eIF5 promote preinitiation complex assembly and regulate start codon selection
    LEOS VALASEK
    Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Development, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 24:9437-55. 2004
    ..Thus, the NIP1-NTD is required for efficient assembly of preinitiation complexes and also regulates the selection of AUG start codons in vivo...
  25. ncbi Site-directed mutagenesis of histidine-13 and histidine-114 of human angiogenin. Alanine derivatives inhibit angiogenin-induced angiogenesis
    R Shapiro
    Center for Biochemical and Biophysical Sciences and Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
    Biochemistry 28:7401-8. 1989
    ..Replacement of either residue by alanine (H13A and H114A) decreases enzymatic activity toward tRNA by at least 10,000-fold and virtually abolishes 10,000-..
  26. pmc Structural characterization of four prochlorosins: a novel class of lantipeptides produced by planktonic marine cyanobacteria
    Weixin Tang
    Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Biochemistry 51:4271-9. 2012
    ..These findings indicate that most, if not all, of the rings in prochlorosins are formed enzymatically by ProcM lanthionine synthetase and not by a nonenzymatic process as previously suggested...
  27. pmc Characterization of DalS, an ATP-binding cassette transporter for D-alanine, and its role in pathogenesis in Salmonella enterica
    Suzanne E Osborne
    Michael G DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5, Canada
    J Biol Chem 287:15242-50. 2012
    ..and structural studies determined that the periplasmic solute-binding component, STM1633/DalS, transports D-alanine and that DalS is required for intracellular survival of the bacteria and for fitness in an animal host...
  28. pmc Purification and characterization of the alanine aminotransferase from the hyperthermophilic Archaeon pyrococcus furiosus and its role in alanine production
    D E Ward
    Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen Agricultural University, NL 6703 CT Wageningen, The Netherlands
    J Bacteriol 182:2559-66. 2000
    b>Alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) was purified from cell extracts of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus by multistep chromatography. The enzyme has an apparent molecular mass of 93...
  29. pmc Agonist-dependent consequences of proline to alanine substitution in the transmembrane helices of the calcitonin receptor
    R J Bailey
    Proteomics and Biomedicine Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
    Br J Pharmacol 151:678-87. 2007
    ..We sought to determine the function of these residues in the insert negative form of the human calcitonin receptor, a close relative of CL...
  30. ncbi Alanine : glyoxylate aminotransferase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae-encoding gene AGX1 and metabolic significance
    Thomas Schlosser
    Institut für Biotechnologie 1, Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, 52425 Julich, Germany
    Yeast 21:63-73. 2004
    b>Alanine : glyoxylate aminotransferase is one of three different enzymes used for glycine synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  31. ncbi L-Alanine induces changes in metabolic and signal transduction gene expression in a clonal rat pancreatic beta-cell line and protects from pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced apoptosis
    Grainne A Cunningham
    Department of Biochemistry, Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Clin Sci (Lond) 109:447-55. 2005
    ..beta-cell function are widely reported; however, the chronic effects of insulinotropic amino acids, such as L-alanine, on pancreatic beta-cell function and integrity are unknown...
  32. ncbi Aberrant amino acid transport in fibroblasts from children with autism
    Elisabeth Fernell
    Department of Neuropaediatrics, Astrid Lindgren Children s Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, SE 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Neurosci Lett 418:82-6. 2007
    ..The present study was designed to explore whether an abnormality in transport of tyrosine and/or alanine is present in children with autism...
  33. pmc The alanine racemase of Mycobacterium smegmatis is essential for growth in the absence of D-alanine
    Daniel L Milligan
    Department of Biochemistry, Otago School of Medical Sciences, University of Otago, P O Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
    J Bacteriol 189:8381-6. 2007
    b>Alanine racemase, encoded by the gene alr, is an important enzyme in the synthesis of d-alanine for peptidoglycan biosynthesis...
  34. pmc Glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle are linked by alanine aminotransferase during hypoxia induced by waterlogging of Lotus japonicus
    Marcio Rocha
    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Energy and Central Metabolism Research Groups, D 14476 Potsdam Golm, Germany
    Plant Physiol 152:1501-13. 2010
    ..b>Alanine production revealed to be a critical hypoxic pathway...
  35. pmc Molecular defects of the glycine 41 variants of alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase associated with primary hyperoxaluria type I
    Barbara Cellini
    Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologico Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita degli Studi di Verona, Strada Le Grazie, 8, 37134 Verona, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:2896-901. 2010
    G41 is an interfacial residue located within the alpha-helix 34-42 of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT)...
  36. ncbi Staphylococcus aureus strains lacking D-alanine modifications of teichoic acids are highly susceptible to human neutrophil killing and are virulence attenuated in mice
    L Vincent Collins
    Department of Rheumatology, University of Goteborg, Goteborg, Sweden
    J Infect Dis 186:214-9. 2002
    ..The dlt operon mediates d-alanine incorporation into teichoic acids in the staphylococcal cell envelope and is a determinant of defensin resistance...
  37. ncbi Identification of functionally important amino-terminal arginines of Agrobacterium tumefaciens ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase by alanine scanning mutagenesis
    D F Gomez-Casati
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University, Fullerton, California 92834, USA
    Biochemistry 40:10169-78. 2001
    ..To functionally evaluate the role(s) of these arginines, alanine scanning mutagenesis was performed to generate the following enzymes: R5A, R11A, R22A, R25A, R32A, R33A, R45A, ..
  38. ncbi Structural basis for partial agonist action at ionotropic glutamate receptors
    Rongsheng Jin
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, 650 West 168 Street, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nat Neurosci 6:803-10. 2003
    ..Our findings thus provide a structure-based model of partial agonism...
  39. ncbi Brivanib alaninate, a dual inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and fibroblast growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, induces growth inhibition in mouse models of human hepatocellular carcinoma
    Hung Huynh
    Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Division of Cellular and Molecular Research, National Cancer Centre of Singapore, Singapore
    Clin Cancer Res 14:6146-53. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the antineoplastic activity of brivanib alaninate, a dual inhibitor of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) and FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling pathways...
  40. ncbi Comparing experimental and computational alanine scanning techniques for probing a prototypical protein-protein interaction
    Richard T Bradshaw
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology Centre, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW72AZ, UK
    Protein Eng Des Sel 24:197-207. 2011
    ..We find that a 'post-process alanine scanning' protocol of a single native complex trajectory gives results with better accuracy than running separate ..
  41. pmc Cell-selective metabolic labeling of proteins
    John T Ngo
    Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA
    Nat Chem Biol 5:715-7. 2009
    ..Proteins made in cells that do not express the mutant synthetase are neither labeled nor detected...
  42. ncbi Single mutation in the linker domain confers protein flexibility and camptothecin resistance to human topoisomerase I
    Paola Fiorani
    Department of Biology, University of Padua, Via U Bassi 58 B, Padua 35131, Italy
    J Biol Chem 278:43268-75. 2003
    ..The increase in religation rate of the mutant, explained by means of the enhanced linker flexibility, provides an explanation for the mutant camptothecin resistance...
  43. ncbi Incorporation of D-alanine into lipoteichoic acid and wall teichoic acid in Bacillus subtilis. Identification of genes and regulation
    M Perego
    Dipartimento Farmaceutico, Facolta di Farmacia, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Italy
    J Biol Chem 270:15598-606. 1995
    The Bacillus subtilis dlt operon (D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid) is responsible for D-alanine esterification of both lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and wall teichoic acid (WTA). The dlt operon contains five genes, dltA-dltE...
  44. ncbi Concentration-dependent modulation of amyloid-beta in vivo and in vitro using the gamma-secretase inhibitor, LY-450139
    Thomas A Lanz
    Pfizer, Inc, Eastern Point Rd, MS 8220 4183, Groton, CT 06340, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 319:924-33. 2006
    ..These results suggest that LY-450139 modulates the gamma-secretase complex, eliciting Abeta lowering at high concentrations but Abeta elevation at low concentrations...
  45. ncbi Correlation between plasma levels of glutamate, alanine and serine with severity of depression
    Hideaki Mitani
    Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36 1 Nishi machi, Yonago, Tottori 683 8504, Japan
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 30:1155-8. 2006
    ..Statistical analysis indicated a positive correlation between glutamate and alanine levels and HAM-D scores and a negative correlation of L-serine with HAM-D scores...
  46. ncbi Comparison between computational alanine scanning and per-residue binding free energy decomposition for protein-protein association using MM-GBSA: application to the TCR-p-MHC complex
    Vincent Zoete
    Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Molecular Modeling Group, Genopode, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Proteins 67:1026-47. 2007
    ..A study of the 2C TCR/SIYR/H-2K(b) system using a computational alanine scanning and a much faster binding free energy decomposition based on the Molecular Mechanics-Generalized Born ..
  47. ncbi Requirement of transfer-messenger RNA for the growth of Bacillus subtilis under stresses
    A Muto
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036 8561, Japan
    Genes Cells 5:627-35. 2000
    ..The effects of tmRNA on the growth of the cells were investigated under various physiological culture conditions using these strains...
  48. ncbi Development of semagacestat (LY450139), a functional gamma-secretase inhibitor, for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
    David B Henley
    Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Clinical Research Physician, Alzheimer s Team, DC 6161, Indianapolis, IN 46285 6161, USA
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 10:1657-64. 2009
    ..Therefore, pharmacological agents that reduce A beta formation may be of therapeutic benefit...
  49. ncbi Impairment of D-alanine biosynthesis in Mycobacterium smegmatis determines decreased intracellular survival in human macrophages
    Ofelia Chacon
    Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583, USA
    Microbiology 155:1440-50. 2009
    d-Alanine is a structural component of mycobacterial peptidoglycan. The primary route of d-alanine biosynthesis in eubacteria is the enantiomeric conversion from l-alanine, a reaction catalysed by d-alanine racemase (Alr)...
  50. pmc Alanine 32 in PilA is important for PilA stability and type IV pili function in Myxococcus xanthus
    Zhe Yang
    Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles UCLA, CA 90095, USA
    Microbiology 157:1920-8. 2011
    ..In this study, we identified an M. xanthus PilA mutant carrying an alanine to valine substitution at position 32 in the α-helix, which produced structurally intact but retraction-..
  51. ncbi Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy: a new transthyretin position 30 mutation (alanine for valine) in a family of German descent
    L A Jones
    Department of Medicine, Boston City Hospital, MA
    Clin Genet 41:70-3. 1992
    ..This mutation results in a previously undescribed substitution of an alanine for valine in the final TTR protein...
  52. pmc Alanine substitutions within a linker region of the influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 alter its subcellular localization and attenuate virus replication
    Wei Li
    Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL 35205, USA
    J Gen Virol 92:1832-42. 2011
    ..To study the possible function of this region, we introduced alanine substitutions to replace the two highly conserved leucine residues at amino acid positions 69 and 77...
  53. pmc The carbon isotope ratio of alanine in red blood cells is a new candidate biomarker of sugar-sweetened beverage intake
    Kyungcheol Choy
    Center for Alaska Native Health Research, Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, USA
    J Nutr 143:878-84. 2013
    ..Among RBC nonessential amino acids, alanine δ(13)C (δ(13)Calanine) was strongly correlated with intake of SSBs, added sugar, and total sugar (r = 0.70, 0...
  54. ncbi Quantification of hydroxyl radical-derived oxidation products in peptides containing glycine, alanine, valine, and proline
    Philip E Morgan
    Free Radical Group, The Heart Research Institute, 7 Eliza Street, Newtown, Sydney, NSW 2042, Australia
    Free Radic Biol Med 52:328-39. 2012
    ..Summation of the product concentrations provides clear evidence for the occurrence of chain reactions in peptides exposed to HO(•)/O(2), with the overall product yields exceeding that of the initial HO(•) generated...
  55. pmc ald of Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes both the alanine dehydrogenase and the putative glycine dehydrogenase
    Michelle M Giffin
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Long Beach, California, USA
    J Bacteriol 194:1045-54. 2012
    ..The enzyme was purified and identified as the previously characterized alanine dehydrogenase...
  56. pmc Effect on DNA relaxation of the single Thr718Ala mutation in human topoisomerase I: a functional and molecular dynamics study
    Giovanni Chillemi
    CASPUR Interuniversities Consortium for Supercomputing Applications Via dei Tizii 6b, Rome 00185, Italy
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:3339-50. 2005
    ..These results provide evidence that the comprehension of the topoisomerase I dynamical properties are an important element in the understanding of its complex catalytic cycle...
  57. ncbi How the mutation glycine96 to alanine confers glyphosate insensitivity to 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli
    Susanne Eschenburg
    Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Department of Biophysics, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Planta 216:129-35. 2002
    ..The predicted PEP binding site satisfies the earlier proposed interaction pattern for PEP with EPSP synthase and corroborates the assumption that glyphosate and PEP target the same binding site...
  58. ncbi Dietary L-leucine and L-alanine supplementation have similar acute effects in the prevention of high-fat diet-induced obesity
    Anne Freudenberg
    German Institute of Human Nutrition in Potsdam Rehbruecke, DIFE, Arthur Scheunert Allee 114 116, 14558 Nuthetal, Germany
    Amino Acids 44:519-28. 2013
    ..with L-leucine corresponding to the leucine content within the HP diet (Leu) or supplemented with equimolar L-alanine (Ala)...
  59. pmc Crystal structure of the S187F variant of human liver alanine: glyoxylate [corrected] aminotransferase associated with primary hyperoxaluria type I and its functional implications
    Elisa Oppici
    Department of Life Sciences and Reproduction, Section of Biological Chemistry, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
    Proteins 81:1457-65. 2013
    The substitution of Ser187, a residue located far from the active site of human liver peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), by Phe gives rise to a variant associated with primary hyperoxaluria type I...
  60. ncbi Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of a putative substrate recognition site in human cytochrome P450 3A4. Role of residues 210 and 211 in flavonoid activation and substrate specificity
    G R Harlow
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:5396-402. 1997
    b>Alanine-scanning mutagenesis was performed on amino acid residues 210-216 of cytochrome P450 3A4, the major drug-metabolizing enzyme of human liver...
  61. ncbi Clinical features of early-onset Alzheimer disease in a large kindred with an E280A presenilin-1 mutation
    F Lopera
    Department of Neurology, Antioquia University School of Medicine, Medellin, Colombia
    JAMA 277:793-9. 1997
    To characterize clinical features of a very large pedigree with early-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) in which all affected individuals carry the identical glutamic acid-to-alanine mutation at codon 280 in the presenilin-1 gene.
  62. ncbi Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy of the alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution
    Yung Sam Kim
    Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6323, USA
    J Phys Chem B 109:7511-21. 2005
    The linear-infrared and two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra in the amide-I' region of the alanine dipeptide and its (13)C isotopomers in aqueous solution (D(2)O) are reported...
  63. ncbi Editing-defective tRNA synthetase causes protein misfolding and neurodegeneration
    Jeong Woong Lee
    The Jackson Laboratory, 600 Main Street, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA
    Nature 443:50-5. 2006
    ..These findings demonstrate that disruption of translational fidelity in terminally differentiated neurons leads to the accumulation of misfolded proteins and cell death, and provide a novel mechanism underlying neurodegeneration...
  64. ncbi Characterization of bacterial spore germination using integrated phase contrast microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and optical tweezers
    Lingbo Kong
    Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858 4353, USA
    Anal Chem 82:3840-7. 2010
    ..to monitor a variety of changes during the germination of single Bacillus cereus spores in both nutrient (l-alanine) and non-nutrient (Ca-dipicolinic acid (DPA)) germinants with a temporal resolution of approximately 2 s...
  65. pmc Molecular characterization of serine-, alanine-, and proline-rich proteins of Trypanosoma cruzi and their possible role in host cell infection
    Renata C P Baida
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, UNIFESP, Rua Botucatu, 862, CEP 04023 062, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Infect Immun 74:1537-46. 2006
    We previously reported the isolation of a novel protein gene family, termed SAP (serine-, alanine-, and proline-rich protein), from Trypanosoma cruzi. Aided by the availability of the completed genome sequence of T...
  66. pmc Alanine is helix-stabilizing in both template-nucleated and standard peptide helices
    C A Rohl
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:3682-7. 1999
    b>Alanine-based peptides of defined sequence and length show measurable helix contents, allowing them to be used as a model system both for analyzing the mechanism of helix formation and for investigating the contributions of side-chain ..
  67. ncbi Engineering of sugar metabolism of Corynebacterium glutamicum for production of amino acid L-alanine under oxygen deprivation
    Toru Jojima
    Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth, 9 2, Kizugawadai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619 0292, Japan
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 87:159-65. 2010
    Corynebacterium glutamicum was genetically engineered to produce L-alanine from sugar under oxygen deprivation. The genes associated with production of organic acids in C...
  68. ncbi Weight loss and elevated gluconeogenesis from alanine in lung cancer patients
    S Leij-Halfwerk
    Department of Internal Medicine II, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 71:583-9. 2000
    ..The role of gluconeogenesis from protein in the pathogenesis of weight loss in lung cancer is unclear...
  69. ncbi L-Serine, D- and L-proline and alanine as respiratory substrates of Helicobacter pylori: correlation between in vitro and in vivo amino acid levels
    Kumiko Nagata
    Department of Bacteriology, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1 1 Mukogawa, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663 8501, Japan
    Microbiology 149:2023-30. 2003
    ..rates of oxygen uptake with L-serine and L-proline as respiratory substrates, and somewhat lower rates with D-alanine and D-proline. These respiratory activities were inhibited by rotenone and antimycin A at low concentrations...
  70. pmc Characterization of alanine catabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its importance for proliferation in vivo
    Megan L Boulette
    Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, A5000, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    J Bacteriol 191:6329-34. 2009
    ..aeruginosa at the host infection site are unknown. We recently reported that l-alanine is a preferred carbon source for P...
  71. ncbi Kinetic computational alanine scanning: application to p53 oligomerization
    Lillian T Chong
    Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5447, USA
    J Mol Biol 357:1039-49. 2006
    We have developed a novel computational alanine scanning approach that involves analysis of ensemble unfolding kinetics at high temperature to identify residues that are critical for the stability of a given protein...
  72. ncbi Combinatorial alanine-scanning
    K L Morrison
    Department of Chemistry, University of California, 92697 2025, Irvine, CA, USA
    Curr Opin Chem Biol 5:302-7. 2001
    Combinatorial libraries of alanine-substituted proteins can be used to rapidly identify residues important for protein function, stability and shape...
  73. pmc Upregulation of MetC is essential for D-alanine-independent growth of an alr/dadX-deficient Escherichia coli strain
    Lishan Kang
    Department of Protein Expression, Novo Nordisk A S, Novo Nordisk Park, DK 2760 Maaloev, Denmark
    J Bacteriol 193:1098-106. 2011
    D-Alanine is a central component of the cell wall in most prokaryotes. D-Alanine synthesis in Escherichia coli is carried out by two different alanine racemases encoded by the alr and dadX genes. Deletion of alr and dadX from the E...
  74. ncbi Water-mediated conformations of the alanine dipeptide as revealed by distributed umbrella sampling simulations, quantum mechanics based calculations, and experimental data
    Victor Cruz
    BIOPHYM, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    J Phys Chem B 115:4880-6. 2011
    An exhaustive umbrella sampling simulation of the alanine dipeptide in solution is reported...
  75. ncbi Cysteine 10 is critical for the activity of Ochrobactrum anthropi glutathione transferase and its mutation to alanine causes the preferential binding of glutathione to the H-site
    Nerino Allocati
    Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Universita G D Annunzio, Via dei Vestini 31, I 66013 Chieti, Italy
    Proteins 71:16-23. 2008
    ..residue Cys10 in Ochrobactrum anthropi glutathione transferase (OaGST) has been examined by replacing it with an alanine. A double mutant C10A/S11A was also prepared...
  76. pmc Functional characterization of alanine racemase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe: a eucaryotic counterpart to bacterial alanine racemase
    T Uo
    Laboratory of Microbial Biochemistry, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611 0011, Japan
    J Bacteriol 183:2226-33. 2001
    ..pombe has an open reading frame, which we named alr1(+), encoding a putative protein similar to bacterial alanine racemase...
  77. ncbi Mutagenesis study of rice nonspecific lipid transfer protein 2 reveals residues that contribute to structure and ligand binding
    Chao Sheng Cheng
    Department of Life Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Proteins 70:695-706. 2008
    ..These findings suggest that the residues forming the hydrophobic cavity play various important roles in the structure and function of rice nsLTP2...
  78. ncbi Essential cysteine residues in Bacillus subtilis spore photoproduct lyase identified by alanine scanning mutagenesis
    Patricia Fajardo-Cavazos
    Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, Room 201 B Space Life Sciences Laboratory, Building M6 1025 SLSL, Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899, USA
    Curr Microbiol 51:331-5. 2005
    ..subtilis SP lyase was systematically altered to alanine by site-directed mutagenesis...
  79. pmc Loss of the mRNA-like region in mitochondrial tmRNAs of jakobids
    Yannick Jacob
    Departement de Biochimie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1J4
    RNA 10:605-14. 2004
    ..modified by addition of a 3' CCA tail, processed in vitro by RNase P RNA, and specifically charged with alanine in vitro by alanyl-tRNA synthetase...
  80. pmc Structure of the mid-region of tropomyosin: bending and binding sites for actin
    Jerry H Brown
    Rosenstiel Basic Medical Sciences Research Center, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 9110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:18878-83. 2005
    ..e., the so-called "alpha zones") of tropomyosin axially aligned with subdomain 3 of each monomer in F-actin...
  81. ncbi RAP uses a histidine switch to regulate its interaction with LRP in the ER and Golgi
    Donghan Lee
    Protein Nucleic Acid Interaction Section, Structural Biophysics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Mol Cell 22:423-30. 2006
    ..This histidine switch may serve as a general mechanism for regulating cell trafficking events...
  82. ncbi Alanine scanning mutagenesis of HIV-1 gp41 heptad repeat 1: insight into the gp120-gp41 interaction
    Jayita Sen
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA
    Biochemistry 49:5057-65. 2010
    ..this study, the functional importance of each amino acid residue in gp41 HR1 has been systematically examined by alanine scanning mutagenesis, with subsequent characterization of the mutagenic effects on folding (as measured by ..
  83. pmc Large proportion of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases in Sardinia due to a single founder mutation of the TARDBP gene
    Adriano Chio
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Torino, Via Cherasco 15, Turin, Italy
    Arch Neurol 68:594-8. 2011
    ..To perform an extensive screening for mutations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related genes in a consecutive cohort of Sardinian patients, a genetic isolate phylogenically distinct from other European populations...
  84. ncbi A promiscuous aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that incorporates cysteine, methionine, and alanine homologs into proteins
    Eric Brustad
    Department of Chemistry and The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 18:6004-6. 2008
    ..In addition we show that incorporation yields for these amino acids can be increased substantially by mutations in the editing CP1 domain of the E. coli leucyl-tRNA synthetase...
  85. pmc Evaluation of lactate and alanine as metabolic biomarkers of prostate cancer using 1H HR-MAS spectroscopy of biopsy tissues
    May Britt Tessem
    Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158 2330, USA
    Magn Reson Med 60:510-6. 2008
    The goal of this study was to investigate the use of lactate and alanine as metabolic biomarkers of prostate cancer using (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) spectroscopy of snap-frozen transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided ..
  86. pmc Impact of the PPAR-gamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and ACE inhibitor therapy on new-onset microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes: evidence from BENEDICT
    Salvatore De Cosmo
    Unit of Endocrinology, IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy
    Diabetes 58:2920-9. 2009
    ..We prospectively evaluated the association between Pro12Ala polymorphism (rs1801282) and new-onset microalbuminuria...
  87. pmc Kinetic basis of partial agonism at NMDA receptors
    Cassandra L Kussius
    Department of Biochemistry, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA
    Nat Neurosci 12:1114-20. 2009
    ..This result stands in sharp contrast to the localized effects that have been observed for pentameric ligand-gated channels and may represent a previously unknown mechanism by which partial agonists reduce receptor activity...
  88. pmc Analysis of alanine aminotransferase in various organs of soybean (Glycine max) and in dependence of different nitrogen fertilisers during hypoxic stress
    Marcio Rocha
    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Potsdam Golm, Germany
    Amino Acids 39:1043-53. 2010
    b>Alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) catalyses the reversible conversion of pyruvate and glutamate into alanine and oxoglutarate. In soybean, two subclasses were identified, each represented by two highly similar members...
  89. ncbi Functional characterization of tyrosine transport in fibroblast cells from healthy controls
    Ravi Vumma
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Biomedicine, Orebro University, SE 701 82 Orebro, Sweden
    Neurosci Lett 434:56-60. 2008
    ..This study demonstrated that LAT1 is involved in 90% of total uptake of tyrosine and also around 51% of alanine. Not more than 10% can be accounted for by LAT2, LAT3 and LAT4 isoforms...
  90. ncbi Alanine scanning mutagenesis of the second extracellular loop of type 1 corticotropin-releasing factor receptor revealed residues critical for peptide binding
    Kostas Gkountelias
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
    Mol Pharmacol 75:793-800. 2009
    ..To test the hypothesis that EL2 residues play a role in the binding of sauvagine to CRF(1) we carried out an alanine-scanning mutagenesis study to determine the functional role of EL2 residues (Leu251 to Val266)...
  91. ncbi Expression and purification of a Plasmodium vivax antigen - PvTARAg55 tryptophan- and alanine-rich antigen and its immunological responses in human subjects
    Asim A Siddiqui
    Department of Biotechnology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029, India
    Vaccine 26:96-107. 2007
    ..here the expression, purification and immunological characterization of a 55kDa Plasmodium vivax tryptophan- and alanine-rich antigen (PvTARAg55). This protein consists of 480 aa residues with a calculated molecular mass of 55.0kDa...
  92. pmc Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal lobar dementia in 3 families with p.Ala382Thr TARDBP mutations
    Adriano Chio
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Turin, Via Cherasco 15, 10126 Turin, Italy
    Arch Neurol 67:1002-9. 2010
    ..However, to our knowledge, there is only 1 description of 2 patients with FTLD and TARDBP gene mutations who later developed motor neuron disease...
  93. ncbi A mutagenesis strategy combining systematic alanine scanning with larger mutations to study protein interactions
    Karin Fellinger
    Department of Biology and Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, 82152 Planegg Martinsried, Germany
    Anal Biochem 373:176-8. 2008
  94. ncbi Presence of alanine-to-valine substitutions in myofibrillogenesis regulator 1 in paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia: confirmation in 2 kindreds
    Dong Hui Chen
    Department of Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle, 98195 7720, USA
    Arch Neurol 62:597-600. 2005
    ..An autosomal dominant form of this disorder was mapped to chromosome 2q33-36, and different missense mutations in exon 1 of the myofibrillogenesis regulator 1 (MR1) gene were identified recently in 2 kindreds...
  95. ncbi Biomimetic synthesis of lantibiotics
    S Burrage
    Department of Chemistry, Southampton University, Highfield, UK
    Chemistry 6:1455-66. 2000
    ..In the case of the A-ring precursor peptide which contained two dehydroamino acids, cyclisation was again totally regioselective, although not totally stereoselective...
  96. ncbi Studies of the regulatory mechanism of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Mutation of threonine 286 to alanine and aspartate
    Y L Fong
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232
    J Biol Chem 264:16759-63. 1989
    ..These results establish that introduction of negative charge(s) at residue 286, either by autophosphorylation of Thr or by mutation to Asp, is sufficient and necessary to generate the partially Ca2+-independent form of CaM-kinase II...
  97. pmc TARDBP mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with TDP-43 neuropathology: a genetic and histopathological analysis
    Vivianna M Van Deerlin
    Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Lancet Neurol 7:409-16. 2008
    ..Our aim was to investigate whether TARDBP is a candidate disease gene for familial ALS that is not associated with mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1)...
  98. ncbi Labeling, detection and identification of newly synthesized proteomes with bioorthogonal non-canonical amino-acid tagging
    Daniela C Dieterich
    Division of Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    Nat Protoc 2:532-40. 2007
    ..This protocol can be completed in 5 days...
  99. ncbi Relevance of histidine-84 in the elongation factor Tu GTPase activity and in poly(Phe) synthesis: its substitution by glutamine and alanine
    G Scarano
    S D I no 61840 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire de Biochimie, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France
    FEBS Lett 365:214-8. 1995
    ..The results of this work do not support a catalytic role of His-84 in the intrinsic GTPase of EF-Tu, but they emphasize the importance of its side-chain for polypeptide synthesis and GTP hydrolysis...
  100. ncbi A nuclear magnetic resonance-based demonstration of substantial oxidative L-alanine metabolism and L-alanine-enhanced glucose metabolism in a clonal pancreatic beta-cell line: metabolism of L-alanine is important to the regulation of insulin secretion
    Lorraine Brennan
    Department of Biochemistry, Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland
    Diabetes 51:1714-21. 2002
    Early experiments indicated that islet beta-cells substantially metabolized L-alanine but that insulin secretion was largely unaffected by the amino acid...
  101. ncbi A glycine-to-glutamate substitution abolishes alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase catalytic activity in a subset of patients with primary hyperoxaluria type 1
    P E Purdue
    Biochemical Genetics Research Group, Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, Middlesex, United Kingdom
    Genomics 13:215-8. 1992
    We have synthesized and sequenced alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT; HGMW-approved symbol for the gene--AGXT) cDNA from the liver of a primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) patient who had normal levels of hepatic peroxisomal ..

Research Grants74

  1. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase kinase as Therapeutic Target for Hepatic Steatosis, Obesit
    Robert A Harris; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..knocking out PDK2 and PDK4 inhibits glyceroneogenesis by reducing the availability of lactate, pyruvate, and alanine. Following completion of these proof-of-principle studies, we hope to shift our goal to the identification of ..
  2. REGULATION AND FUNCTION OF STE20-RELATED PROTEIN KINASES
    Melanie H Cobb; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The Ste20 protein kinase oxidative stress responsive 1 (OSR1) and its homolog the serine, proline, alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) bind to WNK1 in cells, are WNK1 substrates, and are activated by WNK1 phosphorylation...
  3. Human neutrophils, phospholipase A2 and S.aureus: microbial targets and responses
    William M Nauseef; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the responses of SA in the PMN phagosome to modify the composition of their cell surface (including content of D-alanine and cardiolipin) and to induce cytoplasmic anti-oxidants (e.g...
  4. TARGETING THE MARCKS-FAMILY PROTEINS TO INHIBIT NEUTROPHIL MIGRATION
    Mary K Sheats; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The Myristolated Alanine-Rich C-Kinase Substrate (MARCKS) family of proteins, MARCKS and MARCKS-like 1 (MARCKSL1), are known cell membrane ..
  5. Metabolic Adapation and Control of Lactation in Humans
    Morey W Haymond; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..2. Lactate is the primary substrate for hexoneogenesis in the breast. 3. Glutamine and alanine both contribute to hexoneogenesis in the breast. 4...
  6. Characterization of new toxins (YmgD and YdfD) from E.coli, targeting cell wall
    Hisako Masuda; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..When YdfD expression is induced, 4'-3'crosslinks (between 4'D-alanine residue of one PG stem and 3'meso-DAP of another) are specifically reduced...
  7. Genetic &Functional Analyses of Hypertension Susceptibility Genes
    YEN PEI CHRISTY CHANG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that members of this network, such as with no lysine kinases (WNKs) and STK39-encoded Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK), might have unknown isoforms that are renal-segment specific and the distribution and ..
  8. Mechanisms for cell specific modulation of proliferation and migration
    Thomas S Monahan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have identified a promising candidate, the myristolated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS), a membrane bound protein that translocates to the cytosol upon phosphorylation ..
  9. GENETIC APPROACHES TO PROTEIN-NUCLEIC ACID INTERACTIONS
    Paul R Schimmel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..a key mechanism by which mammalian cells overcome their struggle to avoid confusing serine and glycine for alanine. This confusion is dealt with, in part, by an editing-proficient genome-encoded fragment that is homologous to ..
  10. Probiotic-Induced Elimination of Oxalate to treat Hyperoxaluria
    Marguerite Hatch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Type 1 (PH1), an increased endogenous production of oxalate, due to a deficiency of the liver enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), results in hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate kidney stone formation in ..
  11. Liver cancer risk and prevention among persons living with HIV/AIDS
    LESLEY SUEJEAN PARK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..FIB-4, an established marker of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, is calculated from routine labs (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, platelet count) and age...
  12. ABSORPTION, DISTRIBUTION, METABOLISM, AND EXCRETION (ADME) IN MAMMALS
    Jacob McDonald; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..DTBBA), 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (HMB), β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and 2[unreadable],2[unreadable]-Dimorpholinodiethyl ether (DMDEE)...
  13. Development of PAR2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
    Athan Kuliopulos; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..fatty liver steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia by up to 50%, and suppresses lobular inflammation and systemic alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in mouse models of diet-induced NASH similar to effects in a PAR2-deficient mouse ..
  14. DNA-PKcs Phosphorylation on Hematopoietic Stem Cells Genome Maintenance
    Benjamin Ping Chi Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mice, in which phosphorylation at three residues in the mouse T2605 cluster (human T2609 cluster) are ablated via alanine substitution, die prematurely due to congenital bone marrow failure...
  15. ABSORPTION, DISTRIBUTION, METABOLISM, AND EXCRETION (ADME) IN MAMMALS
    Jacob McDonald; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..DTBBA), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (HMB), and β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), and 2,2'-dimorpholinodiethyl ether (DMDEE) have been conducted under this contract...
  16. Mechanisms of Hormonal Regulation of the Sodium Chloride Cotransporter
    Robert S Hoover; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..With-No-Lysine Kinase 1 and 4 (WNK1 and WNK4), Ste20-related proline alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and Oxidative Stress Response-1 (OSR1) are also important regulators of NCC, and there is data ..
  17. Targeting Kinases that Phosphorylate the KSHV LANA Chromatin Binding Domain
    S Diane Hayward; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Investigation revealed that, while mutation of these residues to alanine prevented chromatin binding, conversion to phosphomimetic glutamic acid residues restored chromatin binding...
  18. ACTIVATION INDUCED DEAMINASE (AID) INTERACTING PROTEINS
    Michel C Nussenzweig; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Mutation of either S38 or T140 to alanine does not impact catalytic activity, but interferes with class switching and somatic hypermutation in vivo...
  19. Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance
    George A Jacoby; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Under Specific Aim 1, we propose to identify essential regions and amino acid residues in QnrB1 via alanine-scanning mutagenesis and deletion analysis...
  20. Pharmacogenetics of ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema
    NANCY JOAN BROWN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..protease, preferentially cleaves dipeptides from the amino terminus of peptides with a penultimate proline or alanine, including the incretins, vasoactive peptides such as substance P, and cytokines...
  21. Tumorigenic role of mitochondria in African-American women
    Keshav K Singh; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The G to A substitution results in an amino acid change from alanine (encoded by the G allele) to threonine (encoded by the A allele)...
  22. In vivo phenotypic effects of naturally occuring sequence variations in WNV
    Robin M Moudy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..a new genotype (WN02) that differs from the introduced genotype (NY99) by a single amino acid, a valine to alanine change at position 159 in the envelope (E) protein...
  23. Extracellular Scaffold Elasticity and Binding Sites in Acinar Differentiation
    Melinda Larsen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..IV, collagen type IV;ECM, extracellular matrix;GFP, green fluorescent protein;IKVAV, Isoleucine-Lysine-Valine-Alanine-Valine;PEG, poly(ethylene glycol);PCR, polymerase chain reaction;PEG-DMA, PEG-dimethylacrylate;PEG-TMA, PEG-..
  24. Linking Limnology to Cyanotoxins in Drinking Water Using Buoy Sensors and Auto-Sa
    Todd R Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..microcystins and cylindrospermopsin) and neurotoxins (anatoxins, saxitoxin, and beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine). In addition, a zebrafish assay will be used to detect unknown toxins and overall water toxicity...
  25. Hepatoma derived growth factor and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation
    Allen D Everett; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..mouse carotid using adenoviral expression of single or combination mutations of candidate PKC serines (S) to alanine (A, loss of phosphorylation) or aspartic acid (D, phosphorylation mimic) mutations, PKCa deficient knockout mice, ..
  26. Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobials Targeting the D-Alanine Pathway
    KAREN G ANTHONY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..discover and develop broad-spectrum antimicrobials that target multiple bacterial pathogens through inhibition of alanine racemase, an enzyme in the D-alanine metabolic pathway that is essential for bacterial cell wall synthesis...
  27. The molecular basis for a broad range of phenotypes related to hTAS2R38
    Sarah V Lipchock; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Individuals expressing the amino acid combination proline- alanine-valine (PAV) find compounds with a thiourea moiety, such as 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), to be extremely bitter ..
  28. Hepatocyte - Based Therapies of Primary Hyperoxaluria 1
    Namita Roy Chowdhury; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PH1) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by excessive oxalate production by hepatocytes due to peroxisomal alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) deficiency, leading to increased conversion of glyoxylate to oxalate...
  29. Genetic Analysis of the Nucleosome and RNA Polymerase II: A Systems Approach
    Nevan J Krogan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..biology E-MAP to genetically examine a set of approximately 450 histone H3 and H4 mutants including A) complete alanine (or serine)-scans, B) comprehensive substitution of modifiable residues, and C) semi- systematic deletions of the ..
  30. The Role of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
    Jeffrey D Browning; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..between energy generation in the TCA cycle and gluconeogenesis occurring from precursors such as lactate and alanine, suggesting that these processes are energetically linked...
  31. Roles for Mismatch Repair Proteins in Maintaining Genome Stability
    ERIC E ALANI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specifically, will perform an alanine-scan mutagenesis of MLH3 and test the effect of these mutations in MMR and meiotic crossover assays, and willl ..
  32. DEVELOPING SOLUTES AS STRUCTURAL/MECHANISTIC PROBES OF PROTEIN-DNA INTERACTIONS
    M Thomas Record; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..upon unfolding/melting, including circular dichroism studies with marginally-stable proteins (alpha-helical alanine-based peptides and the globular DNA-binding-domain of lac repressor) and UV-melting studies with a marginally ..
  33. Translational control and latent Toxoplasma infection
    RONALD C contact WEK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will create a mutant Toxoplasma parasite that substitutes the phosphorylated site, serine-71 in TgIF2 to alanine, therefore blocking phosphorylation and translational control during stress...
  34. MicroRNA-mediated regulation of ATG16L1 expression and autophagy
    John Kwon; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..While the strongest genetic association results in a threonine to alanine transition at codon 300 (T300A) that may alter function of the resultant protein and initial studies have not yet ..
  35. Assembly of the mycobacterial cell wall
    Martin S Pavelka; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..acid and N-acetylglucosamine with peptides (L-alanyl (or glycyl)-D-iso-glutaminyl-meso-diaminopimelyl-D-alanyl-D- alanine) attached to the muramic acid moieties...
  36. Determination of histone modifications necessary for DNA base excision repair in
    JOHN MICHAEL HINZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, NCPs will be assembled from histones with alanine substitutions at lysine residues known to be targeted for acetylation after cellular treatment to DNA-damaging ..
  37. Reductive Dehalogenation in Mammals by Iodotyrosine Deiodinase
    Steven E Rokita; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The essential hormone, thyroxine (3-[4-[4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenoxy]-3,5-diiodophenyl]alanine), is reductively deiodinated in a variety of tissues by selenocysteine-containing enzymes...
  38. Environmental Modulation of ToxT-dependent Transcription
    KARL KLOSE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We have created a scanning alanine mutant library of ToxT in which every amino acid has been replaced with Alanine...
  39. Metabolomics-Measured Urinary Metabolites, Diet and BP, 17 Random Samples
    LINDA VERNER VAN HORN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..known metabolites were quantified in both urine specimens of all 4,630 participants;of these, 5 related to BP - - alanine directly, formate, hippurate, 4 cresyl sulphate, phenyl acetyl glutamine inversely...
  40. Molecular Targets in Peptidoglycan Synthesis
    Christopher Davies; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in peptidoglycan metabolism are potential targets for antimicrobials, we will also investigate N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase (AmiC), an autolysin that is required for proper cell division of N. gonorrhoeae...
  41. Longitudinal study of markers of oxidative capacity and type 2 diabetes
    JEFFERY HUNTER YOUNG; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g. lactate, alanine, succinate, and 1- ketoglutarate) are indicators of mitochondrial dysfunction...
  42. Functions of Bcl10 in Lymphocytes
    Renren Wen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..S138 as an activation dependent phosphorylation site on Bcl10 and demonstrated that substitution of S138 with alanine residue stabilized Bcl10, prolonged NF-κB activation and enhanced IL-2 production by T cells...
  43. Tranthyretin's Regulatory Role in Beta-Amyloid Aggregation and Toxicity
    Regina M Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by screening for A? binding to peptide library derived from overlapping sequences of TTR, and by targeted alanine mutagenesis...
  44. Translation of smart contrast agents for brain tumor characterization by MR
    Garry E Kiefer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These new SCAs (i.e., phosphonate ester and alanine-amide as well as their 19F-labelled analogs) will feature high SNR non-exchangeable protons with two -CH3 ..
  45. A phase I/II trial of silymarin for chronic liver diseases
    RAJENDER KUCHIKULLA REDDY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..role of various doses of Sm compared to placebo in HCV patients by assessing parameters of liver injury (alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) ,(3) to evaluate the mechanism of Sm in the above cohort by studying the dose response ..
  46. Investigation of Reactions of Physiological Importance
    Paul R Schimmel; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..is distinct from that domain and is a motif shared with a related genome encoded fragment that clears mischarged alanine tRNAs. Understanding these two distinct mechanisms for tRNA capture is one of several goals...
  47. Regulation of Sororin by Cdk1-mediated Phosphorylation.
    William R Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We have created a Sororin mutant in which nine putative Cdk1 phosphorylation sites have been converted to alanine ("Sororin9A")...
  48. Critical functions specified by the MLL CXXC domain determine leukemogenic capaci
    NOAH WARREN BIRCH; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In contrast, mutation of Cys1188 to alanine retained MLL's ability to bind CpG DNA, as well as to immortalize in vitro and in vivo in the context of the ..
  49. A POLYMERIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR CANCER THERAPY
    JINDRICH H KOPECEK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A secondary library will be constructed based on results of alanine scanning. This will permit to select peptides with high binding affinity...
  50. DnaK Protein Inhibitor Antimicrobials
    Michael Sturgess; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These properties will be initially studied on peptides in which each native residue is replaced by alanine or tyrosine...
  51. Aminopeptidases for Neurotoxic Pyroglutamate Beta-Amyloid of Alzheimers Disease
    Vivian Y H Hook; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..peptides are generated from A [unreadable] (1-40/42) by aminopeptidases that remove the N-terminal aspartate and alanine residues, followed by cyclization of the N-terminal glutamate...
  52. NMR studies of the effects of mode of birth on vaginal elastin
    Gregory Boutis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..aim of the proposal is to measure the structural and dynamical properties of lysine, proline, valine, glycine and alanine rich segments of elastin of the vagina following various modes of delivery...
  53. Specificity in the Synthesis of Aminoacyl-tRNA
    John J Perona; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Alanine scanning mutagenesis will be used to create a mapping of which enzyme-tRNA contacts influence the affinity for ..
  54. Novel Small-molecule TNF-a Modulators as Chemoprotective Agents
    Jiajiu Shaw; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..has been shown to reduce levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, aspartate transaminase (AST), and alanine transaminase (ALT) elevated by cisplatin, indicating the protection of kidney and liver by UTL-5g...
  55. Reversible dimerization of a CLC transporter: A model for membrane protein foldin
    Janice L Robertson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Changes in free energy will be measured upon substitution of interface residues to alanine or tryptophan, with significant positions studied further by increasing side- chain volume to modulate the van ..
  56. Reversible dimerization of a CLC transporter: A model for membrane protein foldin
    Janice L Robertson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Changes in free energy will be measured upon substitution of interface residues to alanine or tryptophan, with significant positions studied further by increasing side- chain volume to modulate the van ..
  57. Role of transglutaminase 2 in celiac sprue
    Chaitan Khosla; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Three sub-Aims are proposed: (A) Mapping TG2-Trx interactions by alanine-scanning mutagenesis;(B) Engineering a Trx mutant to covalently trap and structurally characterize the transient ..
  58. Pyrazinamide and Trans-Translation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Ying Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tuberculosis clinical isolate DHM444 without the common mechanism of pncA mutations harbored an alanine deletion mutation at 438th amino acid in the C-terminus of RpsA as a new mechanism of PZA resistance...
  59. PKC Delta in Ethanol Regulation of GABA-A Receptors and Behavior
    Robert O Messing; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies in cells that heterologously express 1422/34 receptors and receptor-associated proteins with alanine substitutions at PKC4 phosphorylation sites, will determine if these sites regulate the ethanol sensitivity of ..
  60. Tie Tek Modulation of Cardiac Development
    H Scott Baldwin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tyrosine kinase domains in the cytoplasmic region of Tie1 (tyrosine to phenylalanine/Y1113F and lysine to alanine/K866A)...
  61. Important Sites of Ethanol Action in Purinergic (P2X) Receptors
    MAYA POPOVA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..My proposed studies will utilize site-directed mutagenesis and alanine scanning of the ectodomain regions near the TM domains of P2X4Rs to identify key amino acids involved in ethanol&..
  62. Computational Design of Unnatural Amino Acid Dependent Metalloproteins
    Jeremy Mills; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will first be used to design iron binding proteins that utilize the metal binding unnatural amino acid bipyridyl alanine - first incorporated into proteins by Schultz and co-workers at The Scripps Research Institute...
  63. Efficacy of enteral glutamine in reducing bloodstream infections in SBS infants
    Conrad R Cole; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..6g/kg) vs. isocaloric, isonitrogenous alanine (placebo) treatment in PN-dependent SBS children due to NEC to evaluate the efficacy of GLN to decrease BSI (..
  64. HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTION OF 2-CHLOROPROPIONATE
    Robert Harris; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..The specific aims include: (a) examine the effects of 2-chloropropionate on blood glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and alanine of the fasted rat; (b) to determine the effects of 2-chloropropionate on blood glucose, lactate, pyruvate, ..
  65. Development of Novel Fluorinated Amino Acids
    Mark Goodman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..capillaries by carrier-mediated facilitated transport involving either the "L" large-neutral amino acid or "A" alanine amino acid transport systems...
  66. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS OF THE GLOBUS PALLIDUS
    RONALD HUFFMAN; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..applied putative inhibitory neurotransmitters lambda-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, taurine and beta-alanine was studied. Macaca mulatta monkeys anesthetized with chloralose-urethane were used as the experimental animal...
  67. HCV TREATMENT IN AFRICAN AMERICANS VS NON HISPANIC WHIT*
    Lennox Jeffers; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..As Secondary Aims, we will assess biochemical markers of response to treatment [e.g., normalization of alanine aminotransferase (ALT)], specific patterns of early (e.g., early vs...
  68. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF NOVEL GABA RECEPTOR IN DROSOPHILA
    Richard ffrench Constant; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..He has identified a single amino acid substitution (alanine 302>serine) in Rdl, which confers resistance to cyclodienes and PTX...
  69. EXOCYTIC INSERTION OF POTASSIUM CHANNELS IN MEMBRANES
    William Moran; Fiscal Year: 2001
    The broad, long-term objectives of this proposal are to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the alanine-stimulated increase in enterocyte plasma membrane K conductance (Gk) and if the activated Gk contributes to regulate of ..
  70. ROLE OF HUMAN GST PI POLYMORPHISM IN DRUG RESISTANCE
    Shivendra Singh; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..in human populations and involves amino acid residues in positions 104 (isoleucine or valine) and 113 (alanine or valine), is believed to be an important mechanism in tumor cell to alkylating agents...
  71. REGULATION OF GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR BY PHOSPHORYLATION
    Michael Garabedian; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Phosphorylation of these sites is important for GR function: serine to alanine mutations of S224 and S232 decrease GR transcriptional activation, whereas alanine mutations of T171 and S246 ..
  72. REGULATORY DOMAINS OF G PROTEIN COUPLED RECEPTORS
    Ellen Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In order to achieve this goal, clustered alanine mutations will be separated into individual alanine point mutants and tested for their ability to be ..
  73. DRUG DESIGN FOR TREATING OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION IN AIDS
    Kurt Krause; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..useful for the treatment of bacterial opportunistic infections in AIDS by developing strong inhibitors of alanine racemase, an essential bacterial enzyme involved in cell wall biosynthesis...
  74. Mechanisms of Oxalobacter-Induced Enteric Oxalate Excretion
    Marguerite Hatch; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Primary Hyperoxaluria (PH), a progressive inherited metabolic disorder caused by a liver deficiency of the enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) which is cured only by a combined liver-kidney transplant...