West Nile virus

Summary

Alias: WNV

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The molecular biology of West Nile Virus: a new invader of the western hemisphere
    Margo A Brinton
    Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta 30303, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 56:371-402. 2002
  2. ncbi West Nile virus strain Kunjin NS5 polymerase is a phosphoprotein localized at the cytoplasmic site of viral RNA synthesis
    Jason M Mackenzie
    School of Molecular and Microbial Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
    J Gen Virol 88:1163-8. 2007
  3. pmc Evidence for a genetic and physical interaction between nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS4B that modulates replication of West Nile virus
    Soonjeon Youn
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    J Virol 86:7360-71. 2012
  4. ncbi Enzymatic characterization and homology model of a catalytically active recombinant West Nile virus NS3 protease
    Tessa A Nall
    Centre for Drug Design and Development, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, Univeristy of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
    J Biol Chem 279:48535-42. 2004
  5. pmc West Nile virus discriminates between DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR for cellular attachment and infection
    Carl W Davis
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    J Virol 80:1290-301. 2006
  6. ncbi West Nile virus envelope proteins: nucleotide sequence analysis of strains differing in mouse neuroinvasiveness
    T J Chambers
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, St Louis University School of Medicine, MO 63104, USA
    J Gen Virol 79:2375-80. 1998
  7. pmc Identification of neutralizing epitopes within structural domain III of the West Nile virus envelope protein
    David W C Beasley
    WHO Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 76:13097-100. 2002
  8. ncbi Interaction of West Nile virus with alpha v beta 3 integrin mediates virus entry into cells
    Justin Jang Hann Chu
    Flavivirology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, 5 Science Drive 2, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597
    J Biol Chem 279:54533-41. 2004
  9. ncbi An attenuated West Nile prototype virus is highly immunogenic and protects against the deadly NY99 strain: a candidate for live WN vaccine development
    Galina Yamshchikov
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA
    Virology 330:304-12. 2004
  10. pmc Complement activation is required for induction of a protective antibody response against West Nile virus infection
    Erin Mehlhop
    Department of Medicine, Molecular Microbiology, and Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Ave, Box 8051, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 79:7466-77. 2005

Research Grants

  1. A Novel Method of Generating Hepatitis C Virus-Like Particles using Lentivirus
    Boro Dropulic; Fiscal Year: 2009
  2. Emergence and adaption of West Nile virus in New York
    Laura Kramer; Fiscal Year: 2006
  3. GREGORY DAVID EBEL; Fiscal Year: 2016
  4. JEFFERSON ARCHER VAUGHAN; Fiscal Year: 2014
  5. Recombinant Subunit Vaccine/Prevention of West Nile Vir*
    Beth Ann Coller; Fiscal Year: 2006
  6. Immunotherapeutics for Treatment of Flavivirus Infection
    Erol Fikrig; Fiscal Year: 2010
  7. In vivo phenotypic effects of naturally occuring sequence variations in WNV
    Robin M Moudy; Fiscal Year: 2010
  8. Anandasankar Ray; Fiscal Year: 2014
  9. Systematic analysis of cell death regulation in mosquitoes
    Lei Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2009
  10. Manipulation of stem cell activity and cell death by intracellular bacteria
    Horacio M Frydman; Fiscal Year: 2013

Patents

  1. APTAMERS FOR BINDING FLAVIVIRUS PROTEINS
  2. MGMT-based method for obtaining high yield of recombinant protein expression
  3. FLAVIVIRUS REPLICONS
  4. OLIGONUCLEOTIDE ANALOG AND METHOD FOR TREATING FLAVIVIRUS INFECTIONS
  5. COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR DETECTING WEST NILE VIRUS
  6. FLAVIVIRUS REPLICONS
  7. MULTIPLEX IMMUNO SCREENING ASSAY
  8. WEST NILE VIRUS
  9. MGMT-based method for obtaining high yield of recombinant protein expression
  10. MULTIPLEX IMMUNO SCREENING ASSAY

Detail Information

Publications316 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The molecular biology of West Nile Virus: a new invader of the western hemisphere
    Margo A Brinton
    Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta 30303, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 56:371-402. 2002
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally also infects humans and horses...
  2. ncbi West Nile virus strain Kunjin NS5 polymerase is a phosphoprotein localized at the cytoplasmic site of viral RNA synthesis
    Jason M Mackenzie
    School of Molecular and Microbial Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
    J Gen Virol 88:1163-8. 2007
    Using West Nile virus strain Kunjin virus (WNV(KUN)) as a model system for flavivirus replication, we showed that the virus replication complex (RC) is associated with the dsRNA template located in induced membranes only in the cytoplasm...
  3. pmc Evidence for a genetic and physical interaction between nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS4B that modulates replication of West Nile virus
    Soonjeon Youn
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    J Virol 86:7360-71. 2012
    ..Exchange of two amino acids at positions 10 and 11 from dengue virus (DENV) into West Nile virus (WNV) NS1 (RQ10NK) changed its relative surface expression and secretion and attenuated infectivity...
  4. ncbi Enzymatic characterization and homology model of a catalytically active recombinant West Nile virus NS3 protease
    Tessa A Nall
    Centre for Drug Design and Development, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, Univeristy of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
    J Biol Chem 279:48535-42. 2004
    b>West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus with a rapidly expanding global distribution. Infection causes severe neurological disease and fatalities in both human and animal hosts...
  5. pmc West Nile virus discriminates between DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR for cellular attachment and infection
    Carl W Davis
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    J Virol 80:1290-301. 2006
    ..In this study, we investigated whether these lectins could enhance cellular infection by West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus related to dengue virus...
  6. ncbi West Nile virus envelope proteins: nucleotide sequence analysis of strains differing in mouse neuroinvasiveness
    T J Chambers
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, St Louis University School of Medicine, MO 63104, USA
    J Gen Virol 79:2375-80. 1998
    ..Also, sequence comparison with the WN virus (Nigeria) strain revealed considerable divergence of the E protein at the nucleotide and amino acid levels...
  7. pmc Identification of neutralizing epitopes within structural domain III of the West Nile virus envelope protein
    David W C Beasley
    WHO Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 76:13097-100. 2002
    ..antibodies, we have mapped epitopes in domain III of the envelope protein of the New York strain of West Nile virus. The ability of monoclonal antibodies that recognize these epitopes to neutralize virus appeared to differ ..
  8. ncbi Interaction of West Nile virus with alpha v beta 3 integrin mediates virus entry into cells
    Justin Jang Hann Chu
    Flavivirology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, 5 Science Drive 2, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597
    J Biol Chem 279:54533-41. 2004
    ..b>West Nile virus entry is independent of divalent cations and is not highly blocked by arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) ..
  9. ncbi An attenuated West Nile prototype virus is highly immunogenic and protects against the deadly NY99 strain: a candidate for live WN vaccine development
    Galina Yamshchikov
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA
    Virology 330:304-12. 2004
    In a short time, West Nile virus has developed into a nationwide health and veterinary problem. The high virulence of the circulating virus and related lineage 1 WN strains hinders development of an attenuated live vaccine...
  10. pmc Complement activation is required for induction of a protective antibody response against West Nile virus infection
    Erin Mehlhop
    Department of Medicine, Molecular Microbiology, and Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Ave, Box 8051, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 79:7466-77. 2005
    Infection with West Nile virus (WNV) causes a severe infection of the central nervous system (CNS) with higher levels of morbidity and mortality in the elderly and the immunocompromised...
  11. ncbi Structural basis for the activation of flaviviral NS3 proteases from dengue and West Nile virus
    Paul Erbel
    Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Protease Platform, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 13:372-3. 2006
    ..Here we report the crystal structures of a dengue NS2B-NS3pro complex and a West Nile virus NS2B-NS3pro complex with a substrate-based inhibitor...
  12. pmc Infectious entry of West Nile virus occurs through a clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway
    J J H Chu
    Flavivirology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, 5 Science Dr 2, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597, Singapore
    J Virol 78:10543-55. 2004
    ..Overexpression of dominant-negative mutants of Eps15 strongly inhibits West Nile virus (WNV) internalization, and pharmacological drugs that blocks clathrin also caused a marked reduction in virus ..
  13. ncbi Construction and characterization of subgenomic replicons of New York strain of West Nile virus
    Pei Yong Shi
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201, USA
    Virology 296:219-33. 2002
    The lineage I strain of West Nile virus (WNV) frequently causes human epidemics, including the recent outbreak in North America (Lanciotti et al., 1999, Science 286:2333-2337)...
  14. pmc MKRN1 induces degradation of West Nile virus capsid protein by functioning as an E3 ligase
    Aram Ko
    Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440 746, South Korea
    J Virol 84:426-36. 2010
    b>West Nile virus capsid protein (WNVCp) displays pathogenic toxicity via the apoptotic pathway. However, a cellular mechanism protective against this toxic effect has not been observed so far...
  15. pmc Antagonism of the complement component C4 by flavivirus nonstructural protein NS1
    Panisadee Avirutnan
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Exp Med 207:793-806. 2010
    ..Herein, we demonstrate that dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), and yellow fever virus (YFV) NS1 attenuate classical and lectin pathway activation by directly ..
  16. doi Comprehensive mapping of West Nile virus (WNV)- and Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex-specific linear B-cell epitopes from WNV non-structural protein 1
    En Cheng Sun
    The Key Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health, Ministry of Agriculture, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001, PR China
    J Gen Virol 93:50-60. 2012
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) elicits protective immune responses during infection of animals...
  17. ncbi Viral envelope protein glycosylation is a molecular determinant of the neuroinvasiveness of the New York strain of West Nile virus
    Kazuya Shirato
    Laboratory of Public Health, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060 0818, Japan
    J Gen Virol 85:3637-45. 2004
    ..These results suggested that E protein glycosylation is a molecular determinant of neuroinvasiveness in the NY strains of WN virus...
  18. ncbi Energetics of RNA binding by the West Nile virus RNA triphosphatase
    Ines Benzaghou
    Departement de Biochimie, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Sherbrooke, 3001 12e Avenue, Sherbrooke, Queb, Canada J1H 5N4
    FEBS Lett 580:867-77. 2006
    The West Nile virus (WNV) RNA genome harbors the characteristic methylated cap structure present at the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs...
  19. pmc Expression and purification of a two-component flaviviral proteinase resistant to autocleavage at the NS2B-NS3 junction region
    Sergey A Shiryaev
    Inflammatory and Infectious Disease Center, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Protein Expr Purif 52:334-9. 2007
    Regulated proteolysis of the polyprotein precursor of West Nile virus (WNV) by the essential NS2B-NS3(pro)tease, a promising drug target for WNV inhibitors, is required for the propagation of infectious virions...
  20. ncbi Proteins C and NS4B of the flavivirus Kunjin translocate independently into the nucleus
    E G Westaway
    Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Centre, Royal Children s Hospital, Brisbane, Australia
    Virology 234:31-41. 1997
    ..Dual IF with antibodies to double-stranded RNA showed that cytoplasmic locations of C and NS4B were apparently associated in part with the sites of viral RNA synthesis which were resistant to solubilization by Triton X-100...
  21. pmc Ultrastructure of Kunjin virus-infected cells: colocalization of NS1 and NS3 with double-stranded RNA, and of NS2B with NS3, in virus-induced membrane structures
    E G Westaway
    Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Centre, Royal Children s Hospital, Brisbane, Australia
    J Virol 71:6650-61. 1997
    ..The collection of induced membranes may represent virus factories in which translation, RNA synthesis, and virus assembly occur...
  22. ncbi Subcellular localization and some biochemical properties of the flavivirus Kunjin nonstructural proteins NS2A and NS4A
    J M MacKenzie
    Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Centre, Royal Children s Hospital, Herston, Brisbane, Australia
    Virology 245:203-15. 1998
    ..Taken together the results indicate that the flavivirus replication complex includes NS2A and NS4A in the VP in addition to the previously identified NS1 and NS3...
  23. ncbi Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States
    R S Lanciotti
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Science 286:2333-7. 1999
    ..This North American WN virus was most closely related to a WN virus isolated from a dead goose in Israel in 1998...
  24. pmc cis- and trans-acting elements in flavivirus RNA replication
    A A Khromykh
    Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Centre, Royal Children s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland 4029, Australia
    J Virol 74:3253-63. 2000
    ....
  25. pmc Coupling between replication and packaging of flavivirus RNA: evidence derived from the use of DNA-based full-length cDNA clones of Kunjin virus
    A A Khromykh
    Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Centre, Royal Children s Hospital, Brisbane, Australia
    J Virol 75:4633-40. 2001
    ..This mechanism may thus help alleviate the high-copy error rate of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases...
  26. pmc Assembly and maturation of the flavivirus Kunjin virus appear to occur in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and along the secretory pathway, respectively
    J M MacKenzie
    Clinical Medical Virology Centre, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia
    J Virol 75:10787-99. 2001
    ..The results suggest that the assembly of virions occurs within the lumen of the RER and that subsequent maturation occurs via the secretory pathway...
  27. ncbi Mouse neuroinvasive phenotype of West Nile virus strains varies depending upon virus genotype
    David W C Beasley
    Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    Virology 296:17-23. 2002
    ..Virus isolated in North America was found to be highly neuroinvasive with a lack of age-related resistance to infection in mice normally associated with mosquito-borne flaviviruses...
  28. ncbi Complete genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus strains isolated from the United States, Europe, and the Middle East
    Robert S Lanciotti
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA
    Virology 298:96-105. 2002
    ..Lineage 2 WN viruses have been isolated only in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar. Lineage 1 viruses can be further subdivided into three monophyletic clades...
  29. pmc DC-SIGN (CD209) mediates dengue virus infection of human dendritic cells
    Boonrat Tassaneetrithep
    Division of Retrovirology, Walter Reed Army Institite of Research and Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine Diseases, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    J Exp Med 197:823-9. 2003
    ..Viruses produced by dendritic cells are infectious for DC-SIGN- and L-SIGN-bearing THP-1 cells and other permissive cell lines. Therefore, DC-SIGN may be considered as a new target for designing therapies that block dengue infection...
  30. ncbi Structure of West Nile virus
    Suchetana Mukhopadhyay
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, USA West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
    Science 302:248. 2003
  31. ncbi Inhibition of West Nile virus entry by using a recombinant domain III from the envelope glycoprotein
    J J H Chu
    Flavivirology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, 5 Science Drive 2, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597, Singapore
    J Gen Virol 86:405-12. 2005
    ..In this study, the involvement of domain III of West Nile virus (WNV-DIII) envelope protein in binding to host cell surface was investigated...
  32. pmc Development of a humanized monoclonal antibody with therapeutic potential against West Nile virus
    Theodore Oliphant
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Box 8051, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Nat Med 11:522-30. 2005
    Neutralization of West Nile virus (WNV) in vivo correlates with the development of an antibody response against the viral envelope (E) protein...
  33. pmc Envelope protein glycosylation status influences mouse neuroinvasion phenotype of genetic lineage 1 West Nile virus strains
    David W C Beasley
    Department of Pathology, Cancer Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 79:8339-47. 2005
    The introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America has been associated with relatively high rates of neurological disease and death in humans, birds, horses, and some other animals...
  34. pmc N-linked glycosylation of west nile virus envelope proteins influences particle assembly and infectivity
    Sheri L Hanna
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, 225 Johnson Pavilion, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Virol 79:13262-74. 2005
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) encodes two envelope proteins, premembrane (prM) and envelope (E). While the prM protein of all WNV strains contains a single N-linked glycosylation site, not all strains contain an N-linked site in the E protein...
  35. pmc Alpha/beta interferon protects against lethal West Nile virus infection by restricting cellular tropism and enhancing neuronal survival
    Melanie A Samuel
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8051, 660 S Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 79:13350-61. 2005
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is neurotropic in humans, birds, and other animals...
  36. pmc Antibodies against West Nile Virus nonstructural protein NS1 prevent lethal infection through Fc gamma receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms
    Kyung Min Chung
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8051, 660 S Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 80:1340-51. 2006
    ..In this study, we purified a recombinant, secreted form of West Nile virus (WNV) NS1 glycoprotein from baculovirus-infected insect cells and generated 22 new NS1-specific monoclonal ..
  37. pmc West Nile virus 5'-cap structure is formed by sequential guanine N-7 and ribose 2'-O methylations by nonstructural protein 5
    Debashish Ray
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, 12201, USA
    J Virol 80:8362-70. 2006
    ..Using West Nile virus (WNV), we demonstrate, for the first time, that the nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) mediates both guanine N-7 ..
  38. pmc Crystal structure of west nile virus envelope glycoprotein reveals viral surface epitopes
    Ryuta Kanai
    266Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, The Bass Center for Structural Biology, Yale University, 266 Whitney Ave, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    J Virol 80:11000-8. 2006
    b>West Nile virus, a member of the Flavivirus genus, causes fever that can progress to life-threatening encephalitis. The major envelope glycoprotein, E, of these viruses mediates viral attachment and entry by membrane fusion...
  39. pmc Pathogenesis of West Nile Virus infection: a balance between virulence, innate and adaptive immunity, and viral evasion
    Melanie A Samuel
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8051, 660 S Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 80:9349-60. 2006
  40. pmc Crystal structure of the West Nile virus envelope glycoprotein
    Grant E Nybakken
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8118, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110 1093, USA
    J Virol 80:11467-74. 2006
    The envelope glycoprotein (E) of West Nile virus (WNV) undergoes a conformational rearrangement triggered by low pH that results in a class II fusion event required for viral entry. Herein we present the 3...
  41. pmc West Nile virus nonstructural protein NS1 inhibits complement activation by binding the regulatory protein factor H
    Kyung Min Chung
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:19111-6. 2006
    ..Herein, we demonstrate an immunomodulatory function of West Nile virus NS1...
  42. ncbi West Nile virus
    Laura D Kramer
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Lancet Neurol 6:171-81. 2007
    b>West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus originally isolated in 1937 from the blood of a febrile woman in the West Nile province of Uganda...
  43. ncbi Live-attenuated recombinant equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) induces a neutralizing antibody response against West Nile virus (WNV)
    Cristina T Rosas
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Virus Res 125:69-78. 2007
    The immunogenicity in horses of a recombinant equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine expressing West Nile virus (WNV) prM and E proteins was studied...
  44. pmc Genetic interactions among the West Nile virus methyltransferase, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and the 5' stem-loop of genomic RNA
    Bo Zhang
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201, USA
    J Virol 82:7047-58. 2008
    ..Here, we report genetic interactions of West Nile virus (WNV) methyltransferase with the RdRp and the 5'-terminal stem-loop of viral genomic RNA...
  45. pmc Binding of flavivirus nonstructural protein NS1 to C4b binding protein modulates complement activation
    Panisadee Avirutnan
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Immunol 187:424-33. 2011
    ..Together, these studies further define the immune evasion potential of NS1 in reducing the functional capacity of C4 in complement activation and control of flavivirus infection...
  46. ncbi A novel complex formed between the flavivirus E and NS1 proteins: analysis of its structure and function
    B J Blitvich
    Department of Microbiology, University of Western Australia, QE II Medical Centre, Nedlands
    Arch Virol 140:145-56. 1995
    ..We have postulated that the E-NS1 complex, or at least a major portion of the complex, is a non-specific aggregation with no functional significance in the viral life cycle...
  47. ncbi Induction of potent Th1-type immune responses from a novel DNA vaccine for West Nile virus New York isolate (WNV-NY1999)
    J S Yang
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6100, USA
    J Infect Dis 184:809-16. 2001
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a vectorborne pathogen that induces brain inflammation and death. Recently, confirmed cases of infection and deaths have occurred in the United States Mid-Atlantic region...
  48. ncbi Differential expression of domain III neutralizing epitopes on the envelope proteins of West Nile virus strains
    Li Li
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, and Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    Virology 335:99-105. 2005
    ..revealed differential expression of epitopes within the E protein domain III of ten naturally occurring West Nile virus strains representing major subtypes of genetic lineages 1 and 2...
  49. ncbi Identifying the region influencing the cis-mode of maturation of West Nile (Sarafend) virus using chimeric infectious clones
    J Li
    Flavivirology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597, Singapore
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 334:714-20. 2005
    ..Transmission electron microscopy analyses performed in Vero cells infected with these chimeric viruses disclosed that the 5' end of the WN(S)V genome plays a major role in influencing the process of maturation at the plasma membrane...
  50. doi Structure-based mutagenesis identifies important novel determinants of the NS2B cofactor of the West Nile virus two-component NS2B-NS3 proteinase
    Ilian Radichev
    Inflammatory and Infectious Disease Center, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Gen Virol 89:636-41. 2008
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes neuronal damage in the absence of treatment...
  51. doi Identification of residues in West Nile virus pre-membrane protein that influence viral particle secretion and virulence
    Y X Setoh
    Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, 4072, QLD, Australia
    J Gen Virol 93:1965-75. 2012
    The pre-membrane protein (prM) of West Nile virus (WNV) functions as a chaperone for correct folding of the envelope (E) protein, and prevents premature fusion during virus egress. However, little is known about its role in virulence...
  52. pmc The two-component NS2B-NS3 proteinase represses DNA unwinding activity of the West Nile virus NS3 helicase
    Andrei V Chernov
    Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:17270-8. 2008
    ..flavivirus types including Dengue and yellow fever viruses, the nonstructural NS3 multifunctional protein of West Nile virus (WNV) with an N-terminal serine proteinase domain and an RNA triphosphatase, an NTPase domain, and an RNA ..
  53. ncbi [West Nile virus. Prevalence and significance as a zoonotic pathogen]
    G Pauli
    Robert Koch Institut, Berlin
    Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 47:653-60. 2004
    The spread of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America since 1999 has reawakened concern about this pathogen in Europe...
  54. doi West Nile virus disease in children, United States, 1999-2007
    Nicole P Lindsey
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Rd, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Pediatrics 123:e1084-9. 2009
    Although West Nile virus (WNV) disease has occurred predominantly among adults in the United States, children are also susceptible. Epidemiological data describing WNV disease in children are limited.
  55. pmc In vitro effects of selenium deficiency on West Nile virus replication and cytopathogenicity
    Saguna Verma
    Retrovirology Research Laboratory, Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology, John A, Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA
    Virol J 5:66. 2008
    ..To understand the effects of Se deficiency on West Nile virus (WNV) infection, we analyzed cytopathogenicity, apoptosis and viral replication kinetics, using a newly ..
  56. ncbi Safety of an attenuated West Nile virus vaccine, live Flavivirus chimera in horses
    M T Long
    College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, 2015 SW 16th Ave, Gainesville, Florida, USA
    Equine Vet J 39:486-90. 2007
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) infection is endemic and able to cause disease in naive hosts. It is necessary therefore to evaluate the safety of new vaccines.
  57. ncbi Host-seeking heights, host-seeking activity patterns, and West Nile virus infection rates for members of the Culex pipiens complex at different habitat types within the hybrid zone, Shelby County, TN, 2002 (Diptera: Culicidae)
    Harry M Savage
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, P O Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    J Med Entomol 45:276-88. 2008
    Host-seeking heights, host-seeking activity patterns, and West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) infection rates were assessed for members of the Culex pipiens complex from July to December 2002, by using chicken-..
  58. ncbi West Nile virus activity in Latin America and the Caribbean
    Nicholas Komar
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PO Box 2087, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Rev Panam Salud Publica 19:112-7. 2006
    b>West Nile virus (Flavivirus: Flaviviridae; WNV) has spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean Basin since its initial detection there in 2001. This report summarizes our current knowledge of WNV transmission in tropical America.
  59. ncbi Transcriptome changes in Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) salivary glands during West Nile virus infection
    Yvette A Girard
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    J Med Entomol 47:421-35. 2010
    Persistent West Nile virus (WNV) infection in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is associated with pathological changes in the salivary glands, including apoptotic cell death and a corresponding reduction in ..
  60. pmc Testing independent and interactive effects of corticosterone and synergized resmethrin on the immune response to West Nile virus in chickens
    Mark D Jankowski
    Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center and Zoology Department, University of Wisconsin Madison, 1300 University Avenue, 1530 MSC, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Toxicology 269:81-8. 2010
    Public health agencies utilize aerial insecticides to interrupt an active West Nile virus (WNV) transmission cycle, which may expose WNV-infected birds to these agents...
  61. ncbi Ophthalmologic and oculopathologic findings in red-tailed hawks and Cooper's hawks with naturally acquired West Nile virus infection
    Amy M Pauli
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 231:1240-8. 2007
    To assess ophthalmologic features and ocular lesions in red-tailed hawks and Cooper's hawks naturally infected with West Nile virus (WNV).
  62. pmc Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using recombinant envelope protein expressed in COS-1 and Drosophila S2 cells for detection of West Nile virus immunoglobulin M in serum or cerebrospinal fluid
    A Scott Muerhoff
    Infectious Diseases Research and Development, Abbott Diagnostics, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois 60064 6015, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:651-7. 2004
    Humans infected with West Nile virus (WNV) develop immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies soon after infection...
  63. pmc Diversification of West Nile virus in a subtropical region
    Daniel M Chisenhall
    Louisiana State University, Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
    Virol J 6:106. 2009
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) has spread across North, Central, and South America since its introduction in 1999...
  64. ncbi Risk factors associated with West Nile virus mortality in American Crow populations in Southern Quebec
    Antoinette Ludwig
    Facultéde Médecine Vétérinaire, Universitéde Montréal, 3200 Sicotte CP 5000, Saint Hyacinthe, QC J2S 7C6, Canada
    J Wildl Dis 46:195-208. 2010
    Soon after the appearance of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America, a number of public health authorities designated the American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) a sentinel for WNV detection...
  65. pmc Dry weather induces outbreaks of human West Nile virus infections
    Guiming Wang
    Department of Wildlife, Fisheries and Aquaculture, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762, USA
    BMC Infect Dis 10:38. 2010
    Since its first occurrence in the New York City area during 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America and has become a major public health concern in North America...
  66. pmc Aedes aegypti saliva alters leukocyte recruitment and cytokine signaling by antigen-presenting cells during West Nile virus infection
    Bradley S Schneider
    Department of Pathology, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e11704. 2010
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted during mosquito bloodfeeding. Consequently, the first vertebrate cells to contact WNV are cells in the skin, followed by those in the draining lymph node...
  67. pmc Tumor necrosis factor alpha protects against lethal West Nile virus infection by promoting trafficking of mononuclear leukocytes into the central nervous system
    Bimmi Shrestha
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Box 8051, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 82:8956-64. 2008
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that has emerged globally as a significant cause of viral encephalitis in humans, especially in immunocompromised individuals...
  68. ncbi Factors affecting the geographic distribution of West Nile virus in Georgia, USA: 2002-2004
    Samantha E J Gibbs
    The Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 6:73-82. 2006
    The distribution of West Nile virus (WNV) is dependent on the occurrence of both susceptible avian reservoir hosts and competent mosquito vectors...
  69. pmc Assessment of methods for prediction of human West Nile virus (WNV) disease from WNV-infected dead birds
    Anna Veksler
    School of Public Health, University at Albany, One University Place, Rensselaer, NY 12144, USA
    Emerg Themes Epidemiol 6:4. 2009
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is currently the leading cause of arboviral-associated encephalitis in the U.S., and can lead to long-term neurologic sequelae...
  70. pmc Persistent West Nile virus transmission and the apparent displacement St. Louis encephalitis virus in southeastern California, 2003-2006
    William K Reisen
    Arbovirus Research Unit, Center for Vectorborne Diseases, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Old Davis Rd, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Med Entomol 45:494-508. 2008
    b>West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) invaded the Colorado Desert biome of southern California during summer 2003 and seemed to displace previously endemic St...
  71. ncbi Ability of transstadially infected Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) to transmit West Nile virus to song sparrows or western fence lizards
    W K Reisen
    Center for Vectorborne Diseases and Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Microbiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Med Entomol 44:320-7. 2007
    ..hypothesis that Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls (Acari: Ixodidae) may serve as a reservoir and vector of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in California was tested by determining the ability of this tick ..
  72. ncbi Epidemiology of West Nile virus in Connecticut: a five-year analysis of mosquito data 1999-2003
    Theodore G Andreadis
    Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 4:360-78. 2004
    Two hundred and ten isolations of West Nile virus (WNV) were obtained from 17 mosquito species in six genera in statewide surveillance conducted in Connecticut from June through October, 1999-2003...
  73. ncbi West Nile virus from female and male mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in subterranean, ground, and canopy habitats in Connecticut
    John F Anderson
    Department of Entomology, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT 06504 1106, USA
    J Med Entomol 43:1010-9. 2006
    ..In total, 429 isolations of West Nile virus (WNV) were made from seven species of mosquitoes from late June through the end of October during 2003 ..
  74. ncbi West Nile virus transmission and ecology in birds
    R G McLean
    United States Geologic Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 951:54-7. 2001
    The ecology of the strain of West Nile virus (WNV) introduced into the United States in 1999 has similarities to the native flavivirus, St...
  75. ncbi Overwintering of West Nile virus in Southern California
    William K Reisen
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Vectorborne Diseases, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Med Entomol 43:344-55. 2006
    b>West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) invaded southern California during 2003, successfully overwintered, amplified to epidemic levels, and then dispersed to every county in the state...
  76. ncbi West Nile virus in raptors from Virginia during 2003: clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiologic findings
    Priscilla H Joyner
    The Wildlife Center of Virginia, PO Box 1557, Waynesboro, Virginia 22980, USA
    J Wildl Dis 42:335-44. 2006
    ..The Wildlife Center of Virginia (WCV; Waynesboro, Virginia, USA) from June to November 2003 were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) infection...
  77. ncbi Mosquito vectors of West Nile virus during an epizootic outbreak in Puerto Rico
    R Barrera
    Dengue Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, San Juan, Puerto Rico
    J Med Entomol 47:1185-95. 2010
    The purpose of this investigation was to identify the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) during an epizootic WNV outbreak in eastern Puerto Rico in 2007...
  78. ncbi West Nile virus antibodies in avian species of Georgia, USA: 2000-2004
    Samantha E J Gibbs
    Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 6:57-72. 2006
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) was first isolated in the state of Georgia in the summer of 2001. As amplifying hosts of WNV, avian species play an important role in the distribution and epidemiology of the virus...
  79. pmc In vitro resistance selection and in vivo efficacy of morpholino oligomers against West Nile virus
    Tia S Deas
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:2470-82. 2007
    ..and demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of two antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) against West Nile virus (WNV). Both PMOs were conjugated with an Arg-rich peptide...
  80. ncbi A two-year evaluation of elevated canopy trapping for Culex mosquitoes and West Nile virus in an operational surveillance program in the northeastern United States
    Theodore G Andreadis
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, PO Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 23:137-48. 2007
    ..infused gravid traps for collecting Culex pipiens, Culex restuans, and Culex salinarius and detecting West Nile virus (WNV) activity in an operational surveillance program that encompassed 12 ecologically diverse sites in ..
  81. ncbi Effects of temperature on the transmission of west nile virus by Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae)
    William K Reisen
    Center for Vectorborne Diseases, Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Med Entomol 43:309-17. 2006
    Culex tarsalis Coquillett females were infected with the NY99 strain of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) and then incubated under constant temperatures of 10-30 degrees C...
  82. ncbi Surveillance for human West Nile virus disease - United States, 1999-2008
    Nicole P Lindsey
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, 3150 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    MMWR Surveill Summ 59:1-17. 2010
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the family Flaviviridae and is the leading cause of arboviral disease in the United States. An estimated 80% of WNV infections are asymptomatic...
  83. ncbi Irrigated agriculture is an important risk factor for West Nile virus disease in the hyperendemic Larimer-Boulder-Weld area of north central Colorado
    Lars Eisen
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
    J Med Entomol 47:939-51. 2010
    This study focused on two West Nile virus (WNV) disease outbreak years, 2003 and 2007, and included a three-county area (Larimer, Boulder, and Weld) in North Central Colorado that is hyperendemic for WNV disease...
  84. ncbi Studies on hibernating populations of Culex pipiens from a West Nile virus endemic focus in New York City: parity rates and isolation of West Nile virus
    Theodore G Andreadis
    Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 26:257-64. 2010
    A 3-year study was undertaken to examine the parity status, survival, and prevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) in overwintering populations of Culex pipiens pipiens collected from a hibernaculum located in a WNV endemic region in New York ..
  85. pmc Seasonal patterns for entomological measures of risk for exposure to Culex vectors and West Nile virus in relation to human disease cases in northeastern Colorado
    Bethany G Bolling
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
    J Med Entomol 46:1519-31. 2009
    We examined seasonal patterns for entomological measures of risk for exposure to Culex vectors and West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in relation to human WNV disease cases in a five-county area of northeastern ..
  86. ncbi [Investigation of West Nile virus seroprevalence in Hacettepe University Hospital blood donors and confirmation of the positive results by plaque reduction neutralization test]
    Seniz Ayturan
    Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology, Ankara, Turkey
    Mikrobiyol Bul 45:113-24. 2011
    b>West Nile virus (WNV), a member of Flaviviridae family, is an enveloped, icosahedral, single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. WNV is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoe (especially Culex spp...
  87. ncbi Five-year surveillance of West Nile and eastern equine encephalitis viruses in Southeastern Virginia
    Karin C Loftin
    Norfolk Public Health Laboratory, Commonwealth of Virginia, Norfolk, VA 23510, USA
    J Environ Health 68:33-40. 2006
    To investigate the occurrence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE) in southeastern Virginia, the Bureau of Laboratories at the Norfolk Department of Public Health (NDPH) analyzed mosquito pools and the ..
  88. ncbi Vector competence of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) for West Nile virus
    Michael S Doyle
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Arboviral Diseases Branch, 3150 Rampart Rd, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    J Med Entomol 48:656-68. 2011
    ..Diptera: Muscidae), were suspected of being enzootic vectors of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) during a die-off of American white pelicans (Pelecanus ..
  89. ncbi Potential transmission of West Nile virus in the British Isles: an ecological review of candidate mosquito bridge vectors
    J M Medlock
    Microbial Risk Assessment, Health Protection Agency, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, UK
    Med Vet Entomol 19:2-21. 2005
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) transmitted by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) infects various vertebrates, being pathogenic for birds, horses and humans...
  90. ncbi Oviposition activity patterns and West Nile virus infection rates for members of the Culex pipiens complex at different habitat types within the hybrid zone, Shelby County, TN, 2002 (Diptera: Culicidae)
    Harry M Savage
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, P O Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    J Med Entomol 43:1227-38. 2006
    Oviposition activity and West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) infection rates were assessed for members of the Culex pipiens complex from July through December 2002 by using gravid traps placed at four ..
  91. ncbi Detection of West Nile virus in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human tissues by RT-PCR: a useful adjunct to conventional tissue-based diagnostic methods
    Julu Bhatnagar
    Infectious Disease Pathology Activity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, N E, Mailstop G32, Atlanta, GA 30333, United States
    J Clin Virol 38:106-11. 2007
    b>West Nile virus (WNV), a member of genus Flavivirus, causes febrile illness, encephalitis, meningitis, myelitis, and occasional deaths in humans...
  92. ncbi Spinal cord neuropathology in human West Nile virus infection
    Jonathan D Fratkin
    Department of Pathology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216 4505, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 128:533-7. 2004
    During the 1999 New York City West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak, 4 patients with profound muscle weakness, attributed to Guillain-Barré syndrome, were autopsied...
  93. ncbi Pathology and epidemiology of natural West Nile viral infection of raptors in Georgia
    Angela E Ellis
    Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    J Wildl Dis 43:214-23. 2007
    Carcasses from 346 raptors found between August 2001 and December 2004 were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) using virus isolation and immunohistochemistry; 40 were positive for WNV by one or both methods...
  94. ncbi [A study on the occurrence of West Nile virus in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) on the selected areas in Poland]
    Beata Kubica-Biernat
    Zakład Parazytologii Tropikalnej, Miedzywydziałowy Instytut Medycyny Morskiej i Tropikalnej, Gdanski Uniwersytet Medyczny, ul Powstania Styczniowego 9B, 82 519 Gdynia
    Wiad Parazytol 55:259-63. 2009
    b>West Nile virus (WNV), the etiologic agent of West Nile Fever (WNF), an emerging infectious disease that lately has been rapidly extending its range of occurrence from Africa to Middle East, and to Asia and Southern Europe...
  95. pmc Transmission of West Nile virus by Culex quinquefasciatus say infected with Culex Flavivirus Izabal
    Rebekah J Kent
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Arbovirus Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e671. 2010
    The natural history and potential impact of mosquito-specific flaviviruses on the transmission efficiency of West Nile virus (WNV) is unknown...
  96. pmc Evaluation of a diagnostic algorithm using immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to differentiate human West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis virus infections during the 2002 West Nile Virus epidemic in the United States
    Denise A Martin
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Rampart Rd, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:1130-3. 2004
    A diagnostic algorithm was developed to differentiate between human infections of West Nile virus (WNV) and St...
  97. doi Highly specific detection of antibodies to tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus in humans using a domain III antigen and a sensitive immune complex (IC) ELISA
    Diana Ludolfs
    Department of Virology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard Nocht Str 74, 20356 Hamburg, Germany
    J Clin Virol 45:125-8. 2009
    ..In contrast to most antibodies directed to the envelope glycoprotein of flaviviruses, those to the domain III (ED3) show serotype-specific reactions...
  98. ncbi Detection of West Nile virus in the tissues of specific pathogen free chickens and serological response to laboratory infection: a comparative study
    L P Phipps
    Virology Department, VLA Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Avian Pathol 36:301-5. 2007
    Using an isolate of West Nile virus (WNV) from lineage 1 (Goose/Israel 1998), groups of specific pathogen free chickens were experimentally infected via the subcutaneous or intravenous routes...
  99. doi Increased blood-brain barrier permeability is not a primary determinant for lethality of West Nile virus infection in rodents
    John D Morrey
    Institute for Antiviral Research, Department of Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 4700, USA
    J Gen Virol 89:467-73. 2008
    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability was evaluated in mice and hamsters infected with West Nile virus (WNV, flavivirus) as compared to those infected with Semliki Forest (alphavirus) and Banzi (flavivirus) viruses...
  100. ncbi West Nile virus: the Indian scenario
    R Paramasivan
    Microbial Containment Complex, National Institute of Virology ICMR, Pune, India
    Indian J Med Res 118:101-8. 2003
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is an important arthropod borne flavivirus; usually causes a mild infection called West Nile fever (WNF) in human and horses. Mosquitoes are the principal vectors of WNV...
  101. pmc Epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to differentiate west nile virus from Japanese encephalitis virus infections in equine sera
    Yoko Kitai
    Department of Health Sciences, Kobe University School of Medicine, 7 10 2 Tomogaoka, Suma ku, Kobe 654 0142, Japan
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 14:1024-31. 2007
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is now widely distributed worldwide, except in most areas of Asia where Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is distributed...

Research Grants77

  1. A Novel Method of Generating Hepatitis C Virus-Like Particles using Lentivirus
    Boro Dropulic; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of families of enveloped viruses;E1E2 of hepatitis C virus, prM and E of yellow fever virus, prM and E of West Nile virus, E of Dengue virus and HA of influenza virus can all be efficiently pseudotyped onto rVLPs...
  2. Emergence and adaption of West Nile virus in New York
    Laura Kramer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    DESCRIPTION: (provided by the applicant): West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged in recent years in temperate regions of Europe, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and North America, where it presents a threat to human, equine and avian health...
  3. GREGORY DAVID EBEL; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Aim 1 will determine how the frequency of this contact influences the genetic diversity of West Nile virus (WNV) using a laboratory model transmission cycle...
  4. JEFFERSON ARCHER VAUGHAN; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Songbirds are also important for the enzootic maintenance of certain arboviruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV)...
  5. Recombinant Subunit Vaccine/Prevention of West Nile Vir*
    Beth Ann Coller; Fiscal Year: 2006
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): West Nile virus infection is an emerging infectious disease in the United States...
  6. Immunotherapeutics for Treatment of Flavivirus Infection
    Erol Fikrig; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Since its appearance in the United States in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has caused the deaths of large numbers of birds and horses and close to 1000 humans...
  7. In vivo phenotypic effects of naturally occuring sequence variations in WNV
    Robin M Moudy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in North America in 1999 during an outbreak of encephalitis in New York, and since that time has spread across the contiguous United States, Canada, Mexico, ..
  8. Anandasankar Ray; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..aegypti mosquitoes transmit Dengue and Yellow Fever virus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes transmit the West Nile virus and filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti to hundreds of millions of people...
  9. Systematic analysis of cell death regulation in mosquitoes
    Lei Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..been implicated in the infectious life cycle of a variety of pathogens, such as the malaria parasite and the West Nile virus, in mosquitoes...
  10. Manipulation of stem cell activity and cell death by intracellular bacteria
    Horacio M Frydman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and inhibit the ability of several pathogens to infect mosquitoes, including Dengue, Chikungunya, West Nile Virus, and both chicken and human plasmodium...
  11. Diapause in Culex Mosquitoes
    David W Severson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This includes the recently introduced West Nile virus in North America...
  12. Environmental filters and medically important container mosquitoes
    Donald A Yee; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..g., St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile virus, Dengue)...
  13. Changliang Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..is a major vector species for Japanese encephalitis and filariasis in China, and it is an important vector of West Nile Virus in the USA. Vector control is an important means of mosquito-borne disease prevention and management...
  14. Persistence of West Nile virus in California
    William K Reisen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The on-going West Nile virus (WNV) epidemic is the largest mosquito-borne outbreak in California and North American history and the largest WNV outbreak documented globally...
  15. Molecular regulation of diapause in Culex pipiens
    David L Denlinger; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..regulate this developmental arrest in adults of the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens, the vector of West Nile virus, with the longterm goal of disrupting this vulnerable phase of the life cycle...
  16. Ochlerotatus japonicus: Ecology of an Invasive Mosquito
    RICHARD FALCO; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..is the question of this species' vectorial capacity for local arboviruses; it is a competent vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in the lab and may serve as a bridge vector to humans in the northeastern US, where WNV is now endemic...
  17. Kristen A Bernard; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Our model for these studies will be West Nile virus (WNV), one of its enzootic vectors, Culex tarsalis, and mice as the vertebrate host...
  18. Control of Urban and Peri-urban Culex Mosquitoes
    Gregory Lanzaro; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In the U.S. Culex mosquitoes have been identified as the principal vectors of West Nile Virus (WNV)...
  19. INVASION BIOLOGY OF AEDES ALBOPICTUS
    LEON LOUNIBOS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..During the 2002 epidemic of West Nile virus in the USA, Ae...
  20. Latitude and the Duration of Neartic WNV Outbreaks
    Dyann Wirth; Fiscal Year: 2007
    We seek to explore the hypothesis that the force of transmission of West Nile virus (WNv) may be greater in the northern United States than in more central latitudes...
  21. Development of a Subunit Vaccine for West Nile
    Michael Lieberman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    b>West Nile virus infection has become an emerging infectious disease in the United States. The virus infects birds, the natural reservoir of the virus, and is transmitted to humans by the bite of the Culex mosquito...
  22. Todd C Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..by harmful insects afflict hundreds of millions people worldwide and some insect-mediated diseases such as West Nile virus and dengue fever are alarmingly on the rise in the U...
  23. The Role of RNA Interference in West Nile Virus Diversification
    Douglas E Brackney; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The recent epidemics of West Nile virus in North America and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the Eastern hemisphere highlight the potential for other ..
  24. Jessica Healy; Fiscal Year: 2014
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): West Nile virus has been a focus of public health efforts in the United States since its introduction in 1999...
  25. Environmental Changes and Mosquito-Borne Diseases in Arid Environments
    John C Beier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for irrigated agriculture in Upper Egypt affects the risk and transmission dynamics of the well-established West Nile virus (WNV) and the epidemic potential of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and malaria...
  26. The Impact of Climate and Climate Change on West Nile Virus Transmission
    AUSTON MARMADUKE KILPATRICK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will use more than a decade of research and data at multiple scales on the transmission ecology of West Nile virus (WNV) to determine mechanistic relationships of climate on mosquito populations and WNV transmission and the ..
  27. Hannah Romo; Fiscal Year: 2016
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): West Nile Virus (WNV) is currently the most widely dispersed of all encephalitic flaviviruses, making it an important emerging disease worldwide...
  28. Jessica Preston; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..an Interdepartmental Rabies Committee, and disease issues such as Eastern Equine Encephalitis, Giardiasis, West Nile virus, anthrax, and E. coli...
  29. Michael C Wimberly; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..two cases studies: one focused on Malaria in the Amhara regional state of Ethiopia, and the other focused on West Nile virus in the Northern Great Plains...
  30. Vaccination Against West Nile Virus
    Raymond Koski; Fiscal Year: 2004
    A commercially viable recombinant subunit vaccine to prevent West Nile virus infection is the overall objective of this project. West Nile virus was isolated for the first time in North America in 1999...
  31. Genomics of Antiviral Responses of Anopheles gambiae Against O'nyong-nyong Virus
    Young S Hong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Domestically, human cases of West Nile virus infections seem to be on the rise each year- for example, there were 4,180 clinical West Nile virus cases ..
  32. Identification and Analysis of Flavivirus Protease and RNA Helicase Inhibitors
    Radhakrishnan Padmanabhan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..include the NIAID list of Class A, B, or C emerging human pathogens such as Yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile virus (WNV) and Dengue (DEN1-4) viruses that cause serious illnesses with considerable morbidity and mortality...
  33. ARUNKUMAR GOVINDAKARNAVAR; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..and Viruses ( KFD, Dengue, Japanese Encephalitis, West Nile Virus, Chikungunya virus, Tick borne Encephalitis virus, Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus, Influenza viruses, ..
  34. Kenneth L Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..i) in our recently developed model of reovirus-induced myelitis: (ii) in the brains of mice infected with West Nile Virus (WNV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV): (iii) following virus (reovirus, WNV, HSV) infection of ex vivo brain ..
  35. B Cell Development in Aging
    John C Cambier; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and increased morbidity and mortality following infection by agents such as pneumococcus, influenza and West Nile virus. Multiple acquired defects may contribute to the reduced ability of elderly individuals to produce protective ..
  36. Diagnostic array for aseptic encephalitis
    Darrell P Chandler; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Human herpes viruses account for 4% of all viral infections, and West Nile virus is the most common of the arboviral infections in the U.S...
  37. Cellular Components Involved in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Entry
    Young Min Lee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..JEV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is closely related to West Nile virus, St...
  38. Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors As Broad Spectrum Anti-Flaviviral Therapeutics
    Glenn Randall; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Importantly, FASN inhibitors block the replication of DENV and other flaviviruses including West Nile virus and yellow fever virus...
  39. Alternative regulation of ISGs in WNV-infected cells
    Margo A Brinton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Many flaviviruses, including West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus, tick- borne encephalitis virus and dengue virus, are significant human pathogens...
  40. Antiviral potential of helicase inhibitors
    David N Frick; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..on pathogens with abnormally high global burdens of disease: hepatitis C virus (HCV), Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), yellow fever virus (YFV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
  41. Insulin, IGF and Insulin Signaling: effects on Anopheles lifespan and immunity
    MICHAEL ALLEN RIEHLE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Relevance: Many mosquito-borne disease agents, including malaria parasites, dengue virus, and West Nile virus, must develop in mosquitoes for extended periods before being transmitted to humans...
  42. Transplant Associated Infection Surveillance Network Phase II
    PETER GEORGE PAPPAS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..e. C.difficile, cytomegalovirus, West Nile virus, respiratory viruses, and selected multiresistant bacteria);and 4) to establish a bank for fungal isolates ..
  43. Malaria vaccines modified with TLR agonist adjuvant
    Elizabeth H Nardin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to developTLR-5 linked candidate vaccines to influenza (currently in clinical trial) and flaviviruses such as West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and Dengue virus by VaxInnate...
  44. The Mechanisms of IFITM-Mediated Restriction
    I Chueh Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..critical to the interferon-mediated control of several pathogenic viruses, including IAV, dengue virus and West Nile virus. The study of the activities and mechanisms of these important proteins is the basis of my research proposal ..
  45. The role of the host Ca/Mn pump in emergence of novel viral RNA recombinants
    Peter Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of TBSV replicase proteins to proteins of important pathogens, such as Hepatitis C virus (HCV), dengue virus, West Nile virus and other Flaviviruses and Pestiviruses...
  46. Donald Gilden; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..that cause Eastern, Western and Venezuelan Equine encephalitis) and various Flaviviruses (most notably West Nile Virus)...
  47. Development of a Recombinant Subunit Vaccine for CCHF
    David E Clements; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Candidate vaccines against dengue and West Nile virus have already been produced in this system and both have entered clinical trials...
  48. Tian Wang; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..The flaviviruses contain many pathogens of public health importance, including dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) for which we have no licensed vaccines...
  49. Margaret Kielian; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..such as the encephalitic alphaviruses and chikungunya virus, and the flaviviruses dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile virus. Many of these viruses are classified as category A, B or C priority pathogens, yet in spite of their medica ..
  50. Targeting induction of calcium buffer proteins for treatment of viral encephaliti
    John D Morrey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..if increased calcium buffer proteins can definitively protect neuronal cells in culture and animals from West Nile virus (WNV)-induced death, and to establish the utility of specific cellular metabolites to activate calcium buffer ..
  51. Innate Immune Recognition Enhances Flavivirus Vaccine Efficacy
    Gregg N Milligan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These single-cycle viruses include West Nile virus (WNV) -derived viral replicon particles (VRPs) and a WN encephalitis vaccine candidate named Replivax...
  52. Bifunctional antibodies with targeted CNS delivery against West Nile virus
    Qiang Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): West Nile Virus (WNV) causes infection in the central nervous system (CNS) in several vertebrate animal species...
  53. Structural Studies of Alphavirus Membrane Fusion In Situ
    Wei Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: A key step in the infection of enveloped viruses, such as influenza virus, West Nile virus and Sindbis virus, into the host cell, is fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane...
  54. TLR7 mediates immune cell infiltration and homing to combat West Nile virus infec
    Fengwei Bai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>West Nile virus (WNV), which has caused severe morbidity and mortality in humans and animals in North American, is a single-..
  55. Mechanisms of IVIG Protection in Viral Encephalitis
    EDOUARD M CANTIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Results from these studies will be important for making the case for IVIG as a treatment for neuroinflammatory diseases including encephalitis caused by HSV and other viruses like West Nile virus that are potential bioterrorism agents.
  56. ALTERATIONS IN ADULT NEUROGENESIS DURING WEST NILE VIRUS ENCEPHALITIS
    MICHAEL JOHN VASEK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>West Nile virus (WNV), a flavivirus now endemic in North America, is one of several viruses that are able to enter the CNS, ..
  57. Michael Turelli; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..promise for controlling many diseases transmitted between humans by insects, including malaria and West Nile virus. Because Wolbachia are maternally inherited, they evolve to help their hosts survive and reproduce, for ..
  58. Regulation of reovirus induced apoptosis
    John S Parker; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Many pathogenic human viruses, e.g., dengue virus, influenza virus, and West Nile virus, cause disease by inducing apoptosis...
  59. Identification and evaluation of novel therapeutic targets for virus-induced neur
    Kenneth L Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Viral encephalitis, including encephalitis induced by the arboviruses West Nile virus (WNV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), is a major source of morbidity and mortality both in the U.S...
  60. ROGER TRAVIS TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..The flaviviruses represent a tremendous disease burden to humans, including dengue virus, West Nile virus (WNV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV)...
  61. Genetic dissection of the RNAi-mediated antiviral immunity in C. elegans
    Shou Wei Ding; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Many RNA viruses such as influenza, hepatitis C virus, poliovirus, dengue virus and West Nile virus are important human pathogens...
  62. The West Nile virus methyltransferase
    Hongmin Li; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The objective of this application is to study the molecular mechanism of flavivirus MTase. We will use West Nile Virus (WNV) as a model to accomplish three aims...
  63. Functional role of a host metabolic enzyme in viral replication
    Peter Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of TBSV replicase proteins to proteins of important pathogens, such as Hepatitis C virus (HCV), dengue virus, West Nile virus and other Flaviviruses and Pestiviruses...
  64. Enzootic Transmission of West Nile Virus
    LISA PATRICAN; Fiscal Year: 2006
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The current West Nile virus (WNV) epidemic/epizootic in the United States is exhibiting unprecedented avian mortality, equine disease, involvement of many vertebrate and vector species, and non-vector ..
  65. Development of Novel Small Molecule Flavivirus Inhibitors
    ERIC W BARKLIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    We have identified TYT-1 as a novel sultam thiourea inhibitor of West Nile virus (WNV) replication. The compound has a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 0...
  66. Attenuated West Nile virus vaccine
    Alexander Khromykh; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Since its introduction in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has become the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in the United States...
  67. Mosquito-Virus-Host Interactions and WNV Pathogenesis
    Kristen Bernard; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..b>West Nile virus (WNV), an arbovirus that causes significant human and veterinary disease, is maintained in nature by cycling ..
  68. West Nile Viral Determinants of Avian Pathogenesis
    AARON BRAULT; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by the applicant): Since its introduction in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has become the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in the United States...
  69. Mechanisms of apoptosis in the central nervous system
    Kenneth Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..No established treatment exists for flaviviruses, including West Nile virus, (WNV) the most common cause of epidemic encephalitis in the United States and Japanese encephalitis virus (..
  70. A HTS Assay for Identifying Anti-Viral Drugs Against Arbovirus Infections
    Qianjun Li; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Several recent human and/or animal epidemics are caused by arboviruses, including Dengue virus (DNV) in Asia, West Nile virus (WNV) in North America and Bluetongue virus (BTV) in Europe...
  71. Role of an essential RNA chaperone in virus replication
    Peter Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..tombusviruses and numerous other important human and animal viruses (hepatitis C virus, flavivirus, including West Nile virus and dengue virus, pestiviruses) and plant viruses (luteo- and carmoviruses), understanding the mechanism of ..
  72. Nonstructural roles of capsid proteins in virus replication
    TERYL FREY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We have evidence that the capsid protein of West Nile virus (Flavivirus family) enhances the replication of a West Nile virus replicon, indicating that C involvement in ..
  73. Determinants of RNA virus evolution
    ISABEL NOVELLA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..are hepatitis A, B and C viruses, HIV, influenza virus, most of the cold viruses, rabies virus, Ebola virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus...
  74. Apoptosis as an anti-viral response in mosquito midgut
    ROLLIE CLEM; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Mosquitoes are important vectors for a number of infectious diseases caused by arboviruses including West Nile virus, dengue virus, yellow fever virus, LaCrosse virus, and Venezuelan, eastern and western equine encephalitis ..
  75. Molecular Evolution of flavivirus-resistance in mice
    Stephane Boissinot; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..many viruses of considerable medical importance including the dengue virus, the yellow fever virus and the West Nile virus. Resistance to flavivirus infection has been reported in a few laboratory strains of mice and the genetic ..
  76. Dengue and West Nile Viral Protease Inhibitors
    Radhakrishnan Padmanabhan; Fiscal Year: 2005
    The mosquito-borne flavivirus family includes human pathogens such as yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile virus (WNV), and the four serotypes of Dengue (DEN) viruses...
  77. Broad-Spectrum Therapeutic Human Antibodies for Dengue Virus Infections
    Yorgo Modis; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..prevent and treat infection by several different flaviviruses, including all 4 serotypes of dengue virus and West Nile virus (WNV). Passive immunization is an accepted medical practice to protect against infection...

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  23. Oligonucleotides and Methods for Detection of West Nile Virus
    Patent Number: JP2007521022-A; Date:2007-08-02
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  25. RESEQUENCING PATHOGEN MICROARRAY
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  26. ANTISENSE ANTIVIRAL COMPOUND AND METHOD FOR TREATING SSRNA VIRAL INFECTION
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  28. LENTIVIRAL VECTOR-BASED VACCINE
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  29. Vaccine for West Nile virus and method of producing the same
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