Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933

Summary

Alias: Escherichia coli O157:H7 str. EDL933, Escherichia coli 0157:H7 EDL933, Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Crystal structure of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase
    F Takusagawa
    Department of Chemistry, University of Kansas, Lawrence 66045 0046, USA
    J Biol Chem 271:136-47. 1996
  2. pmc Growth phase-dependent variation in protein composition of the Escherichia coli nucleoid
    T Ali Azam
    Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizuoka 411 8540, Japan
    J Bacteriol 181:6361-70. 1999
  3. pmc Maximum-likelihood density modification
    T C Terwilliger
    Structural Biology Group, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 56:965-72. 2000
  4. pmc Lrp, a major regulatory protein in Escherichia coli, bends DNA and can organize the assembly of a higher-order nucleoprotein structure
    Q Wang
    Section of Genetics and Development, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
    EMBO J 12:2495-501. 1993
  5. pmc Signal transduction and regulatory mechanisms involved in control of the sigma(S) (RpoS) subunit of RNA polymerase
    Regine Hengge-Aronis
    Institut fur Biologie, Mikrobiologie, Freie Universitat Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 66:373-95, table of contents. 2002
  6. pmc Characterization of the novel factor paa involved in the early steps of the adhesion mechanism of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli
    Isabelle Batisson
    Laboratoire de Biologie des Protistes, UMR 6023, Universite Blaise Pascal, Aubiere, France
    Infect Immun 71:4516-25. 2003
  7. ncbi Crystal structure of E. coli YhbY: a representative of a novel class of RNA binding proteins
    Gerard J Ostheimer
    Institute of Molecular Biology, 1229 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
    Structure 10:1593-601. 2002
  8. ncbi Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Montana: bacterial genotypes and clinical profiles
    Jill K Jelacic
    University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA
    J Infect Dis 188:719-29. 2003
  9. pmc Molecular evolution of a pathogenicity island from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7
    N T Perna
    Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Infect Immun 66:3810-7. 1998
  10. pmc Bacterial macroscopic rope-like fibers with cytopathic and adhesive properties
    Juan Xicohtencatl-Cortes
    Laboratorio de Bacteriología Intestinal, Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez, Dr Marquez 162, Col Doctores, Delegacion Cuauhtemoc, México D F 06720, Mexico
    J Biol Chem 285:32336-42. 2010

Patents

  1. Method for producing a transgenic plant cell, a plant or a part thereof with increased resistance biotic stress
  2. Process for the production of a fine chemical
  3. Proteins associated with abiotic stress response and homologs
  4. High Resolution Typing System For Pathogenic E Coli
  5. Yield increase in plants overexpressing the accdp genes
  6. Proteins associated with abiotic stress response and homologs
  7. Process for the control of production of fine chemicals
  8. Process for the production of fine chemicals
  9. Plants with increased yield (nue)
  10. Plants with increased tolerance and/or resistance to environmental stress and increased biomass production

Detail Information

Publications164 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Crystal structure of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase
    F Takusagawa
    Department of Chemistry, University of Kansas, Lawrence 66045 0046, USA
    J Biol Chem 271:136-47. 1996
    ..The essential divalent (Mg2+/Co2+) and monovalent (K+) metal ions and one of the product, Pi ions, were found in the active site from three separate structures...
  2. pmc Growth phase-dependent variation in protein composition of the Escherichia coli nucleoid
    T Ali Azam
    Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizuoka 411 8540, Japan
    J Bacteriol 181:6361-70. 1999
    ..These changes in the composition of nucleoid-associated proteins in the stationary phase are accompanied by compaction of the genome DNA and silencing of the genome functions...
  3. pmc Maximum-likelihood density modification
    T C Terwilliger
    Structural Biology Group, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 56:965-72. 2000
    ..d55, 1863-1871]...
  4. pmc Lrp, a major regulatory protein in Escherichia coli, bends DNA and can organize the assembly of a higher-order nucleoprotein structure
    Q Wang
    Section of Genetics and Development, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
    EMBO J 12:2495-501. 1993
    ..Lrp-induced DNA bending, and a natural sequence-directed bend that exists within ilvIH DNA, may be architectural elements that facilitate the assembly of a nucleoprotein complex...
  5. pmc Signal transduction and regulatory mechanisms involved in control of the sigma(S) (RpoS) subunit of RNA polymerase
    Regine Hengge-Aronis
    Institut fur Biologie, Mikrobiologie, Freie Universitat Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 66:373-95, table of contents. 2002
    ....
  6. pmc Characterization of the novel factor paa involved in the early steps of the adhesion mechanism of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli
    Isabelle Batisson
    Laboratoire de Biologie des Protistes, UMR 6023, Universite Blaise Pascal, Aubiere, France
    Infect Immun 71:4516-25. 2003
    ..These observations suggest that Paa contributes to the early stages of A/E E. coli virulence...
  7. ncbi Crystal structure of E. coli YhbY: a representative of a novel class of RNA binding proteins
    Gerard J Ostheimer
    Institute of Molecular Biology, 1229 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
    Structure 10:1593-601. 2002
    ..Taken together, the evidence suggests that members of UPF0044 constitute a previously unrecognized class of RNA binding domain...
  8. ncbi Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Montana: bacterial genotypes and clinical profiles
    Jill K Jelacic
    University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA
    J Infect Dis 188:719-29. 2003
    ..033). Non-O157:H7 STEC are more heterogeneous and cause bloody diarrhea less frequently than do E. coli O157:H7. Bloody diarrhea cannot be attributed simply to the stx genotype of the infecting organism...
  9. pmc Molecular evolution of a pathogenicity island from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7
    N T Perna
    Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Infect Immun 66:3810-7. 1998
    ....
  10. pmc Bacterial macroscopic rope-like fibers with cytopathic and adhesive properties
    Juan Xicohtencatl-Cortes
    Laboratorio de Bacteriología Intestinal, Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez, Dr Marquez 162, Col Doctores, Delegacion Cuauhtemoc, México D F 06720, Mexico
    J Biol Chem 285:32336-42. 2010
    ..We hypothesize that these ropes play a biologically significant role in the survival and pathogenic scheme of these organisms...
  11. ncbi Stress-induced expression of the Escherichia coli phage shock protein operon is dependent on sigma 54 and modulated by positive and negative feedback mechanisms
    L Weiner
    Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021
    Genes Dev 5:1912-23. 1991
    ..The psp operon thus represents a third category of transcriptional control mechanisms, in addition to the sigma 32- and sigma E-dependent systems, for genes induced by heat and other stresses...
  12. ncbi Crystal structure of the holotoxin from Shigella dysenteriae at 2.5 A resolution
    M E Fraser
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    Nat Struct Biol 1:59-64. 1994
    ..However, the active site in the bacterial holotoxin is blocked by a segment of polypeptide chain. These residues of the A subunit would be released as part of the activation mechanism of the toxin...
  13. pmc Comparative toxicity and virulence of Escherichia coli clones expressing variant and chimeric Shiga-like toxin type II operons
    A W Paton
    Department of Microbiology, Women s and Children s Hospital, North Adelaide, South Australia
    Infect Immun 63:2450-8. 1995
    ..These findings raise the possibility that naturally occurring SLT-II sequence variations may impact directly on the capacity of a given SLT-producing E. coli strain to cause disease...
  14. ncbi The leucine-responsive regulatory protein: more than a regulator?
    R D'Ari
    Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS, Universite Paris, France
    Trends Biochem Sci 18:260-3. 1993
    ..Studies of this global response have led to the suggestion that Lrp--and perhaps some other gene regulators--may also participate in the maintenance of chromosome structure and organization...
  15. ncbi An activator of glutamate decarboxylase genes regulates the expression of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli virulence genes through control of the plasmid-encoded regulator, Per
    S Shin
    Center for Vaccine Development and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 685 W Baltimore St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Mol Microbiol 41:1133-50. 2001
    ....
  16. pmc Phylogenetic diversity and similarity of active sites of Shiga toxin (stx) in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates from humans and animals
    H Asakura
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido, Japan
    Epidemiol Infect 127:27-36. 2001
    ....
  17. ncbi StcE, a metalloprotease secreted by Escherichia coli O157:H7, specifically cleaves C1 esterase inhibitor
    Wyndham W Lathem
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Mol Microbiol 45:277-88. 2002
    ..Cleavage of C1-INH by StcE could plausibly cause localized pro-inflammatory and coagulation responses resulting in tissue damage, intestinal oedema and thrombotic abnormalities...
  18. pmc Transcriptional expression of Escherichia coli glutamate-dependent acid resistance genes gadA and gadBC in an hns rpoS mutant
    Scott R Waterman
    Division of Human Immunology, Hanson Institute, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Adelaide, South Australia, 5000, Australia
    J Bacteriol 185:4644-7. 2003
    ..In contrast to results of previous reports, we demonstrate that gad transcription can be detected in an hns rpoS mutant strain of E. coli K-12, indicating that gad promoters can be initiated by sigma(70) in the absence of H-NS...
  19. pmc pH-Dependent modulation of cyclic AMP levels and GadW-dependent repression of RpoS affect synthesis of the GadX regulator and Escherichia coli acid resistance
    Zhuo Ma
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Alabama College of Medicine, Mobile, Alabama 36688, USA
    J Bacteriol 185:6852-9. 2003
    ..The presence of multiple pH control pathways governing expression of this acid resistance system is thought to reflect different environmental routes to a low pH...
  20. pmc ClpXP protease controls expression of the type III protein secretion system through regulation of RpoS and GrlR levels in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
    Sunao Iyoda
    Department of Bacteriology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama 1 23 1, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8640, Japan
    J Bacteriol 187:4086-94. 2005
    ..These results suggest that ClpXP controls expression of LEE through the regulation of RpoS and GrlR levels in EHEC...
  21. ncbi Crystal structure of a CAP-DNA complex: the DNA is bent by 90 degrees
    S C Schultz
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511
    Science 253:1001-7. 1991
    ..The structure of this transcription factor--DNA complex provides insights into possible mechanisms of transcription activation...
  22. ncbi Characterization of Lrp, and Escherichia coli regulatory protein that mediates a global response to leucine
    D A Willins
    Section of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cell Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853
    J Biol Chem 266:10768-74. 1991
    ..Lrp has some amino acid sequence similarity to AsnC, a protein that regulates asnA expression (Kolling, R., and Lother, H. (1985) J. Bacteriol. 164, 310-315)...
  23. pmc Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli contains a putative type III secretion system necessary for the export of proteins involved in attaching and effacing lesion formation
    K G Jarvis
    Department of Medicine, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:7996-8000. 1995
    ..These data suggest that the EPEC Sep proteins are components of a type III secretory apparatus necessary for the export of virulence determinants...
  24. ncbi H-NS: a modulator of environmentally regulated gene expression
    T Atlung
    Department of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Roskilde University, Denmark
    Mol Microbiol 24:7-17. 1997
    ..Finally, we summarize the evolutionary and functional relationship between H-NS and the homologous StpA...
  25. ncbi Negative regulation by RpoS: a case of sigma factor competition
    A Farewell
    Department of Microbiology, Lund University, Sweden
    Mol Microbiol 29:1039-51. 1998
    ..Thus, we conclude that sigma factors compete for a limiting amount of RNA polymerase during stationary phase. The implications of this competition in the passive control of promoter activity is discussed...
  26. ncbi Expression of the hemolysin operon in Escherichia coli is modulated by a nucleoid-protein complex that includes the proteins Hha and H-NS
    J M Nieto
    Departament de Microbiologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
    Mol Gen Genet 263:349-58. 2000
    ..coli...
  27. pmc Ancestral divergence, genome diversification, and phylogeographic variation in subpopulations of sorbitol-negative, beta-glucuronidase-negative enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157
    J Kim
    Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583 0919, USA
    J Bacteriol 183:6885-97. 2001
    ..DNA sequence analysis of representative polyphyletic markers showed that genome diversity accrued through random drift and bacteriophage-mediated events...
  28. ncbi Structure of shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) from Escherichia coli O157:H7
    Marie E Fraser
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada
    J Biol Chem 279:27511-7. 2004
    ..Any of these structural differences might result in different mechanisms of action of the two toxins and the development of hemolytic uremic syndrome upon exposure to Stx2...
  29. pmc Characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains based on acid resistance phenotypes
    Arvind A Bhagwat
    Produce Quality and Safety Laboratory, Henry A Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Bldg 002, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705 2350, USA
    Infect Immun 73:4993-5003. 2005
    ..coli. Such mutations most likely alter the infectivity of individual isolates and may play a significant role in determining the infective dose of enterohemorrhagic E. coli...
  30. pmc AsnC: an autogenously regulated activator of asparagine synthetase A transcription in Escherichia coli
    R Kölling
    J Bacteriol 164:310-5. 1985
    ..The asn promoters were defined by mapping of the mRNA start sites of in vitro-generated transcripts...
  31. pmc Site-directed mutagenesis of the Escherichia coli chromosome near oriC: identification and characterization of asnC, a regulatory element in E. coli asparagine metabolism
    N de Wind
    Nucleic Acids Res 13:8797-811. 1985
    ..Results obtained also suggest a general regulatory role of the 17kD protein in E. coli asparagine metabolism. Therefore the 17kD gene is proposed to be renamed asnC...
  32. ncbi EspP, a novel extracellular serine protease of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 cleaves human coagulation factor V
    W Brunder
    Institut fur Hygiene und Mikrobiologie der Universitat Wurzburg, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 24:767-78. 1997
    ..Functional analysis showed that EspP is a protease capable of cleaving pepsin A and human coagulation factor V. Degradation of factor V could contribute to the mucosal haemorrhage observed in patients with haemorrhagic colitis...
  33. pmc Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 produces Tir, which is translocated to the host cell membrane but is not tyrosine phosphorylated
    R DeVinney
    Biotechnology Laboratory, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada
    Infect Immun 67:2389-98. 1999
    ..These findings highlight some of the differences and similarities between EHEC and EPEC virulence mechanisms, which can be exploited to further define the molecular basis of pedestal formation...
  34. ncbi The response to stationary-phase stress conditions in Escherichia coli: role and regulation of the glutamic acid decarboxylase system
    D De Biase
    Dipartimento di Scienze Biochimiche A Rossi Fanelli and Centro di Biologia Molecolare del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma, Italy
    Mol Microbiol 32:1198-211. 1999
    ....
  35. pmc Contribution of dps to acid stress tolerance and oxidative stress tolerance in Escherichia coli O157:H7
    S H Choi
    Departments of Food Microbiology and Toxicology, Food Research Institute, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 1187, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 66:3911-6. 2000
    ..The results from this study establish that Dps contributes to acid tolerance in E. coli O157:H7 and confirm the importance of Dps in oxidative stress protection...
  36. pmc Characterization of a novel type IV pilus locus encoded on the large plasmid of locus of enterocyte effacement-negative Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli strains that are virulent for humans
    Potjanee Srimanote
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, Adelaide University, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia
    Infect Immun 70:3094-100. 2002
    ..Homologues of the pO113 pil locus were present in several other LEE-negative STEC strains but not in LEE-positive STEC strains belonging to serogroup O26, O111, or O157...
  37. ncbi Acquisition of stcE, a C1 esterase inhibitor-specific metalloprotease, during the evolution of Escherichia coli O157:H7
    Wyndham W Lathem
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    J Infect Dis 187:1907-14. 2003
    ..coli 1 complex in a stepwise manner. These data refine the sequential model of E. coli O157:H7 evolution proposed elsewhere...
  38. ncbi A comparative study of variation in codon 33 of the rpoS gene in Escherichia coli K12 stocks: implications for the synthesis of sigma(s)
    P R Subbarayan
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology D8 4, University of Miami School of Medicine, 1550 NW 10th Avenue, Fox 431A, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    Mol Genet Genomics 270:533-8. 2004
    ..Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that the original codon 33 of the rpoS gene in E. coli K-12 strains is the amber codon TAG...
  39. pmc A new family of potent AB(5) cytotoxins produced by Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli
    Adrienne W Paton
    School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia
    J Exp Med 200:35-46. 2004
    ..Oral challenge of mice with E. coli K-12-expressing cloned subA and subB resulted in dramatic weight loss. These findings suggest that the toxin may contribute to the pathogenesis of human disease...
  40. ncbi Refinement of macromolecular structures by the maximum-likelihood method
    G N Murshudov
    Chemistry Department, University of York, Heslington, England
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 53:240-55. 1997
    ..The results derived using the maximum-likelihood residual are consistently better than those obtained from least-squares refinement...
  41. ncbi Solution structure of the R3H domain from human Smubp-2
    Edvards Liepinsh
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, S 17177, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Mol Biol 326:217-23. 2003
    ..A strong correlation between conservation of hydrophobic amino acids and side-chain solvent protection indicates that the structure of the Smubp-2 R3H domain is representative of R3H domains in general...
  42. pmc Glycolytic and gluconeogenic growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EDL933) and E. coli K-12 (MG1655) in the mouse intestine
    Regina L Miranda
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island 02881, USA
    Infect Immun 72:1666-76. 2004
    ..The data are discussed with respect to competition for nutrients and to the protection that some intestinal commensal E. coli strains might afford against infection by O157:H7 strains...
  43. ncbi The interaction between dam methylation sites and Xba1 restriction digest sites in Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933
    J Sales
    Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland, Edinburgh, UK
    J Appl Microbiol 102:820-5. 2007
    ....
  44. doi Could n-gram analysis contribute to genomic island determination?
    Nenad S Mitic
    Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11001 Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro
    J Biomed Inform 41:936-43. 2008
    ..Thus, the application of n-gram analysis alongside existing or newly developed methods may improve the prediction of GI/PAIs...
  45. doi n-Gram characterization of genomic islands in bacterial genomes
    Gordana M Pavlovic-Lazetic
    University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, Belgrade, Serbia
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed 93:241-56. 2009
    ..It refines a characterization based on other compositional features such as G+C content and codon usage, and may help in identification of GIs, and also in research and development of adequate drugs targeting virulence genes in them...
  46. doi Transcriptome analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933 during heat shock
    Michael D Carruthers
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 295:96-102. 2009
    ..These results indicate that this pathogen may regulate its virulence factors in response to temperature changes...
  47. pmc Genome-wide transposon mutagenesis reveals a role for pO157 genes in biofilm development in Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933
    Supraja Puttamreddy
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Infect Immun 78:2377-84. 2010
    ..In addition, EhxD and EspP were also important for adherence to T84 intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting a role for these genes in tissue interactions in vivo...
  48. doi Exploring the response of Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933 within Acanthamoeba castellanii by genome-wide transcriptional profiling
    Michael D Carruthers
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Interdepartmental Microbiology Program, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 312:15-23. 2010
    ..Our results demonstrate that a significant portion of the E. coli O157:H7 genome was differentially expressed as a result of the protozoan intracellular environment...
  49. pmc Commensal effect of pectate lyases secreted from Dickeya dadantii on proliferation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933 on lettuce leaves
    Akihiro Yamazaki
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:156-62. 2011
    ..In addition, RpoS, the general stress response σ factor involved in cell survival in suboptimal conditions, plays a role in EDL933 proliferation by controlling the production of pectate lyases in D. dadantii 3937...
  50. doi Linkage between cellular adherence and biofilm formation in Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933
    Supraja Puttamreddy
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine and Interdepartmental Genetics Program, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 315:46-53. 2011
    ..Some adhesin-negative mutants were fully competent in biofilm formation, however. Thus, biofilm-forming activity in E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 is required for adherence to T84 and HEp2 cells, but it is not sufficient...
  51. pmc Transcriptomic analysis for genetic mechanisms of the factors related to biofilm formation in Escherichia coli O157:H7
    Jin Hyung Lee
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan si Gyeongsangbuk do 712 749, Korea
    Curr Microbiol 62:1321-30. 2011
    ..Therefore, it appears E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 produces more biofilm because of its increased curli and cellulose production and reduced indole production...
  52. ncbi Interaction between the quorum sensing and stringent response regulation systems in the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933 strain
    Kyung Hwan Oh
    Division of Enteric Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, Korea National Institute of Health, Osong, 363 951, Republic of Korea
    J Microbiol Biotechnol 24:401-7. 2014
    ..Our results suggest that quorum sensing interacts with the stringent response regulation system...
  53. pmc Comparison of strand-specific transcriptomes of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933 (EHEC) under eleven different environmental conditions including radish sprouts and cattle feces
    Richard Landstorfer
    Lehrstuhl für Mikrobielle Ökologie, Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan, Technische Universitat Munchen, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, D 85350 Freising, Germany
    BMC Genomics 15:353. 2014
    ..To identify genetic determinants expressed under a variety of environmental factors, we applied strand-specific RNA-sequencing, comparing the SOLiD and Illumina systems...
  54. ncbi Gene fusion during the evolution of the tryptophan operon in enterobacteriaceae
    G F Miozzari
    Nature 277:486-9. 1979
  55. ncbi Nucleotide sequence of the intercistronic region preceding the gene for RNA polymerase subunit alpha in Escherichia coli
    L E Post
    J Biol Chem 254:10604-6. 1979
    ..This short distance supports the idea that some post-transcriptional regulation determines the differential synthesis of alpha and ribosomal proteins...
  56. pmc Location of the protease II gene (ptrB) on the physical map of the Escherichia coli chromosome
    A Kanatani
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Japan
    J Bacteriol 174:7881. 1992
  57. ncbi A molecular analysis of the 53.3 minute region of the Escherichia coli linkage map
    S C Andrews
    Krebs Institute for Biomolecular Research, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, UK
    J Gen Microbiol 137:361-7. 1991
    ..The translation product of orf3 (205 amino acid codons) resembled the iron-sulphur protein component (DMS B subunit) of the anaerobic dimethylsulphoxide reductase complex of E. coli...
  58. ncbi In vivo and in vitro mutants of FNR the anaerobic transcriptional regulator of E. coli
    A D Sharrocks
    Krebs Institute, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, UK
    FEBS Lett 270:119-22. 1990
    ..Four independent in vivo mutants contained identical Gly-96----Asp substitutions, which may inactivate FNR by distorting a sharp turn between beta-strands in the predicted structure...
  59. pmc SecB-independent export of Escherichia coli ribose-binding protein (RBP): some comparisons with export of maltose-binding protein (MBP) and studies with RBP-MBP hybrid proteins
    D N Collier
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599 7290
    J Bacteriol 172:6875-84. 1990
    ..This indicates that the export mode exhibited by a given precursor protein (cotranslational versus posttranslational) is determined by properties of both the signal peptide and the mature moiety...
  60. ncbi Periplasmic binding protein structure and function. Refined X-ray structures of the leucine/isoleucine/valine-binding protein and its complex with leucine
    J S Sack
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030
    J Mol Biol 206:171-91. 1989
    ..abstract truncated at 400 words)..
  61. pmc Cytosolic factor purified from Escherichia coli is necessary and sufficient for the export of a preprotein and is a homotetramer of SecB
    M Watanabe
    Laboratory of Cell Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:2728-32. 1989
    ..For the posttranslational integration of another preprotein, the precursor for the lamB gene product, into inverted vesicles, the 64-kDa SecB homotetramer is also required but additional factor(s) makes integration more efficient...
  62. ncbi Structure of a complex of catabolite gene activator protein and cyclic AMP refined at 2.5 A resolution
    I T Weber
    Center for Chemical Physics, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD 20899
    J Mol Biol 198:311-26. 1987
    ..Each cyclic AMP molecule is in an anti conformation and has ionic and hydrogen bond interactions with both subunits...
  63. ncbi Transcriptional organization of the dnaN and recF genes of Escherichia coli K-12
    M E Armengod
    Instituto de Investigaciones Citologicas, Obra Social de la Caja de Ahorros de Valencia, Spain
    J Biol Chem 263:12109-14. 1988
    ..The uncoupling of transcription and translation of the dnaN gene (when translation is interrupted by premature nonsense codons or by other mechanisms) probably results in transcription termination at termination signals in dnaN...
  64. ncbi Sequence of thioredoxin reductase from Escherichia coli. Relationship to other flavoprotein disulfide oxidoreductases
    M Russel
    Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021
    J Biol Chem 263:9015-9. 1988
    ....
  65. pmc Primary structure of the Escherichia coli ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase operon
    J Carlson
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 81:4294-7. 1984
    ..The sequences reveal not only the primary structures for both subunits, but also some interesting aspects of potential regulatory sites...
  66. pmc Interactions of metal-nucleotide complexes with aspartate carbamoyltransferase in the crystalline state
    R B Honzatko
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 79:7171-4. 1982
    ..B., Lauritzen, A.M. & Lipscomb, W.N. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 898-902]...
  67. ncbi Formation of SRP-like particle induces a conformational change in E. coli 4.5S RNA
    G Lentzen
    Institut fur Molekularbiologie, Universitat Witten Herdecke, Germany
    FEBS Lett 348:233-8. 1994
    ..From equilibrium titrations with fluorescent 4.5S RNA, a dissociation constant of 0.15 microns is obtained for the RNA.protein complex. The formation of the complex is not affected by GTP binding to or hydrolysis by P48...
  68. pmc The cmk gene encoding cytidine monophosphate kinase is located in the rpsA operon and is required for normal replication rate in Escherichia coli
    J Fricke
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Bacteriol 177:517-23. 1995
    ..In addition to the physiological studies, the region upstream of cmk was sequenced, and 120 codons with strong homology to an uncharacterized protein of the speB operon were identified...
  69. pmc SpoU protein of Escherichia coli belongs to a new family of putative rRNA methylases
    E V Koonin
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894
    Nucleic Acids Res 21:5519. 1993
  70. ncbi How do mutations at phenylalanine-153 and isoleucine-155 partially suppress the effects of the aspartate-27-->serine mutation in Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase?
    A Dion
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37996 0840
    Biochemistry 32:3479-87. 1993
    ....
  71. ncbi The redox state of the [2Fe-2S] clusters in SoxR protein regulates its activity as a transcription factor
    H Ding
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Toxicology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Biol Chem 271:33173-5. 1996
    ..The results suggest that one-electron oxidation and reduction of the [2Fe-2S] cluster regulate SoxR transcriptional activity...
  72. ncbi An essential role for water in an enzyme reaction mechanism: the crystal structure of the thymidylate synthase mutant E58Q
    C R Sage
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0448, USA
    Biochemistry 35:16270-81. 1996
    ....
  73. pmc Host regulation of lysogenic decision in bacteriophage lambda: transmembrane modulation of FtsH (HflB), the cII degrading protease, by HflKC (HflA)
    A Kihara
    Department of Cell Biology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 01, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:5544-9. 1997
    ..This study necessitates a revision of the prevailing view about the host control over lambda lysogenic decision...
  74. ncbi Cloning and sequence analysis of another Shiga-like toxin IIe variant gene (slt-IIera) from an Escherichia coli R107 strain isolated from rabbit
    S H Kim
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Chin Ju, South Korea
    Microbiol Immunol 41:805-8. 1997
    ..Recombinant SLT-IIera and SLT-IIe produced using an E. coli host-vector system showed similar cytotoxicity, suggesting that the variations in the structural gene of SLT-IIera have no significant effect on cytotoxic level...
  75. ncbi Assembly of iron-sulfur clusters. Identification of an iscSUA-hscBA-fdx gene cluster from Azotobacter vinelandii
    L Zheng
    Department of Biochemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 0346, USA
    J Biol Chem 273:13264-72. 1998
    ..These results show that the cysE-like gene located upstream from iscS is not essential for cell growth and that the cysE-like gene and the iscSUA-hscBA-fdx genes are contained within separate transcription units...
  76. ncbi GlnK, a PII-homologue: structure reveals ATP binding site and indicates how the T-loops may be involved in molecular recognition
    Y Xu
    Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, GPO 414, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia
    J Mol Biol 282:149-65. 1998
    ..This sequence is more highly conserved than the functional T-loop, suggesting that ATP has an important role in PII-like proteins...
  77. ncbi FtsZ ring clusters in min and partition mutants: role of both the Min system and the nucleoid in regulating FtsZ ring localization
    X C Yu
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Mol Microbiol 32:315-26. 1999
    ..A model is proposed in which both the inhibitory effect of the nucleoid and the regulation by MinCDE ensure that cells divide precisely at the midpoint...
  78. pmc Lon and Clp family proteases and chaperones share homologous substrate-recognition domains
    C K Smith
    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:6678-82. 1999
    ....
  79. ncbi Novel roles for classical factors at the interface between translation termination and initiation
    R Karimi
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Biomedical Center, Uppsala, Sweden
    Mol Cell 3:601-9. 1999
    ..We show that this step requires initiation factor IF3, whose role was previously thought to be restricted to promoting specific 30S initiation complex formation from free 30S subunits...
  80. ncbi Cloning, sequencing, and expression of cscA invertase from Escherichia coli B-62
    M Sahin-Toth
    Department of Physiology, University of California Los Angeles 90095 1662, USA
    Can J Microbiol 45:418-22. 1999
    ..coli EC3132. Functional characterization indicates that high-level expression and limited periplasmic release of invertase is responsible for the sucrose-fermenting capacity of transformed E. coli K-12 strains carrying cscA...
  81. ncbi Genetic organization of the O7-specific lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis cluster of Escherichia coli VW187 (O7:K1)
    C L Marolda
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Microbiology 145:2485-95. 1999
    ..The O antigen chain length regulator gene wzz was also identified in the vicinity of the O7 polysaccharide cluster. O7-specific DNA primers were designed and tested for serotyping of O7 E. coli strains...
  82. ncbi Thioredoxin-dependent hydroperoxide peroxidase activity of bacterioferritin comigratory protein (BCP) as a new member of the thiol-specific antioxidant protein (TSA)/Alkyl hydroperoxide peroxidase C (AhpC) family
    W Jeong
    National Creative Research Center for Antioxidant Proteins, Department of Biochemistry, Paichai University, Taejon 302 735, Korea
    J Biol Chem 275:2924-30. 2000
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that BCP is a new member of thioredoxin-dependent TSA/AhpC family, acting as a general hydroperoxide peroxidase...
  83. ncbi Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate deacetylase from Escherichia coli
    F M Ferreira
    Laboratório de Cristalografia de Proteínas e Biologia Estrutural, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av Dr Carlos Botelho 1465, Caixa Postal 369, 13560 970 Sao Carlos SP, Brazil
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 56:670-2. 2000
    ..The unit-cell parameters are a = 82.09 (2), b = 114.50 (1), c = 80.17 (1) A. The crystals diffract to a maximum resolution of 1.8 A and an initial data set was collected to 2.0 A...
  84. ncbi Interaction of ribosome recycling factor and elongation factor EF-G with E. coli ribosomes studied by the surface plasmon resonance technique
    T Ishino
    RRF Research Inc, Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305 0856, Japan
    Genes Cells 5:953-63. 2000
    ..Crystal structures of RRF molecules have been solved recently and shown to mimic a transfer RNA (tRNA) shape, which prompted us to examine whether RRF binds to the ribosome as tRNA does...
  85. ncbi Involvement of RNase G in in vivo mRNA metabolism in Escherichia coli
    G Umitsuki
    Department of Bioengineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori ku, Yokohama 226 8501, Japan
    Genes Cells 6:403-10. 2001
    ..In rng mutant cells, a precursor form of 16S rRNA, 16.3S rRNA, is accumulated. Here we report a role of RNase G in the in vivo mRNA metabolism...
  86. pmc Identification and characterization of the gene encoding the human phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase and dephospho-CoA kinase bifunctional enzyme (CoA synthase)
    Suren Aghajanian
    Department of Biochemistry and Conway Institute for Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Biochem J 365:13-8. 2002
    ..The recombinant 564-amino-acid human protein confirmed the associated transferase and kinase activities, and gave similar kinetic properties to the wild-type pig enzyme...
  87. ncbi Crystal structure of D-ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (RpiA) from Escherichia coli
    Erumbi S Rangarajan
    Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Proteins 48:737-40. 2002
  88. ncbi An electrical potential in the access channel of catalases enhances catalysis
    Prashen Chelikani
    Department of Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada
    J Biol Chem 278:31290-6. 2003
    ..Substrate hydrogen peroxide would be affected similarly and would enter the active site oriented optimally for interaction with active site residues...
  89. pmc Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of RluD, the only rRNA pseudouridine synthase required for normal growth of Escherichia coli
    Mark Del Campo
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33101 6129, USA
    RNA 10:231-9. 2004
    ..These results strongly suggest that four of the five families of pseudouridine synthases arose by divergent evolution. The RluD structure also provides insight into its multisite specificity...
  90. ncbi The zinc-dependent redox switch domain of the chaperone Hsp33 has a novel fold
    Hyung Sik Won
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Mol Biol 341:893-9. 2004
    ....
  91. ncbi Structures of the N-terminal and middle domains of E. coli Hsp90 and conformation changes upon ADP binding
    Qing Huai
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Structure 13:579-90. 2005
    ..Modeling shows that ATP is not exposed to the molecular surface, thus implying that ATP activation of hsp90 chaperone activities is accomplished via conformational changes...
  92. ncbi Molecular basis for the glyphosate-insensitivity of the reaction of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase with shikimate
    Melanie A Priestman
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Kansas, 4040a Malott Hall, Lawrence, 66045, USA
    FEBS Lett 579:5773-80. 2005
    ..The implications from these findings with respect to the design of novel glyphosate-insensitive EPSP synthase enzymes are discussed...
  93. ncbi SmpB triggers GTP hydrolysis of elongation factor Tu on ribosomes by compensating for the lack of codon-anticodon interaction during trans-translation initiation
    Yoshihiro Shimizu
    Department of Medical Genome Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, FSB401, 5 1 5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa shi, Chiba Prefecture 277 8562, Japan
    J Biol Chem 281:15987-96. 2006
    ..Based on these results, we suggest that SmpB structurally mimics the anticodon arm of tRNA and elicits GTP hydrolysis of EF-Tu upon tmRNA accommodation in the A site of the ribosome...
  94. ncbi Crystal structures of thymidylate synthase mutant R166Q: structural basis for the nearly complete loss of catalytic activity
    Rogerio R Sotelo-Mundo
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    J Biochem Mol Toxicol 20:88-92. 2006
    ..The position of Cys146, which initiates catalysis, is shifted in the mutant and resides in a position that interferes with the binding of the dUMP pyrimidine moiety...
  95. pmc Amino acid residues within enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Tir involved in phosphorylation, alpha-actinin recruitment, and Nck-independent pedestal formation
    Emma Allen-Vercoe
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary Health Sciences Centre, 3330 Hospital Dr NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada
    Infect Immun 74:6196-205. 2006
    ..As alpha-actinin binds directly to the EHEC O157:H7 amino terminus, these data suggest that its recruitment is dependent on pedestal formation...
  96. ncbi NMR solution structure of the acylphosphatase from Escherichia coli
    Katiuscia Pagano
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technologies, University of Udine, Udine, Italy
    J Biomol NMR 36:199-204. 2006
    ..18, 5.31 and 5.12 A, respectively. No significant differences are present in the active site region and the catalytic residue side chains are consistently positioned in the structures...
  97. pmc Altered utilization of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine by Escherichia coli O157:H7 from the 2006 spinach outbreak
    Amit Mukherjee
    Division of Molecular Biology, Office of Applied Research and Safety Assessment, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U S Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, Maryland 20708, USA
    J Bacteriol 190:1710-7. 2008
    ..Notably, when agaF+ was cloned into an expression vector and transformed into six spinach isolates, all (6/6) were able to grow on Aga, thus demonstrating that the Gly91Ser substitution underlies the Aga- phenotype in these isolates...
  98. ncbi The ATP-dependent Clp protease of Escherichia coli. Sequence of clpA and identification of a Clp-specific substrate
    S Gottesman
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Biol Chem 265:7886-93. 1990
    ..This fusion protein is the first Clp-specific substrate described...
  99. ncbi Letter: Crystallographic data of an L-arabinose-binding protein from Escherichia coli
    F A Quiocho
    J Mol Biol 86:491-3. 1974
  100. ncbi X-ray diffraction analysis of matrix porin, an integral membrane protein from Escherichia coli outer membranes
    R M Garavito
    J Mol Biol 164:313-27. 1983
    ..5 A, but reveals a packing arrangement very similar to that in two-dimensional membrane-like crystalline arrays...
  101. pmc A perfectly symmetric lac operator binds the lac repressor very tightly
    J R Sadler
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 80:6785-9. 1983
    ..The natural operator is apparently "flawed" by "incorrect" base pairs in the right operator half and by an "incorrect" spacing between the operator halves with respect to maximal repressor binding...

Research Grants9

  1. Characterization of novel MurA inhibitors
    Ernst Schonbrunn; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The long-term goal of this proposal is to provide a basis for the rational design of novel potent broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs that specifically target MurA. ..
  2. Structural Investigation of Allosteric Regulation in Bacterial Carbonic Anhydrase
    JEFF CRONK; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..An allosteric ligand binding site and its effect on enzyme activity will be characterized with an eye to its development as a target of therapeutic drugs. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  3. STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION AND PROTEOMICS OF TB
    Thomas Terwilliger; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The structural and functional information obtained in this project is to be placed in the public domain by timely deposition in publicly available databases. ..
  4. Mechanisms of antibiotic action in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
    Robert A Nicholas; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Together, these projects utilize genetic, biochemical, biophysical, and proteomics approaches to generate new insights into the mechanisms of antibiotic action in N. gonorrhoeae. ..
  5. Trafficking/signaling of P2Y receptors in polarized epithelial cells
    Robert A Nicholas; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Our studies will provide novel and important information on the cellular mechanisms of P2Y receptor targeting and the regulation of P2Y receptor signaling activity in epithelial cells. ..
  6. Postsynthetic Modifications of Bacterial Membrane Lipids
    John Cronan; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These processes will be studied by a combination of biochemical, genetic, and molecular biological approaches including tests of pathogenesis in a mouse model system ..
  7. Novel Approaches for the Control of Microbial Pathogens
    JOSEPH F LUTKENHAUS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Finally, the new program has been based on our track record in which eleven investigators supported by the previous COBRE have secured a total of 16 extramural grants. Eight of the eleven have secured 12 NIH grants. ..
  8. ATP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES IN GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA
    Milton Saier; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..

Patents17

  1. Method for producing a transgenic plant cell, a plant or a part thereof with increased resistance biotic stress
    Patent Number: WO2010037714-A1; Date:2010-04-08
  2. Process for the production of a fine chemical
    Patent Number: WO2008034648-A1; Date:2008-03-27
  3. Proteins associated with abiotic stress response and homologs
    Patent Number: WO2007110314-A; Date:2007-10-04
  4. High Resolution Typing System For Pathogenic E Coli
    Patent Number: JP2005517396-A; Date:2005-06-16
  5. Yield increase in plants overexpressing the accdp genes
    Patent Number: WO2007011625-A2; Date:2007-01-25
  6. Proteins associated with abiotic stress response and homologs
    Patent Number: EP2221382-A2; Date:2010-08-25
  7. Process for the control of production of fine chemicals
    Patent Number: EP2199304-A1; Date:2010-06-23
  8. Process for the production of fine chemicals
    Patent Number: EP2194140-A2; Date:2010-06-09
  9. Plants with increased yield (nue)
    Patent Number: WO2010046221-A1; Date:2010-04-29
  10. Plants with increased tolerance and/or resistance to environmental stress and increased biomass production
    Patent Number: WO2008142034-A2; Date:2008-11-27
  11. Plants with increased yield by increasing or generating one or more activities in a plant or a part thereof
    Patent Number: WO2010020654-A2; Date:2010-02-25
  12. Process for the production of lutein
    Patent Number: EP2096177-A2; Date:2009-09-02
  13. Process for the production of a fine chemical
    Patent Number: EP2090662-A2; Date:2009-08-19
  14. Lipid metabolism proteins, combinations of lipid metabolism proteins and uses thereof
    Patent Number: WO2009077406-A1; Date:2009-06-25
  15. Plants with increased yield and/or increased tolerance to environmental stress (iy-bm)
    Patent Number: WO2009077611-A2; Date:2009-06-25
  16. Plants with increased yield
    Patent Number: WO2009037329-A2; Date:2009-03-26
  17. Plants with increased yield
    Patent Number: WO2009037279-A1; Date:2009-03-26