AGING, METAMEMORY, AND STRATEGY USE DURING LEARNING

Summary

Principal Investigator: CHRISTOPHER K HERTZOG
Abstract: Four areas of research are proposed that systematically evaluate age-related differences in associative learning within a metacognitive framework. A central assumption of this framework is that people actively participate in learning new material by (1) utilizing their knowledge about cognitively demanding tasks to select rehearsal strategies, (2) monitoring on-going learning and performance, and (3) utilizing such monitoring to regulate control processes that govern learning and performance. Our long-term objectives include discovering how each of these aspects of self-directed learning influences the rate of learning and age differences in learning. The proposed research involves four separate areas of effort. In general, the proposed experiments involve the use of paired-associate learning and recall to study metacognition, strategies, and learning. Area 1 represents a critical step toward implementing knowledge about aging, metacognition, and strategy use gained in the last funding cycle in a new and unique training program for older adults that simultaneously restructures negative beliefs about age and learning, trains relevant strategies for learning, and trains the use of self-testing (a practical method for using monitoring to guide study) during learning. Area 2 builds on work completed or in progress indicating age-related sparing of the ability to monitor the cognitive system. The investigators focus on factors that influence both relative and absolute accuracy of monitoring, and evaluate age differences in spontaneous (uninstructed) strategy use. Area 3 directs attention to the nature of mediational strategies used during associative learning, extending work with new methods for measuring strategy self-reports developed in the last funded cycle to evaluate age differences in spontaneous (uninstructed) strategy use. Area 4 evaluates the utilization of monitoring to guide self-paced study of paired-associates, in part through the creation of new metacognitive judgements that should help to explain age differences already identified in the utilization of monitoring. Outcomes obtained from all four areas have important theoretical implications for age differences in associative learning and will also provide valuable information on how to construct training and interventions programs to help older adults optimize learning in everyday situations.
Funding Period: 1995-07-25 - 2010-06-30
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Does aging influence people's metacomprehension? Effects of processing ease on judgments of text learning
    John Dunlosky
    Psychology Department, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, USA
    Psychol Aging 21:390-400. 2006
  2. pmc Assessing adult leisure activities: an extension of a self-report activity questionnaire
    Daniela S Jopp
    School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Psychol Assess 22:108-20. 2010
  3. pmc Metacognitive training at home: does it improve older adults' learning?
    Heather Bailey
    Department of Psychology, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 0001, USA
    Gerontology 56:414-20. 2010
  4. pmc Does task affordance moderate age-related deficits in strategy production?
    Sara Bottiroli
    Department of Psychology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
    Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 17:591-602. 2010
  5. pmc Episodic feeling-of-knowing resolution derives from the quality of original encoding
    Christopher Hertzog
    School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 0170, USA
    Mem Cognit 38:771-84. 2010
  6. pmc Does believing in "use it or lose it" relate to self-rated memory control, strategy use, and recall?
    Christopher Hertzog
    School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 0170, USA
    Int J Aging Hum Dev 70:61-87. 2010
  7. pmc Age differences in the monitoring of learning: cross-sectional evidence of spared resolution across the adult life span
    Christopher Hertzog
    School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 0170, USA
    Dev Psychol 46:939-48. 2010
  8. pmc Self-regulated learning in younger and older adults: does aging affect metacognitive control?
    Jodi Price
    Department of Psychology, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA
    Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 17:329-59. 2010
  9. pmc Age invariance in feeling of knowing during implicit interference effects
    Deborah K Eakin
    Department of Psychology, Mississippi State University, P O Box 6161, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
    J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 67:555-62. 2012
  10. pmc Age differences in the effects of experimenter-instructed versus self-generated strategy use
    Christopher Hertzog
    School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 0170, USA
    Exp Aging Res 38:42-62. 2012

Detail Information

Publications30

  1. ncbi Does aging influence people's metacomprehension? Effects of processing ease on judgments of text learning
    John Dunlosky
    Psychology Department, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, USA
    Psychol Aging 21:390-400. 2006
    ..In both experiments, age equivalence was also evident in the accuracy of the judgments at predicting performance on the criterion test. The overall pattern of results suggests that judging text learning remains largely intact with aging...
  2. pmc Assessing adult leisure activities: an extension of a self-report activity questionnaire
    Daniela S Jopp
    School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Psychol Assess 22:108-20. 2010
    ....
  3. pmc Metacognitive training at home: does it improve older adults' learning?
    Heather Bailey
    Department of Psychology, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 0001, USA
    Gerontology 56:414-20. 2010
    ..This metacognitive approach involves teaching older adults to allocate their study time more efficiently by testing themselves and restudying items that are less well learned...
  4. pmc Does task affordance moderate age-related deficits in strategy production?
    Sara Bottiroli
    Department of Psychology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
    Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 17:591-602. 2010
    ..Most important, age-related deficits in strategy use were greater for the former task and nonexistent for the latter one, suggesting that task affordance moderates age differences in strategy use...
  5. pmc Episodic feeling-of-knowing resolution derives from the quality of original encoding
    Christopher Hertzog
    School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 0170, USA
    Mem Cognit 38:771-84. 2010
    ....
  6. pmc Does believing in "use it or lose it" relate to self-rated memory control, strategy use, and recall?
    Christopher Hertzog
    School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 0170, USA
    Int J Aging Hum Dev 70:61-87. 2010
    ..Metacognitive beliefs, including implicit theories about aging and memory decline, memory self-concept, and perceived control over memory functioning, did not systematically correlate with strategy use or recall...
  7. pmc Age differences in the monitoring of learning: cross-sectional evidence of spared resolution across the adult life span
    Christopher Hertzog
    School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 0170, USA
    Dev Psychol 46:939-48. 2010
    ..The effects of relatedness and strategy use with JOLs did not interact with age. The monitoring of learning is spared by adult development despite age differences in learning itself...
  8. pmc Self-regulated learning in younger and older adults: does aging affect metacognitive control?
    Jodi Price
    Department of Psychology, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA
    Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 17:329-59. 2010
    ..Older adults' lower memory self-efficacy and perceived control correlated with their greater item restudy and avoidance of difficult items with high point values. Results are discussed in terms of RPL and agenda-based regulation models...
  9. pmc Age invariance in feeling of knowing during implicit interference effects
    Deborah K Eakin
    Department of Psychology, Mississippi State University, P O Box 6161, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
    J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 67:555-62. 2012
    ....
  10. pmc Age differences in the effects of experimenter-instructed versus self-generated strategy use
    Christopher Hertzog
    School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 0170, USA
    Exp Aging Res 38:42-62. 2012
    ..The present study investigated how experimenter-supervised and participant-chosen strategy experience affected younger and older adults' knowledge about the effectiveness of these two strategies...
  11. pmc Immediate judgments of learning are insensitive to implicit interference effects at retrieval
    Deborah K Eakin
    Department of Psychology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 6161, USA
    Mem Cognit 40:8-18. 2012
    ....
  12. pmc Age invariance in semantic and episodic metamemory: both younger and older adults provide accurate feeling-of-knowing for names of faces
    Deborah K Eakin
    a Department of Psychology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA
    Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 21:27-51. 2014
    ..FOKs for correctly recognized items correlated reliably with CJs for both types of materials, and did not differ by age group. The results indicate age invariance in monitoring of retrieval processes for name-face associations...
  13. pmc Recalled aspects of original encoding strategies influence episodic feelings of knowing
    Christopher Hertzog
    Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia
    Mem Cognit 42:126-40. 2014
    ..In summary, cue-generated access to aspects of the original encoding strategy strongly influenced episodic FOKs, although other influences were also implicated. ..
  14. ncbi Older adults show deficits in retrieving and decoding associative mediators generated at study
    Christopher Hertzog
    School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 0170, USA
    Dev Psychol 49:1127-31. 2013
    ..41) relative to concrete items (d = 0.54). Older adults' associative memory deficits have more to do with retrieval mechanisms than with inadequate encoding strategies...
  15. pmc The effects of age in four alternative forced-choice item and associative recognition tasks
    Meredith M Patterson
    School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
    Psychol Aging 25:235-8. 2010
    ..This effect was attenuated in the experimental condition. Older adults had poorer recognition memory for both associative and item tests, with a larger age difference for recognizing new associations...
  16. pmc Promoting transfer in memory training for older adults
    Elena Cavallini
    Department of Psychology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
    Aging Clin Exp Res 22:314-23. 2010
    ..Unfortunately, the benefits of training can rarely be generalized to other tasks for which adults were not specifically trained. We investigated the benefits of instruction-based training in promoting transfer effects in older adults...
  17. ncbi Release from implicit interference in memory and metamemory: older adults know that they can't let go
    Deborah K Eakin
    Mississippi State University, Department of Psychology, PO BOX 6161, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
    J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 61:P340-7. 2006
    ..Both groups had equivalent metamemory accuracy and sensitivity, indicating that the monitoring of learning prior to a test reflected the effects of implicit interference and is not impaired by aging...
  18. ncbi Aging, encoding fluency, and metacognitive monitoring
    A Emanuel Robinson
    Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, 30332, USA
    Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 13:458-78. 2006
    ..Moreover, subjectively judged latency correlated higher with JOLs than actual (objective) latency, supporting the hypothesis that perceived fluency is a cue used in constructing JOLs...
  19. ncbi Activities, self-referent memory beliefs, and cognitive performance: evidence for direct and mediated relations
    Daniela Jopp
    School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
    Psychol Aging 22:811-25. 2007
    ....
  20. ncbi Do self-monitoring interventions improve older adult learning?
    John Dunlosky
    Department of Psychology, Kent State University, P O Box 5190, Kent, OH 44242 0001, USA
    J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 62:70-6. 2007
    ..Our discussion highlights both successes and failures of self-monitoring to enhance learning as well as challenges for future research...
  21. pmc Age-related differences in strategy knowledge updating: blocked testing produces greater improvements in metacognitive accuracy for younger than older adults
    Jodi Price
    School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 15:601-26. 2008
    ..Older adults learn about imagery's superior effectiveness but do not accurately estimate the magnitude of its benefit, even after blocked testing...
  22. ncbi Do older adults show less confidence in their monitoring of learning?
    Michael J Serra
    Department of Psychology, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, USA
    Exp Aging Res 34:379-91. 2008
    ..Age-related declines in confidence in judgments were evident for immediate JOLs but not for delayed JOLs. Implications of these outcomes for theory of JOLs and explaining age-related differences in self-regulated study are discussed...
  23. pmc Does differential strategy use account for age-related deficits in working-memory performance?
    Heather Bailey
    Department of Psychology, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 0001, USA
    Psychol Aging 24:82-92. 2009
    ..Thus, although use of normatively effective strategies accounts for individual differences in span performance, age differences in effective strategy use cannot explain the age-related variance in that performance...
  24. pmc Why do people show minimal knowledge updating with task experience: inferential deficit or experimental artifact?
    Christopher Hertzog
    School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 0332 0170, USA
    Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 62:155-73. 2009
    ..One artifactual explanation--noncompliance with strategy instructions--was ruled out, whereas manipulations aimed at supporting the data available to inferential processes improved but did not fully repair knowledge updating...
  25. pmc Expectations about memory change across the life span are impacted by aging stereotypes
    Tara T Lineweaver
    Department of Psychology, Butler University, Indianapolis, IN 46208, USA
    Psychol Aging 24:169-76. 2009
    ..Finally, older participants were more strongly influenced by both the valence and the relevance of the personality descriptions than younger participants...
  26. pmc Aging and recollection in the accuracy of judgments of learning
    Karen A Daniels
    Department of Psychology, University of North Carlonia, Wilmington, NC 28403, USA
    Psychol Aging 24:494-500. 2009
    ..JOLs were found to be strongly related to recollected items but not to items remembered on the basis of familiarity. The pattern was weaker in older adults, consistent with age-related declines in recollection...
  27. pmc Do age-related differences in episodic feeling of knowing accuracy depend on the timing of the judgement?
    Stephanie N Maclaverty
    Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30307, USA
    Memory 17:860-73. 2009
    ..The findings are inconsistent with the argument that there is a general age deficit in episodic FOK accuracy. Possible reasons for discrepant findings in the literature are discussed...
  28. pmc Does strategy training reduce age-related deficits in working memory?
    Heather R Bailey
    Department of Psychology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA
    Gerontology 60:346-56. 2014
    ..Older adults typically perform worse on measures of working memory (WM) than do young adults; however, age-related differences in WM performance might be reduced if older adults use effective encoding strategies...