Current-Use Flame Retardants: Maternal Exposure and Neurodevelopment in Children

Summary

Principal Investigator: Asa Bradman
Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) persist in the environment and have been used in consumer products since the 1970s. Restrictions on the use of penta-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have resulted in increased use of OPFRs as replacements, including the OP triesters [tris(1,3- dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), tris(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), and triphenyl phosphate (TPP)]. These chemicals are applied to polyurethane foams used in furniture, child car seats, and related products to meet federal and state flammability standards. OPFRs have been measured in >95% of house dust samples collected in the United States, as well as in the foam of numerous baby products. In another recent study, these compounds were detected in >95% of urine samples from adults. Animal research suggests that OPFRs may affect neurodevelopment through non- cholinergic mechanisms similar to some organophosphate (OP) pesticides. Despite the widespread presence of these compounds in home environments, and their structural similarity to neurotoxic OP pesticides, understanding of human exposure and health effects of OP triesters is scarce. To date, no studies have examined OPFR exposures and health effects in vulnerable populations, such as pregnant women and children living in California, where stricter flammability standards have resulted in very high flame retardant exposures. Recently, we developed laboratory methods to measure metabolites of the high-use OPFR flame retardants TDCPP and TPP in urine. For this proposal, we will use specimens and data from the CHAMACOS study, an ongoing NIEHS-EPA funded birth cohort study of low-income residents in the Salinas Valley, CA. We propose to measure OPFR metabolites in mothers'urine and examine the association of prenatal OPFR exposure and neurodevelopment in their children at 7 years (n=330). We will also measure OPFR levels in dust samples collected from a subset of these CHAMACOS women's homes (n=125), determine the correlation between OPFRs in urine and dust, and identify predictors of home OPFR contamination. This will be the first study to: 1) evaluate predictors of OPFR contamination in homes;2) report levels of biological measurements of exposure to OPFRs in pregnant women;and 3) study the relationship between in utero OPFR exposure and human neurodevelopment. This new information about human exposure to OPFRs will support the development of more comprehensive studies by applying innovative scientific methods to address key knowledge gaps about OPFR exposure and health effects.
Funding Period: 2013-06-17 - 2015-05-31
more information: NIH RePORT

Detail Information

Research Grants30

  1. Beryllium: Exposure Immune and Genetic Mechanisms
    Lee S Newman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The productivity and continuance demonstrate quality, commitment and ability to work together. PROGRAM AS INTERGRATED EFFORT ..
  2. Southern California Children's Enviromental Health Center (SC-CEHC)
    Rob S McConnell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  3. Lifecourse Exposures &Diet: Epigenetics, Maturation &Metabolic Syndrome
    KAREN EILEEN PETERSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Career development and training activities will draw upon extensive institutional resources and will be fully integrated with the Center's Research Projects and Cores. ..
  4. The UCSF Pregnancy Exposures to Environmental Chemicals (PEEC) Children's Center
    Tracey J Woodruff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Finally, the Administrative Core will work closely with a program evaluator, to monitor the progress of the PEEC Children's Center and ensure the achievement of its goals. ..
  5. Prenatal and Childhood Exposure to Fluoride and Neurodevelopment
    Howard Hu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Given the power of our archived resources and sample sizes, we will be able to accomplish this research at a small fraction of the cost and time required of a new study. ..
  6. Autism Risk, Prenatal Environmental Exposures, and Pathophysiologic Markers
    Isaac N Pessah; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  7. Elucidating Risks: From Exposure and Mechanism to Outcome
    James A Swenberg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This Program is highly relevant to Superfund by addressing high-priority chemicals and by focusing on mechanisms underlying health effects, exposure assessment, and remediation to mitigate exposure and toxicity. ..
  8. Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (PRoTECT)
    Akram N Alshawabkeh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The cross-disciplinary approach will employ the data-rich centralized data repository and integrated modeling/analysis capabilities to better understand complex interrelationships between multiple risk factors. ..
  9. Superfund Metal Mixtures, Biomarkers and Neurodevelopment
    David C Bellinger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 4- To promote rapid dissemination of significant research findings;and Aim 5- Compliance- To ensure compliance with NIH requirements for data and resource-sharing and the human and animal institutional review board requirements ..
  10. Semi-volatile PCBs: Sources, Exposures, Toxicities
    Larry W Robertson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These data and dietary studies in the last Aim will provide a scientific basis for risk assessment and advice for stakeholders with the ultimate goal to protect highly-exposed individuals and populations. ..
  11. TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN THE ENVIRONMENT
    Martyn T Smith; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The program will be overseen and coordinated by an Administration core (A). ..
  12. DDT &PBDE exposure, puberty onset and neurodevelopment in Mexican-American girls
    Brenda Eskenazi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  13. Longitudinal study of exposure to PBDEs and PFCs and child neurobehavior
    Kimberly Yolton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This research is closely related to the NIH mission to investigate prevalent environmental toxicants and children's neurodevelopment. ..
  14. Prenatal pyrethroid exposure and child mental, motor and behavioral development
    ROBIN MARJORIE WHYATT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, no prior study has evaluated associations between pyrethroid metabolites in maternal prenatal urine and cognitive, motor or behavioral outcomes in children. ..
  15. Molecular Regulation of Mammalian Meiosis
    Kenneth Paigen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Results of the program project will significantly increase the understanding of the mechanisms that regulate meiosis as well as their involvement in other important biological processes. ..
  16. NMR AND COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES OF BIOMOLECULES
    Gerhard Wagner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We anticipate that the proposed research will continue to advance the capabilities of NMR for structural biology. ..
  17. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ALCOHOL PROBLEMS
    Thomas K Greenfield; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We plan to build research capacity in the Center and other organizations, enhance careers of new investigators, and make key findings accessible to researchers, policy makers, practitioners, and the public. ..