Endocrine Disruptors and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

Summary

Principal Investigator: Brenda Eskenazi
Abstract: DESCRIPTION: Agricultural pesticide use may be the most significant source of environmental endocrine disruptor exposure in the United States. California, the leading agricultural state in the nation, is the only state that requires reporting of all agricultural pesticide use. The Pesticide Use Reporting (PUR) data indicates that over 600, 000 pounds of ED pesticides are used annually in the Salinas Valley alone. Based on animal and human evidence, prenatal exposure to other endocrine disruptors such as PCBs may result in neurodevelopmental effects and these outcomes may be one of the most sensitive indicators of toxicity. Although animal studies suggest that endocrine disrupting pesticides potentially could affect neurodevelopment, no studies to date have examined these effects in humans. The objectives of this study are: 1) to determine whether in utero exposure to endocrine disrupting (ED) pesticides, such as non-persistent ED pesticides and organochlorine pesticides, is associated with adverse effects on the neurobehavioral development of children; and 2) to identify population correlates of exposure, e.g., occupation, season, PUR data) so that appropriate interventions can be developed in the future to reduce exposure. We propose to examine this relationship in approximately 550 children from predominantly low-income Latino farmworker families living in the Salinas Valley of Monterey County, California. These children, whose mothers were enrolled during pregnancy, are participants of CHAMACOS, a study of the NIH- and EPA-funded Center for Children=s Environmental Health Research, which aims to investigate exposure to organophosphate pesticides and potential health effects in children. We will measure biomarkers of exposure to 14 organochlorine pesticides in archived CHAMACOS serum samples collected at 26 weeks gestational age, and 16 non-persistent ED pesticides or their metabolites in archived maternal urine samples collected at 13 and 26 weeks gestational age. We will investigate the association of these biomarkers with neurodevelopment of newborns (Brazelton) and, 6, 12, and 24 month olds. Mothers are interviewed prenatally and postnatally about their sociodemographic characteristics, habits, housing, exposure, work and medical history. Geographic coordinates of residences are determined in home visits and will be linked to the PUR data. This study will provide the first data on exposure and health effects of ED pesticides in a highly exposed population, complete the exposure profile of CHAMACOS children, and target interventions to reduce child exposures.
Funding Period: 2001-09-30 - 2006-09-29
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Effects of age, sex, and persistent organic pollutants on DNA methylation in children
    Karen Huen
    Center for Children s Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California
    Environ Mol Mutagen 55:209-22. 2014
  2. pmc Serum persistent organic pollutants and duration of lactation among Mexican-American women
    Rosana H Weldon
    Center for Children s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA
    J Environ Public Health 2010:861757. 2010
  3. pmc Prenatal exposure to organophosphates, paraoxonase 1, and cognitive development in childhood
    Stephanie M Engel
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 119:1182-8. 2011
  4. pmc Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and IQ in 7-year-old children
    Maryse F Bouchard
    University of California Berkeley, Center for Environmental Research and Children s Health, School of Public Health, Berkeley, California 94704, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 119:1189-95. 2011
  5. pmc Organophosphate pesticide exposure and attention in young Mexican-American children: the CHAMACOS study
    Amy R Marks
    Center for Children s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 118:1768-74. 2010
  6. pmc Comparison of current-use pesticide and other toxicant urinary metabolite levels among pregnant women in the CHAMACOS cohort and NHANES
    Rosemary Castorina
    Center for Children s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94704, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 118:856-63. 2010
  7. pmc DDT exposure, work in agriculture, and time to pregnancy among farmworkers in California
    Kim G Harley
    Center for Children s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Calif 94704 7380, USA
    J Occup Environ Med 50:1335-42. 2008
  8. pmc Effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides on thyroid function during pregnancy
    Jonathan Chevrier
    Center for Children s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94704 7380, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 168:298-310. 2008
  9. pmc Associations between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in a Mexican-American population, Salinas Valley, California
    Jonathan Chevrier
    Center for Children s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94704 7380, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 115:1490-6. 2007
  10. pmc Organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurodevelopment in young Mexican-American children
    Brenda Eskenazi
    Center for Children s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 7380, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 115:792-8. 2007

Scientific Experts

  • Brenda Eskenazi
  • Laura Fenster
  • Stephanie M Engel
  • Asa Bradman
  • Kim G Harley
  • Jonathan Chevrier
  • Dana B Barr
  • Katherine Kogut
  • Nina Holland
  • Dana Boyd Barr
  • Amy R Marks
  • Karen Huen
  • Maryse F Bouchard
  • Norma Calderon
  • Caroline Johnson
  • Rosana H Weldon
  • Rosemary Castorina
  • Kim Harley
  • Marcella L Warner
  • Liying Yan
  • Paul Yousefi
  • Celina Trujillo
  • Michelle Vedar
  • Alan Hubbard
  • Ellen A Eisen
  • Thomas E McKone
  • Roberto Bravo
  • Martha E Harnly
  • Michelle G Vedar
  • Mark D Davis
  • Monique Webster
  • Andreas Sjodin
  • Richard S Jones
  • Donald G Patterson
  • Gloria Vargas
  • Robin M Whyatt

Detail Information

Publications16

  1. ncbi Effects of age, sex, and persistent organic pollutants on DNA methylation in children
    Karen Huen
    Center for Children s Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California
    Environ Mol Mutagen 55:209-22. 2014
    ..Accounting for co-exposure to different types of chemicals and adjusting for blood cell types may increase sensitivity of epigenetic analyses for epidemiological studies...
  2. pmc Serum persistent organic pollutants and duration of lactation among Mexican-American women
    Rosana H Weldon
    Center for Children s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA
    J Environ Public Health 2010:861757. 2010
    ..Research suggests that estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals interfere with lactation...
  3. pmc Prenatal exposure to organophosphates, paraoxonase 1, and cognitive development in childhood
    Stephanie M Engel
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 119:1182-8. 2011
    ..Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides has been shown to negatively affect child neurobehavioral development. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of organophosphates...
  4. pmc Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and IQ in 7-year-old children
    Maryse F Bouchard
    University of California Berkeley, Center for Environmental Research and Children s Health, School of Public Health, Berkeley, California 94704, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 119:1189-95. 2011
    ..Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are neurotoxic at high doses. Few studies have examined whether chronic exposure at lower levels could adversely affect children's cognitive development...
  5. pmc Organophosphate pesticide exposure and attention in young Mexican-American children: the CHAMACOS study
    Amy R Marks
    Center for Children s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 118:1768-74. 2010
    ..Exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, well-known neurotoxicants, has been associated with neurobehavioral deficits in children...
  6. pmc Comparison of current-use pesticide and other toxicant urinary metabolite levels among pregnant women in the CHAMACOS cohort and NHANES
    Rosemary Castorina
    Center for Children s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94704, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 118:856-63. 2010
    ..S. national reference data for 342 pregnant women sampled by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002)...
  7. pmc DDT exposure, work in agriculture, and time to pregnancy among farmworkers in California
    Kim G Harley
    Center for Children s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Calif 94704 7380, USA
    J Occup Environ Med 50:1335-42. 2008
    ..This study examined whether exposure to pesticides, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), was associated with longer time to pregnancy (TTP)...
  8. pmc Effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides on thyroid function during pregnancy
    Jonathan Chevrier
    Center for Children s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94704 7380, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 168:298-310. 2008
    ..These findings are of particular significance, since thyroid hormones of maternal origin may play an essential role in fetal neurodevelopment...
  9. pmc Associations between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in a Mexican-American population, Salinas Valley, California
    Jonathan Chevrier
    Center for Children s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94704 7380, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 115:1490-6. 2007
    ..PCBs may in turn affect TH levels by inducing the microsomal enzyme uridinediphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT), which is involved in TH elimination...
  10. pmc Organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurodevelopment in young Mexican-American children
    Brenda Eskenazi
    Center for Children s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 7380, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 115:792-8. 2007
    ..Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are widely used in agriculture and homes. Animal studies suggest that even moderate doses are neurodevelopmental toxicants, but there are few studies in humans...
  11. pmc Polybrominated diphenyl ether levels in the blood of pregnant women living in an agricultural community in California
    Asa Bradman
    Center for Children s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 7380, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 115:71-4. 2007
    ..Recent studies have raised concerns about polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardant exposures to pregnant women and women of child-bearing age in the United States. Few studies have measured PBDEs in immigrant populations...
  12. ncbi In utero exposure to DDT and performance on the Brazelton neonatal behavioral assessment scale
    Laura Fenster
    California Department of Health Services, Division of Environmental and Occupational Disease Control, 850 Marina Bay Parkway, Richmond, CA 94804 6403, USA
    Neurotoxicology 28:471-7. 2007
    ..The failure to observe effects on the BNBAS in these same children may be due to limited sensitivity of a single BNBAS assessment or a delay in the manifestations of neurodevelopmental effects of DDT/DDE until after the neonatal period...
  13. ncbi Soda consumption and overweight status of 2-year-old mexican-american children in california
    Marcella L Warner
    Center for Children s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, 2150 Shattuck Avenue, Suite 600, Berkeley, CA 94720 7380, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 14:1966-74. 2006
    ..The objective of this study was to determine the association between current soda consumption and overweight in 2-year-old Mexican-American children...
  14. ncbi In utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and neurodevelopment among young Mexican American children
    Brenda Eskenazi
    Center for Children s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, 2150 Shattuck Ave, Suite 600, Berkeley, California 94720 7380, USA
    Pediatrics 118:233-41. 2006
    ..We investigated the relationship between prenatal exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and neurodevelopment of Mexican farm-workers' children in California...
  15. pmc Association of in utero organochlorine pesticide exposure and fetal growth and length of gestation in an agricultural population
    Laura Fenster
    Division of Environmental and Occupational Disease Control, California Department of Health Services, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 114:597-602. 2006
    ..Our finding of decreased length of gestation related to HCB does not seem to have had clinical implications for this population, given its relatively low rate of preterm delivery (6.5%)...
  16. pmc Characterizing exposures to nonpersistent pesticides during pregnancy and early childhood in the National Children's Study: a review of monitoring and measurement methodologies
    Asa Bradman
    Center for Children s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 113:1092-9. 2005
    ....