NEURAL VISUAL CODING: IMAGE TO OBJECT REPRESENTATION
Principal Investigator: RUDIGER VON DER HEYDT
Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): There is something basic about vision that we do not understand. Everyday experience tells us that we can perceive every detail of an object that our eyes can resolve, even if the object is complex. But neurophysiological evidence shows that the most detailed visual information is represented only at the early processing stages (areas V1 and V2), where neurons have small receptive fields that are fixed on the retinae. This means that a different set of neurons is activated every time the eyes move to a new fixation, which occurs continually 3-4 times per second. How can a stable percept of the object result from these scattered responses? This application proposes research to test a new theory that describes the emergence of object representations in the visual brain and its role in the deployment of attention. According to the theory, the remapping of receptive fields as found in LIP and extrastriate visual areas, and the remapping of figure-ground structure that was recently discovered in V1 and V2, have a common mechanism. The proposed experiments will use single-cell recordings in behaving non-human primates. By recording from parietal and extrastriate visual areas, two critical predictions of the theory will be tested. One is that remapping of receptive fields, as classically observed in connection with saccades, should also occur in response to object movements. Several areas where remapping has been found with the classic remapping paradigm will be tested, and results are expected to differ between areas. The second prediction is that the remapping signals recorded at high level (e.g., parietal area) and low level (e.g., area V2) should exhibit specific correlations. This will be tested by recordin simultaneously with two microelectrodes. If confirmed, this would be a step towards a comprehensive theory of visual processing that includes figure-ground organization, object-based attention, and perceptual stability.
Funding Period: 1979-06-01 - 2016-07-31
more information: NIH RePORT
- Dissociation of color and figure-ground effects in the watercolor illusionRUDIGER VON DER HEYDT
Department of Neuroscience and Krieger Mind Brain Institute, 338 Krieger Hall, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21210, USA
Spat Vis 19:323-40. 2006....
- A century of Gestalt psychology in visual perception: I. Perceptual grouping and figure-ground organizationJohan Wagemans
University of Leuven KU Leuven, Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, Tiensestraat 102, Box 3711, BE 3000 Leuven, Belgium
Psychol Bull 138:1172-217. 2012..A better integration of this research tradition with the rest of vision science requires further progress regarding the conceptual and theoretical foundations of the Gestalt approach, which is the focus of a second review article...
- Does afferent heterogeneity matter in conveying tactile feedback through peripheral nerve stimulation?Sung Soo Kim
Krieger Mind Brain Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 19:514-20. 2011..To the extent that precise spike timing (at a resolution of milliseconds) is not essential, a canonical model can be used to simulate the responses of populations of afferents...
- The speed of context integration in the visual cortexTadashi Sugihara
Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and Krieger Mind Brain Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
J Neurophysiol 106:374-85. 2011..Probability calculations showed that an explanation of the context influence by horizontal signal propagation alone is highly unlikely, whereas mechanisms involving back projections from other extrastriate areas are plausible...
- Mechanisms of perceptual organization provide auto-zoom and auto-localization for attention to objectsStefan Mihalas
Krieger Mind Brain Institute and Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:7583-8. 2011....
- Analysis of the context integration mechanisms underlying figure-ground organization in the visual cortexNan R Zhang
Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
J Neurosci 30:6482-96. 2010..Three principally different models are discussed. The results support a model in which the antagonistic surround influences are produced by reentrant signals from a higher-level area...
- Short-term memory for figure-ground organization in the visual cortexPhilip O'Herron
Krieger Mind Brain Institute and Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
Neuron 61:801-9. 2009..Figure-ground signals represent the layout of objects in a scene, and we propose that a short-term memory for object layout is important in providing continuity of perception in the rapid stream of images flooding our eyes...
- Synchrony and the binding problem in macaque visual cortexYi Dong
Zanvyl Krieger Mind Brain Institute, and Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
J Vis 8:30.1-16. 2008..This suggests that the synchrony reflected the connectivity in the network that generates border ownership assignment. Thus, we have not found evidence to support the binding-by-synchrony hypothesis...
- Figure-ground mechanisms provide structure for selective attentionFangtu T Qiu
Krieger Mind Brain Institute and Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
Nat Neurosci 10:1492-9. 2007..This correlation suggests that the neural network that creates figure-ground organization also provides the interface for the top-down selection process...
- A neural model of figure-ground organizationEdward Craft
Department of Biophysics, Johns Hopkins University, 338 Krieger Hall, 3400 N Charles St, Baltimore, MD 21218 2685, USA
J Neurophysiol 97:4310-26. 2007..The results are consistent with neurophysiological and psychophysical findings. The model makes predictions about the hypothetical grouping circuits and the role of feedback between cortical areas...
- Neural representation of transparent overlayFangtu T Qiu
Krieger Mind Brain Institute and Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
Nat Neurosci 10:283-4. 2007..We found that neurons assign border ownership according to the transparent interpretation, representing the shapes of the bars rather than the squares...
- Remapping of border ownership in the visual cortexPhilip O'Herron
Krieger Mind Brain Institute and Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
J Neurosci 33:1964-74. 2013..The transfer occurred whether the edge was moved by a saccade or by moving the visual display. Thus, although the contours are coded in retinal coordinates, their assignment to objects is maintained across movements of the retinal image...
- Center for Biomedical Research Excellence in Pathogen-Host InteractionsStephen B Pruett; Fiscal Year: 2013..We expect the combined reductionist and global approach in this COBRE to produce significant progress in research on these pathogens. ..
- Neural Basis of Depth PerceptionGregory C DeAngelis; Fiscal Year: 2013..The proposed research is directly relevant to the research priorities of the Strabismus, Amplyopia, and Visual Processing program at the National Eye Institute. ..
- Neural correlates of 3D visual orientationDora Angelaki; Fiscal Year: 2013..Together, these studies constitute a state-of-the-art multi-faceted approach and will provide a vital test of the hypothesis that this circuit contributes to 3D vision. ..
- Changes in V2 topography after V1 lesions: Impact of microstimulation on behaviorSTELIOS MANOLIS SMIRNAKIS; Fiscal Year: 2013..The macaque model of cortical reorganization studied with the combination of electrophysiology methods and fMRI is a versatile and sensitive tool for testing experimental hypotheses on the nature of plasticity. ..
- NEURAL MECHANISMS OF SELECTIVE ATTENTIONRobert Desimone; Fiscal Year: 2013..In total, we expect these studies to give us the best account so far of how the interactions among multiple brain structures leads to effective visual processing with attention. ..
- Saccade Target Selection Frontal CortexJeffrey D Schall; Fiscal Year: 2013..This framework offers the opportunity to distinguish the respective contributions of these two, distinct states to disorders of visual attention, orientation and mobility. ..
- Influence of attention and eye movement signals on population coding in area V4Matthew A Smith; Fiscal Year: 2013..These experiments will provide crucial insight into how the visual cortex integrates over small regions of space using information about eye movements and attentional modulation to produce behaviorally relevant output. ..
- QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF VISUAL PATHWAYSJ Anthony Movshon; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- Neural mechanisms for antisaccade errors among schizophrenia familiesBrett A Clementz; Fiscal Year: 2013..It is expected this pattern will be disrupted in people with schizophrenia and their relatives. ..
- Eye Movements and Visual PerceptionBart Krekelberg; Fiscal Year: 2013..understand what happens to visual information processing at the time of a rapid eye movement;does processing start anew with every eye movement, or is there transfer and integration of the information on the details of the visual scene? ..
- CORE GRANT FOR VISION RESEARCHJ Anthony Movshon; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- Cross-modal interactions between vision and touchKRISHNANKUTTY SATHIAN; Fiscal Year: 2013..This knowledge will enable development of novel approaches to neurological rehabilitation in many contexts, including blindness, autism, traumatic brain injury and post-stroke deficits. ..
- Neural and Behavioral Interactions Between Attention, Perception, and LearningNICHOLAS BENJAMIN TURK-BROWNE; Fiscal Year: 2013..These advances will shed light on the plasticity that occurs during development and during the recovery and rehabilitation of visual function following eye disease, injury, or brain damage. ..
- Sensory Cortical Organization and Cross-Modal Plasticity in Blind HumansJosef P Rauschecker; Fiscal Year: 2013..Combining the two different methodological approaches will provide us an excellent opportunity to identify the source of nonvisual inputs to VC in the early blind. ..
- Neuronal ensembles in the rodent visual cortexR Clay Reid; Fiscal Year: 2013..This work will provide the basis for linking area-specific computations to behaviors-- such as object recognition and navigation-- that rely on the processing of distinct visual features. ..
- PROCESSING STREAMS IN MOUSE VISUAL CORTEXANDREAS HANS BURKHALTER; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- Cognitive functions of multisensory cortical mapsMARTIN IRENAEUS SERENO; Fiscal Year: 2013..These abilities are impaired in several different brain diseases. This research aims to understand how visual and touch information is combined and processed during near-face encounters with moving objects. ..
- Organization and Function of Mouse Visual Cortical AreasEdward M Callaway; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- Cortical Areas and Neural Connections Underlying Scene ProcessingROGER B TOOTELL; Fiscal Year: 2013..Successful completion of all aims will use different MRI-based methods to demonstrate a scene- processing network in alert primates, ranging from sensory-driven to task-driven, and the connections between these areas. ..
- NEURAL CONTROL OF VISUAL-VESTIBULAR BEHAVIORMichael J Mustari; Fiscal Year: 2013..Therefore, our studies are designed to test real SP circuits in a manner that will aid in the diagnosis and potential treatment of disorders associated with strabismus, neurodegenerative disease, brain injury and stroke. ..