MULTIDIMENSIONAL DYNAMIC OF THE VESTIBULO OCULAR REFLEX

Summary

Principal Investigator: T Raphan
Abstract: The objective of this project is model how the vestibular system contributes to maintaining binocular fixation in space during motions that induce linear and angular accelerations of the head and body. We have hypothesized that the angular and linear vestibulo-ocular reflexes (aVOR and IVOR) can be characterized through the activation of compensatory and spatial orientation mechanisms. In the proposed work, we will extend these ideas by combining version and vergence to study whether binocular viewing can also be characterized in terms of the compensatory and orienting theory. A methodology for recording binocular eye movements in three dimensions using a rotating field coil system has been developed. A new mathematical methodology has been proposed to obtain the rotation of the two eyes in terms of convergence and version matrices in head coordinates. Algorithms have been proposed that will utilize these matrices and a vector from the head coordinate frame origin to each eye to compute gaze fixation points. Preliminary studies indicate monkeys can be trained to fixate targets at various positions in the visual field to calibrate each eye. In the first specific aim, monkeys will be linearly accelerated along naso-occipital and other cardinal axes at 0.5-4 Hz, while viewing targets in space at various angles and distances from the origin of the head frame. This will test the compensatory properties of the IVOR. In specific aim 2, we will utilize translation while rotating (TWR) to determine how low frequency linear acceleration affects the binocular gaze characteristics of the IVOR, which we hypothesize will be generated by the binocular orientation mechanisms that will tend to align binocular fixation with the net gravito-inertial acceleration (GIA). In specific aim 3, monkeys will be tested using linear acceleration along the axis of the gravitational acceleration. We hypothesize that this will induce compensatory oculomotor responses without the usual concomitant orientation responses at midband frequencies. We expect that compensatory response will maintain fixed gaze points in space while orientation responses will tend to align the eyes or eye velocity with the resultant GIA. We will also model the three-dimensional compensatory and orientation convergence and version interaction as described in specific aim 4. When the study is completed, we will have a quantitative model of how the vestibular system contributes to maintenance of binocular gaze stability while moving.
Funding Period: 1983-04-01 - 2010-03-31
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Spatial properties of central vestibular neurons
    Sergei B Yakushin
    Department of Neurology, Box 1135, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 E 100th St, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Neurophysiol 95:464-78. 2006
  2. ncbi Adaptation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex to head movements in rotating frames of reference
    Mingjia Dai
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Exp Brain Res 195:553-67. 2009
  3. ncbi Modification of the cervico-ocular reflex by canal plugging
    Sergei B Yakushin
    Departments of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1164:60-7. 2009
  4. ncbi Effect of canal plugging on quadrupedal locomotion in monkey
    Bernard Cohen
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1164:89-96. 2009
  5. pmc Adaptation of orientation of central otolith-only neurons
    Julia N Eron
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1164:367-71. 2009
  6. ncbi Effects of the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex on accommodative vergence eye movements
    Sergei B Yakushin
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1164:499-504. 2009
  7. pmc Dependence of the roll angular vestibuloocular reflex (aVOR) on gravity
    Sergei B Yakushin
    Dept of Neurology, Box 1135, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 E 100th St, New York, NY 10029 6574, USA
    J Neurophysiol 102:2616-26. 2009
  8. pmc Frequency-velocity mismatch: a fundamental abnormality in parkinsonian gait
    Catherine Cho
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, Box 1135, New York, NY 10029 6574, USA
    J Neurophysiol 103:1478-89. 2010
  9. pmc Complementary gain modifications of the cervico-ocular (COR) and angular vestibulo-ocular (aVOR) reflexes after canal plugging
    Sergei B Yakushin
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Exp Brain Res 210:549-60. 2011
  10. pmc Spatial orientation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) after semicircular canal plugging and canal nerve section
    Sergei B Yakushin
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Exp Brain Res 210:583-94. 2011

Detail Information

Publications23

  1. ncbi Spatial properties of central vestibular neurons
    Sergei B Yakushin
    Department of Neurology, Box 1135, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 E 100th St, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Neurophysiol 95:464-78. 2006
    ..This convergence could provide the basis for gravity-dependent eye velocity orientation induced through velocity storage...
  2. ncbi Adaptation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex to head movements in rotating frames of reference
    Mingjia Dai
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Exp Brain Res 195:553-67. 2009
    ..Similar orientation changes to prolonged exposure to complex motion environments may be responsible for producing post-stimulus motion sickness and/or mal de debarquement...
  3. ncbi Modification of the cervico-ocular reflex by canal plugging
    Sergei B Yakushin
    Departments of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1164:60-7. 2009
    ..5 Hz and shifted toward 270 degrees as frequencies were increased to 4 Hz. This study demonstrates that adaptation of COR gain is tuned to a frequency range at which the aVOR is compromised by the canal plugging...
  4. ncbi Effect of canal plugging on quadrupedal locomotion in monkey
    Bernard Cohen
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1164:89-96. 2009
    ..These findings indicate that the semicircular canals provide critical low frequency information to maximize the accuracy of stepping and stabilize the head during normal quadrupedal locomotion...
  5. pmc Adaptation of orientation of central otolith-only neurons
    Julia N Eron
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1164:367-71. 2009
    ..In contrast, canal-convergent VO and VPS neurons optimize their response vector orientation to gravity when the head is oriented for prolonged periods...
  6. ncbi Effects of the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex on accommodative vergence eye movements
    Sergei B Yakushin
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1164:499-504. 2009
    ..At higher frequencies, vergence could also be driven by the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex (lVOR). Thus, vision in one nonmoving eye and the lVOR combine to generate convergence over a wide range of frequencies and viewing distances...
  7. pmc Dependence of the roll angular vestibuloocular reflex (aVOR) on gravity
    Sergei B Yakushin
    Dept of Neurology, Box 1135, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 E 100th St, New York, NY 10029 6574, USA
    J Neurophysiol 102:2616-26. 2009
    ..These behavioral differences support the idea that there is a fundamental difference in the central organization of canal-otolith convergence of the roll and yaw/pitch aVORs...
  8. pmc Frequency-velocity mismatch: a fundamental abnormality in parkinsonian gait
    Catherine Cho
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, Box 1135, New York, NY 10029 6574, USA
    J Neurophysiol 103:1478-89. 2010
    ..We postulate that the inability to control step frequency and adjust swing phase dynamics to slower walking velocities are major causes for the gait impairment in PD...
  9. pmc Complementary gain modifications of the cervico-ocular (COR) and angular vestibulo-ocular (aVOR) reflexes after canal plugging
    Sergei B Yakushin
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Exp Brain Res 210:549-60. 2011
    ..Thus, while there are individual variations in the time of adaptation of the gain and phase parameters, the essential functional organization of the adaption to vestibular lesions is uniform across these species...
  10. pmc Spatial orientation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) after semicircular canal plugging and canal nerve section
    Sergei B Yakushin
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Exp Brain Res 210:583-94. 2011
    ..We conclude that there is no spatial adaptation of the aVOR even after complete loss of specific semicircular canal input...
  11. ncbi Baclofen, motion sickness susceptibility and the neural basis for velocity storage
    Bernard Cohen
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
    Prog Brain Res 171:543-53. 2008
    ....
  12. ncbi Differential coding of head rotation by lateral-vertical canal convergent central vestibular neurons
    Julia N Eron
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
    Prog Brain Res 171:313-8. 2008
    ..The otolith and canal inputs superposed when the animals were rotated about roll and pitch axes from an upright position. This insured that these neurons would respond over a broad frequency range from very low to high frequencies...
  13. ncbi Dynamics of binocular fixation of targets during fore-aft motion
    Sergei B Yakushin
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
    Prog Brain Res 171:303-11. 2008
    ..Thus, although pursuit alone does not contribute to visual following at higher frequencies, the interaction of binocular pursuit and the lVOR supported accurate binocular fixation for frequencies up to 3 Hz...
  14. ncbi Eye velocity asymmetry, ocular orientation, and convergence induced by angular rotation in the rabbit
    Jun Maruta
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
    Vision Res 46:961-9. 2006
    ..Thus, mechanisms in the rabbit increase compensatory eye velocity in the eye that leads into the direction of rotation and enhance binocular vision...
  15. ncbi Modeling gravity-dependent plasticity of the angular vestibuloocular reflex with a physiologically based neural network
    Yongqing Xiang
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Brooklyn College of CUNY, 2900 Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11210, USA
    J Neurophysiol 96:3349-61. 2006
    ..The adaptation is tuned by how the weights from otolith input to the canal-otolith-convergent neurons are adapted for a given head orientation...
  16. ncbi Dynamics of quadrupedal locomotion of monkeys: implications for central control
    Yongqing Xiang
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Brooklyn College, CUNY, Brooklyn, NY 11210, USA
    Exp Brain Res 177:551-72. 2007
    ....
  17. ncbi Vertical (Z-axis) acceleration alters the ocular response to linear acceleration in the rabbit
    Jun Maruta
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Box 1135, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Exp Brain Res 185:87-99. 2008
    ....
  18. ncbi Reinforcement learning interfaces for biomedical database systems
    I Rudowsky
    Dept of Comput and Inf Sci, Brooklyn College of the City Univ of New York, NY, USA
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 1:6269-72. 2006
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate how reinforcement learning algorithms can assist the user in interacting with the database interface application that has been developed to improve the performance of the system...
  19. ncbi Recording from the same cell in the vestibular nuclei over prolonged periods
    J N Eron
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Neurology Dept, Box 1135, 5E 98 Street, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Gravit Physiol 14:P69-70. 2007
  20. ncbi Semicircular canal plugging shifts the frequency of spatial-temporal convergence (STC) in central vestibular neurons
    Sergei B Yakushin
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Neurology Dept, Box 1135, 5E 98 Street, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Gravit Physiol 14:P71-2. 2007
  21. pmc Adaptation of orientation vectors of otolith-related central vestibular neurons to gravity
    Julia N Eron
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York City, NY 10029 6574, USA
    J Neurophysiol 100:1686-90. 2008
    ..Such reorientation of central polarization vectors could provide the basis for changes in perception and eye movements related to prolonged head tilts relative to gravity or in microgravity...
  22. pmc Head stabilization by vestibulocollic reflexes during quadrupedal locomotion in monkey
    Yongqing Xiang
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Brooklyn College, CUNY, Brooklyn, NY, USA
    J Neurophysiol 100:763-80. 2008
    ..We conclude that the behavioral state associated with active body motion is necessary to maintain head stability in pitch and roll over the full range of stride/step frequencies encountered during walking...
  23. pmc Orientation adaptation of eye movement-related vestibular neurons due to prolonged head tilt
    Olga V Kolesnikova
    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1233:214-8. 2011
    ..Thus, coding of orientation in PVP neurons would contribute significantly to the gravity-dependent adaptation of the aVOR...