CRCNS: Ultra-rapid object localization: Shortcuts in the brain's visual hierarchy

Summary

Principal Investigator: MAXIMILIAN K RIESENHUBER
Abstract: The human visual system can solve the complex task of detecting objects in natural scenes within a fraction of a second. Computational simulations along with EEG and intracranial recording studies have indicated that such "rapid" object recognition can be done based on a single pass through the visual hierarchy from primary visual cortex to task circuits in prefrontal cortex, in about 150-180 ms. Within this computational model, it is generally assumed that there is a progression from relatively simple features such as edges at the first cortical stages, to combinations of these simple features at intermediate levels, to "objects" at the top of the system. However, this "Standard Model" was recently challenged by behavioral demonstrations that reliable saccades to images containing animals were initiated as early as 120-130 ms after image onset, with even faster saccades to faces - within 100 ms. Given that saccadic programming and execution presumably need at least 20 ms, the underlying visual processing must have completed within 80-100 ms. These ultra- rapid detection times thus pose major problems for the current "Standard Model" of visual processing. The proposed project aims to test the hypothesis that the visual system can increase its processing speed on particular tasks by basing task-relevant decisions on signals that originate from intermediate processing levels, rather than requiring that stimuli are processed by the entire visual hierarchy. This hypothesis will be tested using a tightly integrated multidisciplinary approach consisting of behavioral studies using eye tracking to determine the capabilities of human ultra-rapid object detection, EEG and fMRI studies to determine when and where in the brain object-selective responses occur, and computational modeling studies to determine whether such multilevel object mechanisms make sense and can account for human performance levels. Instead of the classic hierarchical model, in which objects can only be coded at the very top of the system, this project will show how "objects" can be detected by neurons located in early visual areas - especially when those objects are behaviorally very important and need to be localized accurately - with fundamental implications for our understanding of the role of earlv and intermediate visual areas in obiect detection. RELEVANCE (See instructions): The visual system's ability to rapidly localize complex objects is foundational to one's daily life. It is currently thought that objects can only be coded at the very top of the visual system. In contrast, this project aims to. show how behaviorally important objects can be detected by neurons located in early visual brain areas, potentially rewriting the book on how the brain detects objects and how early brain areas are involved in comnlex visual functions Project results will be leveraged to hein build imnroved visual aids for the blind
Funding Period: -----------------201 - ----------------2016
more information: NIH RePORT

Research Grants

  1. The Shelf Live Evaluation of Investigational Dosage Forms
    Jonathan White; Fiscal Year: 2013
  2. Defining and Treating Written Language Disabilities
    VIRGINIA WISE BERNINGER; Fiscal Year: 2013
  3. Mechanisms of visual learning in cortical blindness
    Krystel R Huxlin; Fiscal Year: 2013
  4. Neural and Behavioral Interactions Between Attention, Perception, and Learning
    NICHOLAS BENJAMIN TURK-BROWNE; Fiscal Year: 2013
  5. NEURAL VISUAL CODING: IMAGE TO OBJECT REPRESENTATION
    RUDIGER VON DER HEYDT; Fiscal Year: 2013
  6. Understanding feature-based auditory-visual interactions.
    Satoru Suzuki; Fiscal Year: 2013
  7. 2013 Eye Movements: The Motor System that Sees the World GRC &GRS
    Michele A Basso; Fiscal Year: 2013
  8. Understanding the Neural Basis of Visual Face Processing
    Charles F Cadieu; Fiscal Year: 2013
  9. Visual Form-Based Spoken Word Processing
    LYNNE ESTHER BERNSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
  10. Neural computation from retina to visual cortex
    Markus Meister; Fiscal Year: 2013

Detail Information

Research Grants30

  1. The Shelf Live Evaluation of Investigational Dosage Forms
    Jonathan White; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This contract is essential for continued assurance of the quality of drugs undergoing clinical investigation for different types of cancer by Cancer Therapeutics Evaluation Program. ..
  2. Defining and Treating Written Language Disabilities
    VIRGINIA WISE BERNINGER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed multidisciplinary research has practical significance for improving diagnosis and providing more effective services which may lower such risks. ..
  3. Mechanisms of visual learning in cortical blindness
    Krystel R Huxlin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  4. Neural and Behavioral Interactions Between Attention, Perception, and Learning
    NICHOLAS BENJAMIN TURK-BROWNE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These advances will shed light on the plasticity that occurs during development and during the recovery and rehabilitation of visual function following eye disease, injury, or brain damage. ..
  5. NEURAL VISUAL CODING: IMAGE TO OBJECT REPRESENTATION
    RUDIGER VON DER HEYDT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..If confirmed, this would be a step towards a comprehensive theory of visual processing that includes figure-ground organization, object-based attention, and perceptual stability. ..
  6. Understanding feature-based auditory-visual interactions.
    Satoru Suzuki; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, the proposed research will not only systematically integrate auditory influences into the current models of visual feature processing, but it may also provide a means to aid visual processing by using auditory signals. ..
  7. 2013 Eye Movements: The Motor System that Sees the World GRC &GRS
    Michele A Basso; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We plan to bring together early-career and established investigators to propel forward novel research venues and collaborations. ..
  8. Understanding the Neural Basis of Visual Face Processing
    Charles F Cadieu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  9. Visual Form-Based Spoken Word Processing
    LYNNE ESTHER BERNSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  10. Neural computation from retina to visual cortex
    Markus Meister; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Conversely, in efforts to treat retinal degeneration by electronic or genetic prostheses one needs to know which aspects of retinal function the prosthesis should emulate to support visual perception. ..
  11. Function of fixational instability during natural viewing
    Michele Rucci; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Under- standing the functional implications of fixational instability may also lead to new treatment approaches for visual impairments in the many disorders whose manifestations include abnormal fixational eye movements. ..
  12. Neural Plasticity and Recovery of Visual Functions in Patients with Hemispherecto
    Adrian Nestor; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Critically, the differential remapping and improvement of different visual abilities speak to the key neural mechanisms underlying recovery and plasticity. ..
  13. Parallel pathways in visual cortex: functional connectivity of output pathways fr
    Alessandra Angelucci; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed research is innovative because it combines functional imaging with high-resolution labeling of single axons, using novel methods for single axon labeling and reconstruction. ..
  14. Caloric Restricted Rodent Colony
    RICK MORIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The purpose of this project is to develop, maintain and distribute a standing colony ofaged, calorically restricted rodents ofdefined strains for use by investigators in studies of aging. ..
  15. Eye Movements and Visual Perception
    Bart Krekelberg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..understand what happens to visual information processing at the time of a rapid eye movement;does processing start anew with every eye movement, or is there transfer and integration of the information on the details of the visual scene? ..
  16. Expectation and Attention in Visual Cognition
    Tobias Egner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  17. Common and Distinct Phenotypes of Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Anorexia Nervosa
    Jamie Feusner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It will also lay the foundation for future development of novel therapeutics such as perceptual retraining and emotion regulation techniques. ..
  18. Changes in V2 topography after V1 lesions: Impact of microstimulation on behavior
    STELIOS MANOLIS SMIRNAKIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The macaque model of cortical reorganization studied with the combination of electrophysiology methods and fMRI is a versatile and sensitive tool for testing experimental hypotheses on the nature of plasticity. ..
  19. The gist of the space: A space centered approach to visual scene perception
    Aude Oliva; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Real-world scene recognition is an unsolved mystery that will have implications for neuroscience, computational vision, artificial intelligence, robotics and psychology. ..
  20. Influence of attention and eye movement signals on population coding in area V4
    Matthew A Smith; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These experiments will provide crucial insight into how the visual cortex integrates over small regions of space using information about eye movements and attentional modulation to produce behaviorally relevant output. ..
  21. Center for Biomedical Research Excellence in Pathogen-Host Interactions
    Stephen B Pruett; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We expect the combined reductionist and global approach in this COBRE to produce significant progress in research on these pathogens. ..
  22. Multimodal Imaging of Spatiotemporal Integration in the Human Visual System
    Jonathan A Winawer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The candidate will seek an independent faculty position during the second year of the mentored phase. ..
  23. Cross-modal interactions between vision and touch
    KRISHNANKUTTY SATHIAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This knowledge will enable development of novel approaches to neurological rehabilitation in many contexts, including blindness, autism, traumatic brain injury and post-stroke deficits. ..
  24. GENES AND VISUAL PIGMENTS OF RED-GREEN COLOR VISION
    MAUREEN E NEITZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The major objective of this grant is to provide a new understanding of the circuitry responsible for a specific visual capacity--blue-yellow color vision. ..
  25. EARLY CORTICAL PROCESSING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Daniel C Javitt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  26. Disparity Processing in Human Visual Cortex
    Anthony M Norcia; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  27. Acquisition and extinction of affective bias in perception
    Andreas Keil; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  28. Neurocircuitry Underlying DBS Effects in OCD: A Window Into Mechanisms of Action
    Suzanne N Haber; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Results from these studies will also make important new contributions to our understanding of the basic mechanisms of DBS. ..
  29. Neuronal oscillations as instruments of sensory selection
    Charles E Schroeder; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2.3). Expt 3 will also examine effects of fixation onset on oscillatory synchrony across cortical layers and across cortical areas. ..