A neuronal process of the error signal that drives saccade adaptation


Principal Investigator: Yoshiko Kojima
Abstract: Project Summary/Abstract Motor adaptation is an important factor in the recovery of function following motor deficits associated with neural damage due to stroke, injury or aging. Such motor recovery or adaptation, is instructed by an error signal that is calculated by the brain from the mismatch between the desired movement and the actual movement produced. However, the brain circuits that process specific error signal(s) are not understood. The long-term goal of my research is to identify the neural mechanisms that process error signals to optimize sensory-motor behavior. Understanding these mechanisms and the circuitry underlying them will assist in devising rehabilitation therapies for motor deficits. We have approached our goal by using monkey saccadic eye movements, which provide an ideal model because saccades are precise, use only a few muscles, the associated brainstem neural circuit has been well documented and they can be made to undergo motor adaptation by means of well-established behavioral paradigms. Thus far, we know that complex spike firing in the oculomotor vermis (OMV) encodes motor error and that the OMV is required for adaptation of targeting saccades. Complex spikes in the OMV originate in a part of the inferior olive that receives a projection from the superior colliculus (SC). Previously, we have shown that electrical micro-stimulation of the SC, timed to mimic visual error signals, induces saccade adaptation. Thus, the SC appears to be an important part of the error signal pathway. In this study, we propose three projects to test the involvement of the SC in coding an error signal for saccade adaptation. The first project is directed at determining whether the SC is required for adaptation of targeting saccades. We will inactivate the SC reversibly during which time we predict that the monkey will be unable to adapt its saccades when subjected to a behavioral adaptation paradigm. The second project is directed at identifying correlates in SC visual activity with the visual error signal that drives adaptation. We will look for correlations of SC visual activity with error size (small errors drive adaptation better than large ones) and with adaptation rate, which decreases as adaptation progresses. The third project will determine whether the SC is also used for adaptation of other types of saccade, including memory-guided, delayed, scanning and express. We will electrically stimulate the SC after one of these different types to mimic an error signal and determine whether, as for targeting saccades, this artificial error causes adaptation. If it does, we will test whether the adaptation transfers to the other types. We anticipate that together the results of these three projects will help establish a previously unsuspected role for the SC in saccade adaptation.
Funding Period: 2013-08-01 - 2018-07-31
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. pmc Cerebellar fastigial nucleus influence on ipsilateral abducens activity during saccades
    Yoshiko Kojima
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
    J Neurophysiol 111:1553-63. 2014

Detail Information


  1. pmc Cerebellar fastigial nucleus influence on ipsilateral abducens activity during saccades
    Yoshiko Kojima
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
    J Neurophysiol 111:1553-63. 2014
    ..We conclude that cFN output keeps saccades accurate by controlling when ABD on-direction bursts and off-direction pauses end. ..

Research Grants30

  1. COBRE: The Delaware Center for Neuroscience Research
    Melissa A Harrington; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Second, the Center will support a group of junior women faculty to become R01-funded investigators and advance to senior levels both academically and scientifically. ..
  2. Instructive Signals for Motor Learning
    Jennifer L Raymond; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..An improved understanding of this process will inform the development of more effective interventions for a broad range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. ..
  3. Eye-Hand Coordination in Elderly Stroke Victims: A Visuomotor Rehab Study
    JOHN ROSS RIZZO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The overarching goal of the present study is to better elucidate the visuomotor planning strategies in the elderly that may be implemented both in the elderly and in the elderly post-stroke to foster long-term functional recovery ..
  4. Visual Augmentation Through Virtual Reality to Rehabiliate the Hand after Stroke
    Eugene Tunik; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Chester B Whitley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  6. Mechanisms of Cytokine Induced Lower Urinary Track Pathology
    Michael M Ittmann; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Aim 3 we will take advantage of several prostate promoter-specific transgenic mouse models to examine the possible role of inflammatory cytokines from the prostate gland in inducing cellular alterations ..
    Julius P Dewald; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, the outcome of this study is expected to have a crucial impact on future rehabilitation approaches even for the most severely impaired stroke survivors. ..
  8. Predicting Ipsilesional Motor Deficits in Stroke with Dynamic Dominance Model
    Robert L Sainburg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We expect that our findings should produce tangible applications to clinical rehabilitation, and to rehabilitation research. ..
    Lyn B Jakeman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This project will define how the cortex and reticular formation normally cooperate as a preliminary step to future studies where the potential for these systems to cooperate after stroke can be studied and expanded to improve recovery. ..
  10. Role of the Olivocerebellar System in Sensory Processing and Cognition
    Khalaf O Bushara; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These include altered timing mechanisms in schizophrenia, impulsiveness in post-traumatic stress disorder as well as essential tremor;relatively common disorders in the veterans population. ..
    Michael J Mustari; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Therefore, our studies are designed to test real SP circuits in a manner that will aid in the diagnosis and potential treatment of disorders associated with strabismus, neurodegenerative disease, brain injury and stroke. ..
  12. Plasticity of Audiovisual Movement Representations: Implications for Limb Apraxia
    Brenda Hanna-Pladdy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This data will elucidate the functional and anatomical basis for apraxia, and help identify appropriate sensory cues for rehabilitation of limb apraxia following stroke. ..
  13. Plasticity at the Excitatory Synapse
    Richard L Huganir; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Understanding these basic mechanisms of synaptic transmission and plasticity will provide insight into normal and abnormal brain function. ..
  14. Neural mechanisms for smooth pursuit adaptation
    Seiji Ono; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..New knowledge obtained in our research could help improve diagnosis and treatment options for different neurological disorders including those associated with stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  15. Spatial and Temporal Scales of Motor Sequence Learning
    SCOTT THOMAS GRAFTON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The collaborative effort can be expected to significantly advance our knowledge about mechanisms that support motor cortex plasticity. ..
  16. Neurophysiology of Saccade Adaptation
    Robijanto Soetedjo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The results of this project are relevance in the diagnostics, treatment and rehabilitation of patients with saccadic eye movement disorders. ..
  17. Targeting specific cortical microcircuit components to enhance functional recover
    Istvan Mody; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..S. and worldwide. The project will also identify specific target systems for promoting rehabilitation in the clinical practice, to result in a healthier life and an earlier functional reovery of stroke victims. ..
    Robert J Morecraft; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, it will assist in guiding creative rehabilitative interventions aimed at enhancing frontal cortical participation in the recovery process. ..
  19. Functional Characterization of Spatial Neglect in Parkinson's Disease
    DANIEL JAMES NORTON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Understanding the nature of spatial neglect in PD will provide a basis for targeted treatment strategies to compensate for navigational difficulties. ..
  20. Rehabilitative Training Effects on Corticofugal Plasticity after Cortical Damage
    ..This work is pursued to obtain a basal understanding of the anatomical and behavioral substrates that may be targeted in order to facilitate behavioral recovery after brain damage. ..
    David M Pollock; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In particular, this Program will investigate a full range of mechanisms that control ET-1 release and receptor specific actions in order to provide clinically relevant information. ..
  22. Synaptic Function: Effects of the Nerve Injury, Repair, and Altered Activity
    Timothy C Cope; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The Resume and Summary of Discussion above summarizes the final outcome of the group discussion. OVERALL PROGRAM EVALUATION ..
  23. Neural Basis of Saccade Preparation
    Neeraj J Gandhi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g., ADHD, schizophrenia) characterized by an inability to suppress reflexive movements. ..
  24. Perception and Action: Ideal Observers and Actors
    Michael S Landy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies will shed light on the way in which visual stimuli and movements are encoded, and on how vision is used to guide action. ..
  25. BDNF and Spine-Realted Disorders of Memory and Cognition
    Christine M Gall; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In all, the proposed studies are expected to test for the presence of a final, common defect in memory disorders and to thoroughly evaluate a clinically relevant strategy for normalizing synaptic plasticity and behavior. ..
  26. Center for Biomedical Research Excellence in Pathogen-Host Interactions
    Stephen B Pruett; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We expect the combined reductionist and global approach in this COBRE to produce significant progress in research on these pathogens. ..
  27. Conte Center for Computational Systems Genomics of Neuropsychiatric Phenotypes
    Andrey Rzhetsky; Fiscal Year: 2013