Tobacco Smoking, Nicotine and Negative Affect Relief

Summary

Principal Investigator: Kenneth Perkins
Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): A critical reinforcing effect of cigarette smoking is believed to be acute relief of negative affect (anxiety, sadness, irritability, etc.). Smoking clearly relieves negative affect caused by smoking abstinence (i.e. withdrawal), and negative affect after quitting smoking increases the risk of relapse. However, it is not clear that smoking acutely relieves negative affect from "sources" other than abstinence, such as environmental stressors, which smokers commonly experience in the natural environment. Due to limitations inherent in clinical research, this question may best be addressed with well-controlled laboratory research. What is needed is a lab study that includes more than one source of negative affect so that results across different sources can be compared within the same subject sample, using the same measures of negative affect, and under the same experimental procedures. This is the important and novel objective of the current proposal: to examine the degree to which the relationship between negative affect and smoking depends on the source of that negative affect. We will employ four different procedures to briefly induce negative mood. Demands of these procedures vary in key ways (e.g. active coping vs. no active coping) and will help us determine the conditions under which smoking is associated with negative affect. In addition, the 200 smoking subjects will be randomly assigned to one of three groups that differ in smoking and/or nicotine exposure (i.e. between-subjects factor), those who: smoke a nicotine cigarette, smoke a denicotinized cigarette, or do not smoke at all. Comparisons among these groups will determine whether nicotine per se or smoking behavior alone, without nicotine (suggesting conditioned effects), is responsible for the associations between smoking and negative affect. Affect will be assessed via multiple response domains: self-report, psycho physiological, and behavioral. Primary specific aims are to examine: 1) whether acute tobacco smoking relieves negative affect as a function of source, 2) whether negative mood induction increases smoking behavior as a function of source, and 3) the association between negative affect relief and subsequent smoking behavior. In a secondary aim, we will: 4) explore individual differences in these effects. If smoking relieves negative affect from all four sources, this will strengthen the commonly held, but rarely demonstrated, notion that smoking does in fact acutely relieve negative affect, under virtually all conditions. However, if smoking relieves negative affect selectively, this finding will suggest that smoking's ability to relieve negative affect is limited to only certain conditions. Finally, if results for affect relief versus smoking behavior are inconsistent (i.e., aim #3), the traditional negative reinforcement explanation for the increase in smoking during negative mood will need to be reconsidered, warranting other explanations. In sum, this research will help address the fundamental question of why cigarette smoking is reinforcing.
Funding Period: 2006-09-15 - 2010-07-31
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Does smoking cue-induced craving tell us anything important about nicotine dependence?
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Addiction 104:1610-6. 2009
  2. pmc The reliability of puff topography and subjective responses during ad lib smoking of a single cigarette
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3811 O Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 14:490-4. 2012
  3. pmc Differences in negative mood-induced smoking reinforcement due to distress tolerance, anxiety sensitivity, and depression history
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3811 O Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 210:25-34. 2010
  4. ncbi Acute negative affect relief from smoking depends on the affect situation and measure but not on nicotine
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 67:707-14. 2010
  5. ncbi Expectancy for negative affect relief due to smoking may not be predictive under acute mood situations
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3811 O Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 20:161-6. 2012
  6. pmc Variability in initial nicotine sensitivity due to sex, history of other drug use, and parental smoking
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3811 O Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 99:47-57. 2009
  7. pmc Mood, nicotine, and dose expectancy effects on acute responses to nicotine spray
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3811 O Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 11:540-6. 2009
  8. ncbi Lack of reinforcement enhancing effects of nicotine in non-dependent smokers
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 205:635-45. 2009
  9. ncbi Acute responses to nicotine and smoking: implications for prevention and treatment of smoking in lower SES women
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 104:S79-86. 2009
  10. pmc Dopamine and opioid gene variants are associated with increased smoking reward and reinforcement owing to negative mood
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 19:641-9. 2008

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications14

  1. ncbi Does smoking cue-induced craving tell us anything important about nicotine dependence?
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Addiction 104:1610-6. 2009
    ....
  2. pmc The reliability of puff topography and subjective responses during ad lib smoking of a single cigarette
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3811 O Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 14:490-4. 2012
    ..However, the reliability of such measures is not clear, leaving uncertain the utility of a single assessment of smoking behavior as an individual difference measure...
  3. pmc Differences in negative mood-induced smoking reinforcement due to distress tolerance, anxiety sensitivity, and depression history
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3811 O Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 210:25-34. 2010
    ..Negative mood increases smoking reinforcement and may do so to a greater degree in smokers vulnerable to negative mood dysregulation...
  4. ncbi Acute negative affect relief from smoking depends on the affect situation and measure but not on nicotine
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 67:707-14. 2010
    ..Smoking acutely relieves negative affect (NA) due to smoking abstinence but may not relieve NA from other sources, such as stressors...
  5. ncbi Expectancy for negative affect relief due to smoking may not be predictive under acute mood situations
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3811 O Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 20:161-6. 2012
    ..In sum, assessment of expectancy for NA relief may be of limited use in predicting actual NA relief from smoking during a current mood situation, aside from NA due to overnight abstinence...
  6. pmc Variability in initial nicotine sensitivity due to sex, history of other drug use, and parental smoking
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3811 O Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 99:47-57. 2009
    ..They also suggest that parental smoking may not increase risk of nicotine dependence in offspring by altering initial nicotine sensitivity, and that cross-tolerance between other drugs and nicotine may not be robust in humans...
  7. pmc Mood, nicotine, and dose expectancy effects on acute responses to nicotine spray
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3811 O Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 11:540-6. 2009
    ..The present study extended this line of research to Nicotrol nasal spray, to determine whether formulation (spray vs. smoking) alters responses...
  8. ncbi Lack of reinforcement enhancing effects of nicotine in non-dependent smokers
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 205:635-45. 2009
    ..Little human research has directly examined this potentially important influence of nicotine...
  9. ncbi Acute responses to nicotine and smoking: implications for prevention and treatment of smoking in lower SES women
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 104:S79-86. 2009
    ....
  10. pmc Dopamine and opioid gene variants are associated with increased smoking reward and reinforcement owing to negative mood
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 19:641-9. 2008
    ..These results warrant replication but provide the first evidence for genetic associations with the acute increase in smoking reward and reinforcement owing to negative mood...
  11. ncbi Mood influences on acute smoking responses are independent of nicotine intake and dose expectancy
    Kenneth A Perkins
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 117:79-93. 2008
    ..Thus, sensory effects of smoke inhalation had a greater influence on relieving negative affect than actual or expected nicotine intake...