Impact of Drug Policy Reform on the HIV Risk Environment among IDUs in Tijuana

Summary

Principal Investigator: Steffanie Strathdee
Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This competing renewal proposes to evaluate the impact of recent Mexican drug policy reform on HIV-associated risk factors and protective factors among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. In Aug/2009, Mexico approved a law that partially deregulates possession of small, specified amounts of cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine and marijuana for personal use. The law specifies that after this law is enacted in Aug/2010, police apprehending persons who possess sub-threshold amounts of any of these drugs will be released with a record noting that they received 'no penal action';however, upon a third apprehension, they will be required to enter drug treatment, or go to jail. States are required to have completed drug treatment expansion by Aug/2012. The law has been met with praise and sharp criticism about potential unintended consequences. Our binational research team, which has conducted studies among IDUs in Tijuana for 6 years, proposes a longitudinal, mixed methods study to address the impact of Mexican drug policy reform on the following outcomes among IDUs in Tijuana: 1) Changes in knowledge, attitudes and experiences about the new law and their relationship to drug using behaviors and treatment readiness;2) Temporal trends in drug use behaviors: i) frequency of injection, cessation and relapse;ii) possession and use of specific drugs and combinations;iii) involvement in gangs and drug economy;3) Health risks and protective behaviors: i) injecting in shooting galleries and public spaces, ii) receptive needle sharing, iii) NEP and pharmacy attendance, iv) prevalence and incidence of overdose, HIV infection and death;4) Experiences with drug treatment: i) proportion of drug users over time choosing treatment over incarceration;ii) incidence and experiences with voluntary and court-mandated drug treatment;5) Law enforcement practices and interactions with IDUs: i) rates of arrest and incarceration;ii) perceived reasons vs. recorded reasons for arrest and incarceration;ii) experiences of cohort participants with police, including corruption and abuse. We will recruit a cohort of 750 HIV-negative IDUs through respondent driven sampling who will undergo semi- annual quantitative interviews and HIV tests. At each visit, a sub-sample who receive citations for drug possession-- especially those entering drug treatment involuntarily -- will be selected to undergo qualitative in- depth interviews to provide context on their knowledge of the law (Aim 1), experiences with drug treatment (Aim 4) and police (Aim 5). Administrative records from drug treatment programs, the police department and jails/prisons will be obtained to serve as independent outcome measures and assess city-level trends. Apart from Mexico, other Latin American countries and elsewhere are adopting more relaxed drug policy reforms. Given Mexico's important role in production and trafficking of illicit drugs, and Tijuana's location as a major corridor through which illicit drugs enter the U.S., this study represents an unprecedented natural experiment, allowing us to evaluate impacts of relaxed drug policy reforms on drug use, treatment, and HIV risk behaviors. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: We propose a longitudinal, mixed methods study to address the impact of Mexican drug policy reform on the following outcomes among IDUs in Tijuana over time: 1) Changes in knowledge, attitudes and experiences about the enactment of Mexican drug policy reform and their relation to drug using behaviors and treatment readiness;2) Temporal trends in drug use behaviors;3) Health risks and protective behaviors;4) Experiences with drug treatment: i) proportion of drug users over time choosing treatment over incarceration;ii) incidence and experiences with voluntary and involuntary drug treatment and 5) Law enforcement practices and interactions with IDUs. To address these aims, we will recruit a cohort of 750 IDUs in Tijuana who will undergo semi-annual quantitative interviews and testing for HIV antibodies. At each visit, a sub- sample who report receiving a 1st, 2nd or 3rd strike for drug possession will undergo qualitative in- depth interviews to address the context of their knowledge of the law (Aim 1), changes in drug use and health risks (Aims 2&3) experiences with drug treatment (Aim 4) and police (Aim 5).
Funding Period: ----------------2005 - ---------------2015-
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. pmc Perceived risk of HIV infection among deported male injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico
    Miguel Pinedo
    a Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
    Glob Public Health 9:436-54. 2014
  2. pmc Individual, social, and environmental influences associated with HIV infection among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico
    Steffanie A Strathdee
    Division of International Health and Cross Cultural Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 47:369-76. 2008
  3. pmc Prevalence and correlates of HIV infection among female sex workers in 2 Mexico-US border cities
    Thomas L Patterson
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0680, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:728-32. 2008
  4. pmc Shooting gallery attendance among IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico: correlates, prevention opportunities, and the role of the environment
    Morgan Philbin
    Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0622, USA
    AIDS Behav 12:552-60. 2008
  5. pmc The influence of perceived risk to health and immigration-related characteristics on substance use among Latino and other immigrants
    Victoria D Ojeda
    Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, Division of International Health and Cross Cultural Medicine, UCSD School of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0622, USA
    Am J Public Health 98:862-8. 2008
  6. pmc The color of meth: is it related to adverse health outcomes? An exploratory study in Tijuana, Mexico
    Steffanie A Strathdee
    Division of International Health and Cross Cultural Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Am J Addict 17:111-5. 2008
  7. pmc Differential effects of migration and deportation on HIV infection among male and female injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico
    Steffanie A Strathdee
    School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 3:e2690. 2008
  8. pmc Mexico's evolving HIV epidemic
    Steffanie A Strathdee
    Division of International Health and Cross Cultural Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Dr, Mailstop 0622, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    JAMA 300:571-3. 2008
  9. ncbi Trends in use of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers among Medicaid beneficiaries with bipolar disorder, 2001-2004
    Colin Depp
    Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0622, USA
    Psychiatr Serv 59:1169-74. 2008
  10. ncbi HIV/AIDS risk among female sex workers who use crack in Southern Brazil
    Monica Malta
    Departamento de Ciências Sociais, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública SérgioArouca, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Rev Saude Publica 42:830-7. 2008

Scientific Experts

  • TODD PATRICK GILMER
  • Karla Dawn Wagner
  • Art F Y Poon
  • K C Brouwer
  • Steffanie Strathdee
  • Timothy C Rodwell
  • J L Burgos
  • Victoria D Ojeda
  • Robin A Pollini
  • Melanie L A Rusch
  • Remedios Lozada
  • Angela M Robertson
  • Thomas L Patterson
  • Rebeca Ramos
  • Carlos Magis-Rodriguez
  • Alicia Vera
  • Patricia Case
  • Oralia Loza
  • Michelle Firestone-Cruz
  • Maria Elena Ramos
  • Simon D W Frost
  • Remedios M Lozada
  • Morgan M Philbin
  • Richard S Garfein
  • Cari L Miller
  • Michelle Firestone Cruz
  • Scott Burris
  • Miguel Pinedo
  • Gudelia Rangel
  • Meghan D Morris
  • Manuel Gallardo
  • Tyson Volkmann
  • O Loza
  • Sanjay R Mehta
  • Gustavo A Martínez
  • R Lozada
  • Daniela Abramovitz
  • Hugo Staines
  • Hortensia Amaro
  • Robert Deiss
  • R S Garfein
  • Esmeralda Iñiguez-Stevens
  • Patricia Volkow
  • T L Patterson
  • Robert G Deiss
  • Colin Depp
  • Carl A Latkin
  • Monica Malta
  • Laura B Moyer
  • Morgan Philbin
  • Andrea Mantsios
  • Michelle A Firestone Cruz
  • L Eyzaguirre
  • Emily Faye White
  • M Malta
  • Lawrence A Palinkas
  • M Gudelia Rangel
  • Christy M Anderson
  • H Staines-Orozco
  • Alicia Y Vera
  • G A Martinez
  • Hugo Staines-Orozco
  • Wayne Delport
  • Lucie Nguyen
  • Sergei Kosakovsky Pond
  • Thomas Patterson
  • Stephen Espitia
  • Davey M Smith
  • J Alvelais
  • R Laniado-Laborin
  • Robert S Hogg
  • Jorge Alvelais
  • R Deiss
  • P G Chiles
  • Erik M Volz
  • John P Elder
  • João B Ferreira-Pinto
  • Rolando M Viani
  • A Catanzaro
  • Kathleen S Moser
  • Maria Luisa Zuniga
  • L Liu
  • Gleisse Cristine Zuim
  • Stephanie K Brodine
  • Gustavo Martinez
  • Michelle Firestone
  • Simone Monteiro
  • Miguel Angel Fraga
  • Douglas D Heckathorn
  • Minya Pu

Detail Information

Publications59

  1. pmc Perceived risk of HIV infection among deported male injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico
    Miguel Pinedo
    a Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
    Glob Public Health 9:436-54. 2014
    ..Interventions should consider migrant's time in the USA, the role of their social networks, and reducing missed opportunities for HIV testing/education...
  2. pmc Individual, social, and environmental influences associated with HIV infection among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico
    Steffanie A Strathdee
    Division of International Health and Cross Cultural Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 47:369-76. 2008
    ..We examined correlates of HIV infection among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico, a city bordering the United States, which is situated on major migration and drug trafficking routes...
  3. pmc Prevalence and correlates of HIV infection among female sex workers in 2 Mexico-US border cities
    Thomas L Patterson
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0680, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:728-32. 2008
    ..We examined human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and correlates among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, 2 large cities on the Mexico-US border...
  4. pmc Shooting gallery attendance among IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico: correlates, prevention opportunities, and the role of the environment
    Morgan Philbin
    Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0622, USA
    AIDS Behav 12:552-60. 2008
    ..Harm reduction interventions based within shooting galleries should also be considered to prevent transmission of blood-borne pathogens among IDUs...
  5. pmc The influence of perceived risk to health and immigration-related characteristics on substance use among Latino and other immigrants
    Victoria D Ojeda
    Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, Division of International Health and Cross Cultural Medicine, UCSD School of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0622, USA
    Am J Public Health 98:862-8. 2008
    ....
  6. pmc The color of meth: is it related to adverse health outcomes? An exploratory study in Tijuana, Mexico
    Steffanie A Strathdee
    Division of International Health and Cross Cultural Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Am J Addict 17:111-5. 2008
    ..Further study is needed to confirm and determine the mechanism of this association to better inform prevention messages...
  7. pmc Differential effects of migration and deportation on HIV infection among male and female injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico
    Steffanie A Strathdee
    School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 3:e2690. 2008
    ..Future studies are needed to elucidate the context of mobility and HIV acquisition in this region, and whether US immigration policies adversely affect HIV risk...
  8. pmc Mexico's evolving HIV epidemic
    Steffanie A Strathdee
    Division of International Health and Cross Cultural Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Dr, Mailstop 0622, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    JAMA 300:571-3. 2008
  9. ncbi Trends in use of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers among Medicaid beneficiaries with bipolar disorder, 2001-2004
    Colin Depp
    Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0622, USA
    Psychiatr Serv 59:1169-74. 2008
    ..This study examined longitudinal trends in the use of mood stabilizers and antipsychotics for treatment of bipolar disorder in a large public mental health system and whether trends differed by age, gender, and race-ethnicity...
  10. ncbi HIV/AIDS risk among female sex workers who use crack in Southern Brazil
    Monica Malta
    Departamento de Ciências Sociais, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública SérgioArouca, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Rev Saude Publica 42:830-7. 2008
    ..Transcript data was entered into Atlas.ti software and grounded theory methodology was used to analyze the data and develop a conceptual model as a result of this study...
  11. pmc High prevalence of abscesses and self-treatment among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico
    Robin A Pollini
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Int J Infect Dis 14:e117-22. 2010
    ..Soft tissue infections are common among injection drug users (IDUs), but information on correlates and treatment in this highly marginalized population is lacking...
  12. pmc The relatedness of HIV epidemics in the United States-Mexico border region
    Sanjay R Mehta
    University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 26:1273-7. 2010
    ..Larger epidemiological studies are needed to quantify the magnitude and associations of cross-border mixing...
  13. pmc High-risk sexual and drug using behaviors among male injection drug users who have sex with men in 2 Mexico-US border cities
    Robert G Deiss
    Division of International Health and Cross Cultural Medicine, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California 92093 0622, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 35:243-9. 2008
    ..The population of Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) and who are also injection drug users (IDUs) is understudied. We explored risk behaviors of MSM/IDUs compared with other male IDUs in 2 Mexican border cities...
  14. pmc Barriers and missed opportunities to HIV testing among injection drug users in two Mexico--US border cities
    Laura B Moyer
    Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA 93093 0622, USA
    Drug Alcohol Rev 27:39-45. 2008
    ..We sought to identify barriers associated with HIV testing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, the two largest Mexican border cities located across from San Diego, California and El Paso, Texas, respectively...
  15. pmc Characteristics of female sex workers with US clients in two Mexico-US border cities
    Steffanie A Strathdee
    School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0680, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 35:263-8. 2008
    ..Quasilegal prostitution in both cities attracts large numbers of sex tourists. We compared FSWs with and without US clients in both cities...
  16. ncbi A qualitative assessment of long distance truck drivers' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in Itajaí, southern Brazil
    M Malta
    Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    AIDS Care 18:489-96. 2006
    ..Interventions, targeting truckers, CSWs and truckstop employees, are needed that traverse cities, states and borders and take into account seasonality, spatial context and workplace conditions...
  17. ncbi To serve and protect? Toward a better relationship between drug control policy and public health
    Scott Burris
    AIDS 20:117-8. 2006
  18. pmc A qualitative exploration of gender in the context of injection drug use in two US-Mexico border cities
    Michelle Firestone Cruz
    Division of International Health and Cross Cultural Medicine, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive, Ash Building, Room 118, Mail stop 0622, San Diego, CA, USA
    AIDS Behav 11:253-62. 2007
    ..In these two cities, venue-based interventions may be more appropriate for male IDUs, whereas personal network interventions may be more appropriate among female IDUs...
  19. ncbi Complex emergencies, HIV, and substance use: no "big easy" solution
    Steffanie A Strathdee
    Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, USA
    Subst Use Misuse 41:1637-51. 2006
  20. pmc Respondent-driven sampling of injection drug users in two U.S.-Mexico border cities: recruitment dynamics and impact on estimates of HIV and syphilis prevalence
    Simon D W Frost
    Department of Pathology and Antiviral Research Center, University of California, San Diego, CA 92103, USA
    J Urban Health 83:i83-97. 2006
    ..Although the frequency of HIV was low, syphilis prevalence was high, particularly in Tijuana. RDS-corrected estimates of syphilis prevalence were sensitive to model assumptions, suggesting that further validation of RDS is necessary...
  21. pmc First molecular surveillance report of HIV type 1 in injecting drug users and female sex workers along the U.S.-Mexico border
    L Eyzaguirre
    Division of Epidemiology, Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 23:331-4. 2007
    ..Further prevalence studies on HIV-1 resistance mutations among FSWs in these border cities are warranted...
  22. pmc At the borders, on the edge: use of injected methamphetamine in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico
    Patricia Case
    The Fenway Institute, Fenway Community Health, 7 Haviland Street, Boston, MA 02115 2683, USA
    J Immigr Minor Health 10:23-33. 2008
    ..Juarez may experience a methamphetamine outbreak in the future. Robust targeted interventions for both injected and non-injected methamphetamine should be a public health priority in both cities...
  23. pmc Prevalence of hepatitis C virus and HIV infection among injection drug users in two Mexican cities bordering the U.S
    Emily Faye White
    Division of International Health and Cross Cultural Medicine, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
    Salud Publica Mex 49:165-72. 2007
    ..To estimate the prevalence of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV infection and associated risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs) in two northern Mexican cities...
  24. pmc Syringe possession arrests are associated with receptive syringe sharing in two Mexico-US border cities
    Robin A Pollini
    Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
    Addiction 103:101-8. 2008
    ..To identify factors associated with receptive syringe sharing among injection drug users (IDUs) and elucidate the association between syringe possession arrests and syringe sharing...
  25. pmc Estimated numbers of men and women infected with HIV/AIDS in Tijuana, Mexico
    Kimberly C Brouwer
    Division of International Health and Cross Cultural Medicine, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0622, La Jolla, San Diego, CA, 93093 0622, USA
    J Urban Health 83:299-307. 2006
    ..Our data suggest that up to one in every 125 persons aged 15-49 years in Tijuana is HIV-infected. Interventions to reduce ongoing spread of HIV are urgently needed...
  26. pmc Injecting drug users' experiences of policing practices in two Mexican-U.S. border cities: public health perspectives
    Cari L Miller
    University of California School of Medicine, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, Division of International Health and Cross Cultural Medicine, USA
    Int J Drug Policy 19:324-31. 2008
    ..We undertook a qualitative study of IDUs' experiences of policing practices in two Mexican cities on the U.S. border...
  27. pmc Correlates of injection drug use among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities
    Steffanie A Strathdee
    School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 92:132-40. 2008
    ..To characterize the overlap between injection drug use and sex work by women in Tijuana and Cd. Juarez, situated on the Mexico-U.S. border...
  28. ncbi Using sexual affiliation networks to describe the sexual structure of a population
    Simon D W Frost
    UCSD Antiviral Research Center, 150 W Washington Street, Suite 100, San Diego, California 92103, USA
    Sex Transm Infect 83:i37-42. 2007
    ..This article reviews how data on "sexual affiliations" between people and venues may be collected, analysed, and used for surveillance and prevention of STIs...
  29. pmc Drug-related behaviors independently associated with syphilis infection among female sex workers in two Mexico-US border cities
    Oralia Loza
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0680, USA
    Addiction 105:1448-56. 2010
    ..To identify correlates of active syphilis infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez...
  30. pmc Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Surveillance in Marginalized Populations, Tijuana, Mexico
    Timothy C Rodwell
    Division of Global Public Health, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 0507, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:1292-5. 2010
    ..Six confirmed cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 were detected, and the use of rapid, mobile influenza testing was demonstrated...
  31. pmc Risk factors associated with chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection among female sex workers in two Mexico-USA border cities
    O Loza
    College of Health Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA
    Int J STD AIDS 21:460-5. 2010
    ..Prevention should focus on subgroups of FSWs and their partners who use methamphetamine and who inject drugs...
  32. pmc Cross-border drug injection relationships among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico
    Karla D Wagner
    Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive MC 0507, La Jolla, CA 92093 0507, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 113:236-41. 2011
    ..Among drug users, mobility increases risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in part through its effects on the social environment. However, the social dynamics of drug users living in border regions are understudied...
  33. pmc Correlates of seeking injection assistance among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico
    Angela M Robertson
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    Am J Addict 19:357-63. 2010
    ..42), having recent abscesses (AOR = 2.59; CI = 1.93-3.47), using syringes previously used by others in the past 6 months (AOR = 1.99; CI = 1.45-2.71), and ever being arrested for carrying sterile syringes (AOR = 1.55; CI = 1.15-2.09)...
  34. pmc A qualitative view of drug use behaviors of Mexican male injection drug users deported from the United States
    Victoria D Ojeda
    Division of Global Public Health, UCSD School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 10111 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92093 0507, USA
    J Urban Health 88:104-17. 2011
    ..The health status and health behaviors of deportees are likely to impact receiving Mexican communities. Programs that address health, social, and economic issues may aid deportees in resettling in Mexico...
  35. pmc Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico
    Tyson Volkmann
    9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0507, La Jolla, California, 92093 0507, USA
    Harm Reduct J 8:7. 2011
    ..abstract:..
  36. pmc Male injection drug users try new drugs following U.S. deportation to Tijuana, Mexico
    Angela M Robertson
    Division of Global Public Health, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, Institute of the Americas, 10111 N Torrey Pines Road, Mail Code 0507, La Jolla, CA 92093 0507, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 120:142-8. 2012
    ..Changing drug use behaviors following deportation, including the use of new drugs, may increase HIV risk but are understudied. We identify correlates of trying new drugs following male IDUs' most recent U.S. deportation to Mexico...
  37. pmc Deportation experiences of women who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico
    Angela M Robertson
    University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0507, USA
    Qual Health Res 22:499-510. 2012
    ..Binational coordination is needed to help deported women resettle in Mexico...
  38. ncbi "Injection first": a unique group of injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico
    Meghan D Morris
    Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0507, USA
    Am J Addict 21:23-30. 2012
    ..In conclusion, a sizable proportion of IDUs in Tijuana injected as their first drug using experience, although evidence that this was a riskier subgroup of IDUs was inconclusive. ..
  39. pmc Correlates and contexts of US injection drug initiation among undocumented Mexican migrant men who were deported from the United States
    Angela M Robertson
    Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of California, La Jolla, San Diego, 92093 0507, USA
    AIDS Behav 16:1670-80. 2012
    ..HIV prevention programs may prevent/delay US injection initiation by addressing socio-economic and migration-related stressors experienced by undocumented migrants...
  40. pmc Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations
    Karla D Wagner
    Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive MC 0507, La Jolla, CA 92093 0507, USA
    Int J Drug Policy 23:54-61. 2012
    ....
  41. pmc Barriers to pharmacy-based syringe purchase among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico: a mixed methods study
    Robin A Pollini
    Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Mailcode 0507, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    AIDS Behav 14:679-87. 2010
    ..Interventions to expand OTC syringe sales to IDUs, particularly near detention facilities, will facilitate safer injection practices...
  42. pmc Access to public mental health services among older adults with severe mental illness
    Todd P Gilmer
    Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 0622, USA
    Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 24:313-8. 2009
    ....
  43. pmc Exploring stakeholder perceptions of acceptability and feasibility of needle exchange programmes, syringe vending machines and safer injection facilities in Tijuana, Mexico
    Morgan M Philbin
    School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0622, USA
    Int J Drug Policy 20:329-35. 2009
    ..We explored the acceptability and feasibility of such interventions in Tijuana, a city adjacent to San Diego, California...
  44. pmc Adherence to antipsychotics among Latinos and Asians with schizophrenia and limited English proficiency
    Todd P Gilmer
    Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92093 0622, USA
    Psychiatr Serv 60:175-82. 2009
    ....
  45. pmc Associations between migrant status and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico
    V D Ojeda
    Department of Psychiatry 0680, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0680, USA
    Sex Transm Infect 85:420-6. 2009
    ..To examine associations between migration and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among Mexican female sex workers (FSW)...
  46. pmc Cross-border paid plasma donation among injection drug users in two Mexico-U.S. border cities
    Patricia Volkow
    Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City, Mexico
    Int J Drug Policy 20:409-12. 2009
    ..S., mainly from paid donors. Deferral of high-risk donors such as injection drug users (IDUs) is required for paid donations. We studied circumstances surrounding paid plasma donation among IDUs in two Mexico-U.S. border cities...
  47. pmc High prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico
    R S Garfein
    University of California San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, California, USA
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:626-32. 2009
    ..We studied prevalence and correlates of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico, where tuberculosis (TB) is endemic...
  48. pmc The harm inside: injection during incarceration among male injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico
    Robin A Pollini
    Division of Global Public Health, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0628, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 103:52-8. 2009
    ..Corrections-based interventions to reduce injection and syringe sharing are urgently needed, as are risk reduction interventions for male IDUs who have sex with men while incarcerated...
  49. pmc A tale of two cities: Social and environmental influences shaping risk factors and protective behaviors in two Mexico-US border cities
    Rebeca Ramos
    US Mexico Border Health Association, El Paso, TX, USA
    Health Place 15:999-1005. 2009
    ..g., family drug use, migration, drug use patterns). We observed distinct behavioral and structural influences in these two border cities that will require tailored intervention strategies to reduce HIV transmission...
  50. pmc Polydrug use among IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico: correlates of methamphetamine use and route of administration by gender
    Melanie L Rusch
    Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0507, USA
    J Urban Health 86:760-75. 2009
    ..Routes of administration differed by gender and subgroup which has important implications for tailoring harm reduction interventions and drug abuse treatment...
  51. pmc Influences of cross-border mobility on tuberculosis diagnoses and treatment interruption among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico
    Robert Deiss
    Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, Division of International Health and Cross Cultural Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, USA
    Am J Public Health 99:1491-5. 2009
    ..We sought to identify correlates of reported lifetime diagnoses of TB among injection drug users in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico...
  52. pmc [Estimating the 2006 prevalence of HIV by gender and risk groups in Tijuana, Mexico]
    Esmeralda Iñiguez-Stevens
    School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    Gac Med Mex 145:189-95. 2009
    ..Estimate the 2006 HIV prevalence among adults aged 15-49 from the general population and at-risk subgroups in Tijuana, Mexico...
  53. pmc Using respondent-driven sampling in a hidden population at risk of HIV infection: who do HIV-positive recruiters recruit?
    Daniela Abramovitz
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 36:750-6. 2009
    ..We examined recruitment patterns of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive injection drug users (IDUs) and identified factors associated with being recruited by an HIV-positive IDU in a RDS-based study...
  54. pmc Targeted screening and treatment for latent tuberculosis infection using QuantiFERON-TB Gold is cost-effective in Mexico
    J L Burgos
    Division of Global Public Health, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 0507, USA
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:962-8. 2009
    ....
  55. pmc Parsing social network survey data from hidden populations using stochastic context-free grammars
    Art F Y Poon
    Division of Comparative Pathology and Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e6777. 2009
    ..Moreover, current analytical models rely on unrealistic assumptions, e.g., that the traversal of social networks can be modeled by a Markov chain rather than a branching process...
  56. pmc Correlates of early versus later initiation into sex work in two Mexico-U.S. border cities
    Oralia Loza
    Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0680, USA
    J Adolesc Health 46:37-44. 2010
    ..To examine correlates of early initiation into sex work in two Mexico-U.S. border cities...
  57. pmc Deportation along the U.S.-Mexico border: its relation to drug use patterns and accessing care
    K C Brouwer
    Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0622, La Jolla, CA 93093 0622, USA
    J Immigr Minor Health 11:1-6. 2009
    ..Our study is an indication that migration history might relate to current risk behaviors and access to health care. More in-depth studies to determine factors driving such behaviors are needed...