Effect of Biomechanical Force Exposure on Cognition & Brain Activation in Student
Principal Investigator: T W McAllister
Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): 300,000 individuals sustain sports concussions each year in the U.S. The majority of at-risk athletes are at the high school level. High school football players represent a particularly high-risk group, accounting for about two-thirds of all concussions in high school athletes. The short- and long-term effects of sports concussions and perhaps more importantly repetitive sub-concussive impacts are not known, nor are the cumulative effects of repeated injuries understood. There is enormous variability in outcome, although the reasons for this variability are not understood. We propose to use technological advances in on-field head impact monitoring, cognitive testing, and functional brain imaging to learn for the first time what types of head impacts, under what circumstances, in which individuals, cause what effects in brain function. This proposal will help to determine the short and long term effects of repetitive biomechanical force exposure on the developing adolescent brain, provide important information on the biomechanics of sports-related traumatic brain injury, and lead to more informed return-to-play guidelines. The overarching theme of this proposal is that a youth's exposure to biomechanical forces is a critical factor influencing cognitive outcome. This has two broad components: the characteristics of a single impact (e.g. linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, direction etc.), and the history of exposure to biomechanical forces over time (e.g. measures of frequency and intensity of impacts over the preceding days and weeks). We propose to use technological advances in on-field head impact monitoring, cognitive testing, and functional brain imaging to learn for the first time what types of head impacts, under what circumstances, in which individuals, cause what effects in brain function. Exposure to biomechanical forces acutely (post-concussive), sub-acutely (pre- to one-month post-season), and cumulatively (exposure over multiple seasons of play) are of interest and will be monitored. Two groups of high school student athletes (football players and non-impact sport athletes) will be studied at three time points (preseason, after a single season of play, and after multiple seasons of play) using a standardized cognitive battery and functional MRI (fMRI). A subgroup of students who sustain concussion, and matched controls from their team and from the non-impact athlete group will also be studied within one week of the concussion. Impact parameters will be directly measured using helmet-based accelerometer units.
Funding Period: 2007-09-01 - 2010-08-31
more information: NIH RePORT
- Genetic factors modulating outcome after neurotraumaThomas W McAllister
Section of Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA
PM R 2:S241-52. 2010..Polymorphisms reported to influence outcome after traumatic brain injury that illustrate important underlying mechanisms are emphasized...
- Head impact exposure sustained by football players on days of diagnosed concussionJonathan G Beckwith
Simbex, Lebanon, NH 03766, USA
Med Sci Sports Exerc 45:737-46. 2013....
- Timing of concussion diagnosis is related to head impact exposure prior to injuryJonathan G Beckwith
Simbex, Lebanon, NH 03766, USA
Med Sci Sports Exerc 45:747-54. 2013..This study compares measures of head impact frequency, location, and kinematic response before cases of immediate and delayed concussion diagnosis...
- Can helmet design reduce the risk of concussion in football?Steven Rowson
School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech Wake Forest University, Blacksburg, Virginia
J Neurosurg 120:919-22. 2014..Although helmet design may never prevent all concussions from occurring in football, evidence illustrates that it can reduce the incidence of this injury. ..
- Effects of psychological and biomechanical trauma on brain and behaviorThomas W McAllister
Department of Psychiatry, Section of Neuropsychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1208:46-57. 2010..This paper reviews the literature on the neural substrate of biomechanical and psychological injury and discusses the implications for evaluation and treatment of the neuropsychiatric sequelae of these processes...
- Maximum principal strain and strain rate associated with concussion diagnosis correlates with changes in corpus callosum white matter indicesThomas W McAllister
Department of Psychiatry, Section of Neuropsychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA
Ann Biomed Eng 40:127-40. 2012..80, p = 0.006) but change in FA did not (ρ = 0.18, p = 0.62). These results provide preliminary confirmation that model-predicted strain and strain rate in the CC correlate with changes in indices of white matter integrity...
- Neurobiological consequences of traumatic brain injuryThomas W McAllister
Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA
Dialogues Clin Neurosci 13:287-300. 2011..This paper reviews our current understanding of the neuropathophysiology of TBI and how this relates to the common clinical presentation of neurobehavioral difficulties seen after an injury...