AGE DIFFERENCES IN RESOURCE ALLOCATION DURING READING
Principal Investigator: Elizabeth A L Stine-Morrow
Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Effective navigation through adult life, including workplace competence and managing family health, is critically dependent upon the ability to understand and use text. Depending on the text and task demands, reading can depend on both working memory / executive control processes and knowledge, as well as skill in directing attention to the various processing demands of language comprehension and memory. Aging normatively brings both declines in working memory and executive control, but growth in knowledge and verbal ability, so that one might expect the nature of language processing to change through the life span. In fact, there is considerable evidence showing that memory for text declines with aging, however, there is considerable variability in this effect and age differences can depend on characteristics of the text, the task, and the reader. The proposed research will examine the fundamental mechanisms of adult language processing in terms of a model of self-regulated language processing (Stine-Morrow, Miller, &Hertzog, 2006) suggesting that the representation the content given directly by the text (the "textbase") and the representation of the situation suggested by the discourse (the "situation model") are independently regulated. Readers are assumed to regulate the construction of this representation both in the way in which they engage attentional resources to understand particular texts (Stine-Morrow, Miller, Gagne, &Hertzog, 2008) and in the way in which they select different information sources (Pirolli &Card, 1999;Fu &Pirolli, 2007). The fidelity to which the textbase and situational representations are constructed depends, in part, on the cognitive and socioemotional goals of the reader, the constellation of abilities that underpin language processing, and the availability of texts and other resources compatible with readers'abilities, interests, and knowledge. A series of studies is proposed to (a) test the hypothesis that aging brings divergence in textbase and situation model processing, using novel paradigms that use common metrics, (b) test the notion that age-related decreases in working memory create a tendency to underspecify the textbase representation and examine conditions that might mitigate against this effect, (c) test the idea that older adults have specific deficits with managing situational representations of multiple characters and examine text engineering solutions to this problem that can be easily implemented in e-text, and (d) examine age differences in the use of multiple (text) sources to optimize learning. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Workplace competence, managing family health, and maintaining social communication all hinge on effective language understanding and memory. There is now a considerable literature suggesting that in certain respects, language understanding and memory can become compromised as a function of normal, healthy aging. It is critical that we understand the basic cognitive mechanisms underlying age-related change in language processing so that we can grapple with the practical problems associated with these changes (e.g., process-based models of health literacy, reading as a form of intellectual engagement to maintain cognitive vitality through the life span).
Funding Period: ----------------1996 - ---------------2011-
more information: NIH RePORT
- Aging and self-regulated language processingElizabeth A L Stine-Morrow
Beckman Institute, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820, USA
Psychol Bull 132:582-606. 2006..As such, it is an important facet of language understanding and learning from text through the adult life span...
- Modelling longitudinal changes in older adults' memory for spoken discourse: findings from the ACTIVE cohortBrennan R Payne
a Department of Educational Psychology, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA
Memory 22:990-1001. 2014..Unlike findings from memory for written prose, preserved verbal ability may not protect against developmental declines in memory for speech...
- Aging and individual differences in binding during sentence understanding: evidence from temporary and global syntactic attachment ambiguitiesBrennan R Payne
Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, IL, United States Cognitive Science of Teaching and Learning Division, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, IL, United States Electronic address
Cognition 130:157-73. 2014..Collectively, these data suggest that aging brings differences in sentence understanding, and these differences may depend on independent influences of verbal working memory capacity and reading experience...
- Cross-age comparisons reveal multiple strategies for lexical ambiguity resolution during natural readingMallory C Stites
Department of Psychology, University of Illinois
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 39:1823-41. 2013..Failure to recruit these processes requires compensatory rereading or leads to comprehension failures (Lee & Federmeier, 2012)...
- The effects of ageing and visual noise on conceptual integration during sentence readingXuefei Gao
Beckman Institute and Department of Educational Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 65:1833-47. 2012..The greater vulnerability of older adults at relatively low levels of noise is consistent with the effortfulness hypothesis...
- Aging, parafoveal preview, and semantic integration in sentence processing: testing the cognitive workload of wrap-upBrennan R Payne
Department of Educational Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA
Psychol Aging 27:638-49. 2012..These findings suggest that wrap-up is demanding and may be less efficient with advancing age, resulting in a greater cognitive processing load for older readers...
- Adult age differences in the effects of goals on self-regulated sentence processingElizabeth A L Stine-Morrow
Department of Educational Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820 6990, USA
Psychol Aging 21:790-803. 2006..Our data suggest that both processing capacity ("what you have") and beliefs ("knowing you can do it") can contribute to individual differences in engaging resources ("what you do") to effectively learn novel content from text...
- Self-regulated reading in adulthoodElizabeth A L Stine-Morrow
Department of Educational Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820, USA
Psychol Aging 23:131-53. 2008....
- Activin a plays a critical role in proliferation and differentiation of human adipose progenitorsLaure Emmanuelle Zaragosi
UMR6543 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institute of Developmental Biology and Cancer, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France
Diabetes 59:2513-21. 2010..However, factors controlling self-renewal of human adipose progenitors are largely unknown. We investigated the expression profile and the role of activin A in this process...
- Expertise and age differences in pilot decision makingDaniel G Morrow
Institute of Aviation, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Savoy, IL 244 8757, USA
Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 16:33-55. 2009..The findings suggest age invariance in knowledge-based comprehension relevant to pilot decision making...
- Age differences in tracking characters during narrative comprehensionSoo Rim Noh
University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, Illinois 61820 6990, USA
Mem Cognit 37:769-78. 2009....
- Age differences in the effects of conceptual integration training on resource allocation in sentence processingElizabeth A L Stine-Morrow
Beckman Institute and Department of Educational Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 63:1430-55. 2010..Experiment 2 verified that conceptual integration training improved immediate recall among older readers as a consequence of engendering allocation to conceptual processing...
- The effects of print exposure on sentence processing and memory in older adults: Evidence for efficiency and reserveBrennan R Payne
Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61820 6990, USA
Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 19:122-49. 2012....
- Age differences in resolving anaphoric expressions during readingMatthew C Shake
Department of Psychology, St Bonaventure University, St Bonaventure, NY 14778, USA
Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 18:678-707. 2011....
- Pay now or pay later: aging and the role of boundary salience in self-regulation of conceptual integration in sentence processingElizabeth A L Stine-Morrow
Department of Educational Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 210 Education Building, 1310 South Sixth Street, Champaign, IL 61820 6990, USA
Psychol Aging 25:168-76. 2010..These data are consistent with the notion that readers opportunistically regulate effort and that older readers can use this to good advantage to maintain comprehension...
- Visual noise disrupts conceptual integration in readingXuefei Gao
Beckman Institute and Department of Educational Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Psychon Bull Rev 18:83-8. 2011..Recall of the most important ideas also decreased with increasing visual noise. Results suggest that sensory challenge can impair higher-level cognitive functions in learning from text, supporting the Effortfulness Hypothesis...