GIS, ALCOHOL MARKETING, AND ALCOHOL-RELATED OUTCOMES

Summary

Principal Investigator: D A Cohen
Abstract: We propose to investigate the relationship between the neighborhood-level availability and promotion of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality, and to study the degree to which racial and socioeconomic differences in alcohol-related mortality may be accounted for by the neighborhood-level availability and promotion of these substances. Alcohol availability and promotion are modifiable neighborhood-level risk factors because they are regulated by local, state and federal agencies. We intend to focus on a stratified sample of 114 urban census tracts in California and 114 urban census tracts in Louisiana randomly sampled so that the median income is equally divided into high, medium and low SES tracts. In these census tracts we will conduct observations of the availability of alcohol products at neighborhood stores as well as the density of billboards promoting alcohol; we will collect very specific information about malt liquor, which is believed to be heavily promoted in low-income neighborhoods. In addition, we will conduct telephone interviews of residents in the selected census tracts to measure social capital, collective efficacy, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related morbidity. Our outcomes of interest will be self-reported alcohol use, alcohol related morbidity, and census tract rates of alcohol-related mortality. We will use geographic information systems (GIS) to map the spatial relationships between alcohol promotion, alcohol consumption and alcohol related mortality. Hierarchical linear models and structural equation modeling to distinguish between individual and structural risk factors will be used for the data analysis. Because alcohol marketing is already regulated, if certain marketing techniques are disproportionately associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality, the findings can be used to inform public policy.
Funding Period: 2003-09-15 - 2008-07-31
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. pmc Alcohol and tobacco marketing: evaluating compliance with outdoor advertising guidelines
    Molly M Scott
    THE RAND CORPORATION, Santa Monica, California, USA
    Am J Prev Med 35:203-9. 2008
  2. pmc Impact of small group size on neighbourhood influences in multilevel models
    Katherine P Theall
    Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, School of Public Health, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    J Epidemiol Community Health 65:688-95. 2011
  3. pmc Not enough fruit and vegetables or too many cookies, candies, salty snacks, and soft drinks?
    Deborah A Cohen
    RAND Corporation, 1776 Main St, Santa Monica, CA 90407, USA
    Public Health Rep 125:88-95. 2010
  4. pmc Regional differences in walking frequency and BMI: what role does the built environment play for Blacks and Whites?
    Molly M Scott
    The Urban Institute, Washington, DC 20037, USA
    Health Place 15:882-7. 2009
  5. pmc Zoning for health? The year-old ban on new fast-food restaurants in South LA
    Roland Sturm
    RAND in Santa Monica, California, USA
    Health Aff (Millwood) 28:w1088-97. 2009
  6. pmc The neighborhood alcohol environment and alcohol-related morbidity
    Katherine P Theall
    Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, USA
    Alcohol Alcohol 44:491-9. 2009
  7. pmc Neighborhood food environments and Body Mass Index: the importance of in-store contents
    Donald Rose
    Department of Community Health Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA
    Am J Prev Med 37:214-9. 2009
  8. pmc Measuring the food environment: shelf space of fruits, vegetables, and snack foods in stores
    Thomas A Farley
    Department of Community Health Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 1440 Canal Street, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    J Urban Health 86:672-82. 2009
  9. pmc Obesity and the built environment: changes in environmental cues cause energy imbalances
    D A Cohen
    Department of Health, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA 90407, USA
    Int J Obes (Lond) 32:S137-42. 2008
  10. pmc Alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana
    Matthias Schonlau
    RAND Corporation, 4570 Fifth Avenue, Suite 600, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Geospat Health 3:91-101. 2008

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications15

  1. pmc Alcohol and tobacco marketing: evaluating compliance with outdoor advertising guidelines
    Molly M Scott
    THE RAND CORPORATION, Santa Monica, California, USA
    Am J Prev Med 35:203-9. 2008
    ..g., bus, bench) ads, and the Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) has pledged to voluntarily eliminate ads for alcohol and tobacco within 500 feet of schools, playgrounds, and churches...
  2. pmc Impact of small group size on neighbourhood influences in multilevel models
    Katherine P Theall
    Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, School of Public Health, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    J Epidemiol Community Health 65:688-95. 2011
    ..Although there is a growing body of literature on sample size in multilevel modelling, few have explored the impact of group sizes of less than five...
  3. pmc Not enough fruit and vegetables or too many cookies, candies, salty snacks, and soft drinks?
    Deborah A Cohen
    RAND Corporation, 1776 Main St, Santa Monica, CA 90407, USA
    Public Health Rep 125:88-95. 2010
    ..This study contrasted physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and discretionary calorie consumption from selected foods relative to the 2005 dietary guidelines...
  4. pmc Regional differences in walking frequency and BMI: what role does the built environment play for Blacks and Whites?
    Molly M Scott
    The Urban Institute, Washington, DC 20037, USA
    Health Place 15:882-7. 2009
    ..There were no regional differences in outcomes for African Americans; individual rather than neighborhood characteristics served as the best predictors...
  5. pmc Zoning for health? The year-old ban on new fast-food restaurants in South LA
    Roland Sturm
    RAND in Santa Monica, California, USA
    Health Aff (Millwood) 28:w1088-97. 2009
    ..Other changes, such as menu calorie labeling, are likely to have a bigger impact on overweight and obesity...
  6. pmc The neighborhood alcohol environment and alcohol-related morbidity
    Katherine P Theall
    Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, USA
    Alcohol Alcohol 44:491-9. 2009
    ....
  7. pmc Neighborhood food environments and Body Mass Index: the importance of in-store contents
    Donald Rose
    Department of Community Health Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA
    Am J Prev Med 37:214-9. 2009
    ..Most public health studies on the neighborhood food environment have focused on types of stores and their geographic placement, yet marketing research has long documented the influence of in-store shelf-space on consumer behavior...
  8. pmc Measuring the food environment: shelf space of fruits, vegetables, and snack foods in stores
    Thomas A Farley
    Department of Community Health Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 1440 Canal Street, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    J Urban Health 86:672-82. 2009
    ..55 to 0.72). Simple measurements of shelf space can be used by researchers to characterize the healthfulness of the food environment and by policymakers to establish criteria for favorable policy treatment of stores...
  9. pmc Obesity and the built environment: changes in environmental cues cause energy imbalances
    D A Cohen
    Department of Health, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA 90407, USA
    Int J Obes (Lond) 32:S137-42. 2008
    ..Understanding the causal pathway for overconsumption will be necessary to interrupt the mechanisms that lead to obesity...
  10. pmc Alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana
    Matthias Schonlau
    RAND Corporation, 4570 Fifth Avenue, Suite 600, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Geospat Health 3:91-101. 2008
    ..The conclusion is that the relationship between neighbourhood alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption is complex and may vary due to differences in neighbourhood design and travel patterns...
  11. pmc Social capital and the neighborhood alcohol environment
    Katherine P Theall
    Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, School of Public Health, New Orleans, LA, USA
    Health Place 15:323-32. 2009
    ..Findings support the concept that off-premise alcohol outlets in the neighborhood environment may hinder the development of social capital, possibly through decreased positive social network expansion...
  12. pmc Neurophysiological pathways to obesity: below awareness and beyond individual control
    Deborah A Cohen
    RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California, USA
    Diabetes 57:1768-73. 2008
    ....
  13. pmc Eating as an automatic behavior
    Deborah Cohen
    RAND Corporation, 1776 Main St, Santa Monica, CA 90407, USA
    Prev Chronic Dis 5:A23. 2008
    ....
  14. pmc Reliability of a store observation tool in measuring availability of alcohol and selected foods
    Deborah A Cohen
    RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, USA
    J Urban Health 84:807-13. 2007
    ..Measurement tools such as the one we evaluated should be useful in studies of the impact of availability of food and beverages on consumption and on health outcomes...
  15. pmc The built environment and collective efficacy
    Deborah A Cohen
    Department of Health, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA 90405, USA
    Health Place 14:198-208. 2008
    ..Altering these environmental features may have greater than expected impact on health...