GIS, ALCOHOL MARKETING, AND ALCOHOL-RELATED OUTCOMES
Principal Investigator: D A Cohen
Abstract: We propose to investigate the relationship between the neighborhood-level availability and promotion of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality, and to study the degree to which racial and socioeconomic differences in alcohol-related mortality may be accounted for by the neighborhood-level availability and promotion of these substances. Alcohol availability and promotion are modifiable neighborhood-level risk factors because they are regulated by local, state and federal agencies. We intend to focus on a stratified sample of 114 urban census tracts in California and 114 urban census tracts in Louisiana randomly sampled so that the median income is equally divided into high, medium and low SES tracts. In these census tracts we will conduct observations of the availability of alcohol products at neighborhood stores as well as the density of billboards promoting alcohol; we will collect very specific information about malt liquor, which is believed to be heavily promoted in low-income neighborhoods. In addition, we will conduct telephone interviews of residents in the selected census tracts to measure social capital, collective efficacy, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related morbidity. Our outcomes of interest will be self-reported alcohol use, alcohol related morbidity, and census tract rates of alcohol-related mortality. We will use geographic information systems (GIS) to map the spatial relationships between alcohol promotion, alcohol consumption and alcohol related mortality. Hierarchical linear models and structural equation modeling to distinguish between individual and structural risk factors will be used for the data analysis. Because alcohol marketing is already regulated, if certain marketing techniques are disproportionately associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality, the findings can be used to inform public policy.
Funding Period: 2003-09-15 - 2008-07-31
more information: NIH RePORT
- Alcohol and tobacco marketing: evaluating compliance with outdoor advertising guidelinesMolly M Scott
THE RAND CORPORATION, Santa Monica, California, USA
Am J Prev Med 35:203-9. 2008..g., bus, bench) ads, and the Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) has pledged to voluntarily eliminate ads for alcohol and tobacco within 500 feet of schools, playgrounds, and churches...
- Impact of small group size on neighbourhood influences in multilevel modelsKatherine P Theall
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, School of Public Health, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
J Epidemiol Community Health 65:688-95. 2011..Although there is a growing body of literature on sample size in multilevel modelling, few have explored the impact of group sizes of less than five...
- Not enough fruit and vegetables or too many cookies, candies, salty snacks, and soft drinks?Deborah A Cohen
RAND Corporation, 1776 Main St, Santa Monica, CA 90407, USA
Public Health Rep 125:88-95. 2010..This study contrasted physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and discretionary calorie consumption from selected foods relative to the 2005 dietary guidelines...
- Regional differences in walking frequency and BMI: what role does the built environment play for Blacks and Whites?Molly M Scott
The Urban Institute, Washington, DC 20037, USA
Health Place 15:882-7. 2009..There were no regional differences in outcomes for African Americans; individual rather than neighborhood characteristics served as the best predictors...
- Zoning for health? The year-old ban on new fast-food restaurants in South LARoland Sturm
RAND in Santa Monica, California, USA
Health Aff (Millwood) 28:w1088-97. 2009..Other changes, such as menu calorie labeling, are likely to have a bigger impact on overweight and obesity...
- The neighborhood alcohol environment and alcohol-related morbidityKatherine P Theall
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, USA
Alcohol Alcohol 44:491-9. 2009....
- Neighborhood food environments and Body Mass Index: the importance of in-store contentsDonald Rose
Department of Community Health Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA
Am J Prev Med 37:214-9. 2009..Most public health studies on the neighborhood food environment have focused on types of stores and their geographic placement, yet marketing research has long documented the influence of in-store shelf-space on consumer behavior...
- Measuring the food environment: shelf space of fruits, vegetables, and snack foods in storesThomas A Farley
Department of Community Health Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 1440 Canal Street, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
J Urban Health 86:672-82. 2009..55 to 0.72). Simple measurements of shelf space can be used by researchers to characterize the healthfulness of the food environment and by policymakers to establish criteria for favorable policy treatment of stores...
- Obesity and the built environment: changes in environmental cues cause energy imbalancesD A Cohen
Department of Health, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA 90407, USA
Int J Obes (Lond) 32:S137-42. 2008..Understanding the causal pathway for overconsumption will be necessary to interrupt the mechanisms that lead to obesity...
- Alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern LouisianaMatthias Schonlau
RAND Corporation, 4570 Fifth Avenue, Suite 600, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Geospat Health 3:91-101. 2008..The conclusion is that the relationship between neighbourhood alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption is complex and may vary due to differences in neighbourhood design and travel patterns...
- Social capital and the neighborhood alcohol environmentKatherine P Theall
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, School of Public Health, New Orleans, LA, USA
Health Place 15:323-32. 2009..Findings support the concept that off-premise alcohol outlets in the neighborhood environment may hinder the development of social capital, possibly through decreased positive social network expansion...
- Neurophysiological pathways to obesity: below awareness and beyond individual controlDeborah A Cohen
RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California, USA
Diabetes 57:1768-73. 2008....
- Eating as an automatic behaviorDeborah Cohen
RAND Corporation, 1776 Main St, Santa Monica, CA 90407, USA
Prev Chronic Dis 5:A23. 2008....
- Reliability of a store observation tool in measuring availability of alcohol and selected foodsDeborah A Cohen
RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, USA
J Urban Health 84:807-13. 2007..Measurement tools such as the one we evaluated should be useful in studies of the impact of availability of food and beverages on consumption and on health outcomes...
- The built environment and collective efficacyDeborah A Cohen
Department of Health, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA 90405, USA
Health Place 14:198-208. 2008..Altering these environmental features may have greater than expected impact on health...