EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL STUDIES OF PRESBYACUSIS

Summary

Principal Investigator: Judy R Dubno
Abstract: The focus of this research is age-related hearing loss (presbyacusis). Currently, 28 million Americans have impaired hearing and approximately 75% of these persons are over the age of 55. The prevalence of presbyacusis will increase substantially by the year 2020. To meet the challenges of this most prevalent handicapping condition, new information, diagnostic methods, rehabilitation procedures, and cost-effective access to new technologies will be of great importance. Prevention of presbyacusis and a reduction in its prevalence are even greater challenges. The overall objective of our research program is to improve diagnostic, rehabilitative, and preventive measures. Toward this objective, four research projects are proposed. Project 1 addresses basic questions related to the understanding of speech and benefit of hearing aids in realistic listening environments by older adults. Project 2 is a neuroimaging study that examines the structure and function of neural elements that are hypothesized to contribute to age-related declines in speech recognition in older adults. Project 3 identifies specific alleles associated with age- related hearing loss in carefully selected candidate genes through genotype-phenotype association studies and initiates studies aimed at characterizing the histopathological changes associated with age-related hearing loss in general, and when known, with specific mutations. Project 4 determines the potential role of human hematopoietic stem cells in the maintenance of non-sensory cells in the inner ear and characterizes the effects of aging and cochlear injury on this process. In addition, two cores provide administrative, technical, and scientific support including recruitment of human subjects;collection and storage of human tissue;and collection, storage, and analysis of data. The proposed program of research on presbyacusis in the long term will influence health care of the presbyacusic patient, will affect care of hearing-impaired persons in general, and will have significant impact on theoretical and applied issues in the science of audition.
Funding Period: -----------------199 - ----------------2013
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Speech-perception training for older adults with hearing loss impacts word recognition and effort
    Stefanie E Kuchinsky
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA
    Psychophysiology 51:1046-57. 2014
  2. pmc Perceived listening effort for a tonal task with contralateral competing signals
    William J Bologna
    Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742
    J Acoust Soc Am 134:EL352-8. 2013
  3. pmc Role of stromal cell-derived factor-1 expression in the injured mouse auditory nerve
    Lauren A Kilpatrick
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 145:1007-15. 2011
  4. pmc Auditory cortex signs of age-related hearing loss
    Mark A Eckert
    Hearing Research Program, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, MSC 550, Charleston, SC 29425 5500, USA
    J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 13:703-13. 2012
  5. pmc Level-dependent changes in perception of speech envelope cues
    Judy R Dubno
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, MSC 550, Charleston, SC 29425 5500, USA
    J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 13:835-52. 2012
  6. pmc Pupil size varies with word listening and response selection difficulty in older adults with hearing loss
    Stefanie E Kuchinsky
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charlston, South Carolina 29425, USA or
    Psychophysiology 50:23-34. 2013
  7. pmc Age and measurement time-of-day effects on speech recognition in noise
    Carrie E Veneman
    Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
    Ear Hear 34:288-99. 2013
  8. pmc Simvastatin ameliorates cauda equina compression injury in a rat model of lumbar spinal stenosis
    Anandakumar Shunmugavel
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 8:274-86. 2013
  9. pmc Lipid and C-reactive protein levels as risk factors for hearing loss in older adults
    Annie N Simpson
    Department of Healthcare Leadership and Management, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 5500, USA
    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 148:664-70. 2013
  10. pmc Audition assessment using the NIH Toolbox
    Steven G Zecker
    Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA
    Neurology 80:S45-8. 2013

Scientific Experts

  • Hainan Lang
  • Kelly C Harris
  • Kenneth I Vaden
  • M A Eckert
  • Noam I Keren
  • Jayne B Ahlstrom
  • Gayla L Poling
  • Judy R Dubno
  • Amy R Horwitz
  • Stefanie E Kuchinsky
  • Bradley A Schulte
  • Yazhi Xing
  • Anandakumar Shunmugavel
  • Lois J Matthews
  • Shawn M Stevens
  • Ning Ji He
  • Fu Shing Lee
  • Lauren A Kilpatrick
  • John H Mills
  • Xinping Hao
  • Larry E Humes
  • Stephanie L Cute
  • William J Bologna
  • Steven G Zecker
  • Carrie E Veneman
  • Hongmei Luo
  • Annie N Simpson
  • Juhong Zhu
  • Mushfiquddin Khan
  • Inderjit Singh
  • Richard A Schmiedt
  • L A Kilpatrick
  • Vinu Jyothi
  • Chunyan Qu
  • Michael W Moore
  • Christopher T Hensley
  • Demin Han
  • Jianning Zhang
  • Sandra Gordon-Salant
  • Catherine M Warrier
  • Joseph P Walton
  • James W Griffith
  • Marcus M Martin
  • Gerard A Silvestri
  • Craig Newman
  • Katherine Lyons
  • David Victorson
  • Richard H Wilson
  • David A Eddins
  • Aimin Yang
  • Gavin Y Wang
  • Margaret Wallhagen
  • Robert Frisina
  • Ellen C Riemer
  • Anne G Copay
  • Brian R Subach
  • Nina Kraus
  • Howard J Hoffman
  • Thomas C Schuler
  • Caroline Yount
  • Sumitrajit Dhar
  • Kenneth N Vanek
  • Monita Chatterjee
  • Devadoss J Samuvel
  • Peter C Te Chou
  • Xin Wang
  • Q Li
  • J C Goddard
  • J Yang
  • D M Fekete
  • Amanda C LaRue
  • Manna Li
  • Nancy Smythe
  • Daohong Zhou
  • Wei Hu
  • Samuel S Spicer
  • Fenghe Liang
  • Zhijun Shen

Detail Information

Publications46

  1. ncbi Speech-perception training for older adults with hearing loss impacts word recognition and effort
    Stefanie E Kuchinsky
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA
    Psychophysiology 51:1046-57. 2014
    ....
  2. pmc Perceived listening effort for a tonal task with contralateral competing signals
    William J Bologna
    Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742
    J Acoust Soc Am 134:EL352-8. 2013
    ....
  3. pmc Role of stromal cell-derived factor-1 expression in the injured mouse auditory nerve
    Lauren A Kilpatrick
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 145:1007-15. 2011
    ..The hypothesis for the current study is that expression of SDF-1 plays an important role in protecting SGNs and preventing further degeneration in the setting of cochlear injury...
  4. pmc Auditory cortex signs of age-related hearing loss
    Mark A Eckert
    Hearing Research Program, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, MSC 550, Charleston, SC 29425 5500, USA
    J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 13:703-13. 2012
    ..These results indicate that Te1.0 is particularly affected by high frequency hearing loss and may be a target for evaluating the efficacy of interventions for hearing loss...
  5. pmc Level-dependent changes in perception of speech envelope cues
    Judy R Dubno
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, MSC 550, Charleston, SC 29425 5500, USA
    J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 13:835-52. 2012
    ..This quadratic pattern, with speech recognition maximized at mid levels and poorer at lower and higher levels, is consistent with a role of cochlear nonlinearities in perception of speech envelope cues...
  6. pmc Pupil size varies with word listening and response selection difficulty in older adults with hearing loss
    Stefanie E Kuchinsky
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charlston, South Carolina 29425, USA or
    Psychophysiology 50:23-34. 2013
    ..Pupillometry detected these effects for correct trials and across reaction times, suggesting it provides additional evidence of task difficulty than behavioral measures alone...
  7. pmc Age and measurement time-of-day effects on speech recognition in noise
    Carrie E Veneman
    Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
    Ear Hear 34:288-99. 2013
    ....
  8. pmc Simvastatin ameliorates cauda equina compression injury in a rat model of lumbar spinal stenosis
    Anandakumar Shunmugavel
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 8:274-86. 2013
    ..These outcomes are mediated through the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of simvastatin. The data indicate that simvastatin may be a promising drug candidate for LSS treatment in humans...
  9. pmc Lipid and C-reactive protein levels as risk factors for hearing loss in older adults
    Annie N Simpson
    Department of Healthcare Leadership and Management, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 5500, USA
    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 148:664-70. 2013
    ..To determine the role of cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers, lipids and C-reactive protein, in age-related hearing loss over time...
  10. pmc Audition assessment using the NIH Toolbox
    Steven G Zecker
    Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA
    Neurology 80:S45-8. 2013
    ..The 4 auditory tests included in the Toolbox auditory test battery cover a range of auditory abilities and provide a snapshot of a participant's auditory capacity...
  11. pmc White matter hyperintensities predict low frequency hearing in older adults
    Mark A Eckert
    Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 5500, USA
    J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 14:425-33. 2013
    ..These results support the premise that vascular declines are one mechanism underlying age-related changes in low frequency hearing...
  12. pmc Activation of p53 with Nutlin-3a radiosensitizes lung cancer cells via enhancing radiation-induced premature senescence
    Hongmei Luo
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Lung Cancer 81:167-73. 2013
    ..Taken together, these findings demonstrate for the first time that pharmacological activation of p53 by Nutlin-3a can sensitize lung cancer cells to radiation therapy via promoting IR-induced premature senescence. ..
  13. pmc Classifying human audiometric phenotypes of age-related hearing loss from animal models
    Judy R Dubno
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, MSC 550, Charleston, SC, 29425 5500, USA
    J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 14:687-701. 2013
    ....
  14. pmc Spatial separation benefit for unaided and aided listening
    Jayne B Ahlstrom
    Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA
    Ear Hear 35:72-85. 2014
    ..The benefit attributable to spatial separation of speech and noise was measured as a function of low-pass cutoff frequency with and without bilateral hearing aids...
  15. pmc The cingulo-opercular network provides word-recognition benefit
    Kenneth I Vaden
    Hearing Research Program, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425
    J Neurosci 33:18979-86. 2013
    ..These results indicate that elevated cingulo-opercular network activity is not simply a reflection of poor performance or error but also supports word recognition in difficult listening conditions. ..
  16. pmc Heptanol application to the mouse round window: a model for studying cochlear lateral wall regeneration
    Shawn M Stevens
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA
    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 150:659-65. 2014
    ..Identify cells supporting cochlear lateral wall regeneration...
  17. pmc Sox10 expressing cells in the lateral wall of the aged mouse and human cochlea
    Xinping Hao
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 9:e97389. 2014
    ..A loss of Sox10(+) cells may also be associated with a decline in the repair capabilities of non-sensory cells in the aged ear...
  18. pmc Word intelligibility and age predict visual cortex activity during word listening
    Stefanie E Kuchinsky
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Cereb Cortex 22:1360-71. 2012
    ..These results suggest that age and stimulus integrity are additive modulators of crossmodal suppression and activation...
  19. pmc Unmyelinated auditory type I spiral ganglion neurons in congenic Ly5.1 mice
    Vinu Jyothi
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Comp Neurol 518:3254-71. 2010
    ..Thus, this strain may provide a suitable animal platform for modeling human auditory information processing such as synchronous neural activity and other auditory response properties...
  20. ncbi Expression of CLC-K chloride channels in the rat cochlea
    Chunyan Qu
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 165 Ashley Avenue, Suite 309, P O Box 250908, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Hear Res 213:79-87. 2006
    ..These data support the hypothesis that both isoforms of ClC-K are co-expressed in some cell membranes and account for the preservation of hearing in the presence of a mutation in only one channel isoform...
  21. pmc Age-related differences in the temporal modulation transfer function with pure-tone carriers
    Ning Ji He
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, MSC 550, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 5500, USA
    J Acoust Soc Am 124:3841-9. 2008
    ..These results are consistent with a general age-related decline in the synchronization of neural responses to both the carrier waveform and envelope fluctuation...
  22. ncbi Factors affecting the benefits of high-frequency amplification
    Amy R Horwitz
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, MSC 550, Charleston, SC 29425 5500, USA
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 51:798-813. 2008
    ..This study was designed to determine the extent to which high-frequency amplification helped or hindered speech recognition as a function of hearing loss, gain-frequency response, and background noise...
  23. ncbi Binaural advantage for younger and older adults with normal hearing
    Judy R Dubno
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, MSC 550, Charleston, SC 29425 5500, USA
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 51:539-56. 2008
    ..Three experiments measured benefit of spatial separation, benefit of binaural listening, and masking-level differences (MLDs) to assess age-related differences in binaural advantage...
  24. pmc Age-related effects on word recognition: reliance on cognitive control systems with structural declines in speech-responsive cortex
    Mark A Eckert
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, MSC 550, Charleston, SC 29425 5500, USA
    J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 9:252-9. 2008
    ....
  25. ncbi Longitudinal changes in speech recognition in older persons
    Judy R Dubno
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, P O Box 250550, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Acoust Soc Am 123:462-75. 2008
    ..Recognition of key words in low- and high-context sentences in babble did not decline significantly with age...
  26. ncbi Speech recognition in noise: estimating effects of compressive nonlinearities in the basilar-membrane response
    Amy R Horwitz
    Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Ear Hear 28:682-93. 2007
    ..It was further hypothesized that the transition from linear to compressed responses to both tones and maskers would occur at higher levels for listeners with higher quiet thresholds than for listeners with lower quiet thresholds...
  27. ncbi Frequency modulation detection: effects of age, psychophysical method, and modulation waveform
    Ning Ji He
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Acoust Soc Am 122:467-77. 2007
    ..The frequency-dependent aging effect suggests that this temporal mechanism may be affected by age. The effect of psychophysical method was sizable and frequency dependent, whereas the effect of modulation waveform was minimal...
  28. pmc Electrophysiologic correlates of intensity discrimination in cortical evoked potentials of younger and older adults
    Kelly C Harris
    Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Otolarnygology Head and Neck Surgery, 135 Rutledge Avenue, P O Box 250550, Charleston, SC 29425, United States
    Hear Res 228:58-68. 2007
    ....
  29. ncbi Estimates of basilar-membrane nonlinearity effects on masking of tones and speech
    Judy R Dubno
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Ear Hear 28:2-17. 2007
    ..To test this hypothesis, observed speech-recognition scores were compared with scores predicted using an audibility-based model, which did not include nonlinear effects that may influence masker effectiveness...
  30. pmc Chronic reduction of endocochlear potential reduces auditory nerve activity: further confirmation of an animal model of metabolic presbyacusis
    Hainan Lang
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 165 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 11:419-34. 2010
    ..These results suggest that dysfunction of the cochlear lateral wall and subsequent chronic reduction in the EP can directly affect the activity patterns of primary auditory neurons in a manner similar to that seen in aged gerbils...
  31. ncbi Spectral and threshold effects on recognition of speech at higher-than-normal levels
    Judy R Dubno
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, P O Box 250550, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Acoust Soc Am 120:310-20. 2006
    ..Age-related effects on thresholds and task proficiency may be determining factors in the recognition of speech in noise at high levels...
  32. pmc Age-related differences in sensitivity to small changes in frequency assessed with cortical evoked potentials
    Kelly C Harris
    Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 5500, USA
    Hear Res 243:47-56. 2008
    ....
  33. pmc Individual differences in behavioral estimates of cochlear nonlinearities
    Gayla L Poling
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 13:91-108. 2012
    ....
  34. pmc At the heart of the ventral attention system: the right anterior insula
    Mark A Eckert
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 5500, USA
    Hum Brain Mapp 30:2530-41. 2009
    ..These results support the hypothesis that the right aI/fO aids in the coordination and evaluation of task performance across behavioral tasks with varying perceptual and response demands...
  35. pmc Spatial benefit of bilateral hearing AIDS
    Jayne B Ahlstrom
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 5500, USA
    Ear Hear 30:203-18. 2009
    ....
  36. pmc Adeno-associated virus-mediated gene delivery into the scala media of the normal and deafened adult mouse ear
    L A Kilpatrick
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Gene Ther 18:569-78. 2011
    ..The procedure we describe may also have applications for intra-endolymphatic drug delivery in many mouse models of human deafness...
  37. pmc Inferior frontal sensitivity to common speech sounds is amplified by increasing word intelligibility
    Kenneth I Vaden
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 5500, United States
    Neuropsychologia 49:3563-72. 2011
    ....
  38. pmc Age-related differences in gap detection: effects of task difficulty and cognitive ability
    Kelly C Harris
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Ave, MSC 550, Charleston, SC 29425 5500, USA
    Hear Res 264:21-9. 2010
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that age-related differences in complex measures of auditory temporal processing may be explained, in part, by age-related deficits in processing speed and attention...
  39. pmc In vivo mapping of the human locus coeruleus
    Noam I Keren
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Neuroimage 47:1261-7. 2009
    ..This map can be used to test hypotheses about the LC in human structural and functional imaging studies. Such efforts will contribute to our understanding of attention systems in normal and clinical populations...
  40. pmc Spinal cord injury induced arrest in estrous cycle of rats is ameliorated by S-nitrosoglutathione: novel therapeutic agent to treat amenorrhea
    Anandakumar Shunmugavel
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    J Sex Med 9:148-58. 2012
    ..Amenorrhea following spinal cord injury (SCI) has been well documented. There has been little research on the underlying molecular mechanisms and therapeutics...
  41. pmc Level-dependent changes in detection of temporal gaps in noise markers by adults with normal and impaired hearing
    Amy R Horwitz
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, MSC 550, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 5500, USA
    J Acoust Soc Am 130:2928-38. 2011
    ..The effects of a reduction in compression (resulting in larger effective SNRs) may contribute to better-than-normal gap detection observed for some hearing-impaired listeners...
  42. pmc Age-related changes of myelin basic protein in mouse and human auditory nerve
    Yazhi Xing
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e34500. 2012
    ..The results also suggest that myelin degeneration may play a critical role in the SGN loss and the subsequent decline of the auditory nerve function in presbyacusis...
  43. pmc Multiple imputation of missing fMRI data in whole brain analysis
    Kenneth I Vaden
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, MSC 550, Charleston, SC29425 5500, USA
    Neuroimage 60:1843-55. 2012
    ....
  44. pmc Individual and level-dependent differences in masking for adults with normal and impaired hearing
    Amy R Horwitz
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, MSC 550, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 5500, USA
    J Acoust Soc Am 131:EL323-8. 2012
    ....
  45. pmc Speech recognition in younger and older adults: a dependency on low-level auditory cortex
    Kelly C Harris
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 5500, USA
    J Neurosci 29:6078-87. 2009
    ..More broadly, the results suggest the possibility that aging may exaggerate developmental limitations on the ability to recognize speech...
  46. pmc Sox2 up-regulation and glial cell proliferation following degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons in the adult mouse inner ear
    Hainan Lang
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 165 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 12:151-71. 2011
    ..These results demonstrate that up-regulation of Sox2 expression is associated with increased cell proliferation in the auditory nerve after injury...